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**One way of organizing raw data or observations is through the use of frequency
**

distribution table. One such example is a profile of cooperatives in a province which is

given below:

Initial Capital, in Pesos Number of Cooperatives

Below 25,000 43

25,000 – 49,999 28

50,000 – 74,999 17

75,000 – and above 12

STEPS IN CONSTRUCTING A FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE:

1. Obtain the number of class intervals to be used.

Usually, the number of class intervals should be anywhere from 5 to 20. Too

many intervals would result in a loss of organization. Too few intervals, on the

other hand, would result in a loss of detail. To obtain a more specific guide, we

can use Sturges’ Rule which states that:

K = 1 + 3.322*(log

10

n)

where

K = the number of class intervals rounded upwards

n = the number of observations

2. Obtain the size of the intervals.

To obtain an initial estimate of the size of the intervals we can use the formula:

r

c c

i

K

I

SO

I

LO

i

,

_

¸

¸

− −

,

_

¸

¸

+

·

2 2

where

i

i

= the initial estimate of the interval size

LO = the largest observed value

I

c

= the smallest increment of change in data

SO = smallest observed value

K

r

= the K value obtained from Sturges’ rule rounded upwards

The interval size, I, is obtained by rounding to the nearest decimal places as

indicated by the given raw data. If the data are in whole numbers, round to the

nearest integer or whole number.

3. Compute for the excess space.

EXCESS = Space available – Required Space, where

Space available = K

r

*I

Required Space = [LO + I

c

/2] – [SO – I

c

/2]

4. Construct the table.

With the interval size and the number of intervals known, we can construct the

frequency distribution by first dividing the excess between the lowest and the

highest ends of the data.

GRAPHICAL METHODS FOR DESCRIBING QUANTITATIVE DATA:

(1) Frequency Histogram – a bar graph representation of a frequency distribution

table. Marked along the horizontal axis are the class boundaries (CB).

Frequencies are marked along the vertical axis. Each interval is drawn as a bar

bounded or defined by the class boundaries and the corresponding frequencies.

(2) Frequency Polygon – uses class midpoints (CM) to represent the intervals. Class

midpoint is computed as the average of the lower class limit (LCL) and the upper

class limit (UCL). Class limits are the visible limits of the intervals in the

frequency distribution table.

NUMERICAL DESCRIPTIVE MEASURES

- are numbers that are used to create a mental image of a data set.

(1) Measures of Central Tendency or Location:

The measure of central tendency is the point about which scores tend to cluster; a

sort of average in a series. It is the center of concentration of scores in any set of

data. It is a single number which represents the general level of performance of

the group.

The three measures of central tendency in common use are: Mean, Median and

Mode.

MEAN – is defined as the sum of the values in the data group divided by the

number of values. The formula is:

n

X

X

∑

·

where X = the raw data or observations

n = the number of observations or values

For grouped data which is in the form of a frequency table, the formula is:

n

fx

X

∑

·

where f = frequency of each class interval

x = class midpoints

n = total number of observations

MEDIAN – the middle value in an arrayed data (data which has been arranged in

ascending order).

For grouped data, the formula is:

I

f

F

n

LCB X

med

med

1

1

1

1

]

1

¸

−

+ ·

2

~

where:

LCB

med

= lower class boundary of the median class

n = number of observations

F = cumulative frequency of the class before the median class

f

med

= frequency of the median class

I = class interval size

The median class is identified as the class whose cumulative frequency reaches

n/2 first.

MODE – the value which occurs with the most number of times in a data set.

For grouped data, the formula is:

I

f f

f

LCB M

1

]

1

¸

∆ + ∆

∆

+ ·

2 1

1

mod

where:

LCB

mod

= lower class boundary of the modal class

Δf

1

= the difference between the frequency of the modal class and

the class immediately before it

Δf

2

= the difference between the frequency of the modal class and

the class immediately after it

I = size of the class interval

(2) Measures of Dispersion or Variability:

The measures of dispersion indicate the nature or degree of clustering. The more

concentrated the values about the mean or average the more meaningful is the

average as a measure of location.

RANGE – is the simplest measure of spread or variability. It is the difference

between the highest score and lowest score in any given set of data or distribution.

In the case of the data grouped into intervals, the range becomes the difference

between the higher boundary of the highest class and the lower boundary of

lowest class.

The range is not considered a stable measure of variability because it

considers only extreme values thus its value can fluctuate greatly with a change in

a single score either the highest or the lowest score.

STANDARD DEVIATION – the most useful measure of variability. It is special

form of average deviation from the mean which is affected by all individual

values of the items in any given distributions.

For ungrouped population, the standard deviation is given by:

( )

N

X

∑

−

·

2

µ

σ

where X = the individual values of all the items

μ = the population mean

N = the population size

For grouped population, the standard deviation is given by:

( ) [ ]

N

X f

∑

−

·

2

µ

σ

where X = the class midpoints

f = frequency of each class interval

μ = the population mean

N = the population size

For ungrouped samples, the standard deviation is given by:

( )

1

2

−

−

·

∑

n

X X

s

where X = the individual values of all the items

Xbar = the sample mean

n = sample size

For grouped samples, the standard deviation is given by:

( ) [ ]

1

2

−

−

·

∑

n

X X f

s

where X = the class midpoints

Xbar = the sample mean

n = sample size

How to organize data

How to organize data

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