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UNIVERSIDAD DE CARABOBO

FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS DE EDUCACIÓN


DEPARTAMENTO DE IDIOMAS MODERNOS
CÁTEDRA: GRAMATICA Y LINGÜÍSTICA INGLESA
ASIGNATURA: LINGÜÍSTICA APLICADA
PREPARADORA: MELISSA MONTILLA

Phonetics and phonology


1. Define:
 Phonology & Phonetics.
 Phoneme & Allophone.

2. Consider the following data from an artificial language. In each line, the same word
occurs in both columns A and B, but it has one prefix in column A, meaning a or an,
and another prefix in column B meaning fat.
A [wapanse] fat chicken
[lapanse] a chicken [wamĩte] fat dog
[lamĩte] a dog [waambipi] fat iguana
[laambipi] an iguana [watenōsi] fat pig
[latenōsi] a pig [waennĩbemũn] fat worm
[laennĩbemũn] a worm [wakenōsi] fat cat
[lakenōsi] a cat
B

 Are nasal vowels in this language phonemic?


 Are they predictable? Why?
 Are [t] and [k] allophones of one phoneme? Why?
 What is the phonemic representation of the word meaning “worm”?
 If the phonemic representation of the word meaning “fat cow” is [wabimkemi]
give the phonemic and the phonetic representation of the word meaning “ a
cow”
 State in notations all the phonological rules that you can account for in this
language.

3. The English sound /d/ has two allophones:


 Which allophone is present in each of the following words.
 Describe them and specify their distribution
 State the rule in phonetic notations
 What kind of phonological process accounts for the production of this allophone
in English?

A B C
doctor conduct daddy
distinct adscription cuddle
dollar admonition model

4. In Katerimepita, an artificial language, the sounds [tš], [t], [ts] and [∫] make one single
sound.
[tatami] [tšukue] [tetšudau] [mate∫a]
[natšu] [utsi] [tsitsi]
[totemo]
 Which one makes the best underlying sound? State its distribution.
 Are they in free variation or in complementary distribution?
 State the rule that account for each variation.

5. Re-write in notations the following rules and give an example (in phonetic
transcription) in any language or with a nonsense word.
 Vowels become nasal when they occur between nasal consonants
 Alveo-palatal fricative voiceless becomes alveo-palatal affricate voiceless when it
occurs before alveolar stop voiceless
 Alveolar nasal becomes velar when it occurs between velar consonants