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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
vae of diﬀerent women (pubic hair shaved oﬀ in some cases)
The vulva (from the Latin vulva, plural vulvae, see etymology) consists of the external  genital organs of the female mammal. This article deals with the vulva of the human being, although the structures are similar for other mammals. The vulva has many major and minor anatomical structures, including the labia majora, mons pubis, labia minora, clitoris, bulb of vestibule, vulval vestibule, greater and lesser vestibular glands, and the opening of the vagina. Its development occurs during several phases, chieﬂy during the fetal and pubertal periods of time. As the outer portal of the human uterus or womb, it protects its opening by a "double door": the labia majora (large lips) and the labia minora (small lips). The vagina is a self-cleaning organ, sustaining healthy microbial ﬂora that ﬂow from the inside out; the vulva needs only simple washing to assure good vulvovaginal health, without recourse to any internal
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3 Puberty 3.8 Ulcers 5.1 Fetus 3.7 Vulvar cancer 5. Contents 1 Structure 1.2 Etymology 4.3 Blemishes and cysts 5.9 Developmental disorders 5.1 Fluids and odor 2 Sexual arousal 2.2 Plateau 2. and to give sexual pleasure to humankind.4 Depictions of vulvae 4.6 Art 5 Clinical relevance 5. these external organs are richly innervated and provide pleasure when properly stimulated.5 Inﬂammatory diseases 5.2 Disorders 5.2 Childhood 3. the free encyclopedia https://en.1 Injuries 5.6 Pain syndromes 5.1 Altering the female genitalia 4. In various branches of art.org/wiki/Vulva cleansing.4 Infections 5.5 Slang 4.1 Excitement 2. The vulva has a sexual function.3 Alternative terms 4.6 Sexual homology 4 Society and culture 4. the vulva has been depicted as the organ that has the power both to "give life" (often associated with the  womb).5 Post-menopause 3.10 Other 6 References 7 External links 2 of 15 24/05/13 16:37 .4 Resolution 3 Development 3. The vulva also contains the opening of the female urethra.4 Childbirth 3.Wikipedia.wikipedia. but apart from this has little relevance to the function of urination.Vulva .3 Orgasm 2.
While labia minora translates as "minor (or small) lips". The term mons pubis is Latin for "pubic mound" and it is gender-nonspeciﬁc. Much of the variation among vulvas lies in the signiﬁcant diﬀerences in the size. After the onset of puberty. shape. the free encyclopedia https://en. and is called the mons pubis. The labia minora are two soft folds of skin within the labia majora. the mons pubis and the labia majora become covered by pubic hair. the clitoral glans is roughly the size 3 of 15 24/05/13 16:37 . but the density. The inside skin and mucus membrane are often pink or brownish.wikipedia. more delicate structures of the vulva. The labia majora meet again at a ﬂat area between the pudendal cleft and the anus called the perineum. and extent of pubic hair coverage vary considerably. There is.org/wiki/Vulva Structure In humans. This hair sometimes extends to the inner thighs and perineum. The clitoris is located at the front of the vulva.Vulva . The visible portion of the clitoris is the clitoral glans. Latin for "mound of Venus" or "mound of love". due to both individual variation and cultural practices of hair modiﬁcation or removal. consisting of the labia majora and the labia minora the external portion of the clitoris. and color of the labia minora. color. the mons pubis is often referred to as the mons veneris. The color of the outside skin of the labia majora is usually close to the overall skin color of the individual.Wikipedia. texture. literally "major (or large) lips". and may protrude outside the "majora". often the "minora" are of considerable size. consisting of the clitoral glans and the clitoral hood the urinary meatus (opening of the urethra) the vaginal oriﬁce (opening of the vagina) the hymen Other structures: the vulval vestibule the pudendal cleft the frenulum labiorum pudendi or the fourchette the perineum the sebaceous glands on labia majora the vaginal glands: Bartholin's glands Paraurethral glands called Skene's glands Vulva labeled The soft mound at the front of the vulva is formed by fatty tissue covering the pubic bone. The mons pubis separates into two folds of skin called the labia majora. and it contains and protects the other. although there is considerable variation. Typically. The cleft between the labia majora is called the pudendal cleft. major structures of the vulva are: the mons pubis the labia. a variant term that speciﬁes gender: in human females. however. where the labia minora meet. or cleft of Venus.
The clitoral glans is highly sensitive. These secretions contain a mix of chemicals.wikipedia. requiring a surgical incision. the clitoris may be partially or wholly exposed at all times. The term introitus is more technically correct than "opening". A prepuce. the free encyclopedia https://en. and it is also common for the left and right sides to diﬀer in appearance. and the blood produced by this rupture has been seen as a sign of virginity. squalene. containing as many nerve endings as the analogous organ in males. menses. the hymen may completely cover the vaginal opening. skin oils (sebum). The area between the labia minora is called Variation in the appearance of women's the vulval vestibule. unless something is inserted. The hymen will rupture during the ﬁrst episode of vigorous sex. lactic acid. acetic acid. sweat. During sexual arousal. and it contains the vaginal external genitalia and urethral openings. However. however in women with particularly large clitorises or small prepuces. urea. The appearance of the vulva and the size of the various parts varies a great deal from one female to another. Bartholin's and Skene's gland secretions. pheromone-containing substance. The urethral opening (meatus) is located below the clitoris and just in front of the vagina. normally covers and protects the clitoris. the hymen may also rupture spontaneously during exercise (including horseback riding) or be stretched by normal activities such as use of tampons and menstrual cups. vaginal lubrication increases. Fluids and odor There are a number of diﬀerent secretions associated with the vulva. glycols. Smegma 4 of 15 24/05/13 16:37 . The introitus is sometimes partly covered by a membrane called the hymen. and vaginal wall secretions.Wikipedia.Vulva . toward the perineum. The opening of the vagina is located at the bottom of the vulval vestibule. ketones. the glans penis. This is where urine passes from the urinary bladder to be disposed of. the clitoral hood. including urine. since the vagina is usually collapsed. In some rare cases. with the opening closed. The clitoral hood is the female equivalent of the  male foreskin. the purpose of which is not yet fully known. although it can be signiﬁcantly larger or smaller. complex alcohols. The point where the labia minora attach to the clitoris is called the frenulum clitoridis.org/wiki/Vulva and shape of a pea. Often the clitoral hood is only partially hidden inside of the pudendal cleft. Slightly below and to the left and right of the vaginal opening are two Bartholin glands which produce a waxy. and aldehydes. including pyridine. or be so minor as to be unnoticeable.
These acids are produced by natural bacteria resident on the skin.wikipedia. the vulva is moist and the labia are slightly swollen. and peaking mid-cycle. The labia minora sometimes change considerably in color. researchers often refer to them as human pheromones. just before ovulation. approximately 2–6 times. or  red to dark red in those that have. The clitoris becomes increasingly erect. Unlike an average man. displaying the vaginal opening. rising from one day after menstruation. skin oils. Orgasm. Plateau. going from pink to red in lighter skinned women who have not borne a child. The labia minora increase considerably in thickness. Sexual arousal Main article: Human sexual response cycle Sexual arousal results in a number of physical changes in the vulva. This is caused by vasocongestion of the vaginal walls. moisture and naturally occurring bacteria. decreasing the size of the vaginal opening by about 30%.org/wiki/Vulva Smegma is a white substance formed from a combination of dead cells. Increased blood pooling there causes moisture to seep from the walls. Excitement Vaginal lubrication begins ﬁrst. The acid content varies with the menstrual cycle. These acids are a pungent class of chemicals which other primate species produce as sexual-olfactory signals. In the right image the female is sexually aroused. Arousal may be broken up into four somewhat arbitrary phases: Excitement. In the left image female genitalia are in the resting state. whose sexual excitement will cause an obvious erection. that forms in mammalian genitalia. and the glans moves towards the pubic bone. causing them to spread apart. Aliphatic acids Approximately one third of women produce aliphatic acids. becoming concealed by the hood. Orgasm 5 of 15 24/05/13 16:37 . Plateau Increased vasocongestion in the vagina causes it to swell. While there is some debate. moistening the vulva.Wikipedia. a woman experiencing arousal may not be aware that her vagina has produced lubrication and has been engorged with blood. The labia majora ﬂatten and spread apart. the free encyclopedia https://en.Vulva . These droplets collect together and ﬂow out of the vagina. and Resolution. In females it collects around the clitoris and labial folds. and the clitoris and labia minora increase in size.
Immediately after orgasm the clitoris may be so sensitive that any stimulation is either exciting or uncomfortable. and the rest of the vulva returns to its normal size. However. depending on its intensity. although at a much slower rate if an orgasm has not occurred. Beginning in the third month of development. On either side of the groove are the urogenital folds. Childhood At birth. the function of which is thought to be to extend the penis as close to the cervix as possible prior to ejaculation. During the sixth week. the genital tubercle becomes the clitoris. The urogenital folds become the labia minora.wikipedia. since the same engorgement prior to orgasm occurs in the male homologous structure. the neonate's vulva (and breast tissue—see witch's milk) may be swollen or 6 of 15 24/05/13 16:37 . both male and female fetuses have the same rudimentary reproductive and sexual organs. the free encyclopedia https://en.Wikipedia. The tubercle contains a Genital tubercle at fourteen groove termed the urethral groove. and maternal hormones control their development. causing liquid from either the Skene's gland or bladder to be expelled through the urethra. the genital tubercle develops in front of the cloacal membrane. the clitoris becomes exceptionally engorged.org/wiki/Vulva Immediately prior to the female orgasm. Development Fetus During the ﬁrst eight weeks of life. the penis. and the labioscrotal swellings become the labia majora. They occur initially at a rate of about one every 0. Resolution The pooled blood begins to dissipate.8 seconds. The urogenital sinus weeks (forerunner of the bladder) opens into this groove. Orgasm may be accompanied by female ejaculation. Male and female organs begin to become distinct when the fetus is able to begin producing its own hormones. causing the glans to appear to retract into the clitoral hood. as well as the uterus and anus. position and color. This is thought to protect the sensitive glans during orgasm. there is some doubt that this is the case. becoming less intense and more randomly spaced as the orgasm continues.Vulva . The vagina and vaginal opening return to their normal relaxed state. An orgasm may have as few as one or as many as 15 or more contractions. although visible determination of the sex is diﬃcult until after the twelfth week. Beside the tubercle are a pair of ridges called the labioscrotal swellings. Rhythmic muscle contractions occur in the outer third of the vagina.
hormone levels decrease. The clitoris is proportionally larger than it is likely to be later in life. The labia 7 of 15 24/05/13 16:37 . The anatomy of the vulva is related to the anatomy of the male genitalia by a shared developmental biology.7 in). the vulva will shrink in size. Sexual homology Main article: Sexual homology Most male and female sex organs originate from the same tissues during fetal development. Organs that have a common developmental ancestry in this way are said to be homologous. and clitoris. pushing the forward portion of the labia majora away from the pubic bone. the free encyclopedia https://en. this includes the vulva. and later spreading to the mons pubis. and parallel to the ground (when standing). although not usually to pre-puberty proportions. The structures of the vulva become proportionately larger and may become more pronounced. Some of the changes to the vagina and vulva that occur during pregnancy may become permanent. the vulva does not undergo any change in appearance. Coloration may change and pubic hair develops. and as this process happens.Wikipedia. the vagina and vulva must stretch to accommodate the baby's head (approximately 9. During puberty the mons pubis enlarges. Post-menopause During menopause. The mons pubis.Vulva .org/wiki/Vulva enlarged as a result of having been exposed. the vulva appears to be positioned further forward than in adults. but its appropriateness as a routine procedure is under question.wikipedia. showing a larger percentage of the labia majora and pudendal cleft when standing. Puberty The onset of puberty produces a number of changes. and the clitoral body and the clitoral crura are homologous to the corpora cavernosa of the penis. labia. From one year of age until the onset of puberty. The clitoral glans is homologous to the glans penis in males.5 cm or 3. reproductive tissues which are sensitive to these hormones shrink in size. An episiotomy (a preemptive surgical cutting of the perineum) is sometimes performed to limit tearing. other than growing in proportion with the rest of her body. This can result in tears in the vaginal opening. Childbirth During childbirth. to her mother's increased levels of hormones. ﬁrst on the labia majora. labia. Within a short period of time as these hormones wear oﬀ. Variations in body fat levels aﬀect the extent to which this occurs. via the placenta. and clitoris are reduced in size in post-menopause. and sometimes the inner thighs and perineum. In preadolescent girls.
This is a regular practice that is considered in some more devout Muslim cultures as a form of worship. leading to questions about. thus giving the impression of  a separate and enveloping curtain of skin". or originating in Christina piercing and the prostitution and pornography. respectively. was paid to display her large buttocks. women have shaved or otherwise depilated part or all of the vulva.org/wiki/Vulva majora. cutting. "The labia minora. but the vulva and pubic triangle are always the ﬁrst areas to be covered. not a shameful practice.Vulva . including modern Western culture. or tablier (the French word for "apron"). Baartman never allowed this trait to be  exhibited while she was alive. and clitoral hood are homologous to the scrotum. shaft skin of the penis. Pubic hair removal is practiced in Depilation of the vulva is a fairly recent phenomenon many cultures and has been in the United States. Shaving may include Nefertiti piercing. usually in the form of waxing. women who wished to wear them would shave the sides of their pubic triangles. or inner lips. Society and culture Many peoples have no or few taboos on exposure of the breasts. and may hang down three or four inches below the vagina when women stand. Some styles retain a small amount of hair on either side of the labia or a strip directly above and in line with the pudendal cleft. while in other less devout regions it is a practice for the purpose of good hygiene. Khoisan women were said to have elongated labia. Eastern cultures for centuries. and ﬁnd one or the other more comfortable. in many Eastern European and Middle since the end of the 20th century. Muslim women and men have followed a tradition to "pluck the armpit hairs and shave the pubic hairs". In some cultures. Saartjie Baartman.wikipedia. the so-called "Hottentot Venus" who was exhibited in London at the beginning of the nineteenth century. waxing. When high-cut swimsuits became fashionable. of the ordinary female genitalia are greatly enlarged in Khoi-San women. To quote Stephen Jay Gould. and Western Europe.Wikipedia. their sinus pudoris. and could be carried out by shaving. clipping. labia minora. The vestibular bulbs beneath the skin of the labia minora are homologous to the corpus spongiosum. common in the western world but has been prevalent. the free encyclopedia https://en. but she never revealed her vulva. Since the early days of Islam. because the purpose is to be completely clean and 8 of 15 24/05/13 16:37 . and requests to exhibit. Canada. This is a preferred practice rather than an obligation. usually due to the Piercings of the vulva include the idea that it may be more hygienic. (See Islamic hygienical jurisprudence. pseudofolliculitis  barbae (razor bumps) and folliculitis. the tissue of the penis surrounding the urethra. to avoid exhibiting pubic hair. all or nearly all of the hair. or completely hairless. or any other method. and the foreskin.) The reasons behind removing this hair could also be applied to the hair on the scrotum and around the anus. ingrown hairs. Many people object to pubic shaving. The Bartholin's glands are homologous to the Cowper's glands in males. "curtain of shame". which can result in cuts to the vulva and clitoris. Other women relish the beauty of seeing their vulva with hair.
The preference for small  labia is purely a matter of fashion and is without clinical or functional signiﬁcance. including “vaginal rejuvenation. the free encyclopedia https://en.” “designer vaginoplasty”. This practice is highly controversial as it is often done to non-consenting minors and for debatable (often misogynistic) reasons. In September 2007. With the growing popularity of female cosmetic genital surgeries. adhesions. but some forms like the Clitoral hood piercing might also enhance pleasure during sexual intercourse. Female genital surgery includes laser resurfacing of the labia to remove wrinkles.” This opinion states that the safety of labia minora these procedures has not been documented. Some  have likened labiaplasty to FGM.Vulva .org/wiki/Vulva pure and keep away from anything that may cause dirt and impurities. altered sensation. An estimated 100 to 140 million girls and women in Africa and Asia have experienced some form of  FGM. ACOG recommends that women seeking these surgeries need to be informed about the lack of data supporting these procedures and the potential associated risks such as infection. in combination with a lack of public education.Wikipedia. the practice increasingly draws criticism from an opposition movement of cyberfeminist activist groups and platforms.  Altering the female genitalia Main article: Genital modiﬁcation and mutilation The most prevalent form of genital alteration in some countries is female genital mutilation (FGM): removal of any part of the female genitalia for cultural. dyspareunia. religious or other non-medical reasons. This is similar 9 of 15 24/05/13 16:37 .  Several forms of genital piercings can be done in the female genital area. Piercings are usually performed for aesthetic purposes.” and “G-spot Labiaplasty: Reduction of the ampliﬁcation. intimate piercings are a fairly recent trend in western culture. labiaplasty (reducing the size of the labia) and vaginal tightening. The major point of contention is that heavy advertising for these procedures. "wrapper"). lit. probably from the Old Latin volvere ("to roll". the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists issued a committee opinion on these and other female genital surgeries. female genitals").wikipedia.  Etymology The word vulva was taken from the Medieval Latin word volva or vulva ("womb. the so-called labia pride movement. Though they are common in traditional cultures. fosters body insecurities in women with larger labia in spite of the fact that there is gross individual variation in the size of labia. “revirgination.  and scarring.
The vagina is a speciﬁc internal structure. is genitalia feminina  (female external genital organs). 2011 Depictions of vulvae Main article: Depictions of nudity Some cultures have tended to view the vulva as something shameful that should be hidden.Vulva . As with nearly any aspect of the human body involved in sexual or excretory functions.Wikipedia. Oil painting by Gustave Courbet Rupestrian depictions of vulvae. has become in its literal sense a vulgarism. Ancient Greek women kept their vulva hairless so to display their beauty. whereas the vulva is the whole exterior genitalia.wikipedia. and in other uses one of the strongest abusive obscenities in English-speaking cultures. there are  "Cunt". which denotes the external genitalia. and may be indicated in paleolithic artworks. medieval word for the vulva and once the standard term.org/wiki/Vulva to Sanskrit word ulva ("womb"). paleolithic Sheela na gig. Origin of the world. externa Alternative terms In slipshod colloquial speech. For example. Some Hindu sects revere it under the name yoni. The Labia pride movement resents the ideals of female cosmetic genital surgeries: The Muﬀ March in London. literally means "shameful thing". paleolithic Stylised vulva stone. As an aspect of Goddess worship such reverence may be part of modern Neopagan beliefs. the term vagina is often wrongly used to refer to the female genitals generally. and texts seem to indicate a similar attitude in some ancient Middle Eastern religions. Some cultures have long celebrated and even worshipped the vulva. dubbed "Old Europe" by archaeologist Marija Gimbutas. the term pudendum. An alternate term. 10 of 15 24/05/13 16:37 . the free encyclopedia https://en. a many slang words for the vulva. ﬁgurative sculpture with an exaggerated vulva. also from Latin.
Regular examinations are necessary to detect any abnormal changes in the vulvar region. ancient and medieval European carvings Yoni. they number around 8000.Wikipedia. a complete descriptive listing may be found in Chapter XIV of the list of ICD-10 codes. responsible for feeling any external changes. Sanskrit depictions Clinical relevance See also: Vulvovaginal health Injuries The vulva is extremely sensitive to pleasure or pain due to its vast number of mechanoreceptors (nerve endings).Vulva . Vulvular injuries are rare because its structure oﬀers some natural protection. therefore it is protected from various forms of injuries. Several pathologies are deﬁned. Disorders Gynaecology is the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of the diseases and disorders associated with the female reproductive organs. See WikiSaurus:vulva for a list of slang words for vulva. Three female organs and a winged phallus. the free encyclopedia https://en. euphemisms and synonyoms for the vulva in English and in other languages. In the vulva. the ﬁrst realistic painting of a vulva in Western art Sheela na Gig.wikipedia. Mechanoreceptors are pressure sensors in the human body. Art L'Origine du monde. Slang There are numerous slang words. the most signiﬁcant disorders include: Blemishes and cysts 11 of 15 24/05/13 16:37 .org/wiki/Vulva Attic red-ﬁgure lid.
bullous pemphigoid) Pain syndromes Vulvodynia and vulvular vestibulitis Vaginismus Vulvar cancer Squamous cell carcinoma (the most common kind) Basal cell carcinoma Melanoma Vulvar cancer 12 of 15 24/05/13 16:37 .org/wiki/Vulva Epidermal cysts Angiomas Moles Freckles Lentigos Scars Scariﬁcation Vitiligo Tattoos Hypertrophy Sinus pudoris Infections Candidiasis (thrush) Bacterial vaginosis (BV) Warts (due to HPV or condyloma acuminata) Molluscum contagiosum Herpes simplex (genital herpes) Herpes zoster (shingles) Tinea (fungus) Hidradenitis suppurativa Inﬂammatory diseases Eczema/Dermatitis Lichen simplex (chronic eczema) Psoriasis Lichen sclerosus Lichen planus zoon's vulvitis (zoon's balanitis in men) Pemphigus vulgaris Pemphigoid (mucus membrane pemphigoid. the free encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.Vulva . cicratricial pemphigoid.Wikipedia.
Ulcers Aphthous ulcer Behcet's Disease Developmental disorders Septate vagina Vaginal opening extremely close to the urethra or anus An imperforate hymen Various stages of genital masculinization including fused labia.html). ^ "Pubic Hair Removal . Retrieved 2011-11-13. Darby (http://www. Palo Alto Medical Foundation.mercksource.html).org/web/20090616022448/http://www.uchicago.mcgraw-hill. Hermaphroditism Other Vulvar Lymphangioma Extramammary Paget's disease Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) Bowen's disease Bowenoid papulosis Vulvar varicose veins Labial adhesions Perineodynia (perineal pain) Desquamative Inﬂammatory Vaginitis (DIV) Childbirth tears and Episiotomy related changes References 1. Highered. a lump or sore on the vulva which does not heal and/or grows larger.wikipedia. Retrieved 1 August 2010.com/pp/us /cns/cns_hl_dorlands_split.htm)" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary 2. an absent or partially formed vagina. Retrieved 2011-11-13.org/wiki/Vulva Symptoms of vulvar cancer include itching.com. and sometimes discomfort/pain/swelling in the vulval area. The Lawrence Journal-World.Wikipedia. ^ A Surgical Temptation: The Demonization of the Foreskin and the Rise of Circumcision in Britain.epl?isbn=9780226136455) 5.org/teen/health /skin/pubichairremoval. 3.com /news/2003/may/04/v_is_for/). 13 of 15 24/05/13 16:37 .jsp?pg=/ppdocs/us/common/dorlands/dorland /nine/000116925. ^ "vulva (http://web. "‘V’ is for vulva.pamf.Vulva .com/sites/0072986360/student_view0/chapter4 /glossary. ^ "Glossary" (http://highered.press. urethra located on the clitoris. ^ Gould.Shaving" (http://www. the free encyclopedia https://en. 1985 6. not just vagina" (http://www2. ^ Lerner. ^ (Strother 1999) 7.edu/presssite /metadata. Harriet (2003). Treatments include vulvectomy – removal of all or part of the vulva.ljworld.mcgraw-hill. 4.archive.
^ "''Can selﬁsh lovers ever give as good as they get? Plus.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar /FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503548824).pdf) (PDF).islamonline. 11. Sheikh Muhammad Saleh (Released 27th July 2004). ^ Clark-Flory.com/index.org/userﬁles /ﬁle/ACOG%20gen. p. 2013). "The “labia pride” movement: Rebelling against the porn aesthetic. World Health Organization (WHO). ^ "Vaughn S. women are taking to the Internet to sing the praises of "endowed" women. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary (http://www. Retrieved 2008-03-03. Salon. 16.surg. "Islam Ruling on Shaving the Pubic Hair. Retrieved 2011-11-13. ^ Cormier. Millner et al.org.php?title=Vulva&oldid=556052997" Categories: Mammal female reproductive system Female sex organs Human female reproductive system 14 of 15 24/05/13 16:37 ." (http://www.com/news/2003/may/04 /v_is_for/) by Harriet Lerner discussing common misuse of the word "vagina" Pink Parts (http://www. Zoe (fall 2005). The Oﬃcial Newsletter of The Association of Professional Piercers" (http://www. Rue89. the free encyclopedia https://en. Tracy (February 17.cosm. ^ http://cancerweb. 10. 2. not just vagina (http://www2.who. Retrieved 2013-03-14. ^ According to Al-Munajjid. 2007-12-04. Vaginal "Rejuvenation" and Cosmetic Vaginal Procedures (http://www.Wikipedia. Ajog.com. "Making the Cut" (http://shamelessmag.wikipedia. the perks of piercings and how to get her to hurry up already''" (http://www.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/)". Retrieved 2011-11-13. 17. 9. 15.org/wiki/Vulva 8. ^ American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2007).newviewcampaign.org/article/S0002-9378(05)00448-5/abstract). Shameless.salon. ^ "VCH Piercings. Volume 193.rue89. ^ For slang terms for the vulva.com/id/18039467/). 12.com/issues/2005/fall /making-cut/). Lucile (February 21.American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 13. Scrotum and Around the Anus" (http://www. elles se rebellent sur Internet" (http://www. External links Media related to Vulva at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Vulva symbols at Wikimedia Commons 'V' is for vulva. MSNBC. February 2010.com/rue69/2013/02/21/contrelimage-de-la-vulve-parfaite-elles-se-rebellent-sur-internet-239817).ac. 14. no explicit photos) Retrieved from "http://en.php?search=vulva) 18. Issue 3. Pages 675-676" (http://www. Retrieved 2013-03-14.safepiercing. 2013). "Révolution vulvienne: Contre l’image de la vulve parfaite.org/w/index. ^ Sourdès.Vulva . (2005): ''First glimpse of the functional beneﬁts of clitoral hood piercings''.ncl. Seite 16-17.uk/cgi-bin/omd?external+female+genital+organs 19.com/article /body/anatomy_pink_parts_female_sexual_anatomy) – "Walk through" of female sexual anatomy by sex activist and educator Heather Corinna (illustrations.com/2013/02/17/the_labia_pride_movement/).ajog.scarleteen.msnbc. ^ "Female genital mutilation (http://www.etymonline. by Elayne Angel.ljworld. see WikiSaurus:female genitalia — the WikiSaurus list of synonyms and slang words for female genitalia in many languages.msn.wikipedia.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/03 /point31. Retrieved 2011-11-13.pdf) (PDF).
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