# TOLERANCES AND FITS. Fits of machine parts - ISO 286.

Determination of dimensional tolerances and deviations of machine parts ISO 286. Preferred fits of machine parts and determination of their dimensional tolerances and deviations - ANSI B4.1. Determination of non-prescribed limit deviations of linear and angular dimensions according to ISO 2768. How to use geometric and dimensional tolerances to specify how much variation is acceptable during manufacture

012 .50H8.0. 025 − 0 . 10±.1 Metric standard fits (ISO) Hole .Dimensional Tolerances Upper and lower limits of dimension 70 +0 .50f7. Fit – 50H8/f7 Basic size – the size from which deviations are assigned Deviation – the difference between the basic size and the hole or shaft size Hole tolerances Shaft tolerances Basic size Standard fits are a way of specifying a fit between a hole and a shaft. . Shaft .

Basic terms. • Dimensional deviations • Shape deviations • Position deviations • Surface roughness deviations . shape and mutual position of individual parts of mechanical engineering products are kept within a certain accuracy to achieve their correct and reliable functioning. The dimensions.

where: d=D basic size Dmax . it is not necessary or useful.limits of the hole size dmax .hole upper deviation EI .shaft upper deviation ei .limits of the shaft size ES .shaft lower deviation .Dimensional tolerances and deviations of machine parts. Dmin . The actual dimension of the part is found between two limit dimensions and a permissible deviation is kept with production to ensure correct functioning of engineering products. In fact. dmin . A coupling of two parts creates a fit.hole lower deviation es . It is principally impossible to produce machine parts with absolute dimensional accuracy.

It is used particularly for cylindrical parts with round sections.ISO system of limits and fits International standard for linear dimension tolerances. The term "hole" are used for specification of all inner elements regardless of their shape. Tolerances and deviations in this standard can also be applied in smooth parts of other sections. Transition fit C.Depending on the mutual position of tolerance zones of the coupled parts. Interference fit ISO 286 . The term "shaft" has a wide meaning and serves for specification of all outer elements of the part. All numerical values of tolerances and deviations mentioned in this paragraph are given in the metric system and relate to parts with dimensions specified at 20 °C. . Clearance fit B. including those elements which do not have cylindrical shapes. The system of tolerances and fits can be applied in tolerances and deviations of smooth parts. 3 types of fit can be distinguished: A.

Fields of use of individual tolerances of the system ISO: IT01 to IT6 For production of gauges and measuring instruments IT5 to IT12 For fits in precision and general engineering IT11 to IT16 For production of semi-products IT16 to IT18 For structures IT11 to IT18 For specification of limit deviations of nontolerated dimensions . Tolerance of a basic size for specific tolerance grade. Each of the tolerances of this system is marked "IT" with attached grade of accuracy (IT01.. The system ISO implements 20 grades of accuracy. the basic size of both connected elements must be the same. IT0. IT1 ..Basic size It is the size whose limit dimensions are specified using the upper and lower deviations. IT18). The tolerance of a size is defined as the difference between the upper and lower limit dimensions of the part. In case of a fit.

C. is determined by a so-called basic deviation.. H10. . H8. B. The system ISO defines 28 classes of basic deviations for holes.Hole tolerance zones. ZC). The tolerance zone is defined as a spherical zone limited by the upper and lower limit dimensions of the part. tolerance zones H7. . The position of the tolerance zone.g. For hole tolerances. The tolerance zone is determined by the amount of the tolerance and its position related to the basic size.. Tolerance mark consists of a letter marking the basic deviation and a number marking the tolerance grade (e. E5) In practice only a limited range of tolerance zones is used. H8. The classes are marked by capital letters (A. H9 and H11 are used preferably. related to the basic size (zero line).

tolerance zones h6. zc) Tolerance mark consists of a letter marking the basic deviation and a number marking the tolerance grade (e. For shaft tolerances. b. • Use hole tolerances greater or equal to the shaft tolerance.. System of fit Two methods of coupling of holes and shafts are recommended due to constructional. • Hole basis system • Shaft basis system . h9 and h11 are used preferably. The classes are marked by lower case letters (a. h7. h7. . c.several principles • Design a fit in a hole basis system or in a shaft basis system. Selection of fits .. d8) In practice only a limited range of tolerance zones is used. technological and economic reasons.Shaft tolerance zones The system ISO defines 28 classes of basic deviations for shafts. h6. • Tolerances of the hole and shaft should not differ by more than two grades.g.

the upper deviation of the shaft is always equal to zero. where: d=D . the hole basis system is used preferably.. The desired clearances and interferences in the fit are achieved by combinations of various shaft tolerance zones with the hole tolerance zone "H".Hole basis system In this system of tolerances and fits.... Shaft basis system In this system of tolerances and fits. the lower deviation of the hole is always equal to zero. The desired clearances and interferences in the fit are achieved by combinations of various hole tolerance zones with the shaft tolerance zone "h".. hole tolerance zone \\\\ . shaft tolerance zone Although both systems are equivalent in the view of functional properties. .. basic size //// .

applications: H11/c11. Use: Fits of long shafts. bearings of pumps H8/f7. regulator bearings.F8/h6 Running fits with smaller clearances with general requirements for fit accuracy. Use: Fits of parts exposed to corrosive effects. H8/e8. fits are in bold): Some preferred clearance fits . E9/h9. sliding rods. constructional and technological views. Use: Multiple fits of shafts of production and piston machines.Recommended fits. H7/f7. machine tools. General fits of shafts. economic aspects and so on. Use: Main fits of machine tools. contamination with dust and thermal or mechanical deformations. D10/h9 Running fits with greater clearances without any special requirements for accuracy of guiding shafts. local standards. Running fits with greater clearances without any special requirements for fit accuracy. C11/h11 Fits with great clearances with parts having great tolerances. The list of recommended fits given here is for information only Fits may differ depending on the type and field of production. H9/e9. e.g. H9/d9. . in agricultural machines. parts rotating very rarely or only swinging.

H7/n6. Transition fits: H7/j6 Tight fits with small clearances or negligible interference.H7/g6. K7/h6 Similar fits with small clearances or small interferences. The parts can be assembled or disassembled without great force using a rubber mallet Use: Demountable fits of hubs of gears. Use: Parts of machine tools. Mounting of fits using pressing and light force. Use: armatures of electric motors on shafts . H7/k6. Mounting by sliding on without use of any great force Use: Precise guiding of machines. roller guides. brake disks. clutches. exchangeable wheels. Use: Easily dismountable fits of hubs of gears. sliding gears and clutch disks. N7/h6 Fixed fits with negligible clearances or small interferences. The parts can be assembled or disassembled manually. rods sliding in bearings H7/h6 Sliding fits with very small clearances for precise guiding and centring of parts. G7/h6 Running fits with very small clearances for accurate guiding of shafts.

Use: Permanent coupling of gears with shafts. Assembly of parts using hot pressing. P7/h6 Pressed fits with guaranteed interference. S7/h6. H7/r6. bearing bushings. bearing bushings. Use: Hubs of clutch disks. H7/s6. .Interference fits: H7/p6. Assembly using cold pressing only with use of large forces. Pressed fits with medium interference. Assembly of the parts can be carried out using cold pressing.

U7/h6 .Preferred fits designed for preferred use in the USA are defined in ANSI B4. H7/n6. P7/h6. F8/h7. H7/s6. H7/g6.2. H7/h6. C11/h11. S7/h6. H8/f7. G7/h6 Transition fits: H7/k6. H7/u6. N7/h6 Interference fits: H7/p6. K7/h6. This standard prescribes the following groups of preferred fits: Clearance fits: H11/c11. D9/h9. H9/d9.

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