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Large-Scale Mining and Small-Scale Mining

Chairperson: Panel Members: Lovely Alpha Carla Valyssa Bryan Oscar Junaidy ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Lovely (Chairperson): Good day everyone! Im Ms. Lovely Conde, your chairperson, and I am expecting each and every one is ready for our discussion today! Today we are discussing about the Large-Scale Mining and Small-Scale Mining here in the Philippines. First, lets focus ourselves in a Small-Scale Mining. Can somebody share a bit of what they know on a Small-Scale Mining? *Everyone raised their hands* Okay Ms. Advincula, you have the floor. Please speak! Valyssa (Panel Member): Small scale mining usually involves a small group of nomadic men. They travel together and look for sites which they think will yield gold or another valuable metal or mineral.

Note: Lovely please seek for an example for small scale mining Lovely (Chairperson): Nice Ms. Advincula. So youre trying to say that Small Scale Mining is probably from its own word SMALL? Okay, very well. Does anybody want to share more about Small Scale Mining?

*Carla Ellaga and Oscar Del Rosario raised their hands* Lovely (Chairperson): Carla (Panel Member): Ms. Ellaga, you have the floor. Please speak! As far as I know, there are two types of Small Scale Mining: Land Dredging and River Dredging. Land Dredging involves miners using a generator to dig a large hole in the ground. They use a high pressure hose to expose the gold-bearing layer of sand and clay. The gold bearing slurry is pumped into a sluice box, which collects gold particles, while mine tailings flow into either an abandoned mining pit or adjacent forest. When the mining pits fill with water from the tailings, they become stagnant water pools. These pools create a breeding ground for mosquitoes and other water-born insects. Malaria and other water-born diseases increase significantly whenever open pools of water are nearby. River dredging involves moving along a river on a platform or boat. The miners use a hydrolic suction hose and suction the gravel and mud as they move along the river. The gravel, mud, and rocks go through the tailings (pipes) and any gold fragments are collected on felt mats. The remaining gravel, mud, and rocks go back into the river, but in a different location than where it was originally suctioned. This creates problems for the river. The displaced gravel and mud disrupt the natural flow of the river. Fish and other living organisms often die and fishermen can no longer navigate in the obstructed rivers Lovely (Chairperson): Im amaze on what you have for us Ms. Ellaga. So we had already knew how the Small Scale Mining can be classified. Its either Land Dredging or River Dredging? But guys! Dont forget to think first, if the mining is a Small Scale or a Large Scale mining.

I think its already clear to us the Small Scale Mining. But for the sake of everybodys privilege to speak, Im asking you if everyone is okay to move the discussion to the Large Scale Mining? *Everyone raised their hands* Okay. Now I know that everyone is favor to discuss the Large Scale Mining. Lets start. Who want to say something about it? *Carla, Oscar, Ralfh, Bryan raised their hands* Mr. Jimenez, you may know speak! Bryan (Panel Member): Large Scale Mining usually involves a company with many employees. The company mines at one or two large sites and usually stays until the mineral or metal is completely excavated. Is that all you have? Yeah! Probably Ms. Conde I have anything more to say. Okay! Does anyone want to share more about Large Scale Mining?

Lovely (Chairperson): Bryan (Panel Member): Lovely (Chairperson): *Nobody raised their hands*

To make it more simple, Large Scale Mining bears its own word Large, such as a big mining company. Now lets tackle the benefits of this so called Mining. Who wants to share from my panel members? *Everyone raised their hand except Bryan and Valyssa* Okay, Ms. Medrano you may now speak. You have the floor! Alpha (Panel Member): Minerals and metals are very valuable commodities. For example, manganese is a key component of low-cost stainless steel. It is also used to de-color glass (removing greenish hues), but in higher concentrations, it actually makes lavendar-colored glass. Tantalum is used in cell phones, pagers, and lap-tops. Cooper and tin are used to make pipes, cookware, etc. And gold, silver, and diamonds are used to make jewelry. So for you the Mining is what we now experiencing yet. From what our houses were build, to what we are using every day such as gadgets and more? Does anybody want to say something more? *Nobody raised their hand* Okay, we should go to our next thing to tackle. Its about the effects of mining? Please raise the hands of those who want to contribute. *Alpha, Valyssa, Oscar and Ralfh raised their hands* Mr. Del Rosario you may now have the floor. Oscar (Panel Member): Mining is generally very destructive to the environment. It is one of the main causes of deforestation. In order to mine, trees and vegetation are cleared and burned. With the ground completely bare, large scale mining operations use huge bulldozers and excavators to extract the metals and minerals from the soil. In order to amalgamate (cluster) the extractions, they use chemicals such as cyanide, mercury, or methyl mercury. These chemicals go through tailings (pipes) and are often discharged into rivers, streams, bays, and oceans. This pollution contaminates all living organisms within the body of water and ultimately the people who depend on the fish for their main source of protein and their economic livelihood.

Lovely (Chairperson):

Lovely (Chairperson): *Nobody raised their hands*

Is that really as harsh as I imagining right now. Oh my God! Thats terrible. By the way is there anybody else who wants to say something?

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Lovely (Chairperson)

So now lets discuss about the laws that are concerned with the small scale mining and large-scale mining. Im gonna start with the law that has a concern about large-scale mining. I read the Republict Act No. 7942 known as the Philippine Mining Act of 1995, the Section 2 of this act states that ,all mineral resources in public and private lands within the territory and exclusive economic zone of the Republic of the Philippines are owned by the State. It shall be the responsibility of the State to promote their rational exploration, development, utilization and conservation through the combined efforts of government and the private sector in order to enhance national growth in a way that effectively safeguards the environment and protect the rights of affected communities. In simple words the state is responsible for the exploration and utilization of our natural resources and at the same time they should ensure that the environment will not be affected by the exploitation of our mineral resources. So what part of that of that law that has something to do with large-scale mining? Good Question. Section 20 of the R.A. no. 7942 issues an exploration permit which grants the right to conduct exploration for all minerals in specified areas. The Bureau shall have the authority to grant an exploration Permit to a qualified person. This law doesnt forbid mining as long as the mining companies completed the requirements needed for them to be able to explore our mineral resources ,which is written in this law. Thus, large-scale mining companies can explore our land as long as they have the permission from the government. And thus, we became open for mining companies. So now what can you share about the disadvantages of this law about large scale mining ? Yes, Ms. Medrano. Since we became open for mining companies, there are many mining contracts that are waiting for approval and isnt its bad for our country if they approve many of those. What or who will be affected if there are many irresponsible yet approved mining companies in our country? Our environment will be at risk. It will have a big impact with the preservation of our natural resources. Yeah thats right. Our environment will be at risk. It was just like what Mr. I totally agree with what Ms. Medrano said. Because one of the assets of our country is our natural resources. And large-scale mining means that larger part of mines will be quarried, so larger part of our environment are at risk. Theres even a phenomenon that happened which had a great impact on the environment that is concerned with a large-scale mining company. I think youre really in with this thing to be able to know a lot of these. What phenomenon was that? The Leakage of the Philex Mining Corporation. I think Ms. Advincula knows more about this topic. Is that so, well then, Ms. Advincula will you please state the information about the leakage?

Lovely (Chairperson)

Ralph (Panel Member): Lovely (Chairperson)

Alpha (Panel Member):

Lovely (Chairperson) Del Rosario said earlier. Ralph (Panel Member):

Lovely (Chairperson) Ralph (Panel Member): Lovely (Chairperson)

Valyssa (Panel Member):

It happened on August 1, 2012 at Itogon Benguet. Where the Philex Mining Corporation, a large-scale gold and copper mining company had leakage of 26 million metric tons of mine wastes that flowed to Balog river. That river is connected with the Agno river which serves as an irigation system for agricultural lands, fishing ground and electricity source. But after of what happened, the Balog river was affected and the Agno river is at risk. Not only the environment was affected, but also the people who depends on the river. See! Thats the effect of mining. The company keeps on saying that they are a responsible mining company, but with that mine spill, it became a big destruction with the environment and with the people. The Philippine Mining act of 1995 also states that the approved mining companies should become responsible minners. But with this case, even though they accepted the full responsibility, those affected areas are now useless because of the hazardous chemicals that spilled there. Does anyone wants to add something?None? Okay, what do you think are the benefits of large-scale mining to the Filipinos based on your researches, there must be a good reason for allowing large scale companies to mine in our country.Yes, Ms. Ellaga. Large-scale mining companies are the one who can produce enough minerals to be exported to the other countries, thus it will have a good effect with our economy. And also, now that the technology standard is increasing it really needs minerals from mines. Does anyone wants to add something? None? Okay, lets move on with the law that is concerned with small-scale mining. Does anyone knows about the Presidential Decree No. 1899 of the Former President Ferdinand Marcos? Alright, Mr. Jimenez, would you please explain to us what is with this Presidential Decree? It refers to any single unit mining operation having an annual production of not more than 50,000 metric tons of ore and it satisfies some requirements and should obey the rules and regulations of the law. Filipino minners are most likely to be part of this small-scale mining. It gives Filipinos chance for the mining bussiness and more employment. Well said, we tackled the bad effects of large scale mining, how about the bad effects of small scale mining? Mr. Jimenez, can you share some opinions or views? Even though it doesnt affect the environment just like how large mining companies do, small-scale mining will still be mining. Deforestation, that will cause landslide, and loss of habitat for animals. The landscape of the particular place where they mine will be affected. Does anyone wants to speak more? Okay, Ms. Medrano, did you researched the law for small-scale minners? Yeah, it is the Republic Act. No. 7076 or Peoples Small-scale Mining act of 1991. Sec. 2 states that It is declared of the State to promote, develop, protect and rationalize viable small-scale mining activities in order to generate more employment opportunities and provide an equitable sharing of the nation's wealth and natural resources, giving due regard to existing rights as herein provided. Good. You were able to research that for the last minute.

Oscar (Panel Member):

Lovely (Chairperson)

Carla (Panel Member):

Lovely (Chairperson)

Bryan (Panel Member):

Lovely (Chairperson) Bryan (Panel Member):

Lovely (Chairperson) Alpha (Panel Member):

Lovely (Chairperson)