LEADERSHIP

A NEW DIMENSION

BY SUNIL K. SONARE

Leadership – A New Dimension

Leadership- A New Dimension Preface
All leaders are called to serve to the nation, organization, society. So commissioned, we must then each find those tasks most worthy, responding with our time and talent as we have been so blessed. In this instance, it is guided to me that we should know the leadership, characteristics of leadership, principles, human relationship, motivational factors etc. The book will help to know the leadership style, and a development process inside you. Very little new is written here. The task has been primarily one of assembling, integrating, and interpreting the works of others in the context of leadership and all related parameters associated with it. However well intended, readers will likely perceive weaknesses in this effort, for example in 4E’s Self Esteem, Motivational factors etc. The message hopefully transcends these and other shortcomings. As with all good things, we are dependent on good leaders and would like to thank you, who are associated directly or indirectly for writing this eBook. Moreover, I give thanks to all good peoples everywhere. Those wishing to contact me regarding Leadership are strongly encouraged. Suggestions and new ideas are invited. - Sunil Kumar Sonare E:sunilksonare@yahoo.com

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Leadership – A New Dimension TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2 LEADERSHIP........................................................................................................................................ 6 WHAT IS A LEADER.............................................................................................................................. 8 PRINCIPLES OF LEADERSHIP .............................................................................................................. 8 FACTORS OF LEADERSHIP ................................................................................................................... 9 ATTRIBUTES ....................................................................................................................................... 10 LEADERSHIP SELF-ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY .................................................................................... 11 LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS.............................................................................................. 15

2.1 LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS ...................................................................................................... 15 2.2 LEADERSHIP MODELS ....................................................................................................................... 17 2.2.1 FOUR FRAMEWORK APPROACH ....................................................................................................... 17 2.3 THE PROCESS OF GREAT LEADERSHIP ............................................................................................ 18 2.4 TEN WAYS TO IDENTIFY A PROMISING PERSON ............................................................................. 18 2.5 WHAT IS THE ROLE OF LEADERSHIP? ............................................................................................. 19 2.6 DIMENSIONS OF SUSTAINING LEADERSHIP ...................................................................................... 20 2.7 AM I A LEADER? ................................................................................................................................ 20 2.8 LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR .................................................................................................................... 21 2.9 THE TASKS OF LEADERSHIP: ............................................................................................................. 22 2.10 LEADERSHIP STYLES- USING THE RIGHT ONE FOR YOUR SITUATION .......................................... 22 2.11 UNDERSTANDING LEADERSHIP STYLES ......................................................................................... 22 2.11.1 AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP ............................................................................................................. 23 2.11.2 BUREAUCRATIC LEADERSHIP......................................................................................................... 23 2.11.3 CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP ........................................................................................................... 23 2.11.4 DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP OR PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP ........................................................ 23 2.11.5 PEOPLE-ORIENTED LEADERSHIP OR RELATIONS-ORIENTED LEADERSHIP .................................... 24 2.11.6 SERVANT LEADERSHIP ................................................................................................................... 24 2.11.7 TASK-ORIENTED LEADERSHIP ....................................................................................................... 24 2.11.8 TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP....................................................................................................... 24 2.11.9 TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP............................................................................................... 25 2.12 USING THE RIGHT STYLE – SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP .............................................................. 25 2.13 LEADERSHIP STYLE SURVEY .......................................................................................................... 26 3 LEADERSHIP AND INFORAMTION ............................................................................................. 31 INFORMATION GATHERING- INFORMATION IS INSPIRATION ......................................................... 31 GATHERING BACKGROUND INFORMATION ...................................................................................... 32 GATHERING TASK-RELATED INFORMATION .................................................................................... 32 EXPERT POWER- LEADING FROM THE FRONT ................................................................................ 33 HOW TO USE THE EXPERT POWER ................................................................................................... 34 TOOLS FOR IMPROVED ADVOCACY ................................................................................................. 35 TOOLS FOR WHEN YOU ARE AT AN IMPASSE .................................................................................... 36 INDIVIDUAL SELF-ASSESSMENT ....................................................................................................... 36

3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.2 3.2.1 3.3 3.4 3.5 4 4.1

LEADERSHIP TRAITS...................................................................................................................... 37 HONESTY AS A LEADERSHIP TRAIT .................................................................................................. 38

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Leadership – A New Dimension
4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.9.1 5 FORWARD-LOOKING AS A LEADERSHIP TRAIT............................................................................... 39 COMPETENCY AS A LEADERSHIP TRAIT .......................................................................................... 39 INSPIRATION AS A LEADERSHIP TRAIT ............................................................................................ 40 INTELLIGENCE AS A LEADERSHIP TRAIT ........................................................................................ 40 LEADERSHIP- A VALUABLE GUIDE .................................................................................................. 41 LEADERSHIP- CHARACTER & TRAITS ............................................................................................. 42 "LEADERSHIP" - THROUGH THE EYES OF AN EAGLE - BY TYRON HANSON ................................. 43 VISIONING .......................................................................................................................................... 44 VISION STATEMENT EXAMPLES....................................................................................................... 45

COMMUNICATION & RELATIONSHIP....................................................................................... 47

5.1 BUILDING THE RIGHT LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION SKILLS .................................................... 47 5.2 NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION ....................................................................................................... 47 5.3 COMMUNICATION MEDIUMS ............................................................................................................ 48 5.4 THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS ..................................................................................................... 48 5.5 BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION ...................................................................................................... 49 5.6 ACTIVE LISTENING............................................................................................................................ 50 5.7 NONVERBAL BEHAVIORS OF COMMUNICATION ............................................................................. 51 5.8 SPEAKING HINTS ............................................................................................................................... 52 5.9 FEEDBACK A COMMUNICATION MEDIUM ........................................................................................ 52 5.9.1 ENCOURAGE FEEDBACK ................................................................................................................ 53 5.9.2 LISTEN EFFECTIVELY ..................................................................................................................... 53 5.9.3 REDUCE COMMUNICATION MISUNDERSTANDING......................................................................... 54 5.10 COMMUNICATION WITH KEY PERSONNEL .................................................................................... 55 5.11 PROMOTE GROUP CONSENSUS ....................................................................................................... 56 5.12 COMMUNICATION EFFECTIVELY ................................................................................................... 57 5.13 OTHER TYPES OF FEEDBACK INCLUDE: ........................................................................................ 57 5.14 BODY LANGUAGE -- CHECK THE MESSAGE .................................................................................. 58 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 8 LEADERSHIP- GOAL SETTING..................................................................................................... 60 DO YOU HAVE A GOAL?................................................................................................................... 60 GOAL SETTING MADE SIMPLE, A BASIC RECIPE FOR SUCCESS ...................................................... 62 GOAL IS GOLD ................................................................................................................................... 62 START WRITING AND COMPLETING YOUR GOALS......................................................................... 64 PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT - 6 STEPS AND GOAL SUCCESS ............................................................ 65 YOU CAN ACHIEVE SUCCESS IN FUTURE......................................................................................... 66 LEADERSHIP & MOTIVATION ..................................................................................................... 69 DEVELOPING SELF-ESTEEM ............................................................................................................. 70 HOW CAN I IMPROVE MY SELF-ESTEEM? ...................................................................................... 71 HOW TO DEVELOP SELF ESTEEM .................................................................................................... 73 LEADERSHIP – 4 ‘E’S....................................................................................................................... 77

8.1 LEADERS ............................................................................................................................................ 78 8.2 IDEAS AND VALUES............................................................................................................................ 79 8.3 THE 4 E’S ........................................................................................................................................... 80 8.3.1 STEP 1: ENVISION ............................................................................................................................. 81

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Leadership – A New Dimension
8.3.2 8.3.3 8.3.4 8.3.5 9 STEP 2: ENABLE ............................................................................................................................... 81 STEP 3: EMPOWER ............................................................................................................................ 82 STEP 4: ENERGIZE ............................................................................................................................ 82 STEP 5: EXECUTE ............................................................................................................................. 83

LEADERSHIP VERSES MANAGEMENT ...................................................................................... 85

9.1 LEADERSHIP VERSUS MANAGEMENT: KEY DISTINCTIONS ............................................................ 85 9.2 BUILDING AND MAINTAINING RELATIONSHIPS ................................................................................ 87 9.2.1 BUILD NEW RELATIONSHIPS QUICKLY AND CAREFULLY ................................................................. 87 9.2.2 RELATIONSHIPS REQUIRE CONSTANT ATTENTION ........................................................................... 87 9.2.3 REPAIR DAMAGE QUICKLY ............................................................................................................... 88 9.2.4 DON'T BUILD ONE RELATIONSHIP AT THE EXPENSE OF ANOTHER ................................................... 88 9.2.5 DON'T PLAY GAMES WITH RELATIONSHIPS ..................................................................................... 88 9.2.6 KEEP THE CHANNEL COOL................................................................................................................ 88 9.2.7 SEPARATE BUSINESS FROM PLEASURE ............................................................................................. 88 9.2.8 REACT TO RELATIONSHIP BREAKDOWN ........................................................................................... 88 9.2.9 YOUR BEHAVIOR .............................................................................................................................. 89 9.3 21ST CENTURY LEADERSHIP – ACCORDING TO JIM MURRAY ....................................................... 89 10 11 GREAT LEADERS OF INDIA ........................................................................................................ 94 CASE STUDY .................................................................................................................................. 134

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1 LEADERSHIP
“At the age of seven, a young boy and his family were forced out of their home. The boy had to work to support his family. At the age of nine, his mother passed away. When he grew up, the young man was keen to go to law school, but had no education. At 22, he lost his job as a store clerk. At 23, he ran for state legislature and lost. The same year, he went into business. It failed, leaving him with a debt that took him 17 years to repay. At 27, he had a nervous breakdown. Two years later, he tried for the post of speaker in his state legislature. He lost. At 31, he was defeated in his attempt to become an elector. By 35, he had been defeated twice while running for Congress. Finally, he did manage to secure a brief term in Congress, but at 39 he lost his reelection bid. At 41, his four-year-old son died. At 42, he was rejected as a prospective land officer. At 45, he ran for the Senate and lost. Two years later, he lost the vice presidential nomination. At 49, he ran for Senate and lost again. At 51, he was elected the President of the United States of America. The man in question: Abraham Lincoln.” - Author Unknown 1. Leadership Skills- An Introduction You might have heard the argument about whether great leaders are born or made. The fact is great leaders are born but great leaders are also made. Some people who were born leaders may have been fortunate enough to possess these characteristics when they went to school. They would organize what kids play on what teams because of the respect each child had for the "born leader". If knowing that a child can lead better then you annoys the heck out of yaw, then get ready to explode because you're about to learn the characteristics eagles have that make a great leader. Many of us are acquainted with this eloquent example of persistence and determination in achieving victory. We read it, stop for a moment, then sigh, and say: “Wow! That’s the stuff real leaders are made off.” Moreover, in saying this, it is all too easy for us to think about leaders like Lincoln almost as “mythological creatures”, separate from the rest of humanity and empowered by some mysterious quality that smoothes their path towards inevitable success. This is the view of leadership that many people have traditionally taken: That leader is marked out for leadership from early on in their lives, and that if you are not a leader, there is little that you can do to become one.

Leadership – A New Dimension

However, that is not the way we see it now. The modern view is that through patience, persistence and hard work, you can be a highly effective leader. Good leaders are made not born. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never-ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience. This guide will help you through that process. To inspire your workers into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know, and, do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills; they are NOT resting on their laurels. Before we get started, let us define leadership. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge, and skills. Although your position as a manager, supervisor, lead, etc. gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organization, this power does not make you a leader...it simply makes you the boss. Leadership differs in that it makes the followers want to achieve high goals, rather than simply bossing people around. Bass’ theory of leadership states that there are three basic ways to explain how people become leaders. The first two explain the leadership development for a small number of people. These theories are: 1 2 Some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. This is the Trait Theory. A crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. This is the Great Events Theory.

People can choose to become leaders. People can learn leadership skills. This is the Transformational Leadership Theory. It is the most widely accepted theory today and the premise on which this guide is based. When a person is deciding if he/she respects you as a leader, he/she does not think about your attributes, rather, he/she observes what you do so that she can know who you really are. He/she uses this observation to tell if you are a honorable and trusted leader or a self serving person who misuses authority to look good and get promoted. Self-serving leaders are not as effective because their employees only obey them, not follow them. They succeed in many areas because they present a good image to their seniors at the expense of their workers. The basis of good leadership is honorable character and selfless service to your organization. In your employees' eyes, your leadership is everything you do that effects the organization's objectives and their well-being. Respected leaders concentrate on what they are [be] (such as beliefs and character), what they know (such as job, tasks, and human nature), and what they do (such as implementing, motivating, and provide direction).

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Leadership – A New Dimension What makes a person want to follow a leader? People want to be guided by those they respect and who have a clear sense of direction. To gain respect, they must be ethical. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future. 1.1 What is a Leader A leader is a person who sees something that needs to be done, knows that they can help make it happen, and gets started. A leader sees opportunity and captures it. A leader sees a future that can be different and better, and helps others see that picture too. A leader knows they cannot do it alone. A leader is a coach. A leader is an encourager. A leader views change as their ally. A leader is willing to take risks today for something better tomorrow. A leader is a learner. A leader is a communicator. A leader is a coordinator. A leader is a listener. A leader takes a long view - letting their vision keep their daily steps on track. A leader is passionate. A leader motivates and inspires. A leader values results. A leader cares about more than results though; she cares about those who are following her lead. A leader makes a difference in the lives of others. A leader is all of these things and much more. 1.2 Principles of Leadership To help you be, know, and do; follow these eleven principles of leadership 1. Know yourself and seek self-improvement - In order to know yourself, you have to understand your be, know, and do, attributes. Seeking self-improvement means continually strengthening your attributes. This can be accomplished through selfstudy, formal classes, reflection, and interacting with others. Be technically proficient - As a leader, you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees' tasks. Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions - Search for ways to guide your organization to new heights. And when things go wrong, they always do sooner or later -- do not blame others. Analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge. Make sound and timely decisions - Use good problem solving, decision making, and planning tools.

2. 3.

4.

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Leadership – A New Dimension 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Set the example - Be a good role model for your employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. We must become the change we want to see - Mahatma Gandhi Know your people and look out for their well-being - Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers. Keep your workers informed - Know how to communicate with not only them, but also seniors and other key people. Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers - Help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their professional responsibilities. Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished Communication is the key to this responsibility. Train as a team - Although many so-called leaders call their organization, department, section, etc. a team; they are not really teams...they are just a group of people doing their jobs. D Use the full capabilities of your organization - By developing a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization, department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities.

1.3 Factors of Leadership There are four major factors in leadership:

1.1.1 Follower Different people require different styles of leadership. For example, a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee does. A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. You must know your people! The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation. You must come to know your employees' be, know, and do attributes.

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Leadership – A New Dimension 1.1.2 Leader You must have a honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and what you can do. Also, note that it is the followers, not the leader who determines if a leader is successful. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader, then they will be uninspired. To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself or your superiors, that you are worthy of being followed. 1.1.3 Communication You lead through two-way communication. Much of it is nonverbal. For instance, when you "set the example," that communicates to your people that you would not ask them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees. 1.1.4 Situation All are different. What you do in one situation will not always work in another. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. For example, you may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behavior, but if the confrontation is too late or too early, too harsh or too weak, then the results may prove ineffective. Various forces will affect these factors. Examples of forces are your relationship with your seniors, the skill of your people, the informal leaders within your organization, and how your company is organized. 1.4 Attributes If you are a leader who can be trusted, then those around you will grow to respect you. To be such a leader, there is a Leadership Framework to guide you: BE KNOW DO BE a professional. Examples: Be loyal to the organization, perform selfless service, take personal responsibility. BE a professional who possess good character traits. Examples: Honesty, competence, candor, commitment, integrity, courage, straightforwardness, imagination. KNOW the four factors of leadership - follower, leader, communication, situation. KNOW yourself. Examples: strengths and weakness of your character, knowledge, and skills. KNOW human nature. Examples: Human needs, emotions, and how people respond to stress. KNOW your job. Examples: be proficient and be able to train others in their tasks.

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Leadership – A New Dimension KNOW your organization. Examples: where to go for help, its climate and culture, who the unofficial leaders are. DO provide direction. Examples: goal setting, problem solving, decision making, planning. DO implement. Examples: communicating, coordinating, supervising, evaluating. DO motivate. Examples: develop moral and esprit in the organization, train, coach, counsel. 1.5 Leadership Self-Assessment Activity This survey is designed to provide you with feedback about your level of preference or comfort with leadership characteristics and skills. Circle the number on the scale that you believe comes closest to your skill or task level. Be honest about your choices as there is no right or wrong answers - it is only for your own self-assessment.

# 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Your Opinion I enjoy communicating with others. I am honest and fair. I make decisions with input from others. My actions are consistent. I give others the information they need to do their jobs. I keep focused follow-up. through

Very Strong 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Moderately Strong 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

Adequate 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Moderately Weak 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Very Weak 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

I listen to feedback and ask questions. I show loyalty to the company and to the team members. I create an atmosphere of growth.

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10. I have wide visibility. 11. I give praise and recognition.

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Leadership – A New Dimension 12. I criticize constructively and address problems. 13. I develop plans. 14. I have a vision on where we are going and set long-term goals. 15. I set objectives and follow them through to completion. 16. I display flexibility. tolerance and 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1

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17. I can be assertive when needed. 18. I am a Champion of change. 19. I treat others with respect and dignity. 20. I make myself available and accessible. 21. I want to take charge. 22. I accept ownership for team decisions. 23. I set guidelines for how others are to treat one another. 24. I manage by "walking around" (the front line is the bottom line). 25. I am close to the business and have a broad view of where we are going. 26. I coach team members. 27. I determine manpower requirements for my department and write job descriptions for them. 28. I interview and select the most qualified candidate for an open job position. 29. I provide new employees with on-the-job training.

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Leadership – A New Dimension 30. I determine resources, material, and supply requirements for my department. 31. I developed a budget for my department. 32. I can respond to an employee who is upset with me or someone else in the organization. 33. I have counseled employees who have personal problems (family, health, financial). 34. I react to situations in which the quality of an employee's work goes into a decline. 35. I deal with employees who have performance issues, such as suspected of substance abuse or chronically late. 36. I reward employees for good performances. 37. I conduct formal employee performance appraisals. 38. I can make a presentation to a group of peers and/or seniors. 39. I write reports to be distributed to a group of peers and/or seniors. 40. I have a understanding functions organization. 41. I am curious. 42. I know how to sell. 43. I am a good learner. 44. I know how to influence people and get support. deep-rooted of the of my 5 4 3 2 1

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Leadership – A New Dimension 45. I admit my mistakes and take responsibility for my actions. 46. I like to talk to people and I am a great listener. 47. I am a good delegator. 48. I can separate the important issues from inconsequential ones. 49. I have integrity and can be trusted. 50. I am political only when needed. TOTAL Total score for all five columns: __________ Final Score Scoring Total each of the five columns and then add the five columns together for your final score. The maximum score is 250 while the minimum score is 50. As mentioned earlier, there are no right or wrong answers. This means there are no right or wrong scores. This survey is designed to show you the areas you need to improve in. You lowest scoring answers are the areas you need to improve. See your supervisor or training department for resources to help you to become more proficient in your weak areas. Use the table below for a general guideline of where you stand. 175 and above - You are well on your way to becoming a leader. 125 to 174 - You are getting close. 124 and below - Don't Give up! Many before you have continued with their studies to become some of the finest leaders around. Use this assessment to help you to determine what skills and abilities you can continue to improve (Strengths) and what skills and abilities you need to develop (Opportunities for growth). What are your strengths? What are your opportunities for growth? 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1

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2 LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS
Leadership is not so much about technique and methods as it is about opening the heart. Leadership is about inspiration—of oneself and of others. Great leadership is about human experiences, not processes. Leadership is not a formula or a program, it is a human activity that comes from the heart and considers the hearts of others. It is an attitude, not a routine. More than anything else today, followers believe they are part of a system, a process that lacks heart. If there is one thing a leader can do to connect with followers at a human, or better still a spiritual level, it is to become engaged with them fully, to share experiences and emotions, and to set aside the processes of leadership we have learned by rote. -Lance Secretan, Industry Week, 10/12/98 Why Does Leadership Matter? Parents universally hope that their children develop leadership qualities. They know that leaders are people who are effective in what they do, are respected by others, and typically rewarded for those skills in a variety of ways. It is in these formative years that, through our parents, we first see leadership as desirable and important. As young people, we look up to people around us that motivate and listen to us; people that seem like "real-life" heroes. We consider these people leaders. As we grow, we begin to relate leaders to their jobs - ministers, teachers, police officers. And later Mayors, Presidents, and CEO's . . . As adults all of these thoughts and experiences define, why we think leaders have desirable traits and play roles we admire (and why we desire these things for our children). All of these experiences and thoughts help us define why leadership matters - it matters because leaders make a difference and can shape the future. It matters because leaders are valued and valuable. In everyone's mind leadership, especially when it is good, matters. 2.1 Leadership Characteristics Proactive Vs. Reactive - The exceptional leader is always thinking three steps ahead. Working to master his/her own environment with the goal of avoiding problems before they arise. Flexible/Adaptable - How do you handle yourself in unexpected or uncomfortable situations? An effective leader will adapt to new surroundings and situations, doing his/her best to adjust.

Leadership – A New Dimension A Good Communicator - As a leader, one must listen...a lot! You must be willing to work to understand the needs and desires of others. A good leader asks many questions, considers all options, and leads in the right direction. Respectful - Treating others with respect will ultimately earn respect. Quiet Confidence - Be sure of yourself with humble intentions. Enthusiastic - Excitement is contagious. When a leader is motivated and excited about the cause people will be more inclined to follow. Open-Minded - Work to consider all options when making decisions. A strong leader will evaluate the input from all interested parties and work for the betterment of the whole. Resourceful - Utilize the resources available to you. If you don’t know the answer to something find out by asking questions. A leader must create access to information. Rewarding - An exceptional leader will recognize the efforts of others and reinforce those actions. We all enjoy being recognized for our actions! Well Educated - Knowledge is power. Work to be well educated on community policies, procedures, organizational norms, etc. Further, your knowledge of issues and information will only increase your success in leading others. Open to Change - A leader will take into account all points of view and will be willing to change a policy, program, cultural tradition that is out-dated, or no longer beneficial to the group as a whole. Interested in Feedback - How do people feel about your leadership skill set? How can you improve? These are important questions that a leader needs to constantly ask the chapter. View feedback as a gift to improve. Evaluative - Evaluation of events and programs is essential for an organization/group to improve and progress. An exceptional leader will constantly evaluate and change programs and policies that are not working. Organized - Are you prepared for meetings, presentations, events and confident that people around you are prepared and organized as well? Consistent - Confidence and respect cannot be attained without your leadership being consistent. People must have confidence that their opinions and thoughts will be heard and taken into consideration. Delegator - An exceptional leader realizes that he/she cannot accomplish everything on his own. A leader will know the talents and interests of people around him/her, thus delegating tasks accordingly. Initiative - A leader should work to be the motivator. An initiator. He/she must be a key element in the planning and implementing new ideas, programs, policies, events, etc.

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Leadership – A New Dimension 2.2 Leadership Models Leadership models help us to understand what makes leaders act the way they do. The ideal is not to lock you in to a type of behavior discussed in the model, but to realize that every situation calls for a different approach or behavior to be taken.
2.2.1

Four Framework Approach

In the Four Framework Approach, Bolman and Deal suggest that leaders display leadership behaviors in one of four types of frameworks: Structural, Human Resource, Political, or Symbolic. The style can be either effective or ineffective, depending upon the chosen behavior in certain situations. 2.2.1.1 Structural Framework In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a social architect whose leadership style is analysis and design. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a petty tyrant whose leadership style is details. Structural Leaders focus on structure, strategy, environment, implementation, experimentation, and adaptation. 2.2.1.2 Human Resource Framework In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a catalyst and servant whose leadership style is support, advocate, and empowerment. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a pushover, whose leadership style is abdication and fraud? Human Resource Leaders believe in people and communicate that belief; they are visible and accessible; they empower, increase participation, support, share information, and move decision making down into the organization. 2.2.1.3 Political Framework In an effective leadership situation, the leader is an advocate, whose leadership style is coalition and building. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a hustler, whose leadership style is manipulation. Political leaders clarify what they want and what they can get; they assess the distribution of power and interests; they build linkages to other stakeholders, use persuasion first, and then use negotiation and coercion only if necessary. 2.2.1.4 Symbolic Framework In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a prophet, whose leadership style is inspiration. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a fanatic or fool, whose leadership style is smoke and mirrors. Symbolic leaders view organizations as a stage or theater to play certain roles and give impressions; these

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Leadership – A New Dimension leaders use symbols to capture attention; they try to frame experience by providing plausible interpretations of experiences; they discover and communicate a vision. This model suggests that leaders can be put into one of these four categories and there are times when one approach is appropriate and times when it would not be. Any one of these approaches alone would be inadequate, thus we should strive to be conscious of all four approaches, and not just rely on one or two. For example, during a major organization change, a structural leadership style may be more effective than a visionary leadership style; while during a period when strong growth is needed, the visionary approach may be better. We also need to understand ourselves, as each of us tends to have a preferred approach. We need to be conscious of these at all times and be aware of the limitations of our favoring just one approach. 2.3 The Process of Great Leadership The road to great leadership that is common to successful leaders: Challenge the process - First, find a process that you believe needs to be improved the most. Inspire a shared vision - Next, share you vision in words that can be understood by your followers. Enable others to act - Give them the tools and methods to solve the problem. Model the way - When the process gets tough, get your hands dirty. A boss tells others what to do...a leader shows that it can be done. Encourage the hearts - Share the glory with your followers' heart, while keeping the pains within your own. 2.4 Ten Ways to Identify a Promising Person The most gifted athletes rarely make good coaches. The best violinist will not necessarily make the best conductor. Nor will the best teacher necessarily make the best head of the department. Therefore, it is critical to distinguish between the skill of performance and the skill of leading the performance, two entirely different skills. It is also important to determine whether a person is capable of learning leadership. The natural leader will stand out. The trick is identifying those who are capable of learning leadership over time. Here are several traits to help identify whether someone is capable of learning to lead. Leadership in the past. The best predictor of the future is the past.

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Leadership – A New Dimension The capacity to create or catch vision. When I talk to people about the future, I want their eyes to light up. I want them to ask the right questions about what I'm talking about. A person who doesn't feel the thrill of challenge is not a potential leader. A constructive spirit of discontent. Some people would call this criticism, but there is a big difference in being constructively discontent and being critical. People locked in the status quo are not leaders. I ask of a potential leader, Does this person believe there is always a better way to do something? Practical ideas. Highly original people are often not good leaders because they are unable to judge their output; they need somebody else to say, "This will work" or "This won't." Brainstorming is not a particularly helpful practice in leadership, because ideas need to stay practical. Not everybody with practical ideas is a leader, of course, but leaders seem to be able to identify which ideas are practical and which are not. A willingness to take responsibility. Carrying responsibility doesn't intimidate, because the joy of accomplishment-the vicarious feeling of contributing to other people-is what leadership is all about. A completion factor. With potential leaders, when the work comes in, it is complete. The half-cooked meal is not good enough. Mental toughness. No one can lead without being criticized or without facing discouragement. A potential leader needs a mental toughness. I don't want a mean leader; I want a tough-minded leader who sees things as they are and will pay the price. A leader must be able to keep his or her own counsel until the proper time. Peer respect. Peer respect does not reveal ability, but it can show character and personality. Family respect. I also look at the family of a potential leader: Do they respect him or her. If respect is not there, that is also visible. The family's feelings toward someone reveal much about his or her potential to lead. A quality that makes people listens to them. Potential leaders have a "holding court" quality about them. When they speak, people listen. Other people may talk a great deal, but nobody listens to them. They're making a speech; they're not giving leadership. I take notice of people to whom others listen. 2.5 What is the Role of Leadership? You may have the following questions about your peer leaders.

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Leadership – A New Dimension What do long-term school reform leaders view as their essential professional competencies? What do they see as their role in sustaining reform? How do they engage teachers, families, and communities in partnerships that build programs to help children meet challenging standards? How do such leaders know when they are doing a good job? 2.6 Dimensions of Sustaining Leadership Partnership and voice Vision and values Knowledge and daring Savvy and persistence Personal qualities (passion, humor, and empathy strength of character, general maturity, patience, wisdom, common sense, trustworthiness, reliability, creativity, sensitivity) 2.7 Am I a Leader? Take a minute to look at yourself as a leader. Do you have the qualities to make a valuable leader to your group? After you have looked at yourself as a leader, answer the following questions Attributes . . . Do I view problems as opportunities? Am I a priority setter? Am I customer focused? Am I courageous? Am I a critical and creative thinker? What is my tolerance for ambiguity? Am I positive attitude towards change? Am I committed to innovations that are best for children? Skills . . . Do I debate, clarify, and enunciate my values and beliefs? Can I fuel, inspire, and guard the shared vision? Can I communicate the strategic plan at all levels? Do I recognize the problems inherent to the planning process? Do I ask the big picture questions and "what if"? Can I support the school staff through the change process? Do I encourage dreaming and thinking the unthinkable?

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Leadership – A New Dimension Can I align the budget, planning, policies and instructional programs with the district goals and vision? Do I engage in goal setting? Can I develop and implement action plans? Do I practice and plan conscious abandonment? Do I transfer the strategic planning process to planning? Knowledge . . . Do I know board and superintendent roles and responsibilities in planning and implementing plans? Do I know the strategic planning process, short and long term planning tools? Do I know the board and district vision, beliefs, and mission? Do I know the relationship of the budget to district planning? Do I know local, state, and national factors that affect education? Do I know the best practices and research on improving academic achievement? Do I know the process of change and paradigm shifts? Do I know the strategies to involve and communicate with the community? 2.8 Leadership Behavior Establish a clear direction Envision the future Focused attention Articulate values Enlist others Communicate, communicate, communicate Provide meaning Utilize all forms "Fire in belly" Position the Organization Build trust (encourage the heart) Reliability and constancy Plan small wins Recognize contributions Celebrate accomplishments Development of self Set the example (walk like you talk) Positive self-regard Focus on winning Search for opportunities Experiment and take risks Empower followers/members Establish clear buy-in 21

Leadership – A New Dimension Foster collaboration Develop a supportive environment 2.9 The tasks of leadership: Leaders establish vision and set direction Leaders affirm and articulate values Leaders have high standards and high expectations Leaders are accountable Leaders motivate Leaders achieve unity Leaders involve others indecision-making Leaders serve as role models Leaders listen and explain Leaders represent the organization Leaders guide constituents and maintain their support 2.10 Leadership styles- Using the right one for your situation From Mahatma Gandhi to Jack Welch and Martin Luther King to Rudolph Giuliani, there are as many leadership styles as there are leaders. Fortunately, business people and psychologists have developed useful, shorthand ways of describing the main leadership styles that can help aspiring leaders to understand and adapt their own styles and leadership impact. Whether you are managing a team at work, captaining your sports team or leading a major corporation, you leadership style is crucial to your success. Consciously, or subconsciously, you will no doubt use some of the leadership styles featured, at least some of the time. Understanding these leadership styles and their impact can help you develop and adapt your own leadership style and so help you become a more effective leader. 2.11 Understanding Leadership Styles The leadership styles we look at here are: Autocratic leadership Bureaucratic leadership Charismatic leadership Democratic leadership or Participative leadership Laissez-faire leadership People-oriented leadership or Relations-Oriented leadership Servant leadership Task-oriented leadership Transactional leadership Transformational leadership

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Leadership – A New Dimension
2.11.1

Autocratic Leadership Autocratic leadership is an extreme form of transactional leadership, where leader has absolute power over his or her employees or team. Employees and team members have little opportunity for making suggestions, even if these would be in the team or organization’s interest. Most people tend to resent being treated like this. Because of this, autocratic leadership usually leads to high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover. For some routine and unskilled jobs, the style can remain effective where the advantages of control outweigh the disadvantages.

2.11.2

Bureaucratic Leadership Bureaucratic leaders work “by the book”, ensuring that their staff follow procedures exactly. This is a very appropriate style for work involving serious safety risks (such as working with machinery, with toxic substances or at heights) or where large sums of money are involved (such as cash-handling).

2.11.3

Charismatic Leadership A charismatic leadership style can appear similar to a transformational leadership style, in that the leader injects huge doses of enthusiasm into his or her team, and is very energetic in driving others forward. However, a charismatic leader tends to believe more in him- or herself than in their team. This can create a risk that a project, or even an entire organization, might collapse if the leader were to leave: In the eyes of their followers, success is tied up with the presence of the charismatic leader. As such, charismatic leadership carries great responsibility, and needs long-term commitment from the leader.

2.11.4

Democratic Leadership or Participative Leadership Although a democratic leader will make the final decision, he or she invites other members of the team to contribute to the decision-making process. This not only increases job satisfaction by involving employees or team members in what’s going on, but it also helps to develop people’s skills. Employees and team members feel in control of their own destiny, such as the promotion they desire, and so are motivated to work hard by more than just a financial reward. As participation takes time, this approach can lead to things happening more slowly, but often the end result is better. The approach can be most suitable where team working is essential, and quality is more important than speed to market or productivity.

2.1.1.1

Laissez-faire Leadership

This French phrase means “leave it be” and is used to describe a leader who leaves his or her colleagues to get on with their work. It can be effective if the leader monitors what is 23

Leadership – A New Dimension being achieved and communicates this back to his or her team regularly. Most often, laissez-faire leadership works for teams in which the individuals are very experienced and skilled self-starters. Unfortunately, it can also refer to situations where managers are not exerting sufficient control
2.11.5

People-Oriented Leadership or Relations-Oriented Leadership The style of leadership is the opposite of task-oriented leadership: the leader is totally focused on organizing, supporting and developing the people in the leader’s team. A participative style, it tends to lead to good teamwork and creative collaboration. In practice, most leaders use both task-oriented and people-oriented styles of leadership.

2.11.6

Servant Leadership This term, coined by Robert Greenleaf in the 1970s, describes a leader who is often not formally recognized as such. When someone, at any level within an organization, leads simply by virtue of meeting the needs of his or her team, he or she is described as a “servant leader”. In many ways, servant leadership is a form of democratic leadership, as the whole team tends to be involved in decision-making. Supporters of the servant leadership model suggest it is an important way ahead in a world where values are increasingly important, in which servant leaders achieve power on the basis of their values and ideals. Others believe that in competitive leadership situations, people practicing servant leadership will often find themselves left behind by leaders using other leadership styles.

2.11.7

Task-Oriented Leadership A highly task-oriented leader focuses only on getting the job done, and can be quite autocratic. He or she will actively define the work and the roles required, put structures in place, plan, organize and monitor. However, as task-oriented leaders spare little thought for the well-being of their teams, this approach can suffer many of the flaws of autocratic leadership, with difficulties in motivating and retaining staff. Task-oriented leaders can use the Blake-Mouton Managerial Grid to help them identify specific areas for development that will help them involve people more.

2.11.8

Transactional Leadership This style of leadership starts with the idea that team members agree to obey their leader totally when they take on a job: the “transaction” is (usually) that the organization pays the team members in return for their effort and compliance. You have a right to “punish” the team members if their work doesn’t meet the pre-determined standard. 24

Leadership – A New Dimension

Team members can do little to improve their job satisfaction under transactional leadership. The leader could give team members some control of their income/reward by using incentives that encourage even higher standards or greater productivity. Alternatively a transactional leader could practice “management by exception”, whereby, rather than rewarding better work, he or she would take corrective action if the required standards were not met. Transactional leadership is really just a way of managing rather a true leadership style as the focus is on short-term tasks. It has serious limitations for knowledge-based or creative work, but remains a common style in many organizations.
2.11.9

Transformational Leadership A person with this leadership style is a true leader who inspires his or her team constantly with a shared vision of the future. Transformational leaders are highly visible, and spend a lot of time communicating. They don’t necessarily lead from the front, as they tend to delegate responsibility amongst their team. While their enthusiasm is often infectious, they generally need to be supported by “details people”. In many organizations, both transactional and transformational leadership are needed. The transactional leaders (or managers) ensure that routine work is done reliably, while the transformational leaders look after initiatives that add value.

2.12 Using the Right Style – Situational Leadership While the Transformation Leadership approach is often highly effective, there is no one “right” way to lead or manage that suits all situations. To choose the most effective approach for you, you must consider: The skill levels and experience of your team The work involved (routine or new and creative) The organizational environment (stable or radically changing, conservative or adventurous) You own preferred or natural style. A good leader will find him- or herself switching instinctively between styles according to the people and work they are dealing with. This is often referred to as “situational leadership”. For example, the manager of a small factory trains new machine operatives using a bureaucratic style to ensure operatives know the procedures that achieve the right standards of product quality and workplace safety. The same manager may adopt a more participative style of leadership when working on production line improvement with his or her team of supervisors.

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Leadership – A New Dimension 2.13 Leadership Style Survey # Parameter Almost Always True 5 Frequently Occasionally Seldom True True True 4 3 2 Almost Never True 1

1.

I always retain the final decision making authority within my department or team. I always try to include one or more employees in determining what to do and how to do it. However, I maintain the final decision making authority. I and my employees always vote whenever a major decision has to be made. I do not consider suggestions made by my employees as I do not have the time for them. I ask for employee ideas and input on upcoming plans and projects. For a major decision to pass in my department, it must have the approval of each individual or the majority. I tell my employees what has to be done and how to do it. When things go wrong and I need to create a strategy to keep a project or process running on schedule, I call a meeting to get my employee's advice.

2.

5

4

3

2

1

3.

5

4

3

2

1

4.

5

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3

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1

5.

5

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1

6.

5

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1

7.

5

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1

8.

5

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2

1

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Leadership – A New Dimension 9. To get information out, I send it by email, memos, or voice mail; very rarely is a meeting called. My employees are then expected to act upon the information. 5 4 3 2 1

10. When someone makes a mistake, I tell him or her not to ever do that again and make a note of it. 11. I want to create an environment where the employees take ownership of the project. I allow them to participate in the decision making process. 12. I allow my employees to determine what needs to be done and how to do it. 13. New hires are not allowed to make any decisions unless I approve it first. 14. I ask employees for their vision of where they see their jobs going and then use their vision where appropriate. 15. My workers know more about their jobs than me, so I allow them to carry out the decisions to do their job. 16. When something goes wrong, I tell my employees that a procedure is not working correctly and I establish a new one. 17. I allow my employees to set priorities with my

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1

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Leadership – A New Dimension guidance. 18. I delegate tasks in order to implement a new procedure or process. 19. I closely monitor my employees to ensure they are performing correctly. 20. When there are differences in role expectations, I work with them to resolve the differences. 21. Each individual is responsible for defining his or her job. 22. I like the power that my leadership position holds over subordinates. 23. I like to use my leadership power to help subordinates grow. 24. I like to share my leadership power with my subordinates. 25. Employees must be directed or threatened with punishment in order to get them to achieve the organizational objectives. 26. Employees will exercise self-direction if they are committed to the objectives. 27. Employees have the right to determine their own organizational objectives. 28. Employees seek mainly security. 29. Employees know how to use creativity and ingenuity to solve 5 4 3 2 1

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1

5 5

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

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Leadership – A New Dimension organizational problems. 30. My employees can lead themselves just as well as I can. 5 4 3 2 1

In the fill-in lines below, mark the score of each item on the questionnaire. For example, if you scored item one with a 3 (Occasionally), then enter a 3 next to Item One. When you have entered all the scores for each question, total each of the three columns. Item 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 TOTAL Score ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ _______ Authoritarian Style (autocratic) Item 2 5 8 11 14 17 20 23 26 29 TOTAL Score ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ________ Participative Style (democratic) Item 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 TOTAL Score ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ________ Delegative Style (free reign)

This questionnaire is to help you assess what leadership style you normally operate out of. The lowest score possible for any stage is 10 (Almost never) while the highest score possible for any stage is 50 (usually). The highest of the three scores indicates what style of leadership you normally use. If your highest score is 40 or more, it is a strong indicator of your normal style. The lowest of the three scores is an indicator of the style you least use. If you are lowest, score is 20 or less, it is a strong indicator that you normally do not operate out of this mode. If two of the scores are close to the same, you might be going through a transition phase, either personally or at work, except if you score high in both the participative and the delegative then you are probably a delegative leader.

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Leadership – A New Dimension If there is only a small difference between the three scores, then this indicates that you have no clear perception of the mode you operate out of, or you are a new leader and are trying to feel out the correct style for yourself.

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Leadership – A New Dimension

3 LEADERSHIP AND INFORAMTION
Three keys to Empowerment are: 1. Sharing Information with Everyone- Without Information, People cannot Act Responsibly - With Information, People cannot help but Act Responsibly 2. Declaring Boundaries that Create Autonomy - Purpose, Values, Image, Goals, Roles, Structure & Systems - Being Empowered to Act also means You are Accountable for Results 3. Allow Teams to Self-Manage - Synergy: Empowered Teams Can Do More than Empowered Individuals - Provide Training, Support & Encouragement - Diversity: Appreciate Individual Differences - Ken Blanchard 3.1 Information Gathering- Information is inspiration Effective information gathering is the most basic perspective-widening tool an effective leader requires. Good quality information marks out the context in which the leader operates, creates the information patterns from which ideas emerge, and provides the criteria by which ideas are screened and assessed. Effective leaders gather two main types of information: Background Data, and Task-Related Data Leaders gather background data to build their view of the world in which they operate. This information is made up of the countless facts, trends and opinions that they encounter and the observations they make on a daily basis. The higher the quality of background data they gather and the more effectively they prioritize it, the more accurate their view of the world will be, and the better their judgment and “common sense”. By contrast, with the steady, slow gathering of background data, task-related information is gathered for a specific purpose. Perhaps you are preparing a five-year business plan and you want a reliable growth forecast from your country’s central bank. Alternatively, maybe you want specific information about the number and disposable incomes of a certain group of consumers. Alternatively, perhaps you need to know projected labor market trends for people with a key skill on which you depend.

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Leadership – A New Dimension
3.1.1

Gathering Background Information

What is certain, however, is that task-related information on its own is not enough: While arguments created with it can be persuasive, they are “brittle” and can often be knocked down with previously unknown facts that just do not fit. This is where ideas need to be tested with the common sense that comes with diligently acquired background information. There are a number of things you can do to build background information: Read a newspaper or news website respected for the quality and accuracy of its journalism (for example, “The Economic Times”); Where possible, talk to your customers and get a deep understanding of what they want and don’t want from you, and what they’re getting or not getting from you and your competitors; Read industry magazines and newsletters for both your own and your customers’ industries, keeping an eye on customers, competitors, suppliers, industry associations, activist groups, new technologies and so on; Talk to experts in the fields in which you operate and knowledgeable people within your organization, and understand their perspectives on the key trends and features of interest; Read brochures and talk to product teams to make sure you understand your organization’s products and services, their strengths and weaknesses, and what your customers like or dislike about them; Have a good understanding of company or business unit strategy – i.e. what your company says it wants to do, who it wants its customers to be, and how it plans to serve them; and Take the time to “tune in” to what’s going on in your organization: Through both the formal and informal “grapevines”. What is necessary here is to take the time to gather this information: It’s all too easy for these activities to be lost under the pressures of a hectic schedule.
3.1.2

Gathering Task-Related Information It is much easier to justify the time spent gathering task-related information: Informationgathering actions are clearly identified steps in the projects you undertake. There are three key factors here: 1. Understanding how much research you should do; 2. Making sure you ask the right questions; and 32

Leadership – A New Dimension 3. Gathering the information, you need. The amount of research you take depends on the scale of the decision, the time available, and the consequences of getting it wrong. If it’s a small decision, or the consequences of getting it wrong are small, then don’t waste too much time on it. On the other hand, if the consequences are severe, take time to make a good decision, and make sure you make an appropriate risk management plan in case things do not work out. Making sure you ask the right questions is of key importance. Start by brainstorming these questions, ideally with your boss or client or with experts in the field or within your organization. Then make sure you draw on any predefined frameworks you can find, where people have tried to make a system or process for solving this type of problem. For example, if you’re gathering information as part of researching a business plan, then buy a good book on business planning from Amazon.com and adapt the framework it proposes for your own use. Finally, make a plan for gathering the key information needed, and think about how much you are prepared to spend to get it. A lot of information is relatively freely available, within your organization or in good business, academic or institutional libraries. Some information is packaged and for sale (for example, detailed competitor financial reports). Other information you may need to gather yourself, for example in interviewing clients or conducting market research surveys. And in other cases (for example, in taking legal advice) it makes sense to pay a qualified expert to answer your questions. In addition, at the end of all this research, make sure you take a step back and look at the answers you have gained through the filter of common sense. Ask yourself if any information seems to be missing, or if anything you have uncovered jars with your instincts and experience. Finally, while information gathering is an essential skill for an effective leader, bear in mind that the information is not an end in itself. It is useful because it serves as an input towards generating ideas and building vision. Later on in this section, we’ll look at how to process information to build this vision. 3.2 Expert Power- Leading from the Front There are many different power bases that a leader can use and exploit. These include problematic ones such as the power of position, the power to give rewards, the power to punish and the power to control information. While these types of power do have some strength, they put the person being lead in an unhealthy position of weakness, and can leave leaders using these power bases looking autocratic and out of touch. More than this, society has changed hugely over the last 50 years. Citizens are individually more powerful, and employees are more able to shift jobs. Few of us enjoy having power exerted over us, and many will do what they can to undermine people who use these sorts of power. However there are three types of positive power that effective leaders use: charismatic power, expert power and referent power. 33

Leadership – A New Dimension
3.2.1

How to Use the Expert Power

Expert power is essential because as a leader, your team looks to you for direction and guidance. Teams members need to believe in your ability to set a worthwhile direction, give sound guidance and co-ordinate a good result. If your team perceives you as a true expert, they will be much more receptive when you try to exercise influence tactics such as rational persuasion and inspirational appeal. In addition, if your team sees you as an expert you will find it much easier to guide them in such a way as to create high motivation: If your team members respect your expertise, they'll know that you can show them how to work effectively; If your team members trust your judgment, they'll trust you to guide their good efforts and hard work in such a way that you'll make the most of their hard work; and If they can see your expertise, team members are more likely to believe that you have the wisdom to direct their efforts towards a goal that is genuinely worthwhile. Taken together, if your team sees you as an expert, you will find it much easier to motivate team members to perform at their best. So how do you build expert power? Gain expertise: The first step is obvious (if time consuming) – gain expertise. In addition, if you are already using tools like the information gathering process, the chances are that you have already progressed well ahead in this direction. But just being an expert isn’t enough, it is also necessary for your team members to recognize your expertise and see you to be a credible source of information and advice. Gary A. Yukl, in his book “Leadership in Organizations,” details some steps to build expert power. A summary of these steps follows: Promote an image of expertise: Since perceived expertise in many occupations is associated with a person’s education and experience, a leader should (subtly) make sure that subordinates, peers, and superiors are aware of his or her formal education, relevant work experience, and significant accomplishments. One common tactic to make this information known is to display diplomas, licenses, awards, and other evidence of expertise in a prominent location in one’s office – after all, if you’ve worked hard to gain knowledge, it’s fair that you get credit for it. Another tactic is to make subtle references to prior education or experience (e.g., “When I was chief engineer at GE, we had a problem similar to this one”). Beware; however, this tactic can easily be overdone. Maintain credibility: Once established, one’s image of expertise should be carefully protected. The leader should avoid making careless comments about subjects on which

34

Leadership – A New Dimension he or she is poorly informed, and should avoid being associated with projects with a low likelihood of success. Act confidently and decisively in a crisis: In a crisis or emergency, subordinates prefer a “take charge” leader who appears to know how to direct the group in coping with the problem. In this kind of situation, subordinates tend to associate confident, firm leadership with expert knowledge. Even if the leader is not sure of the best way to deal with a crisis, to express doubts or appear confused risks the loss of influence over subordinates. Keep informed: Expert power is exercised through rational persuasion and demonstration of expertise. Rational persuasion depends on a firm grasp of up-to-date facts. It is therefore essential for a leader to keep well-informed of developments within the team, within the organization, and in the outside world. Recognize subordinate concerns: Use of rational persuasion should not be seen as a form of one-way communication from the leader to subordinates. Effective leaders listen carefully to the concerns and uncertainties of their team members, and make sure that they address these in making a persuasive appeal. Avoid threatening the self-esteem of subordinates: Expert power is based on a knowledge differential between leader and team members. Unfortunately, the very existence of such a differential can cause problems if the leader is not careful about the way he exercises expert power. Team members can dislike unfavorable status comparisons where the gap is very large and obvious. They are likely to be upset by a leader who acts in a superior way, and arrogantly flaunts his greater expertise. In the process of presenting rational arguments, some leaders lecture their team members in a condescending manner and convey the impression that the other team members are “ignorant.” Guard against this. 3.3 Tools For Improved Advocacy State your assumptions, and describe the data that led to them Explain your assumptions Make your reasoning explicit Give examples of what you propose, even if they are hypothetical or metaphorical As you speak, try to picture the other person’s perspectives on what you are saying Publicly test your conclusions and assumptions What to say: Here’s what I think and here’s how I got there I assumed that… I came to this conclusion because… 35

Leadership – A New Dimension If I enter a classroom this is what I might see… What do you think about what I just said? 3.4 Tools for when you are at an impasse Embrace the impasses, and tease apart the current thinking. Look for information that will help people move forward. Ask what logic or data might change their views. Avoid speaking from a different point of view. What to say: What do we know for a fact? What don’t we know? What do we agree upon, and what do we disagree upon? What, then would have to happen before you would consider alternatives? 3.5 Individual Self-Assessment Journal keeping Portfolios of selected documents produced in the course of their work Performance indicators related to goals and activities of professional plan Surveys Mentors as "critical friends"

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Leadership – A New Dimension

4

LEADERSHIP TRAITS

Leaders have a significant role in creating the state of mind that is the society. They can serve as symbols of the moral unity of the society. They can express the values that hold the society together. Most important, they can conceive and articulate goals that lift people out of their petty preoccupations, carry them above the conflicts that team a society apart, and unite them in pursuit of objectives worthy of their best efforts. - John Gardner Five Most Important Leadership Traits Some people sit and pontificate about whether leaders are made or born. The true leader ignores such arguments and instead concentrates on how to become a better. If you are able to increase your skill in these five traits, you will make it easier for people to want to follow you. The less time you have to spend on getting people to follow you, the more time you have to spend refining exactly where you want to go and how to get there. The five leadership traits are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Honest Forward-Looking Competent Inspiring Intelligent

Your skill at exhibiting these five traits is strongly correlated with people's desire to follow your lead. Exhibiting these traits will inspire confidence in your leadership. Not exhibiting these traits or exhibiting the opposite of these traits will decrease your leadership influence with those around you. It is important to exhibit these traits. Simply possessing each trait is not enough; you have to display it in a way that people notice. People want to see you demonstrating these traits--not just assume that you have them. It is not enough to just be neutral. For example, just because you are not dishonest will not cause people to recognize that you are honest. Just avoiding displays of incompetence will not inspire the same confidence as truly displaying competence. The focus of each of these five traits needs to be on what people see you do--not just the things they do not see you do. Being honest is not a matter of not lying--it is taking the extra effort to display honesty.

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Leadership – A New Dimension 4.1 Honesty as a Leadership Trait People want to follow an honest leader. Years ago, many employees started out by assuming that their leadership was honest simply because the authority of their position. With modern scandals, this is no longer true. When you start a leadership position, you need to assume that people will think you are a little dishonest. In order to be seen as an honest individual, you will have to go out of your way to display honesty. People will not assume you are honest simply because you have never been caught lying. One of the most frequent places where leaders miss an opportunity to display honesty is in handling mistakes. Much a leader's job is to try new things and refine the ideas that don't work. However, many leaders want to avoid failure to the extent that they don't admit when something did not work. A medium size organization was attempting to move to a less centralized structure. Instead of one location serving an entire city, they wanted to put smaller offices throughout the entire metro area. At the same time, they were planning an expansion for headquarters to accommodate more customers at the main site. The smaller remote offices were heralded as a way to reach more customers at a lower cost and cover more demographic areas. After spending a considerable amount of money on a satellite location, it became clear that the cost structure would not support a separate smaller office. As the construction completed on the expanded headquarters building, the smaller office was closed. This was good decision making. The smaller offices seemed like a good idea, but when the advantages did not materialize (due to poor management or incorrect assumptions) it made sense to abandon the model. This was a chance for the leadership to display honesty with the employees, be candid about why things didn't work out as expected, learn from the mistakes an move on. Unfortunately, in this situation the leadership told employees that they had planned on closing the satellite location all along and it was just a temporary measure until construction was completed on the larger headquarters building. While this was not necessarily true, it didn't quite cross over into the area of lying. Within a few months, the situation was mostly forgotten and everyone moved on. Few of the employees felt that leadership was being dishonest. However, they had passed up a marvelous opportunity to display the trait of honesty in admitting a mistake. Opportunities to display honesty on a large scale may not happen every day. As a leader showing people that you are honest even when it means admitting to a mistake displays a key trait that people are looking for in their leaders. By demonstrating honesty with yourself, with your organization and with outside organizations, you will increase your leadership influence. People will trust someone who actively displays honesty--not just as an honest individual, but as someone who is worth following.

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Leadership – A New Dimension 4.2 Forward-Looking as a Leadership Trait The whole point of leadership is figuring out where to go from where you are now. While you may know where you want to go, people will not see that unless you actively communicate it with them. Remember these traits are not just things you need to have, they are things you need to actively display to those around you. When people do not consider their leader forward-looking, that leader is usually suffering from one of two possible problems: The leader does not have a forward-looking vision. The leader is unwilling or scared to share the vision with others. When a leader does not have a vision for the future, it usually because they are spending so much time on today, that they have not really thought about tomorrow. On a very simplistic level, this can be solved simply by setting aside some time for planning, strategizing and thinking about the future. Many times when a leader has no time to think and plan, it is because they are doing a poor job of leading in the present. They have created an organization and systems that rely too much on the leader for input at every stage. Some leaders have a clear vision, but do not wish to share it with others. Most of the time they are concerned that they will lose credibility if they share a vision of the future that does not come about. This is a legitimate concern. However, people need to know that a leader has a strong vision for the future and a strong plan for going forward. Leaders run into trouble sharing their vision of the future when they start making promises to individuals. This goes back to the trait of honesty. If a leader tells someone "next year I'm going to make you manager of your own division" that may be a promise they cannot keep. The leader is probably basing this promotion on the organization meeting financial goals, but the individual will only hear the personal promise. 4.3 Competency as a Leadership Trait People want to follow someone who is competent. This does not mean a leader needs to be the foremost expert on every area of the entire organization, but they need to be able to demonstrate competency. For a leader to demonstrate that they are competent, it isn't enough to just avoid displaying incompetence. Some people will assume you are competent because of your leadership position, but most will have to see demonstrations before deciding that you are competent. When people under your leadership look at some action you have taken and think, "that just goes to show why he is the one in charge", you are demonstrating competency. If these moments are infrequent, it is likely that some demonstrations of competency will help boost your leadership influence. Like the other traits, it is not enough for a leader to be competent. They must demonstrate competency in a way that people notice. This can be a delicate balance. There is a danger of drawing too much attention to you in a way that makes the leader seem arrogant. Another 39

Leadership – A New Dimension potential danger is that of minimizing others contributions and appearing to take credit for the work of others. As a leader, one of the safest ways to "toot you own horn without blowing it", is to celebrate and bring attention to team achievements. In this way, you indirectly point out your competency as a leader. For example: "Last year I set a goal of reaching $12 million in sales and, thanks to everyone's hard word, as of today, we have reached $13.5 million." 4.4 Inspiration as a Leadership Trait People want to be inspired. In fact, there are whole classes of people who will follow an inspiring leader--even when the leader has no other qualities. If you have developed the other traits in this article, being inspiring is usually just a matter of communicating clearly and with passion. Being inspiring means telling people how your organization is going to change the world. A great example of inspiration is when Steve Jobs stole the CEO from Pepsi by asking him, "Do you want to sell sugar water for the rest of your life, or do you want to change the world?" Being inspiring means showing people the big picture and helping them see beyond a narrow focus and understand how their part fits into the big picture. On technique to develop, your ability to inspire is telling stories. Stories can be examples from your customers, fictitious examples from your customers, or even historical fables and myths. Stories can help you vividly illustrate what you are trying to communicate. Stories that communicate on an emotional level help communicate deeper than words and leave an imprint much stronger than anything you can achieve through a simple stating of the facts. Learning to be inspiring is not easy--particularly for individuals lacking in charisma. It can be learned. Take note of people who inspire you and analyze the way they communicate. Look for ways to passionately express your vision. While there will always be room for improvement, a small investment in effort and awareness will give you a significant improvement in this leadership trait. 4.5 Intelligence as a Leadership Trait Intelligence is something that can be difficult to develop. The road toward becoming more intelligent is difficult, long and cannot be completed without investing considerable time. Developing intelligence is a lifestyle choice. Your college graduation was the beginning of your education not the end. In fact, much of what is taught in college functions merely as a foundational language for lifelong educational experiences. To develop intelligence you need to commit to continual learning--both formally and informally. With modern advances in distance education, it is easy to take a class or two each year from wellrespected professors in the evening at your computer. Informally, you can develop a great deal of intelligence in any field simply by investing a reasonable amount of time to reading on a daily basis. The fact is that most people won't make a

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Leadership – A New Dimension regular investment in their education. Spending 30 minutes of focused reading every day will give you 182 hours of study time each year. For the most part, people will notice if you are intelligent by observing your behavior and attitude. Trying to display your intelligence is likely to be counterproductive. One of the greatest signs of someone who is truly intelligent is humility. The greater your education, the greater your understanding of how little we really understand. You can demonstrate your intelligence by gently leading people toward understanding--even when you know the answer. Your focus needs to be on helping others learn--not demonstrating how smart you are. Arrogance will put you in a position where people are secretly hopeful that you will make a mistake and appear foolish. As unintuitive as it may seem, one of the best ways to exhibit intelligence is by asking questions. Learning from the people, you lead by asking intelligent thoughtful questions will do more to enhance your intelligence credibility than just about anything. Of course this means you need to be capable of asking intelligent questions. Everyone considers him or her intelligent. If you ask them to explain parts of their area of expertise and spend the time to really understand (as demonstrated by asking questions), their opinion of your intelligence will go up. After all, you now know more about what makes them so intelligent, so you must be smart as well. Your ability to demonstrate respect for the intellect of others will probably do more to influence the perception of your intellect than your actual intelligence. 4.6 Leadership- A Valuable Guide Personal ethics cannot be separated from professional ethics. Therefore, the character of the leader is essential. The following list of ten characteristics is a valuable guide for leadership. In addition, it results in a quality life. 1. A high standard of personal ethics leads the list: Honest Abe Lincoln, who walked miles to return a customer's change, is a classic example of how personal ethics are reflected in professional conduct. Decisions made under pressure and/or temptation separate the great ones from the impostors. High Energy: Great leaders are not exhausted by dealing with petty issues. These people know right from wrong as well as the difference between what is truly important and what is merely interesting. The ability to work priorities shares equal importance with setting priorities: Many brilliant priority lists end up in the landfill of life. The difference between setting priorities and working them through is the difference between a dreamer and a doer. Courage: The willingness to take risks and accept responsibility for the outcome is a consistent quality among effective leaders. Either you or your fears will control everything you do. An organization will be no bolder than the leader.

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Leadership – A New Dimension 5. Committed and dedicated hard working leaders will eventually develop dedicated and hard working organizations regardless of which they start with or the experience they bring to the job. Unorthodox leaders have an urge to create and do not have the patience to wait for a phone to ring before acting: Effective leaders are innovators who bore easily and prefer shaping tomorrow to repeating yesterday. Great leaders have the goal orientation to make tough decisions: Goal orientation produces a drive and energy that shield us from the pain of the task. Keeping an organization focused increases efficiency. Inspired enthusiasm is like the pilot light on the oven: Genuine enthusiasm is contagious. People look to their leaders for enthusiasm. The inspiration level of the organization is directly proportionate to the enthusiasm of the leader--be it high or low. Levelheaded people make realistic leaders who respond to problems rather than simply react: A leader who can stay cool under pressure inspires confidence among those in the organization and empowers them to do the same. The desire to help others succeed is the mark of a truly great leader: Synergy is created when a leader truly invests his or her efforts in the success of others. Zig Ziglar says it like this, "People don't care how much you know until they know how much you care about them."

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Whether you are trying to increase your own effectiveness as a leader or are trying to develop leadership talent within your organization, keep studying the characteristics of those you consider being great leaders. Remember that leadership is an art, not a science, and the difference between a genuinely effective leader and a short-term motivator can be found in the personal decisions an individual makes when choosing how to live his or her life. Long-term commitment to the principles described above will produce an effective leader and, over time, an inspired organization. 4.7 Leadership- Character & Traits Leaders do not command excellence, they build excellence. Excellence is "being all you can be" within the bounds of doing what is right for your organization. To reach excellence you must first be a leader of good character. You must do everything you are supposed to do. An organizations will not achieve excellence by figuring out where it wants to go, then having leaders do whatever they have to in order to get the job done, and then hope their leaders acted with good character. This type of thinking is backwards. Pursuing excellence should not be confused with accomplishing a job or task. When you do planning, you do it by backwards planning. However, you do not achieve excellence by backwards planning. Excellence starts with leaders of good and strong character who engage in the entire process of leadership. Moreover, the first process is being a person of honorable character.

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Leadership – A New Dimension Character develops over time. Many think that much of a person's character is formed early in life. However, we do not know exactly how much or how early character develops. But, it is safe to claim that character does not change quickly. A person's observable behavior is an indication of her character. This behavior can be strong or weak, good or bad. A person with strong character shows drive, energy, determination, self-discipline, willpower, and nerve. A strong person can be good or bad. A gang leader is an example of a strong person with a bad character, while an outstanding community leader is one with both strong and good characteristics. An organization needs leaders with both strong and good characteristics, people who will guide them to the future and show that they can be trusted. To be an effective leader, your followers must have trust in you and they need to be sold on your vision. Korn-Ferry International, an executive search company, performed a survey on what organizations want from their leaders. The respondents said they wanted people who were both ethical and who convey a strong vision of the future. In any organization, a leader's actions set the pace. This behavior wins trust, loyalty, and ensures the organization's continued vitality. One of the ways to build trust is to display a good sense of character composed of beliefs, values, skills, and traits: Beliefs are what we hold dear to us and are rooted deeply within us. They could be assumptions or convictions that you hold true regarding people, concepts, or things. They could be the beliefs about life, death, religion, what is good, what is bad, what is human nature, etc. Values are attitudes about the worth of people, concepts, or things. For example, you might value a good car, home, friendship, personal comfort, or relatives. Values are important as they influence a person's behavior to weigh the importance of alternatives. For example, you might value friends more than privacy, while others might be the opposite. Skills are the knowledge and abilities that a person gains throughout life. The ability to learn a new skill varies with each individual. Some skills come almost naturally, while others come only by complete devotion to study and practice. Traits are distinguishing qualities or characteristics of a person, while character is the sum total of these traits. There are hundreds of personality traits, far too many to be discussed here. Instead, we will focus on a few that are crucial for a leader. The more of these you display as a leader, the more your followers will believe and trust in you. 4.8 "Leadership" - Through the Eyes of an Eagle - by Tyron Hanson Some believe leaders are born. Others believe that leaders are developed. I believe that people are born with certain leadership characteristics. The characteristics that they are not born with can be developed. Some of these characteristics we can get from the Eagle. By observing and studying this matchless bird, you can notice leadership characteristics to help develop you and your network marketing team. The eagle shows four major leadership characteristics:

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Leadership – A New Dimension 1. Vision - Just like the eagle, all leaders must have vision. The eagle's eyes can see great distances. They can also directly into the sun without being blinded. You, being the leader of your network marketing team, must have vision. You must have a vision that guides and leads your team towards the organization's goals. The vision must be big and focused. A big, focused vision will produce big results. 2. Eagles Never Eat Dead Meat - You will never see an eagle eating meat that it did not kill. An eagle is not a scavenger. It hunts for and kills its own food. It hunts for the prey while it's warm and alive. You as a leader must go where the action is. You must go where hunt down and find lively people to grow you business. 3. Looks For & Flies Into Storms - As storms approach, lesser birds head for cover, but the might eagle spreads its wings and with a great cry mounts upon the powerful updrafts, soaring to heights of glory. Eagles use the storm to lift him to these great heights. Leaders use storms (challenges); we do not run from them. To leaders, storms are tools used for their development. 4. Very Gentle & Attentive To Their Young - The eagle is known for its ferocity, yet no member of the bird family is more gently and attentive to its young. At just the right time, the mother eagle begins to teach her eaglets how to fly. She gathers an eaglet onto her back, and spreading her wings, flies high. Suddenly she swoops out from under the eaglet and as it falls, it gradually learns what its wings are for until the mother catches it once again on her wings. The process is repeated. If the young is slow to learn or cowardly, she returns him to the nest, and begins to tear it apart, until there is nothing left for the eaglet to cling to. Then she nudges him off the cliff. In summary, TEACH AND TRAIN your organization! Network marketing is about duplication! By studying the eagle, you can be born with and develop leadership characteristics. Developing and using them your network marketing business will grow and become very 4.9 Visioning Visions are simply the fist step in the goal setting and planning process. While mission statements guide the organization in its day-to-day operations, visions provide a sense of direction in the long term -- they provide the means to the future. In "Leaders," Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus conclude, "Leaders articulate and define what has previously remained implicit or unsaid; then they invent images, metaphors, and models that provide a focus for new attention. By so doing, they consolidate or challenge prevailing wisdom. In short, an essential factor in leadership is the capacity to influence and organize meaning for the members of the organization." They continue, "Managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right thing. The difference may be summarized as activities of vision and judgment -- effectiveness verses activities of mastering routine -- efficiency."

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Leadership – A New Dimension Bennis and Nanus describe leaders as "creating dangerously" -- they change the basic metabolism of the organization. Top Peters wrote that leaders, "must create new worlds. And then destroy them; and then create anew (Thriving On Chaos)." What is interesting is that Peters defines visions as aesthetic and moral -- as well as strategically sound. Which would rather knock Hitler’s quest of the world as being a vision? Visions that are merely proclaimed, but not lived convincingly are nothing more than mockeries of the process.
4.9.1

Vision Statement Examples

"Men wanted for hazardous journey. Small wages, bitter cold, long months of complete darkness, constant danger, and safe return doubtful. Honor and recognition in case of success." - explorer Ernest Shackleston in a 1890 job ad for the first Antarctic expedition.

"When I'm through...everyone will have one." - Henry Ford on democratizing the automobile

"I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the Earth." - President Kennedy, May 25, 1961

"There's something going on here...something that is changing the world...and this is the epicenter." Steve Job of Apple Computers during its initial start-up

"Quality, hard work, and commitment - The stuff America is made of. Our goal is to be the best. What else is there? If you can find a better car, buy it." - Lee Iacocca when he was chairman of Chrysler Corporation

"2000 stores by the year 2000." - Howard Schultz, of Starbucks Coffee Company "Do it, try it, fix it!" - Wal-Mart's Vision "To strengthen the social fabric by continually democratizing home ownership." - Federal National Mortgage Association, Fannie Mae

Exploring the past, illuminating the present and imagining the future" - National Museum of Australia

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Leadership – A New Dimension "Empower people through great software, anyplace, any time and on any device." - Microsoft's vision

"To provide the best service and lowest fares to the short haul, frequent-flying, point-to-point, non-interlining traveler." - Southwest Airlines' vision

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Leadership – A New Dimension

5 COMMUNICATION & RELATIONSHIP
The mind is like a TV set, when it goes stops working, it is a good idea to shut off the sound. -Unknown 5.1 Building the Right Leadership Communication Skills In this area, you have a number of different skills that enhance leadership. They include: Self-Talk (Intrapersonal Communication) It has long been known by psychologists that internal dialog occurring within the mind is incredibly important. Yet, most of us pay it no mind. Interpersonal Communication Surprisingly, even this simple form of communication is fought with many types of problems such as encoding and decoding bias on both the sender and the receiver side. Listening People are terrible listeners. But we do know how to fake it pretty well. Leaders cannot afford to develop a reputation for not listening—it is ruinous. Still, one of the more common complaints in many organizations is, "My boss doesn't listen to me." Feedback Despite its importance, few leaders want to deliver it, and most followers do not want to receive it. You also have different types of feedback such as positive and negative; subjective and objective, etc. Small Group Group communication is a very different animal compared to interpersonal communication. There are many more complexities and opportunities for failure embedded in-group dynamics. Persuasion Long the study of sales people everywhere, leaders also need to develop this vital skill. 5.2 Nonverbal Communication Body language contains meaning--sometimes more than what is embedded in the words. Yet, few individuals pay much attention to it. Public Speaking It has been said that the most common fear in America next to being sued, is speaking in front of others. It is an important aspect of leadership in both government and business. 47

Leadership – A New Dimension Interviewing Despite its importance, interviews are not a good predictor of job performance. Its importance lies more in learning how to act so one can get a job. Asking Questions Any idiot can state an opinion, but it takes a creative mind to ask the right questions. Without this skill, effective counseling and group facilitation is essentially impossible. Intercultural Individuals in business and government need to learn how to adapt their communication patterns to take into account cultural differences. Organizational It has been said that the first job of a good leader is to establish a system of communication. Sounds easy, but it is surprisingly difficult. 5.3 Communication Mediums You also have three major mediums—each of which require a slightly different approach to communication due to the nature of the medium itself. Verbal Unlike written, we received almost no instruction on how to use words well. Written Many year of schooling, go into learning how to read and write. Electronic A medium of increasingly importance due to the growing importance of the Internet. 5.4 The Communication Process Communication that is what we try to do speak to those near us Thought: First, information exists in the mind of the sender. This can be a concept, idea, information, or feelings. Encoding: Next, a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols. Decoding: lastly, the receiver translates the words or symbols into a concept or information that he or she can understand. During the transmitting of the message, two processes will be received by the receiver: content and context.

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Leadership – A New Dimension Content is the actual words or symbols of the message which is known as language - the spoken and written words combined into phrases that make grammatical and semantic sense. We all use and interpret the meanings of words differently, so even simple messages can be misunderstood. And many words have different meanings to confuse the issue even more. Context is the way the message is delivered and is known as Paralanguage - it includes the tone of voice, the look in the sender's eye's, body language, hand gestures, and state of emotions (anger, fear, uncertainty, confidence, etc.) that can be detected. Although paralanguage or context often causes messages to be misunderstood as we believe what we see more than what we hear; they are powerful communicators that help us to understand each other. Indeed, we often trust the accuracy of nonverbal behaviors more than verbal behaviors. On technique to develop, your ability to inspire is telling stories. Stories can be examples from your customers, fictitious examples from your customers, or even historical fables and myths. Stories can help you vividly illustrate what you are trying to communicate. Stories that communicate on an emotional level help communicate deeper than words and leave an imprint much stronger than anything you can achieve through a simple stating of the facts. Learning to be inspiring is not easy--particularly for individuals lacking in charisma. It can be learned. Take note of people who inspire you and analyze the way they communicate. Look for ways to passionately express your vision. While there will always be room for improvement, a small investment in effort and awareness will give you a significant improvement in this leadership trait. 5.5 Barriers to Communication Anything that prevents understanding of the message is a barrier to communication. Many physical and psychological barriers exist: Culture, background, and bias - We allow our experiences to change the meaning of the message. Our culture, background, and bias can be good as they allow us use our past experiences to understand something new, it is when they change the meaning of the message then they interfere with the communication process. Noise - Equipment or environmental noise impede clear communication. The sender and the receiver must both be able to concentrate on the messages being sent to each other. Ourselves - Focusing on ourselves, rather than the other person can lead to confusion and conflict. The "Me Generation" is out when it comes to effective communication. Some of the factors that cause this are defensiveness (we feel someone is attacking us), superiority (we feel we know more that the other), and ego (we feel we are the center of the activity). Perception - If we feel the person is talking too fast, not fluently, does not articulate clearly, etc., we may dismiss the person. Also our preconceived attitudes affect our ability to listen. We listen uncritically to persons of high status and dismiss those of low status.

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Leadership – A New Dimension Message - Distractions happen when we focus on the facts rather than the idea. Our educational institutions reinforce this with tests and questions. Semantic distractions occur when a word is used differently than you prefer. For example, the word chairman instead of chairperson, may cause you to focus on the word and not the message. Environmental - Bright lights, an attractive person, unusual sights, or any other stimulus provides a potential distraction. Smothering - We take it for granted that the impulse to send useful information is automatic. Not true! Too often we believe that certain information has no value to others or they are already aware of the facts. Stress - People do not see things the same way when under stress. Our psychological frames of references - our beliefs, values, knowledge, experiences, and goals, influence what we see and believe at a given moment.

These barriers can be thought of as filters, that is, the message leaves the sender, goes through the above filters, and is then heard by the receiver. These filters muffle the message. And the way to overcome filters is through active listening and feedback. 5.6 Active Listening Hearing and listening is not the same thing. Hearing is the act of perceiving sound. It is involuntary and simply refers to the reception of aural stimuli. Listening is a selective activity, which involves the reception and the interpretation of aural stimuli. It involves decoding the sound into meaning. Listening is divided into two main categories: passive and active. Passive listening is little more that hearing. It occurs when the receiver or the message has little motivation to listen carefully, such as music, story telling, television, or being polite. People speak at 100 to 175 words per minute, but they can listen intelligently at 600 to 800 words per minute (WPM). Since only a part of our mind is paying attention, it is easy to go into mind drift - thinking about other things while listening to someone. The cure for this is active listening which involves listening with a purpose. It may be to gain information, obtain directions, 50

Leadership – A New Dimension understand others, solve problems, share interest, see how another person feels, show support, etc. It requires that the listener attends to the words and the feelings of the sender for understanding. It takes the same amount or more energy than speaking. It requires the receiver to hear the various messages, understand the meaning, and then verify the meaning by offering feedback. The following are a few traits of active listeners: Spends more time listening than talking. Do not finish the sentence of others. Do not answer questions with questions. Are aware of biases. We all have them...we need to control them. Never daydreams or become preoccupied with their own thoughts when others talk. Lets the other speaker talk. Does not dominate the conversation. Plans responses after the other person has finished speaking...NOT while they are speaking. Provides feedback, but does not interrupt incessantly. Analyzes by looking at all the relevant factors and asking open-ended questions. Walks the person through your analysis (summarize). Keeps the conversation on what the speaker says...NOT on what interests them. Takes brief notes. This forces them to concentrate on what is being said. 5.7 Nonverbal Behaviors of Communication Without knowing the force of words it is impossible to know men." - Confucius To deliver the full impact of a message, use nonverbal behaviors to raise the channel of interpersonal communication: Eye contact: This helps to regulate the flow of communication. It signals interest in others and increases the speaker's credibility. People who make eye contact open the flow of communication and convey interest, concern, warmth, and credibility. Facial Expressions: Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits happiness, friendliness, warmth, and liking. So, if you smile frequently you will be perceived as more likable, friendly, warm and approachable. Smiling is often contagious and people will react favorably. They will be more comfortable around you and will want to listen more. Gestures: If you fail to gesture while speaking you may be perceived as boring and stiff. A lively speaking style captures the listener's attention, makes the conversation more interesting, and facilitates understanding. Posture and body orientation: You communicate numerous messages by the way you talk and move. Standing erect and leaning forward communicates to listeners that you are approachable, receptive and friendly. Interpersonal closeness results when you and the listener face each other. Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided as it communicates disinterest.

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Leadership – A New Dimension Proximity: Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with others. You should look for signals of discomfort caused by invading the other person's space. Some of these are rocking, leg swinging, tapping, and gaze aversion. Vocal: Speaking can signal nonverbal communication when you include such vocal elements as tone, pitch, rhythm, timbre, loudness, and inflection. For maximum teaching effectiveness, learn to vary these six elements of your voice. One of the major criticisms of many speakers is that they speak in a monotone voice. Listeners perceive this type of speaker as boring and dull. 5.8 Speaking Hints When speaking or trying to explain something, ask the listeners if they are following you. Ensure the receiver has a chance to comment or ask questions. Try to put yourself in the other person's shoes - Consider the feelings of the receiver. Be clear about what you say. Look at the receiver. Make sure your words match your tone and body language (Nonverbal Behaviors). Vary your tone and pace. Do not be vague, but on the other hand, Do not complicate what you are saying with too much detail. Do not ignore signs of confusion. 5.9 Feedback a communication medium When you know something, say what you know. When you do not know something, say that you do not know. That is knowledge. - (Confucius) The purpose of feedback is to change and alter messages so the second communicator understands the intention of the original communicator. It includes verbal and nonverbal responses to another person's message. Providing feedback is accomplished by paraphrasing the words of the sender. Restate the sender's feelings or ideas in your own words, rather than repeating their words. Your words should be saying, "This is what I understand your feelings to be, am I correct?" It not only includes verbal responses, but also nonverbal ones. Nodding your head or squeezing their hand to show agreement, dipping your eyebrows shows you do not quite understand the meaning of their last phrase, or sucking air in deeply and blowing it hard shows that you are also exasperated with the situation. Carl Roger listed five main categories of feedback. They are listed in the order in which they occur most frequently in daily conversations. Notice that we make judgments more often than we try to understand: Evaluative: Making a judgment about the worth, goodness, or appropriateness of the other person's statement. Interpretive: Paraphrasing - attempting to explain what the other person's statement means. Supportive: Attempting to assist or bolster the other communicator. 52

Leadership – A New Dimension Probing: Attempting to gain additional information, continue the discussion, or clarify a point. Understanding: Attempting to discover completely what the other communicator means by her statements. Imagine how much better daily communications would be if listeners tried to understand first, before they tried to evaluate what someone is saying.
5.9.1

Encourage Feedback

Subordinates discover quickly what leaders want and supply that information to them. Nevertheless, subordinates are unlikely to provide negative feedback or give supervisors bad news since they fear that, much like ancient messengers delivering bad news, they will be punished. The familiar story of "The Emperor's New Clothes" illustrates unwillingness of subordinates to communicate honestly to superiors. What then can you do to help accurate feedback reach you? 1. Tell subordinates you want feedback. Encourage them to give you both good and bad news. Welcome disagreement on issues. Then, make certain you positively reinforce rather than punish them for such information. 2. Identify areas in which you want feedback. Don't encourage indiscriminate feedback consisting of idle talk of personal gripes about others in the organization. Do communicate your desire for feedback on issues and areas that can help the organization. 3. Use silence to promote feedback. Listen, and encourage feedback rather than taking issue with comments raised by subordinates. 4. Watch for nonverbal cues. Most persons do not control nonverbal responses as well as verbal ones. The person who says, "I am so happy to meet you" as he draws away from the other person, probably communicates more by actions than by words. 5. Consider scheduling feedback sessions. Since it is easier to prevent illness than to treat it, set aside time for feedback. A planned feedback session will usually get more response than an impulsive, "How are things going?" 6. Use statements to encourage feedback. Statements such as "Tell me more about it “or” That’s interesting," or questions that cannot be answered yes or no will help you find out what is going on in your organization. Start your questions with what, why, when, where, and how to encourage feedback.
5.9.2

Listen Effectively

To receive feedback leaders must listen. Listening is the neglected communication skill. All leaders have had instruction in reading, writing, and speaking. But few have had any formal instruction in listening. This lack of instruction is especially interesting in light of research 53

Leadership – A New Dimension showing that people spend seven out of every 10 minutes awake in some form of communication10 percent writing, 15 percent reading, 30 percent talking, and 45 percent listening. Here are some things you can do to improve your listening. 1. Prepare to listen. Effective listening requires physical and mental preparation. Put aside papers, books, and other materials that may distract you. Have the secretary hold your calls. Avoid unnecessary interruptions. Be ready to catch the speaker's opening remarks. The rest of the message often builds on the opening statement. 2. Listen for ideas, not just for facts. Concentration exclusively on the facts often causes leaders to miss main ideas. Facts may be interesting in their own right, but the reason facts are given is usually to develop a generalization from them. 3. Keep an open mind. Often the subject or the delivery of the speaker may seem boring or uninteresting. Certain subjects or individuals may cause the listeners to become judgmental, hear only certain parts of the message, or just hear what they want to hear. Effective listening requires an open mind. 4. Capitalize on the speed differential. Thought operates several times faster than the normal rate of speech. In other words, listeners listen faster than speakers speak. Don't fall into the trap of daydreaming or trying to think about something else while listening. Use this time differential to summarize and internalize the message. 5. Put yourself in the speaker's place. Understand the speaker's perspective. What do you know about the speaker's knowledge, background, and grasp of the subject? What does the speaker mean by the words and nonverbal communication he or she uses?
5.9.3

Reduce Communication Misunderstanding

Although there are many barriers to effective understanding, four of them arise directly from misunderstanding the message. Knowing these barriers can help you reduce problems of communication. 1. Barrier #1: Misinterpretation of the meanings of words. There are two basic problems here. a. Same words mean different things to different people. This problem is common whenever two or more people attempt to communicate. You may tell a colleague that the temperature in the office is quite comfortable. For you, 75 degrees is comfortable. For her, comfortable means 68 degrees. The same word can in mean different things to different people. A friend tells you he will be over in five minutes. To him, five minutes means "soon" -- perhaps any time in the next half-hour. On the other hand, you attach a literal meaning. Five minutes means five minutes-300 seconds. b. Different words mean the same thing. Many things are called by more than one name. Soft drink, soda, and pop all mean the same thing. The name used depends on who is doing the talking. Both this barrier and the first one can be overcome by realizing the 54

Leadership – A New Dimension following fact: Meanings are not in words, meanings are in people. Leaders communicate more effectively when they consider the message in relation to its source. 2. Barrier #2: Misinterpretation of actions. Eye contact, gestures, facial expression are all action factors. When someone walks quickly out of the room during a meeting or taps a pencil on the table during a conversation, leaders may conclude that the person is in a hurry or is bored. These conclusions may or may not be correct. If others twitch, or seem unsure while speaking we may conclude that they are nervous when, in fact, they may not be. 3. Barrier #3: Misinterpretation of no action symbols. The clothes you wear, the automobile you drive, the objects in your office all communicate things about you. In addition, your respect for time and space needs of others affects how you interpret their messages. For example, if a subordinate is to see you at noon, but arrives fifteen minutes late, his tardiness may affect how you interpret what he says to you. 4. Barrier #4: Misinterpretation of the voice. The quality, intelligibility, and variety of the voice all affect understanding. Quality refers to the overall impression the voice makes on others. Listeners often infer from the voice whether the speaker is happy, sad, fearful, or confident. Intelligibility or understandability depends on such things as articulation, pronunciation, and grammatical correctness. Variety is the spice of speaking. Rate, volume, force, pitch, and emphasis are all factors of variety that influence understanding. 5.10 Communication with Key Personnel It probably is understood that you should communicate one-on-one with your key persons often. Certain guidelines apply to establishment and maintenance of effective communication with key subordinates: 1. Show genuine interest and concern with facial expression, head nods, gestures, and bodily posture, which reflect openness and positive reinforcement. 2. Put the other person at ease by appearing relaxed and breaking down barriers with friendliness. 3. Be natural, because genuineness and sincerity are foundations for effective two-person communication. 4. Do not assume a superior manner or pretend to be what you're not. 5. Adapt to the conversation as it develops with spontaneous comments rather than plowing ahead with "prepared" comments or arguments.

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Leadership – A New Dimension 6. Respect the other person's point of view. 7. Seek to understand what the other person really means and not necessarily what is said. 8. Reduce your own defensiveness. 9. Do not dominate the conversation to the point that you shut the other person out. 10. Listen attentively by concerning yourself with what the other person is saying instead of planning what you are going to say. 5.11 Promote Group Consensus One of the biggest problems supervisors face is getting the group to reach consensus. There are many times, of course, when you must make an independent decision and stick to it. Nevertheless, increasingly, policy decisions are hammered out in the give-and-take of small-group discussions. Problem solving is certainly a goal of decision-making groups at all levels, but often consensus or agreement is just as important. If a decision is reached without consensus, morale and unit satisfaction both may suffer. With genuine consensus, a unit tends to support and implement the new policy willingly. The following five suggestions for reaching consensus are based on a longer list formulated after much research and careful analysis of decision-making groups. 1. Clarify the discussion. Make sure that the group's activity is understandable, orderly, and focused on one issue at a time. Consensus comes more easily if factors are weighed individually and systematically. Encourage each person to stick to the subject, to avoid side discussions, and to clarify the issues with questions. 2. Use process statements. Process statements deal with what is happening in the group. While process statements may relate to the content, they primarily stimulate and facilitate discussion: "What you've said seems to make sense. How do the rest of you feel?" or "So far, we seem to agree on the first two points. Let's move on to the third," or "Have we heard from Joe yet?" or "This is really a productive discussion." When both the leader and group members use process statements effectively, agreement will come more readily and satisfaction will be increased. 3. Seek different views. All persons should be encouraged to present their views and provide information and evidence to support their views. Expression of a wide range of opinions and views allows a great opportunity for learning to take place. At the same time, participation by all persons will allow them to have their voices heard and will increase their satisfaction with the discussion and conclusions reached. 4. Remain open to different views. This suggestion is clearly the corollary to the preceding guideline. We have all known people who seek the views of others with no intent to be influenced by them: "Don't confuse me with the facts; my mind is made up." When others present irrefutable facts and figures, or even a good idea that you may not have thought of before, don't be afraid to alter your position or admit that you may have been wrong. Good 56

Leadership – A New Dimension leaders often learn from their subordinates. Also, leaders can serve as models for the behavior of others in the matter of not being overopinionated. Studies have shown that low or moderately opinionated supervisors are held in higher esteem by others than highly opinionated ones. 5. Use group pronouns. Studies show that less cohesive groups-groups which are less successful in reaching consensus-tend to use more self-referent words, such as I, me, my, and mine. Groups which reach consensus and are more cohesive, on the other hand, are more apt to use group referent words such as we, our, and us. As a leader, talk about the group. Talk about what we hope to accomplish, and how we can work together to achieve our objectives. Do not emphasize what I want done or what is best for my interests. Stress that while all persons should be concerned with their own unit or division, they should also be interested in the needs of others in the group. 5.12 Communication Effectively Communication might be thought of as an "idea transplant." We send 300 to 1,000 messages a day. We probably receive that many messages too. Communication consists of two basic skills: listening and feedback. There are messages we intend to send, messages we actually send, messages the listener thinks he/she heard, responses from the listener due to what he/she heard, and our reaction to the exchange of messages. Is it any wonder things may get garbled along the way? Good listening takes a lot of practice. It requires concentration. Our minds think four times faster than a person can speak so our minds tend to wander. As we listen, we need to focus on a speaker's words, body language, intended message and even unintended message. We need to listen without judging what we hear. A leader learns to listen at least as much as he/she speaks. 5.13 Other Types of Feedback Include: 1. Active Listening This feedback lets the speaker know we are concentrating on her/his message. "I see...Hmmm" (nodding) 2. Asking for More Information This enables others to expand on initial information. It tells the speaker we are interested in her/his thoughts "That sounds interesting." "Tell us more." 3. Paraphrasing Paraphrasing is saying what we think the speaker said. This gives the speaker a chance to confirm our interpretation or to clarify what was meant.

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Leadership – A New Dimension "Did I hear you say that although the plan isn't finished, we should start marketing the workshop while the committee works on the details?" 4. Sharing Information everyone has input is important. Group leaders need to be as open and honest as other members are. "I believe we need to move slowly and consider all possible options before we make a decision." 5. Checking Feelings It's best to check to see if the emotion we think we see is the correct interpretation. "Are you are frustrated? Would you like to talk about it?" 6. Reporting Feelings Tell others what your emotional state is at a given time. "It's been a long day. I'm not productive any more. Could we talk about this at the next meeting?" 7. Offering or Requesting More Options Even good ideas can be made better when more people are involved. Suggesting other options is helpful. These are some great ideas here. Could we expand any of these ideas now?" Leaders practice skills that enhance communication within a group. Effective communication helps a group function successfully and helps individuals develop, too. Positive communication helps members feel valuable and welcome to share their talents. When all members practice effective communication, trust, cooperation and productivity in the group will be enhanced. The following hints ensure effective communication: Group members listen and pay attention to one another One topic is discussed at a time Members work through conflict rather than avoiding it Everyone has a chance to state their views Decisions are clearly stated so all members understand Regular feedback helps the group to stay focused on goals. 5.14 Body Language -- Check the Message Nonverbal communication is called body language. Facial expressions, gestures, eye contact and body posture are parts of body language. Even when we are speaking, we need to observe body language. Body language can tell us if listeners are interested, bored, confused or disagreeing with us.

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Leadership – A New Dimension Don't jump to conclusions about what we think we see in body language. It is important to observe nonverbal communication and use it as a checkpoint to see if we understand the message. "I see some frowns. Does anyone have a concern about this option?" "There has been very little reaction to this proposal. How does the group feel right now?" Our culture teaches us what acceptable nonverbal communication is. Some cultures find certain types of body language (Ex. eye contact, standing too close) inappropriate or even offensive. Effective communication includes being sensitive to those differences. Observe body language and then check the message.

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Leadership – A New Dimension

6 LEADERSHIP- GOAL SETTING
Leaders know where they are going; they have plans in place to get them there; they know what will be required to achieve there goals and most importantly they approach there journey with a level of vigor and enthusiasm that is contagious and excites all who are involved. As a leader are you satisfied with where you have been heading; energized about what you are doing or do you find yourself achieving goals set for you by others? Effective leadership requires clear, concise and continuous movement towards goals that will foster the level of personal and organizational excellence that is associated with leadership brilliance. Goal setting is clearly, the most basic competent of identifying the where, how and why of leadership excellence. 6.1 Do You Have A Goal? Lion in Sahara has a goal, what that my be is not always that obvious , well one day he my want to have nice fresh meal, next day perhaps a drink of some clean water, the day after maybe a little sleep his next goal my be find a mate. Can you see the point in lion's life he has a set of goals first to catch a prey, secondly kill the unfortunate catch and the last goal be happy with full belly. The lion has no choice in the matter the goal setting is in its genes without the goal in his make up there would be no success or even life for lion. Humans have progressed beyond hunting for food in bush, or Sahara. However, in food hutting there is a goal would you agree. Therefore, the in periods gone by the goals were somewhat simplistic, but never the less it has it massage for modern counterparts. Human progress from simply hunting and food gathering was accomplished not without a desire to survive and of course have easier and more prosperous life. The human progress in education, technology, medical discoveries, engineering or travel to space has it's seeds planted, to be firstly having vision and a goal without it anything would never happen. What is a goal? Goal is an objective, a purpose, aim, point or endeavor. The goal has to be set in understandable and achievable time. Action taken to bring the dream into being is part of system in thinking and process. The goal has first be established and acted upon. Without goals millions of people wonder through life without even realizing that they don't have any goals to aspire to and still wonder why an earth they are poor. Food is one of many essential mineral or a fuel of life's goal setting is important on equal terms. Individual need to focus on where they want to be in five years time that in it self will stimulate goal setting as it is possible their situation will improve in five years time. A psychological barrier 60

Leadership – A New Dimension needs to be overcome with possible gain in future. There isn't any point looking back to our past pains, because that is something we all want to escape especially if that past has not brought us any success. Like any large corporation needs to have a plan and plan, by setting up objectives or a goal. Those large corporations plan with their objectives, fro 5, 10, 15 years. They visualize the future in clear precise manner.You are as individual need to think plan like large corporations, visualize your future where would you like to be in next five or ten years. Al of us has a dream some are bigger then others, of what we really want to do. But few of us actually capitulate to a dream or desire instead to surrender to dreams we instead murder it here are the reason whey the dream is put into waste been. 1. Self deprecation many people say I want to represent my country in football but say I don't like to train or like the coach. 2. Security - I am secured where I am which jus about trashes your goal. 3. Competition - the field is already so overcrowded. 4. Parental Dictation - You have heard hundreds of people say to young people I want to become a plumber but the parents say they would like their children to do this. 5. Family responsibility - The attitude well I have the family now and I can't change now. It is quite amazing the more successful a person is the easier it is for them to work on regular basis for more then 40 hours per week. The successful person has the energy fueled by the goal. The bigger the goal in the eyes, the more they see, and more energy one has. The point is this; the energy increase, multiplies when goal is set and work toward the goal. It is quite amazing the goal entrenched deep in your mind you will receive to energy to drive toward your accomplishment. What not to do in 30 days improvements guide. What not to do? 1. 2. 3. 4. Putting things off till tomorrow Negative language Watching television for more then 60 minutes per day. Gossip

Obtain those habits. 1. Examine your appearance each morning. 2. Plan your day's work a day before. 3. Complement people on every opportunity. Increase value in your work place 1. Do a better job for your employer 61

Leadership – A New Dimension 2. Learn more about the company you work for. 3. Make number of suggestions to assist your companies' production. Increase your value at home 1. Show appreciation to you wife and the family each time they do something for you. 2. Do something special one a month for your family. 3. Set time aside each day to give you loved one each day. Sharpen your mind 1. 2. 3. 4. Invest two hours per week reading professional magazines or a book in your field. Read one self help book. Make four new friends. Spend 30 minutes daily in quite undisturbed thinking.

Next time you go into town observer a well-dressed and well-groomed person, full of life vibrancy smile speed, clear thinking person, and stature in his walk. You need to remained yourself that person was not born that way. Building new positive habits and destroying the old negative habits is a life long day to 6.2 Goal Setting Made Simple, a basic recipe for success 1. Primarily it is essential that goals you intend to pursue are your goals; it is critical that you understand what you want and who you want to become. Our goals should not be driven by the expectation of others. 2. In establishing our goals, it is essential that we state our goals positively and specifically; to be motivated by our goals we must be able to clearly develop a mental picture of doing and achieving what we want to do. 3. Next, your goals must be realistic, attainable and measurable; these are goals, which you are willing to work towards, because you believe them to be realistic and achievable. If it cannot be measured then does it really exist? Vague statements of purpose are like trying to hit a moving target, with your eyes closed, difficult if not impossible. Understand that true success comes from within; many are fearful of the future because they are unsure of what it will bring; they become pawns in the game of life; there movement depends on decisions of others; they relinquish their freedom of choice by having to depend on others to know what to think or do. Remember that people who have goals and plans dictate to others, while people who have no goals or plans are dictated to. 6.3 Goal is Gold There is no dearth of topics on how to set goals and achieve them everywhere. Most of us get excited about goal setting and forget most of our goals by mid January. I went on to find out how 62

Leadership – A New Dimension could we commit ourselves to goals we set and achieve them since without goals you do not know weather you are winning or loosing in your life. My journey took me on different course on dissecting the profound understanding of goals. G --> Gratitude O --> Open Mind A --> Action L --> Leverage Gratitude: Gratitude makes our soul attain the great energy that controls all matters on this world. Goal starts with knowing what you want. If you do not know what you want, you will never get that. Sounds simple? Yes, it is. Yet most men and women do not know what they want. A survey done on a college campus revealed that only 3% students clearly know what they wanted to achieve in their life. Twenty years after the survey, study revealed that those 3% of students had more in wealth than 97% combined. Is this surprising? It should not since 97% did not dream to achieve stupendous opportunity that existed for all the students. With gratitude, we engage creative imagination of our brain to dream that excites us. Creative imagination connects our finite mind to that of Infinite intelligence or supreme energy that controls ether. Charles Lindbergh was first one to fly solo over the Atlantic ocean in 1927. He used to imagine himself flying across the Atlantic ocean and feeling the pride of achievement long before he even had means to do so. Power behind his depth of imagination was gratitude. He was grateful to almighty to enable him to be the first to complete solo flight. His gratitude lent him power of creative imagination that made him believed that he had achieved the feat and filled his mind with positively. Fear had no place in his mind. Open Mind: Mind is like parachute, it works best when kept open. Achievers never keep thoughts to self-imposed limits since thoughts are limited only to self-imposed limits. There is nothing that we can not achieve as humans unless we train our thoughts not to. When Charles Lindbergh was unable to buy an airplane that would have allowed him to fly across Atlantic, he went on to design and build one that was capable to do so. Wow! That’s the true test of commitment to goal. It was his open mind that kept inspiring him to think possibilities beyond simple solutions. Action: Action is to goal as soul is to our body. Without action, no one has ever achieved anything ever. Dreams are vibrant energy sources that can be converted into its physical equivalence unless acted upon them. Action is the personal investment that one makes with commitment in time and money to devote to the burning desire to transmute dreams into its physical equivalence. Goals are good on paper but unless we plan short term and long term actions that can take us close to our goals, they remain a wish on a piece of a paper. Everyday, all your actions shall focus on steps that can take you close to your goals. Daily assessment of actions taken shall clearly support what you want to achieve in life. If you find that you are spending lots of time on events that do not support your goals or help you get close to your goals then you shall make commitment to avoid those events since they are drain on your creative energy. Leverage: This is by far one of the most influential aspects of goal achievement since without leverage, you are prone to loose focus, get frustrated and simply quit your pursuit due to lack of money and resources. No matter what circumstances you have today, if you 63

Leadership – A New Dimension imagine what you want and daily see yourself in possession of what you want, you will get will power to commit to your goals. Your will power uses advantage to transmute your imagination into its physical equivalence. Charles Lindbergh did not have money to design and build an airplane to fly solo across Atlantic. Instead of quitting and comforting his mind with lack of circumstances, he chooses to use leverage. He found group of St Louis businessmen to sponsor him. That's why his plane was named "spirit of St Louis". It was power of leverage that allowed him to write his name in the history book. So, next time when you sit down and think about your goals - remember that true meaning of it. It is Gratitude, Open mind, action and Leverage. Once you learn these forces as the agents that transmute your dreams into reality, you will never quit your goals until they are achieved. 6.4 Start Writing and Completing Your Goals Imagine going on a out of state road trip to a place you have never seen or been to before. You know were you want to go and what you want to do when you get there, but you did not take a road map to lead you. How long do you think it will take to get there? How long before you give up and go back home? How long before the great vision you had in your head turns into frustration? Same is true with life. Some of us have an idea what we want from life; the problem is most of us having no road map. We live everyday as if we were lost. With only one life to live, doesn't it make sense to live for a reason, with a sense of purpose? According to Brian Tracy less, than 3% of people have written goals and only 1% of people review them regularly. Wow. That means only 3 out of every 100 people you encounter have written goals. Are you one of the 3%? On the other hand, are you with the majority? Studies have proved, people with written goals, that review them on a regular basis get more accomplished daily and earn larger wages than those who do not write their goals. Use the following tips to help you plan your goals and help get you to your destination faster. 1. Your goals must be yours they must be personal. 2. Start small then grow. a. First get into the habit of completing your goals so start small for example start waking up at the same time daily. 3. Take action. Start achieving your goals right NOW! Do not procrastinate. 4. Stay positive. Remember nothing worth wile comes without work. Choose to be extremely positive do not let anyone or anything throw you off track. 5. Review you goals daily. Review them until they become automatic and you can recite them without having to look at your sheet. Your goals must become a part of who you are, everything you do, think, or say must reflect what you have written down on your sheet. Write your goals as often as you wish, you can share your goals with someone if you like

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Leadership – A New Dimension but I recommend you operate quietly and watch your life mold into what you always dreamed. Remember you only have one life to live. Live on purpose and go get every thing you want. 6.5 Personal Development - 6 Steps and Goal Success Would you like to live a more prosperous life? Would you love your relationships to improve? Perhaps you have specific goals or desires you long to see manifest in the material world. It does not matter where you are or where you have been. It makes no difference if you have a string of success behind you or only failures. I am about to share with you six steps that will ensure you reach all your goals. Here are some top tips to help you achieve all the success you want. 1. Know what you want! Be very clear on exactly what it is that you want. Wanting more money or a good mate is not enough. How much money do you want? What are the qualities you are looking for in another? Vague wishes will gain you nothing. You must formulate a clear intent! 2. Once you have identified what you want, turn your desire into a goal. Write down on a paper a statement of intent. Begin your statement as follows, "I am so grateful that I now allow myself to have..." Read this statement twice a day and recall the mental image you will create in step 3. 3. Create in your mind a clear image of yourself already in possession of your desire. Make it as clear as you can. View yourself in the image as the person you wish to be already having your goal. Imagine how that 'other' you thinks, feels, acts, and add these characteristics to the 'other' you in your mental image. When you have your image clear and concise, imagine that you can step into that 'other' you. As best, you can start to feel all those feelings that the 'other' you felt. As you step inside that, mental you feel yourself becoming that new person. Increase the feelings. Make the colors, in the environment you are now seeing through your mental eyes, more colorful and vibrant. 4. Remove your mental barriers. The only reason why people fail to achieve their goals is negative mental attitudes. You must remove these mental 'demons' before you can achieve success. When you verbally intone your goal, through the affirmation statement you created in step 2, you will find your negative attitudes begin to surface. This is excellent as the attitudes are being brought up from the subconscious to the conscious mind where you can eliminate them. Be diligent and try to become aware of how you are thinking throughout your day. When you become aware of a negative attitude, when it surfaces, do not fight it. This is disastrous. If you fight to suppress a negative attitude, it will remain in the subconscious mind and act like a hidden computer virus in your brain. Allow the attitude to surface fully. You will find that you have feelings associated with these thoughts. When you permit the feeling to come up and you experience it fully you 65

Leadership – A New Dimension will quickly find that it burns itself out. By no longer suppressing your emotions but allowing them to express themselves in your body you will find that they dissipate. I know this sounds too easy but please try it, it really does work! Once you have allowed your negative feelings to burn themselves out, by allowing them to surface and leave your body, it is a good time to mentally revisit your goal image and speak your statement of intent. If this is not possible then just re-affirm to yourself that you are allowing yourself to have your goal. When visualizing and affirming your statement of intent do not stop until you feel positive about your goal. Never leave your mental work while you still feel negative. You may find that the next time you do the exercises you feel similar negative feelings. These emotions are not the same feelings that you have already allowed to dissipate! You have gathered much negativity during your stay on planet Earth and your negative attitudes have many layers. Just be diligent and patient. 5. Let it go! Once you have finished your mental work let it go. You are doing your part so allow universal forces and laws to their work. If you allow your mind to dwell on the hows, where's and whens you are really affirming to yourself and the universe that you do not already have your goal! Never worry about how your goal is going to come to you or when or where you will receive it because this will slow down its manifestation. Thinking in terms of your goal as having already been accomplished is fine but give no thought as to when, how or where it will come. When you think of something that you already have you do not contemplate how you got it, you just think in terms of already having it! 6. Take some action! It does not matter how small it is. Take some small steps everyday that will bring you closer to your goal. When you reach out for your goals with the correct mindset the universe will rush to meet you. When you pursue your goals and desires using these six simple steps you will find that you achieve a higher level of success than you have ever before and you will find it much less stressful. Follow the steps and prepare for your next success. 6.6 You Can Achieve Success in Future "The Best way to predict the future is to create it" -Peter Drucker Quick Review Did you have a written goal for previous year? Your goal could have focused on improvements or changes that were personal, professional or a combination thereof. A written goal is similar to your own personal directional coach. You can stay on the right track, the best road to get from point A to B. By the way, when you do reach your destination, you can celebrate your success. Why not get ready for coming year? Future: Year 200…….

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Leadership – A New Dimension What will you accomplish? Give this serious thought. Are you ready for a change that focuses on a personal, career, financial, spiritual or health goal? You might ask, can you have more than one goal? Certainly, but you may want to accomplish one goal before you begin another. Establish and achieve a goal then celebrate your success; when you have been successful, you will establish the foundation to move toward another challenge highly motivated. Now for your written goal, make it SMART. Ok you have heard of this type of goal setting format, but here is a serious question. Have you actually followed through in writing a SMART goal? For those of you who answer yes, congratulations. No doubt you can tell your convincing success story to those who are struggling and give them a sense of hope and focus. Keep your eyes open to those who need your guidance, you never know when you'll be a personal inspiration to another. If by chance you are unaware of the SMART goal, it is a popular format or model. The SMART goal has been a focus of many leadership programs. SMART is: S- specific M-measurable A-action plan R-realistic T-time sensitive and/or tied to business results Specific Write your goal so that no matter when you read it and who reads it, it is very understandable. Always start your sentence with the word "I" not "to do." For example: I will write articles throughout 2008 Measurable Your goal must have tangible results, so you can see your progress. Remember the GPS, after programming with our goal (destination) it knew exactly where we wanted to go and for each milestone, we knew we were closer to our destination. For example: I will write four articles for publication. Distribution will be quarterly. Action Plan In this section of your goal, you will answer these questions. Who will do What, by When? For example: Who: Barbara will - What: Write each e-zine article and submit to ezine articles for distribution - By When: In the second week of the first month in each quarter. Realistic This is a reality check. You answer this question. Is it realistic for me to accomplish this goal? Yes, or No? If you answer no, go immediately back to your goal and refine the various sections to make sure your can answer a bona fide yes. If it is a no, no matter what you refine, it's time to rethink this goal and develop one that is achievable. 67

Leadership – A New Dimension For example: Is this goal realistic for me in 2008? Yes! Time Sensitive and/or Tied to Business Results Time In this section you have the opportunity to visit timelines, if you have not done so in your action plan. Because I established time lines in my action plan, I will focus on business results. For example: This goal supports my business plan to reach ezine readers with timely topics that can be readily used. Conclusion: You can set your plans in motion, now. Your personal directional coach is in your SMART goal. Read your goal, follow your action plan and be ready to celebrate your predictions and successes in future.

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Leadership – A New Dimension

7 LEADERSHIP & MOTIVATION
The six most important words: "I admit I made a mistake." The five most important words: "You did a good job." The four most important words: "What is your opinion." The three most important words: "If you please." The two most important words: "Thank you," The one most important word: "We" The least most important word: "I" - Author unknown

It is difficult to do things differently as the following story illustrates. A lead hardware engineer, a lead software engineer, and their project manager are taking a walk outdoors during their lunch break when they come upon an old brass lamp. They pick it up and dust it off. Poof--out pops a genie. "Thank you for releasing me from my lamp-prison. I can grant you 3 wishes. Since there are 3 of you I will grant one wish to each of you." The hardware engineer thinks a moment and says, "I'd like to be sailing a yacht across the Pacific, racing before the wind, with an all-girl crew." "It is done," said the Genie, and poof, the hardware engineer disappears. The software engineer thinks a moment and says, "I'd like to be riding my Harley with a gang of beautiful women throughout the American Southwest." "It is done," said the Genie, and poof, the software engineer disappears. The project manager looks at where the other two had been standing and rubs his chin in thought. Then he tells the Genie, "I'd like those two back in the office after lunch." Harnessing human motivation is a core competency of the transformational leader. Unlike managers who tend to rely on authority to make things happen inside organizations, the transformational leader harnesses the power inherent in human motivation.

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Leadership – A New Dimension 7.1 Developing Self-Esteem It would be hard to become successful without first developing your self-esteem. In fact, it cannot think of one person who is very successful who has low self-esteem. Before we start going on about self-esteem, let us take a second to define self-esteem. What is self-esteem? Self-esteem is defined as feelings of self-worth stemming from the individual's positive or negative beliefs about being valuable and capable. It is hard to develop self-esteem when you are working on a job that does not allow you to be exactly who you were meant to be. If you are working at a job that does not quite fit with who you are, chances are that job is messing with your self-esteem. How can you feel good about yourself if Monday through Friday for 8 to 10 hours, you are doing something that does not help in the development of your self-esteem? The answer is – you cannot. You cannot possibly feel good about yourself and what happens is, you start questioning your abilities. You start wondering if you are good enough or smart enough. You see others who seem to be doing well and having success, but for some reason, you keep falling short. If you do not have high self-esteem, you will start to believe that you are at fault and that, you do not measure up or you cannot make the grade. The truth of the matter is, you are not living your life with purpose. Because you lack passion for the job or career that you find yourself in, you will find that often times, you will not be excited about it. Your lack of enthusiasm will cause your work to not be up to par. It has nothing to do with your abilities. You cannot be all that great at something if you are constantly watching the clock; waiting for your break or for the day to end because you are simply tired of being there. If you were doing something that you really enjoyed doing, something that you were passionate about, you would not help BUT measure up and excel the standards. Someone would probably have to tell you, “Hey, you, its quitting time.” In addition, the time would seem to fly by without you even taking a lunch break. How do we get in this position? How did we lose our self-worth? Well, there are many answers to that question. Perhaps one or both of your parents made you feel that you were not worthy of their love because they did not know how to give love. Alternatively, perhaps a teacher or authority figure made you feel that you were not smart enough. Maybe your siblings or childhood friends teased you and made you feel less than. These, plus millions of other reasons, are contributing factors in how we see our self-worth. If you see yourself as being not worthy, then you will shy away from responsibilities. Often, these responsibilities, when they present themselves, may be the answer to our prayers—they may be the one thing that will lead us to living the life that we desire—to achieving that success that we 70

Leadership – A New Dimension have always wanted. However, our doubts about our low self-awareness and ourselves stop us from accomplishing our goals. It is sad. It hurts my heart when I hear someone say something negative about him or herself. I have a girlfriend, who I think is very smart, a great person with a big and wonderful heart, and very entrepreneurial spirit. But she has this bad habit of saying, “I’m a bimbo.” However, how to do you change your opinion of yourself? How do you develop high self-esteem? Well, folks, as I always say, “it’s simple—but it aren’t easy.” In order to develop high self-esteem, you must start with being conscious of your self-talk—the things you say to and about yourself. Whenever you find yourself doubting your abilities or fearing what others will think of you— STOP, Tell yourself that you are just as good as or better than the next person is. Tell yourself that you KNOW, beyond any doubt, that you can perform the task and do a good job at it too. If you find yourself saying anything negative about you—STOP AT ONCE!! Put the brakes on. Hold it now! In addition, change that thought to a positive one. Look at yourself in the mirror and tell yourself “I’m a winner. I’m a champion! I can do anything!” When you tell yourself this, take the time to FEEL as if you ARE a winner, a champion—how would a winner feel? Great, right? Well, make yourself feel great. Say it as if you truly mean it. If you do this often enough, you will start to convince your subconscious mind that you ARE GREAT (which, by the way, you truly are already—you just don’t know it yet. I do.) The more you become convinced, the higher your self-esteem will rise. ACTION POINT! For the next 7 days, if you find yourself saying or thinking anything negative about yourself – STOP. Put the brakes on that thought. If someone says anything negative to you or about you—STOP tell that person, or simply tell yourself, “No, I’m not. I’m a winner, I’m a champion!” When you wake up each morning and go to the bathroom to wash your face, look in the mirror and say, “I’m a winner! I’m a champion! I’m a GREAT person!” Say it over and repeatedly until you can feel it in your bones. Say it loud if you can (if you can’t say it loud because you will wake up others, or you don’t want them to think you are talking to yourself— then say it so that you can at least hear it.) Does this for a week, write me, and tell me all about the new experiences that have been happening in your life because I know things will start happening and I would like to hear about them. 7.2 How Can I Improve My Self-Esteem? Self-esteem is something almost anyone can use more of. Even the people who exude confidence on the exterior probably have nagging doubts in their heart of hearts—doubts that they carefully hide from those around them, but which gnaw at their souls. Doubt can be debilitating. Luckily, anyone can take very practical steps to improve their self-esteem. Confidence in ourselves is not something we are born with overnight (unless we are just cocky, in which case 71

Leadership – A New Dimension the confidence is probably ill justified!). Anyone with a brain and a critical eye is bound to see what is wrong in their lives. However, it is always constructive to remind yourself what is right— and that, in any case, things can improve still more. Below are just a few great pointers on increasing self-esteem. Take stock of yourself. Begin by asking yourself which areas of your life and personality need the most work. What changes would you be most proud of, and find most fulfilling? Compose a list of them—five, perhaps, or ten at the most (if you’re really self-critical!). Rank them. Think about how you can go about improving each point. Build yourself up. Do not get discouraged; dwelling too much on the areas you want to improve. Remind yourself of the progress you have made thus far in life. Pat yourself on the back for having enough determination to try self-improvement in the first place. You are on the right track! How will you get there? It is not enough to decide where you want to go in terms of self-esteem; it is more important to ask how you are going to get there. In addition, who can help get you there? Whom can you trust for help, and for counsel, and even for a shoulder to cry on, if you have a temporary setback? How will you get there? It is not enough to decide where you want to go in terms of self-esteem; it is more important to ask how you are going to get there. In addition, who can help get you there? Whom can you trust for help, and for counsel, and even for a shoulder to cry on, if you have a temporary setback? Counter-attack. Tired of suffering the blows of fate? Tired of feeling like the football of the gods? Go on the counter-attack! Take action! Formulate a battle-plan, and assert yourself. You can make things happen. You can dish it too, instead of just absorbing blows. Spread the wealth. Self-esteem is something of incomparable value. At the same time, it is something you’ve got to give in order to get. The more you build up the people around you, the more that same enthusiasm and confidence will reflect back on you. Spread that sense of optimism and excitement to every member of your team. Branch out. Extend your sphere of influence, and allow yourself to be influenced by interesting and stimulating new people, as you become a member of new organizations and interest groups. Find people who share your passions, and exchange ideas. 72

Leadership – A New Dimension Engage in extra-curricular activities. Take up a new side project, something you will enjoy. Make it something you will find relaxing, and yet exhilarating at the same time. Something that will improve you and make you a better-rounded person. Perhaps it will be a hobby, club, or recreational activity. Never stop learning. Do not allow your thinking to stagnate. Join a class, on some topic you’re interested in—even if it’s something not directly connected with, say, your career, or your primary goal in life. As long as you are passionate about it, you will benefit from this intellectual stimulation. Its positive effects on your main interests may surprise you. Migrate to warmer climes. If you have a bad case of the blahs, or are stricken with cabin fever, strike out for new territories. Exploring an undiscovered country can revive your outlook on life, an inspire you with new ideas and new influences. Take a vacation, or even consider making a permanent move, if you really need a fresh start. Count your blessings. Never forget to remind yourself of how blessed and, ultimately, how happy you really are. Consider it an added bonus if your dreams come true; if they do not, right away at least, you will enjoy the challenge, at the very least. 7.3 How to Develop Self Esteem Our self esteem is instilled in us during our youth. Being constantly criticized by parents and family members tends to slowly strip us of our feelings of self worth. Our low self esteem strips us of our self confidence to make even the smallest of decisions. We think little of ourselves, and feel we do not deserve to be happy. Improving your self esteem increases your confidence and is a first step towards finding happiness and a better life. You gain this confidence by believing that you are unique, you are special, and that you deserve to have your dreams come true! Here are 25 steps for developing self-esteem: 1. Figure out what your problem is. Realize your problem is not who you are, it is what you have used to protect your physical and emotional well-being. It is hiding who you are: a beautiful human being, a wonderful source of awareness, knowledge, creativity, love and joy. If you practice self-esteem based on the faith that this is who you really are, then your problem will dissolve. 2. Figure out who you are. Take self-evaluation quizzes. Learn as much as you can about who you are and why you think and feel the way you do. Self-knowledge is a key to success. 3. Decide what you can and cannot control. Change and act on the things that are in your control and release the things that are out of your control. 73

Leadership – A New Dimension 4. Accept responsibility. Finding self-confidence requires accepting responsibility for your own happiness, and recognizing that you are a product not only of your genetic code and your environment, but of the choices, you make. Begin your day with the words "I am responsible." 5. Make anxiety your ally. Write down your worries for 30 days. Nagging concerns that loom so large in your imagination lose their power on paper. Amazingly, after writing those down the anxieties begin to fade. 6. Recognize that mistakes are opportunities. Keep the setback in perspective. Most mistakes are not personal tragedies; rather they are problems you now have the opportunity to solve. "Success," is often a string of failed attempts to get it right. 7. Compete to improve yourself not to beat someone else. 8. Be ambitious. When setting goals, remember that you are distinct from what you have and what you seem to be. If you let others define who you are, you may not find happiness. Pursue your own dreams -- not your parent’s, mates, or your best friend’s. 9. Be brave and take risks. Do not be afraid of mistakes. Risk-taking builds confidence. When considering any risk: define a clear goal. Review the positive, practical and potential losses. Determine whether the risk is one of trust, identity or something larger. When you focus on risks that have a larger purpose, you cannot go wrong. Even if the risk does not turn out as you hoped it would, you will gain from it. Act. Take a risk. Be confident -- you have earned it. 10. Think and speak positively. If you hear, a compliment or positive statements about someone you know pass that compliment on to them. An Arabian proverb puts it neatly: Blessed is he who speaks a kindness; thrice blessed he who repeats it. 11. Learn something new. Create a new hobby. Increase your vocabulary one word a week. Take on a new physical challenge or activity. 12. Spend time investing in your personal growth. This enables joy to flourish amid the fears and difficulties of life. Read self-help books and act on the knowledge. 13. Decisions: the next time you ponder a decision, think of everything that could go right and say to yourself, "What do I have to lose, really? 14. Smile and be courteous. Use the words please and thank you consistently. 15. Be aware of media’s messages. Their goal is to make you feel bad about yourself so you will buy what they are selling. 16. Keep good company. Positive feeds positive and negative breeds negative. If you choose to be around positive people, you in turn will become more positive. 17. Reward yourself. Give yourself and others positive rewards for being and doing well.

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Leadership – A New Dimension 18. Do not accept messages that damage your own self-esteem. It is much easier to improve or change your behavior when you believe you are lovable and capable. 19. Be aware of the different messages that you hear in your head and remember to turn up the volume on the messages that contribute to your positive self-esteem and to turn down the volume on any message that encourages you to think negatively about your worth or ability. 20. You can improve the quality of messages you have in your head about being lovable and capable. Use "how to" statements in your head and take action on the answers you receive. Repeat positive affirmations to yourself & out loud as much as possible. 21. Negative messages can build esteem, as long a they are not attacking your self worth or defining yourself as incapable. Properly delivered negative messages say "I care about myself. I am a worthwhile person and I can learn how to do things better." 22. Any thoughts that take us away from a positive feeling are not worth having or defending. If you want to be happy, follow your happy feelings, not your unhappy ones. 23. The moment you hear a critical remark, ask yourself, "What’s on this person’s screen?" Assume that all critical remarks arise from some shortcoming. Remember that people can only criticize what is on their screen and that their screens are not reliable. It is very unlikely that any criticism is based on an accurate perception of you. It is much more likely that the critic is reacting to emotions, memories, and behavior patterns that have almost nothing to do with you. Thinking poorly about you because of such critics is a mistake. When someone criticizes, you do and say the following: Smile and say to yourself, "Boy, I wonder what’s on their screen to make them so critical of me?" Remember it is about them not about you. 24. Remember that all criticism shares one characteristic: it is unwelcome. You did not invite people to dump the distorted contents of their screen on you. You may feel that you owe some critics a response, but you never owe a critic your self-esteem. 25. A small success can bring big feeling of competence. Small steps lead to more steps. Pat your self on the back every time you make a small success. Every step counts. Take onestep at a time in a positive direction, this is the practice of self-esteem.

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8 LEADERSHIP – 4 ‘E’S
MOHANDAS GANDHI ENVISION India’s political and religious independence, based on spiritual renewal of her people, and on the equality of Hindu and Muslim. ENABLE South African ambulance corps. Indian “Constructive Program". The Ashrams. The Congress charter. "Swadeshi” = home industry. EMPOWER Discipline & freedom, for self and followers. "Satyagraha” = peaceful protest. "Swaraj" = Indian Independence. Love. Respect. ENERGIZE He walked the talk – Gandhi was the program. The "Salt March”. He fasted. His charisma. His disregard for self - no fear - prison. His words

GENGHIS KHAN ENVISION To stop the Mongol tribes fighting, and to preserve their nomadic lifestyle. To live off the land. Realize their longstanding dream of “conquering the World”. ENABLE The compound bow & short stirrup. The "Yasa” legal code. Merit based army units of 10, 1000, 10000. Peacetime “Pony express” links. EMPOWER Genghis trusted Locals running conquered cities. He promoted on merit. He was generous, very loyal, and very frank. ENERGIZE He personified strong & clear Mongol values. Genghis always led from the front. He was charismatic. Either surrender and maintain your way of life, or be slaughtered 4 E’s in Full Here is the big idea. Leadership in the networked world is the same as it was in the time of Genghis Khan. The process - which we call the 4 E’s of Envision, Enable, Empower and Energize - is the same. The principles are the same.

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Leadership – A New Dimension 8.1 Leaders ... are always looking for specific things to do “next Monday”, to make things happen. Leadership depends on having a unique vision, making strategic choices, finding the right tools & people to do the job, and designing and enabling an organization to get it done. Leadership is about understanding people, and about getting people pointing and acting in the same direction. The unique role of a leader is then to provide the energy and commitment to see this job through, and ensuring execution is perfect. Leadership is about listening, and making a real "connect" with others. It is a process. We call this process the 4 E’s of Envision, Enable, Empower & Energize. The framework has been developed by studying historical Leaders The sidebar on “Historical Examples” summarizes how the first 4 E’s apply to two very different Leaders – Mohandas Gandhi and Genghis Khan. The 4 E’s framework applies equally to Leadership in different cultural backgrounds – important to Leader’s of today’s’ multicultural Enterprises. However, before examining the 4 E’s in detail, there is a simple set of fundamental truths about all Leaders. Leaders always create (and need) change Leaders always create (and need) followers Leaders have a rock-solid value system, which is congruent with their followers.

Leaders and Change Without a need for change, the concept of Leadership is meaningless. Leadership is not an abstract, Platonic concept - it is a practical activity, with a specific goal in mind. The situation in India pre-independence almost demanded that someone (like Gandhi) arose to lead and organize the cause. In the 4 E’s framework, Change is central to the strategic choices made at the Envisioning stage. Leaders and Followers Leaders are quintessential change agents, but they cannot do it alone – they still need the help of others to get things going. They find ways to create groups of followers, so they can together change things. We are not talking of manipulation or of mischief when we write, "Leaders create followers". We mean that the job of a Leader is to encourage people to get things done. There is symmetry and symbiosis between Leaders and followers. Both need each other. Without followers, there are no Leaders. In this sense, Leadership varies by situation, as a good Leader in one circumstance may not be successful in another. A classic example of Leadership varying by situation is Winston Churchill, who succeeded in wartime and then failed in peacetime by loosing a General Election. He was unable to reflect people’s postwar needs. 78

Leadership – A New Dimension Finally, with this process orientation to Leadership, we believe everyone can train, develop and enhance their Leadership skills. This is true regardless of the size or complexity of the Enterprise. In addition, because everyone can train, the results can be measured. You can’t have Leader’s without followers, and you can’t have followers without Leaders. Paradoxically, therefore, the Leader is also a follower, in the sense of reflecting the wishes of others. Leaders and followers are thus interdependent. Leaders & Values congruence The Leadership job starts with a thorough understanding of the follower’s needs, aspirations and concerns, which needs excellent listening and facilitation skills. Most importantly, it starts with a thorough understanding of the value systems of all constituents. The Leader’s value system must be congruent with that of the followers if the relationship is to prosper. Leaders must first understand and then communicate their own value systems if they are to be trusted and followed. Leadership comes from within us, in the sense that deeply held values and principles provide the road map for the way we lead, and the way other people respond. It is always the Leader’s personal value system that sustains them in their quest, whether they are a person of impeccable moral fiber, or quite disreputable. On the negative side, without a clear sense of his or her own personal values, the Leader-to-be can get hopelessly lost, falling foul of inconsistency and insincerity as he struggles to handle the constituents. From the perspective of the total organization, the creation and Leadership of a value system for the Enterprise, which is in total synchronization with the values of its constituents, will be very powerful indeed. This needs a sense of balance in dealing with multiple constituencies and interest groups, whilst also achieving the Enterprise goals. Constituencies include employees, shareholders, customers and members of local communities. Often the very best (and longest-lived) business Enterprises takes specific note of all their constituencies in their mission and strategies. It is with this in mind that we include values and culture in the Envisioning step of the 4 E’s. 8.2 Ideas and Values Let us now connect these thoughts on Leadership into the world of ideas. First, what is an “idea”, what is a “value”, and what is the connection? Idea: a thought to be presented as a suggestion, a thought about or mental picture of something such as a future or possible event, a realization of a possible way of doing something or of something to be done. In today’s parlance, an idea tends to be thought of as an innovation, That is, an idea that can be practically executed and which creates value. Therefore, we can all have ideas, and they result in changes, to a greater or lesser extent. They can be incremental, substantial or transformational innovations – all are needed in any Enterprise to keep it moving forward. Values: the accepted principles or standards of an individual or a group. 79

Leadership – A New Dimension What is interesting is that ideas lead eventually to values, if they are big enough. As we moved from hunting to agriculture, one assumes someone had the basic idea that not killing people was “good”. Later, the idea of the rule of law came along, and then liberal democracy. Both eventually became values in “civil society”. The idea of “markets” surfaced, and the values of “capitalism” took hold. On the other hand, Marx thought of the idea of “communism”, which lasted a while but never became an endearing value. Values emerge over time, and get consensus over time. Ideas can be born at “Internet speed”, but values take time and energy to create and to take hold in an Enterprise. Put another way, ideas are fast, and values are slow. Ideas sometimes lead to powerful values, but not always. It is ideas that motivate people, but values that bind them together. When a Leader communicates, he or she must be clear whether the subject is ideas or values. Now this may sound simplistic, but how many times do we hear politicians claiming an idea as some kind of deep, culturally significant value? On the other hand, how often do business people refuse to discuss values, as something too intangible and emotional in a commercial context? If more business Leaders would discuss values, and their development, one wonders how many more enduring Companies there would be – a point especially true for the “New Economy” high speed Enterprises. Values are also deeply related to strong brand equities – a point to which we will return in another article. One aspect of a change Leader’s job is thus to understand this difference in meaning and impact between ideas and values, and the difference in their speed.

Sources of ideas Entertainment & fashion Markets and business Politics and Law Infrastructure Religion and culture Nature and biology

Values: Example Latest trends Capitalism Democracy Education for all Cultural loyalty “Child in danger”

Strength Weak

Strong

8.3 The 4 E’s In each of the E's (Envision, Enable. Empower and Energize) we are working with two axes. At one side, we are working with Operational parameters – the strategies, the tools, the measurements. At the other side, we are dealing with Organizational and people issues. We will symbolize this as a growing grid.

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8.3.1 Step 1: Envision

Leadership starts with having a vision, then developing a plan to achieve it. It is based on data assessment and intuition, hope and fear. It is a noble challenge. A vision of the future is the key to getting started as a Leader. Without one, go back to square one. Envisioning starts with having a clear view of the external world. It drives the formation of the mission of the Enterprise, and builds clear, mutual goals. In day-to-day work, it is helpful to distinguish between verbal objectives (the mission), and numerical objectives (the goals). A vision that is likely to come true has to take account of the culture of the Enterprise. For example, a slow moving bureaucracy is not likely to succeed as a “New Economy” Enterprise without significant cultural change. The Leader then has a choice – mold the vision and strategy to the capabilities and values of the culture – or change the culture to achieve a different future for the Enterprise. A decision either direction will have enormous consequences for the change program undertaken. A vision could be a grand view of a Country’s future, or a major Corporation’s – or it could be a picture of what one wants to achieve in the family, or amongst a group of friends. In all cases Leaders are seeking a vision of change that is needed. It often seems that the word “vision” has fallen into disrepute – we all have drawers full of unexecuted visions. In our view, a vision is an operational strategy, reflecting choices of what to do and what not to do, with hard goals. It is not “fuzzy and warm”. It is essential.
8.3.2 Step 2: Enable

The Envisioning step forces decisions on choices – strategies, in other words. Leaders must then decide what methods or tools will be used to Enable the objectives, and to encourage the right kind of action. There are essentially two kinds of enabling mechanisms – both built on innovation. The first mechanisms (along what we defined as the “Operational” axis) include tools, technologies, and business methodologies. “A better mouse trap” is always a good enabling mechanism to bring about change. In every case, the tools and tactics used must meet the needs of the strategic choices defined earlier. On methodologies, in today’s “New Economy” terms, this also would be time to review one’s business model, to check its competitive advantage or pitfalls. The second set of enabling mechanisms (on the “Organizational” axis) includes processes and structure. It also means ensuring the Enterprise has the right people and the right skill sets to get the job done. These all require building on the Enterprise’s culture and values. This could mean the deliberate elimination of counterproductive values or structure - but there will always be a structure and a set of processes in place. 81

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8.3.3 Step 3: Empower

Given a clear vision, strategy and enabling tool kit, the third step of the Leadership process is empowering people to achieve the goals. There is a ”deal” between the Leader and his or her followers. The followers and the Leader have a contract, for success and failure, reward and sanction, on both sides. Both are given mutual freedom, yet held mutually accountable. Both are thus empowered. We do not subscribe to a “free for all” empowerment. It is a deal: “You deliver this, and I deliver that. You will get more space, the better you do. The more I meet your needs, the stronger Leadership position I will be in. Together we will therefore be better able to accelerate the changes we have agreed to make”. Said another way, effective empowerment provides the space to get the task completed, the space to innovate, and the feedback mechanism to both improve results and to motivate the organization. Again, there are two sides to empowerment. On the “Organizational” axis, the team needs to be given the training to get the job done. This is self-evident. The empowerment must also bring rewards to all parties, and sanctions or challenges for improvement. On the “Operational” axis, both Leaders and Followers need to be able to measure progress against the goals, in a transparent way, which also encourages dialog and continuous improvement.
8.3.4

Step 4: Energize Therefore, the goal is clear, the plan is in place, and the troops are both motivated and armed. Still, there is an essential ingredient missing. The Leadership role demands the skills of energizing the organization to act. In fact , whilst we hope every member of a team "Energizes" others, one could argue that this Energizing step is a very personal one. By contrast, the previous 3 steps usually involve shared actions by the entire team. Looking at the 4 E’s grid, on the “Organizational” axis we summarize the issue as “individual success”. For the members of the team, probably the maximum energy will result from the combination of winning (in the marketplace) and achieving a sense of

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Leadership – A New Dimension personal success and satisfaction. The more energy the team generates, the more energy the Leader has – in a virtuous circle of reinforcement. On the other, “Operational” axis, we see that continuous communication and course corrections are the key activities of the Leader. This includes “walking the talk”, consistency, continuous communication with the team, personal persuasiveness and clarity. The Leader is a kind of motor for the change – the moment he or she flags or shows a lack of resolve, the team will loose energy, and results will suffer. One classic energizer involves expressing the vision and goals in a "story", which builds understanding and the desire for action in the followers. A great example of a "story" is John Kennedy’s "put a man on the moon and return him home safely by the end of the decade". This energized an entire nation, its military and its industries. He stuck to the script, and even after his death, the mission was accomplished.
8.3.5 Step 5: Execute

Strictly speaking, this is not a step, but a “surrounding” concept for the other 4 E’s. Outstanding execution and follow through applies at every stage of the Leadership process. We have sometimes been challenged that we should add yet another “E” to the framework – Emotion. There has been much written about Emotional Intelligence (developed by Daniel Goleman [x]), and it is an important concept. The concept includes self-awareness and impulse control, persistence, zeal and self-motivation, empathy, and social deftness. All are fundamental to excellent, personal Leadership skills. In the 4 E’s framework, however, we believe that emotional intelligence fits inside the energizing role of a Leader, rather than as a separate focus. We are helped to this conclusion by the many studies that demonstrate that successful Leaders have had a varied and challenging career. This puts them through their “Leadership training paces” at each stage, en route to becoming a world class Leader. By contrast, individuals who have not had the opportunity to build long-term programs, or who have spent all of their time in focus area, tend not to make the best Leaders. This breadth of experience, and the challenges associated with such a career, not only serve to broaden the Leader’s skill base, but also help his or her emotional development. We believe there are thus three sequential 83

Leadership – A New Dimension stages in any Leader’s personal development, which allows them all to be better energizers: Learning the basic strategic and communication skills and how to use them Exhibiting Leadership behaviors in a day to day context – “walk the talk” Getting comfortable with the Leadership role The last point is where “emotional maturity” and “emotional intelligence” come most into play. That is where Goleman’s work fits. It is no use just having all of the Leadership theory in your head – you must have the maturity to be able to use it and energize others.

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Leadership – A New Dimension

9 LEADERSHIP VERSES MANAGEMENT
Leadership versus Management - there is a world of difference between the two. Between the focus and the types of results achieved. Life is rapidly changing and so too the way you influence people must be able to shift rapidly to meet the new requirements. To get a sense of how much change is in store for us, consider how different life was in 1982, only a few decades ago. Reagan was President in the US, The Berlin Wall was still up and the Cold War was still waging, Falklands War was being fought, Joe Cocker and Jennifer Warnes were singing "Up there Where We Belong", it was the start of a world-wide recession, Prince William was born, Gandhi was on at the movies, we'd never heard of test-tube babies, the El Nino of 1982 was the most severe in the 20th century, the Sydney Harbors Bridge celebrated its 50th birthday by allowing 500,000 people to walk across her, the Twin Towers stood tall on the New York skyline. In addition, at work... There were no faxes, answering machines, or cell phones Rotary phones and typewriters were commonplace If people had computers at all, they were dumb terminals Semiconductors, cable TV, and the Internet were not major industries "Made in Japan" was just beginning to mean quality, not junk Many of what are now the world's largest markets were closed to outside trade So, what do the next 10, 15, 20 years hold? One thing is the way you are managing and leading today is going to be different - if it is not you will probably be left behind. Today you are probably expected to: Produce more Increase profits/minimize costs Make sharper/better/quicker decisions Respond effectively to the needs of your people Manage Multiple projects In order to do this and more, you may need to make some shifts. The table below lists some key distinctions. Some of them you may like to implement in your workplace. 9.1 Leadership versus Management: Key Distinctions Old Way = Low Performance Maintaining status quo New Way = High Performance Distinction

Leading the charge for A business created for today continuous improvement vs A business designed for the longterm Involving people in the Like it or lump 85 it

Dumping change on people

Leadership – A New Dimension change process and helping vs them to understand why Together we can make transition easier and quicker Tolerating low performance Accepting only Performance

this

High I don't want the hassle of dealing with you vs The better Leader I am the better you will be

One Management Style fits Flexibility of Leadership, My way or the highway all asking people how to best vs lead them How can I help you be your best? Avoiding staff problems On-time feedback performance about Maybe it will go away vs Every player in this game is important with I am your judge vs With my constructive support you can improve Busy, vs Strategically business busy, working on busy the

Patronizing, Gossiping,

Critical, Always Integrity

Speaking

Solving problems well - but Anticipating Problems often in crisis state

Focusing on weaknesses

Having people work in roles You have to fit your job in which their strengths can vs be maximized Which roles/tasks here best suit you to Seeing the greatness in a You aren't good enough person and asking them to vs step up to their potential There is so much more to you Providing reasons, seeking Changes made with poor debate and input, responding implementation to feedback vs High acceptance of and excellent implementation of change "Do you have all resources you need" the Distrusting vs Trusting Resource Boss

Asking a person improve/change Expecting compliance

"I'm watching you"

"It's your job, so get on with "Tell me how I can help you Employees having it" succeed" vs Employees wanting to Source of recognition and Source of Endorsement and People needing your

to

approval 86

Leadership – A New Dimension approval Challenge vs People seeing you as the person who creates opportunities for them to grow

9.2 Building and maintaining relationships The building, protecting and repairing of relationships is at the center of all our lives. Family life is the best possible example of relationships at work. You spend almost as much time in work as you do with your family so it is not surprising that relationships are considered of fundamental importance. The art of motivation is nothing new to us as we do it as a matter of routine in our lives. We motivate our children to succeed and we encourage our friends in their pursuits. Building and maintaining relationships takes time and effort but these can be so easily lost. An excellent relationship developed over five years can be lost in a second due to a hasty comment or a sudden action. As a supervisor or manager you will build and maintain thousands of relationships during your career so it is worth developing your relationship skills. Although relationships and motivation are not exactly the same they are totally inter-related. For example, when you successfully motivate someone to do something then that will improve your relationship. On the other hand, if you have a good relationship it becomes easier to motivate because you are trusted. Here are some good tips on building good relationships
9.2.1 Build new relationships quickly and carefully

The advantage of new relationships is that they start from a clean slate. This is a great opportunity to build a healthy and lasting relationship. Be careful not to show favoritism, as you cannot damage the existing relationships in the process. If you are the new boy then you will need to work very hard to establish your relationships with your new group. You will be the center of attention so be careful.
9.2.2 Relationships require constant attention

Do not take relationships for granted, as they need maintenance in the same way as complex machinery. A common problem is to only talk to your people when there is a problem or a specific reason. This is a clear sign to everyone that the job is more important than the person is.

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9.2.3 Repair damage quickly

No matter how skilful you become in building relationships the occasional breaks are inevitable. When these happens you must act quickly, don't allow them to fester. It may be a simple misunderstanding that can be resolved in seconds or perhaps an apology is required.
9.2.4 Don't build one relationship at the expense of another

It is possible that one of your groups needs much more attention than another. In building one relationship, it is easy to neglect the others. Make time for each group member and never allow your personal favoritism to show.
9.2.5 Don't play games with relationships

A relationship is not a toy or an experiment that the supervisor is free to experiment with freely. A relationship is based on trust and this must be treated with respect.
9.2.6 Keep the channel cool

The relationship line can become emotionally charged. Extreme emotional feelings can make the channel very hot. An emotional outburst is one of the easiest ways of damaging relationships.
9.2.7 Separate business from pleasure

The best policy is not to mix your business and pleasure lives separate. It is difficult to discipline someone if you are close friends. Of course, in many cases, you will have been co-worker and friends with most of your group for many years and there is no justification for changing these relationships. However, you need to exercise caution in these relationships. Try to do business things in work and social things outside – do not mix the two.
9.2.8 React to relationship breakdown

Sometimes in spite of all your hard work, you fail to build a workable relationship with someone under your supervision. It is difficult to admit defeat but it is also important to protect the other relationships in the group. This nearly always means removing the person from the group. This can be achieved by the transfer the person or by his termination. Making these decisions is never a pleasant task, but in some cases it is inevitable. Ironically, this action is usually the best for both parties.

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9.2.9 Your behavior

The last but not the least important aspect of people management is your behavior. This is the one area where you have enormous advantages over machine management in that you have the choice. Others usually choose our machines and you can do little to change that, but the way you behave is your choice. 9.3 21st Century Leadership – According to Jim Murray It has been said that, in the 21st century, the very nature, speed and complexity of change will change. If that is indeed the case, then so too will the nature of leadership. What made the leaders of yesterday will not make the leaders of tomorrow. What will a 21st century leader look like? The leader of the past was a doer. The leader of the present is a planner. And the leader of the future will be a teacher. The job of a 21st century leader will be to develop capabilities, not necessarily to plan the organization’s strategic direction. It will be to increase the organization’s capacity to be focused, agile and resilient. It will be to create, harness and advantage intellectual capital rather than to deploy other assets. This kind of leader does not need to know everything there is to know (because that is a practical impossibility). On the contrary, these leaders will want to be surrounded by people who know a whole lot more than they do but who will trust them implicitly to weigh their competing claims and advice. It might be surprising but, in study after study about the purpose of leadership in the new millennium, getting results, i.e., making money, doesn’t even figure in the top requirements. What does figure is getting the process right – making sure the right people are talking to one another about the right things and have the right tools to do what they decide needs doing. When that happens, good results inevitably follow. This is what focus is all about. The 21st century leader doesn’t focus on results. He or she focuses attention squarely on the things that produce results. There are really only two ingredients required for organizational success: leadership and culture. And, since leaders know how to build an organizational culture of respect, accountability and innovation, nothing of any great consequence can ever be achieved without leadership. Leaders do make the difference. Today, more than ever before, we need more people who are willing to lead. I can tell you for a fact that there are positions of executive responsibility awaiting you, provided you have what it takes or are willing to learn it. You heard me correctly. I did say “willing to learn.” The ability to lead others is really a collection of skills, virtually all of which can be learned or strengthened. We are not born with leadership qualities; we acquire them through experience – through observation and listening, and through dedicated, conscientious, continuous self-evaluation and improvement.

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Leadership – A New Dimension Learn to lead Not just for your own wellbeing but for those who follow you. As you reach the highest levels of organizational responsibility and success, do not forget to take others with you to become the leaders of tomorrow. Let them be your legacy. To be a leader, you have to think like a leader. To understand this basic premise of leadership, you need to agree with two fundamental principles: 1. Successful people think differently than unsuccessful people. 2. We can change the way we think. In what way do leaders think differently? In my judgement, leaders are big-picture (not narrow) thinkers. They search for wisdom more so than answers. They are focussed (not scattered) in their thinking. They are creative (not restrictive) thinkers, driven by an insatiable curiosity for discovery and innovation. They are realistic and strategic thinkers. They are possibility thinkers, reflective thinkers. In addition, they understand the value of shared, unselfish thought. Your thinking style must be aligned with your leadership aspirations if your potential is to be realized. For example, what if possibility thinking is not one of your strengths? Then you have preciously few options other than to resign yourself to the reality of self-limitation, not just for yourself but for all who work around you. If you think you cannot do something, then it doesn’t matter how hard you try because your assumptions will be self-affirming. Napoleon Bonaparte was a great general with many physical limitations. However, mentally, he saw no bounds on his ability to succeed. It was he who said “The word impossible is not in my dictionary.” What other skills do 21st century leaders require? Your power and potential as a leader will be founded primarily on: 1. Your expertise, not your position; 2. Your reputation, which is amassed through consistent and reliable performance over time but which can be destroyed in an instant by a single, thoughtless act; 3. Your personal integrity and credibility – which is predicated on walking the talk every day; and 4. Your ability to negotiate win/win outcomes regardless of the circumstances. Like everything else, the ability to negotiate is a skill that can be learned and perfected. Trust me, great leaders must be great negotiators – getting your way while convincing people of their worth and dignity ... that they too are winners in your presence. Beyond the ability to negotiate, leaders must be superb managers of their most precious asset – their time. They must know that the phrase “time management” is a misnomer. For them, time is never a barrier to getting things done. Thinking that it is an obstacle is a self-serving and selfdefeating assumption. Self-management, not time management, is the antidote to the reality of insufficient time. Setting priorities, delegating for the sake of empowering others, and knowing what not to do are the attributes of leaders. 90

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Understand the importance of the Pareto Principle: if you focus your attention on those activities that rank in the top 20% in terms of their importance, you will have an 80% return on your effort. Anything that is not necessary for you to do personally should be delegated or eliminated. Reorder your priorities – activity is not the same as accomplishment. Leaders simplify. Peter Drucker tells us that "If it is not simple, it won't work" The key to organizational success lies in focus. And this cannot be achieved without clarity. With clarity, borne of simplicity, comes understanding. With understanding comes focus – knowing what’s important among all the distractions, disagreements and myriad choices available. With the right kind of focus comes the right kinds of decisions and actions – the right judgements and behaviours that drive the organization to accomplish great things and thereby realize its vision. Leaders must find the simple, compelling phrases that make sometimes complex but empowering notions understandable by those who must "carry the ball." Let me suggest two other very simple notions that leaders understand. One is the truism that people will act on their own ideas before they will act on yours. The art of leadership is to get people to believe that your ideas are really theirs, and then to agree with them. Not only are people empowered, they are more strongly committed to ownership and follow-through. Because leaders understand the power of simplification, they also see through the fads and concentrate on the fundamentals. They are not seduced by quick fixes and instant panaceas for introducing needed changes. They understand that building organizations and teams requires a knowledge of some simple truths which are easily understood. For example, leaders don’t get caught up in the rhetoric and promise of systems replacing competent, motivated people driven by a commitment to an overarching vision and values that encourage individual empowerment, productivity and accountability. Is leadership a matter of character? Of course. Heraclites, an ancient Greek historian, has told us that “A man’s character is his fate.” It is a simple but profound truth. The essence of a leader’s character, in my view, is her integrity, her curiosity, her credibility, and her daring. On this foundation, she must have a guiding vision, without which a leader does not know what she wants to do with her talent and thus where she wants to go. The persuasiveness of a message lies in the credibility of the speaker. Every message that people receive is filtered through the messenger who delivers it. If you consider the messenger credible, then you probably believe the message has value. I suspect you have all heard of the prescription, know thyself. For me this means considerably more than a knowledge of your strengths and defining talents. It includes knowledge of your hot buttons, prejudices and weaknesses – the things you do not do well. People who cannot figure themselves out end up making bad, stupid and illogical decisions. Good leaders begin their career paths as good followers. Leaders and followers share some important characteristics, particularly the ability to collaborate and the willingness to listen. Good 91

Leadership – A New Dimension leaders and good followers ask great questions. They want to know what and why. That's how they got to where they are and that’s how they stay on the leading edge of change. Paying attention to other people, in addition to being the best way to learn from them, happens to be one of the most powerful ways of influencing them. And influencing others is surely what leadership is all bout – getting other people to get things done. Listening is more than a courtesy, it is a lethal, strategic weapon in your arsenal of leadership skills. Make whoever you’re listening to feel like the centre of the universe at that moment in time and the payoff will be a fiercely loyal, lifelong ally. Doing so means more than making eye contact, it means making brain contact as well. What is the biggest mistake a leader can make? In my judgement, it’s taking too much credit. In fact, a good leader never takes credit. Leaders gain trust, loyalty, excitement and energy when they pass on the credit to those who have really done the work. An ego should not be so big that you lose your colleagues’ respect. The self-promotion I spoke of earlier never takes precedence over the building of strong, loyal, productive teams – as that will be your greatest accomplishment. How does a leader gain trust? Without trust, leaders cannot lead. Trust is the fuel that drives agile and innovative organizations. When people trust one another, they take risks, they challenge conventional wisdom, they dare to lead. Trust is the prerequisite to improving organizational performance and achieving sustainable competitive advantage. When trust breaks down, communication deteriorates. When communication breaks down, cooperation becomes more difficult. In addition, when that happens, bureaucracy flourishes and conflicts inevitably arise. When trust is nurtured, teams focus on achieving the mission and in operationalizing the organization’s values. There is no such thing as instant trust. You already know that trust has to be earned. A leader can't be phony because people can easily detect phoniness. One of the ways we generate and sustain trust is by caring about the fate of others, by being on their side. So always be true to your word and keep confidences. When leaders say one thing and do another, they quickly lose the trust of their followers. In a way, distrust is as amorphous but nonetheless pervasive as is carbon monoxide. You can’t see it, you can’t smell it but, in the end, it will certainly kill you, your ideas and your organization. The pressure created by continuing, forced change and attendant employee uncertainty, for example, has the potential to undermine organizational trust. And this is where, I think, leaders face their greatest challenges. Clearly, leaders in the 21st century will know how to grow, harness and leverage intellectual capital. They will know how to use more of what people know, give people more to know that is useful, and allow people time to think and do by minimizing meaningless bureaucracy. Tomorrow’s leaders will create networks, not hierarchies or silos, to both create and share knowledge. They will distinguish between the cost of paying people from the value of investing 92

Leadership – A New Dimension in them. They will cultivate expertise in the context of strategy, get smart people to work smarter, make tacit knowledge explicit, and understand how to train people as well as the limits to training.

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10 GREAT LEADERS OF INDIA
LalBahadur Shastri
Lal Bahadur proved to be one of the heroes of the history of India. A Great general in Gandhiji's Army of peaceful soldiers of freedom. He became the symbol of India's velour and self-respect

The 27th of May 1964 is an unforgettable day in the history of India. On that day the citizens of Delhi woke and attended to their routine work. During the day came shocking news from Teen Moorti Bhavan. The first Prime Minister of free India, Jawaharlal Nehru, lived in Teen Moorti Bhavan; the citizens learnt that he had a heart attack. 'After Nehru, Who?' A few months before Nehru had suffered a mild heart attack. But he had recovered from it quickly. He was certain that he would live for some more years. But he passed away on May 27, 1964. Nehru was no more. It was unbelievable but true. One question echoed from Kashmir to Kanyakumari: 'After Nehru, who?' The leaders of the ruling party, the Congress Party, thought deeply over the question. They counted a few suitable names on their fingers. Which of them was the best choice? Who could be the Prime Minister? Lal Bahadur Shastri Finally all the leaders came to the decision that Lal Bahadur Shastri was the only person to pilot the nation at such critical times. A short man. A lean body. Eyes wide as the wheels of a cart. His clothes were simple, his voice soft and almost inaudible. But there was always a smile, which overarched his words. There was not the slightest sign of pride or authority in his bearing. Could he administer a nation of five hundred million people, doubted some. Lal Bahadur never praised himself. On the contrary he used to say: "I am an ordinary man and not a very bright man." He never aspired to power. He never worked for it. And yet power and authority came in search of him. Fame set a crown on his head. The short man grew into a colossus. He showed by his work that, though he was tender like a flower, he could be hard as diamond, too. He filled the Four Corners of the world with the fame of India. At a time when the world sang his praises as a hero, an incomparable patriot-hero and as the architect of peace, and just as he touched the peak of his life, Lal Bahadur passed away all too suddenly. He came to power unexpectedly, and he left the world equally suddenly. 94

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'Bharat Ratna' Lal Bahadur was a star of great brightness in the history of India, After his death the President of India conferred on him, on behalf of the nation, the award of ' Bharat Ratna'; it was a most fitting. A small bodies but mighty man-so runs a kannada proverb. It applies to several great men. Shivaji was not tall. But like a magnet he attracted people,and organized and built a great empire. Napoleon was short. But he shook the whole world. Lal Bahadur Shastri was not taller than those two; but he was not second to them in greatness. Firmness, love of adventure, patience and skill in administration cannot be acquired in a day or a year. Only when we study his growth from childhood can we understand how he acquired all these qualities. The Fatherless Child Lal Bahadur was born on October 2nd, 1904 at Mughalsarai, seven miles from Kashi. His parents were Sharada Prasad and Ramdulari Devi. They were agriculturists. Srivastava was part of Lal Bahadur's name. He dropped that part indicating his caste when he grew up. He did not like such indications of caste. Lal Bahadurs father was a poor teacher at first. Then he became a clerk in the Revenue Office at Allahabad. Here, too, he earned very little. But, even though he was poor, he never accepted bribes. He lived a life of honesty and integrity. Sharada Prasad died when Lal Bahadur was only a year old. Ramdulari Devi felt as though the skies had come down on her. Her father gave shelter to her and her three children, a boy and two girls. The Loving Grandfather Lal Bahadur's grandfather Hazari Lai's family was very large. His brothers, their wives and children, besides his own children and grand children, lived under the same roof. It was a small world in itself and Hazari Lai was the fountain of love and affection to all of them. He looked after every one in the family with love. He was especially fond of little Lal Bahadur. He always affectionately called him 'Nanhe' which means 'tiny'. An interesting incident took place when Lal Bahadur was only three months old. The mother went to bathe in the holy Ganga with her child. In the milling crowd at the bathing ghat she lost her child. The child had slipped from his mother's arms into a cowherd's basket. The cowherd had no children, So he took the child as a gift from God and celebrated the event with great joy. The mother was lost in grief. A complaint was lodged with the police. They traced the child. The foster parents wept bitterly to give back the child. Lal Bahadur, who was destined to govern the country, narrowly missed the 'good fortune' of becoming a cowherd. Lal Bahadur stayed at his grandfather's house till he was ten. By that time he had passed the sixth standard examination. There was no high school in that place. They sent him to Kashi for further education. Strong and Self-respecting Courage and self-respect were two virtues, which took deep root in him from his childhood. While in Kashi, he went with his friends to see a fair on the other bank of the Ganga. On the way back he had no money for the boat fare. His self-respect did not allow him to ask his friends for money. He slipped from their company without their knowledge. His friends forgot him in their talk and boarded the boat. When the boat had moved away, Lal Bahadur jumped into the river; as his friends watched breathlessly he swam to the other bank safely. Though Lal Bahadur was, a man of small build, he was unusually strong. His moral strength was even greater. As in water so in life he swam quite successfully. Twice he was about to be drowned but was saved. It is said 95

Leadership – A New Dimension that when he was saved the second time, he had his teacher’s three-year-old baby on his shoulders. Lal Bahadur acquired virtues likeboldness, love of adventure, patience, self-control, courtesy and selflessness in hischildhood. Even as a boy he loved to read books. He read whatever books he came across, whether he understood them or not. He was fond of Guru Nanak's verses. He used to repeat the following lines often: "0 Nanak! Be tiny like grass, For other plants will whither away, but grass will remain ever green." The Lesson An incident, which took place when he was six years old, seems to have left a deep mark on his mind. Once he went to an orchard with his friends. He was standing below while his friends climbed the trees. He plucked a flower from a bush. The gardener came in the meantime and saw Lal Bahadur. The boys on the trees climbed down and ran away. The gardener caught Lal Bahadur. He beat him severely. Lal Bahadur wept and said, "I am orphan. Do not beat me." The gardener smiled with pity and said, "Because you are an orphan, you must learn better behavior, my boy." The words of the gardener had a great effect on him. He swore to him, "I shall behave better in future. Because I am an orphan I must learn good behavior." Though short he was not timid at school. All boys were friendly with him. Like the grass he always looked fresh and smiling. Not only during his school days but also in his later life he did not hate anyone. It seems he used to act in plays at school. He played the role of Kripacharya in the play 'Mahabharatha'. Kripacharya was in the court of Duryodhana and yet was loved by the Pandavas. Lal Bahadur Shastri had acquired the same worth. Tilak and Gandhiji Even when Lal Bahadur was a student of Harischandra. High School at Varanasi a whirlwind had disturbed India. Everywhere there was the cry of 'Freedom'! "Swaraj is our birth right" - Bala Gangadhara Tilak had declared. This had become the nation's battlecry. Lal Bahadur reverenced Tilak. He longed to see him and hear his speech. Once Tilak visited Varanasi. Lal Bahadur was away in a village fifty miles from Varanasi. He borrowed money and traveled in a train to see and hear Tilak. He saw him and heard his speech. It reverberated in his ears like Krishna's conch, thePanchajanya. Like Bharata, carrying Rama's sandals on his head, Lal Bahadur carried Tilak's message in his heart. This message guided him all through his life.The greatest influence on Lal Bahadur was that of Mahatma Gandhi. Lal Bahadur was electrified when he heard a speech of Gandhi at Varanasi in 1915. Then and there he dedicated his life to the service of the country. The young Satyagrahi In 1921, Mahatma Gandhi launched the non-cooperation movement against British Government and declared that the country would not cooperate with the Government in its unjust rule. Lal Bahadur was then only seventeen years. When Mahatma Gandhi gave a call to the youth to come out of Government schools and colleges, offices and courts and to sacrifice everything for the sake of freedom, Lal Bahadur came out of his school. His mother and other relatives advised him not to give up his studies. But Lal Bahadur was firm in his decision -Lai Bahadur joined the procession, which disobeyed the prohibitory order. The police arrested him. But as he was too young, he was let off. Lal Bahadur did not go back to his school. He became a student of Kashi Vidya Peeth. During his four years' stay there, he made excellent progress. Dr.Bhagawandas's lectures on philosophy went straight to his heart. In later life Lal Bahadur displayed surprising poise in the midst of conflict and confusion. This he learnt from his teacher, Bhagawandas. 96

Leadership – A New Dimension

'The Servants Of The People Society' It was in 1926 that Lal Bahadur got the degree of 'Shastri' and left the Kashi Vidya Peeth. The whole country became the arena of his activity. He became the life- member of The Servants of the People Society, which Lala Lajpat Rai had started in 1921. The aim of the Society was to train youths that were prepared to dedicate their lives to the service of the country. One of the rules of the Society required the members to take an oath to serve the Society at least for twenty years and to lead a simple and honest life till the end. Lal Bahadur earned the love and affection of Lajpat Rai by his earnestness and hard work. Later he became the President of the Society. Shastriji married in 1927. Lalitha Devi, his bride, came from Mirzalyur. The wedding was celebrated in the simplest way. All that the bridegroom took as a gift from father-in-law was a charaka and a few yards of Khadi. Freedom's Solider The struggle for freedom was intensifield all over the country in 1930. Mahatma Gandhi started the 'Salt Satyagraha'. Lal Bahadur took a leading role in it. At the age of seventeen Lal Bahadur had participated in a procession against the British Government. The government had arrested him and then freed him. But this time it did not let him off easily. He had been calling on people not to pay land revenue and taxes to the government and the government had been keeping a wary eye on him. Now he was sent to prison for two and a half years. From this time onwards prison became his second home. He was sent to prison seven times and was forced to spend nine long years in various prisons on different occasions. His going to prison was a blessing in disguise. He had time to read a number of good books. He became familiar with the works of western philosophers, revolutionaries and social reformers. He translated the autobiography of Madam Curie (a French scientist who discovered radium) into Hindi. Lal Bahadur's virtues shone even in the prison. He was a ideal prisoner. 'He was a model to others in discipline and restraint. Many political prisoners used to quarrel among themselves for small things. They used to cringe for small favors before the officials of the prison. But Lal Bahadur used to give up his comforts for others. Sense Of Honour The greatness of Lal Bahadur was that he maintained his self-respect 'even in prison. Once when he was in prison, one of his daughters fell seriously ill. The officers agreed to let him out for a short time but on condition that he should agree in writing not to take part in the freedom 'movement during this period. Lal Bahadur did not wish to participate in the freedom movement during his temporary release from prison; but he said that he would not give it in writing. He thought that it was against his self-respect to give it in writing. The officers knew that he was truthful. Therefore they did not insist. Lal Bahadur was released for fifteen days. But his daughter died before he, reached home. After performing the obsequies he returned to his prison even before the expiry of the period. A year passed. His son was laid up with influenza this time. Lal Bahadur was permitted unconditionally to go home for a week. But the fever did not come down in a week. Lal Bahadur got ready to go back to prison. The boy pleaded dumbly with his tearful eyes. In a weak voice he urged his father to stay. For a moment the father's mind was shaken. Tears rolled down from his eyes. But the next moment his decision was made. He bade good bye to all and left his home for prison. His son survived. Two qualities, which the leader of any nation must have, are devotion and efficiency. Lal Bahadur had both the qualities in a large measure. He 97

Leadership – A New Dimension would not swerve from his aim, come what may. When the people of India. Were fighting for freedom he brushed aside all thought of personal happiness and plunged into the freedom struggle. His daughter'sdeath, his son's illness, poverty - none of these made him swerve from his selection path. Even when he became a minister and, later, the Prime Minister he was never attracted to a life of luxury and comfort. In Prison Again When the Second World War broke out in 1939, the leaders of our country were in a dilemma. When the people of India were slaves how could they support the cause of Britain? In the end they decided to launch a 'Satyagraha' against the British Government for the freedom of thecountry (1940). Satyagraha means opposition based on Truth. Lal Bahadur was one of those who offered individual Satyagraha. He was sent to prison for one year for this. The freedom struggle became more widespread and intense. The prisons were bursting with political prisoners. On 8th August 1942, the Indian National Congress which led the fight for freedom decided at its historic meeting in Bombay to sound the trumpet for the final struggle against the British in India. It called on the British to 'Quit India'. The people were determined to 'do or die'. The government reacted sharply to these calls and arrested many leaders. Prisons became over-crowded. The government used all cruel methods of suppression to nip the movement in the bud. Lal Bahadur, who had just then come out after a year in prison, traveled from Bombay to Allahabad by train. He got off at a station, unknown to the police. For a whole week he used to send instructions to the freedom fighters from Anand Bhavan, Jawaharlal Nehru's home in Allahabad. Vijayalakshmi Pandit, the sister of Nehru, lived in Anand Bhavan at the time. The police came there to arrest her and to take possession of the house. Lal Bahadur destroyed all-important documents. Luckily, the police arrested only Vijayalakshmi Pandit and went away. A few days later Lal Bahadur who was underground came out and shouted slogans against the government. The police arrested him then. A New Arena India got freedom in 1947.Lal Bahadur's administrative ability and skill in organization came to light in the days following India's freedom. He was an expert in the art of bringing together people and winning their hearts. Pandit Govind Vallabh Pant, the leader of Uttar Pradesh, was the first to recognize this talent of Shastriji and to encourage him. He earned the love of Pant by his hard work during the elections of 1946 in the provinces. The Congress Office had become Shastriji's home during that period. The Congress won a resounding victory in the elections. When Govind Vallabh Pant became the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, he wished to train able young men to run the government. But it was not easy to please him. Lal Bahadur did not want any office; yet he was appointed as Parliamentary Secretary to Pant. Pant praised him as 'likable, hard-working, devoted, trustworthy and non-controversial'. The Responsibility Of Freedom Later, in 1947, Lal Bahadur became the Minister of Police and Transport in Pant's Ministry. He took many steps to bring discipline into the administration. As Transport Minister he subjected government buses to discipline. He was the first to appoint women conductors. Usually the minister in charge of the Police Department will not remain popular for long. But Lal Bahadur Shastri never allowed the police to resort to lathi charge and firing. He ordered that using jets of water instead of lathis should disperse unruly crowds. Though there were many strikes in Uttar Pradesh when he was in office, there was not a single occasion when people shouted slogans 98

Leadership – A New Dimension against him. Lal Bahadur was a lover of cricket. Once he was watching a match at Kanpur. Trouble broke out among the spectators. The Police and young men came to blows. Since Shastriji was on the spot thesituation did not go out of control. The young men demanded that the red turbans' (thepolice) should not be found on the cricket ground and Lal Bahadur agreed. But the police were there the next day. The young men became angry with Shastriji and protested. Lal Bahadur laughed and said, "I fulfilled my promise to you faithfully. You did not want red turbans to be here. You see the police are now wearing khaki turbans." The spectators laughed and dropped the matter. The Minister For Railways In the first General Elections after India became a Republic, the Congress Party returned to power with a huge majority. Lal Bahadur Shastri worked hard for this success. He was the General Secretary of the Congress at the General Secretary of the Congress at the time. The selection of candidates and the direction of publicity and electioneering were under the direct guidance of Shastriji. But he did not contest the elections. However, Nehru did not wish to leave such an able and honest man outside the government. He persuaded him to seek election to the Rajya Sabha. He was elected to the Rajya Sabha. He was appointed as the Railways and Transport Minister in the Central Cabinet (1952). The railways are among the biggest Central Government undertakings, transport plays a vital role in the progress of any country. The railways in India had been badly disrupted after the division of the country. Lal Bahadur strove hard to set right and regulate the railways. It is not easy to organize movement ofpassengers and good from place to place without waste of time and without inconvenience. Lal Bahadur succeeded in this to a large extent. There were four classes- first, second, intermediate and third in the railways then. First class compartments offered extreme luxury and were almost heavenly.But the discomfort ofpassengers in the third class compartments was beyond description. They did not have even minimum comforts. Lal Bahadur's efforts to reduce the vast disparitybetween the first and the last classes cannot be forgotten. The first class that offered royal comfort was abolished. The old second came to be known as the first class and the intermediate class as the second class. His idea was to have only two classes of compartments in course of time - the first and the second. It was he who provided more facilities to travelers in third class compartments. It was during his time that fans were provided in the third class compartments. He also worked hard to improve the administration of Railways and to eliminate thefts in the trains. 'I am Responsible' Lal Bahadur identified himself with the Railways so much that he felt he was responsible if anything went wrong in his department. When he was the Railway Minister in 1956, 144 passengers died in an accident that took place near Ariyalur in Tamil Nadu. Just three months before this, an accident that took place near Ariyalur in Tamil Nadu. Just three months before this, an accident had occurred at Mehboob Nagar in which 112 people died. Lal Bahadur was in no way responsible for these accidents. Yet he was very much pained. He felt he could not escape the moral responsibility for them. He had submitted his resignation letter to Pandit Nehru when the Mehboob Nagar accident took place. But Nehru had not accepted it. But when the Ariyalur accident took place Shastriji said, 'I must do penance for this. Let me go.' So strong was his sense of responsibility. The Homeless Home Minister 99

Leadership – A New Dimension Lal Bahadur Shastri's exit from the Central Cabinet was a blessing for the ruling party. He worked for the party during the General Elections next year. Then he became the Minister for Transport andCommunications and later the Minister for Commerce and Industry. He became the Home Minister in 1961, after the death of Govind Vallabh Pant. People used to call him the homeless Home Minister because he did not have a house of his own. He had rented a small house in Allahabad. Even when he was a minister, he used to stay in that house when he went to Allahabad. After a few days the owner of the house let it out to another family. When Shastriji resigned as minister he vacated the government quarters and he did not have a place to line in! Not A Slave To Position The greatest danger that India had to face at the time was China's aggression (1962). The Chinese army crossed the Himalayan border and moved forward in wave after wave and occupied Indian territory in the north. But India stood up like one man against China. The Chinese moved back. But they did not return the areas they had occupied. China stabbed India in the back and lost the friendship of India. This was the time when China in the north and Pakistan both in the east and the west started giving trouble to India. It was absolutely necessary that the people of India should forget internal quarrels and that they should unite like brothers and sisters. Lal Bahadur Shastri strove hard to make the people feel that they were all one. People who clung to power sometimes showed their pettiness. To some people clinging to the minister's seat, rather than uniting the people, is the aim of life. At this time a plan was carried out to purify the ruling arty. The Chief Minsters of all states and the senior Ministers at the Centre had to handover their resignations to the Prime Minister Nehru he was to decide who should come out of office and work for the party and who should remain in office. Accordingly they all tendered resignations. Back In The Cabinet It was Nehru's desire that Lal Bahadur should continue as minister. But he did not agree. He insisted on giving up office. Nehru had to agree. Lal Bahadur never thought that the country could not survive if he was not a minister. Besides, power never went to head and corrupted him. But he could not remain out of government for long. Five months after he resigned Nehru's health began to fail. Those that wanted to destroy the unity of the country were gaining ground. They created trouble by setting up some Muslims of Kashmir against India. A man with the firmness and magic hand of Lal Bahadur Shastri was needed to handle the situation. So Nehru invited Shastriji to join his cabinet again. This time he served as a Minister without Portfolio. The Prime Minister Nehru died suddenly on May 27, 1964. The ruling Congress Party elected Lal Bahadur unanimously as its leader. He did not show any interest in the discussions before the election of the leader. He remained aloof as if it had nothing to do with him. The detachment he showed then was surprising. A Shield For India's Honour Lal Bahadur Shastri was the Prime Minister of India at a crucial time in India's history. He was physically weak, but he faced the problems confronting the nation like a hero. The first problem that he had to face after he became the Prime Minister was one caused by Pakistan. Pakistan took shape by eroding India's land, and was instigating Indian Muslims. After the Chinese aggression, when India's confidence in her strength had been shaken, Pakistan was creating trouble along the 100

Leadership – A New Dimension borders. But Shastriji would not yield to the wickedness of Pakistan. He first tried to earn the goodwill and support of other nations for India. He visited Russia, Egypt, Canada and Britain and explained to the leaders of those nations India's stand. He attended a meeting of the non-aligned nations (nations which were neutral) and explained India's position. He even tried to reason with President Ayub Khan of Pakisthan. The wicked do not like advice. They can understand only one language, the language of war. The Rann Of Kutch It had become Pakistan's habit to provoke India somehow and jump to arms. Pakisthan had been waiting to swallow Kashmir somehow. She pushed her forces across the eastern border into the Rann of kuch in Gujarat State in April-May of 1965. Lal Bahadur was not unnerved by this unexpected attack. He faced the problem with great tact at that critical moment. The Indian Army forced the attackers to retreat. Then both countries agreed to stop fighting. 'Force Will Be Met With Force But friendly words cannot tame a serpent. There is but one way to do it - to remove the serpent's fangs. Even before the ink with which they had signed the Kutch agreement dried up, Pakisthan raised its hood to strike again. Pakistani soldiers entered Kashmir in disguise. In September 1965 there was a large-scale invasion of the territory by Pakistani soldiers in the Chhamb area. War broke out all along the Cease-fire Line on the Kashmir border. The enemies who had managed to enter Kashmir were cunning and mischievous. Pakistan also tried to incite Indian Muslims. The Pakisthan army was engaged in forcibly occupying areas, which belonged to India. There was the danger of the fighting spreading to the eastern border also. In addition to this, there was the threat posed by the Chinese on the northern borders of India. Lal Bahadur Shastri faced all these problems with a will of iron. It was at this time that the country understood the greatness of Lal Bahadur Shastri. He decided that was the time to teach Pakistan a lesson. He gave full freedom to the Commander of the Army. 'Go forward and strike' was Shastriji's command to the generals. Addressing the nation on 13th August 1965 Shastriji referred to Pakistan's threats and said, "Force will be met with force." Two days later, during the celebration of Independence day, he declared from the ramparts of the Red Fort: "It does not matter if we are destroyed. We will fight to the last to maintain the high honor of the Indian nation and its flag." 'China Cannot Frighten us' Just at this time another danger threatened India. China sent a letter, which said, "The Indian army has set up army equipment in Chinese territory. India should pull down this equipment. Otherwise it will have to face the wrath of China." At that moment India was fighting against the Pakistani army equipped with the latest weapons supplied in plety by the United States of America. And, at this very moment how was India to resist China? China's allegations were a bundle of lies. If India removed the military equipment she would be admitting that China's charges were true. Also, that would mean India was afraid of China. Even the big nations waited breathlessly to see what Lal Bahadur would say and what India would do. Lal Bahadur did not take long to give a reply. The letter from China was received on the morning of 17th September 1965. He made a statement in the Parliament the same afternoon. He declared: "China's allegation is untrue. If China attacks India it is our firm resolve to fight for our freedom. The might of China will not deter us from defending our territorial integrity." China kept quiet. India's soldiers had no fear of death and fought most splendidly and heroically. The army and the air force functioned like the 101

Leadership – A New Dimension two arms of a single body. The invaders were beaten. The Pakistani army could not stand against the Indian army. It was then that, for the first time, the world came to realize the supremacy of the Indian army. Tashkent - Treaty Some big nations feared that, if India won a total victory over Pakistan, it would lower their prestige. The Security Council of the United Nations Organization called on India and Pakistan to stop fighting. On the invitation of Kosygin, the Premier of Soviet Russia, Lal Bahadur Shastri and Ayub Khan met in Tashkent on January 4, 1966. The leaders agreed that their armies should withdraw to the old Cease-fire Line in Kashmir and that the two countries should live in peace and friendship. Many people in India felt that we should not return the territory taken from Pakistan- occupied Kashmir. They argued that the entire Kashmir belonged to India. But Shastriji wished to give one more chance to Pakistan to live in peace and friendship with India. So he signed the treaty of friendship. Shastriji Is Immortal Shastriji had suffered heart attacks twice before. And during the period of the Pakistan war and the following days, his body, already battered, had to bear a very heavy strain. He signed the joint Declaration on 10th January 1966. He died the same night. The news of Lal Bahadur Shastri's death struck India like a bolt from the blue. The entire nation was plunged in grief. Some people suspected foulplay also. Gone was the war hero and the messenger of peace, gone was the great statesman who restored to India her honor and self- respect in the assembly of nations. A tiny, tidy figure. A soul that had lived in perfect purity of thought, word and deed. The very embodiment of selflessness, detachment and simplicity. Such was this man who had lived in our midst. He belongs to the race of the heroes of India.

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar

Born in a class considered low and outcaste, he fought untiringly for the down trodden.The boy who suffered bitter humiliation became the first Minister for Law in free India, and shaped the country's Constitution.

Born in a class considered low andoutcast. Dr. Ambedkar fought untiringly for the downtrodden. The boy who suffered bitter humiliation became the first Minister for Law in free India, and 102

Leadership – A New Dimension shaped the country’s Constitution. A determined fighter, a deep scholar, human to the tips of his fingers. Two brothers who were studying at school went to see their father. They alighted at the Masur Railway Station, engaged a cart and continued their journey. They went some distance; then the cart driver came to know that they belonged the Mahar cast. He at once stopped the cart and raised one end of it; the poor boys tumbled down and fell on the ground. He shouted at them and scolded them as he pleased. It was afternoon. The boys were thirsty. They begged for water but no one would give them a drop. Hours passed. Still no one gave them water. They were not allowed even to go near tanks and wells. The younger brother’s name was Bhimrao Ambedkar. A few days passed. One day Bhim felt unbearable thirst. He drank water from a well. Someone noticed it. A few people gathered and beat the boy mercilessly. The boy had to get his hair cut. Even a barber who used to cut the hair of a buffalo would not touch the boy’s hair. On another day, the boy was going to school. It was raining heavily. He took shelter near the wall of a house. The lade of the house saw this. She was very angry. She pushed him into the rain. The boy fell into the muddy water. All his books fell into the water too. In this way, again and again, the young boy was humiliated. His mind became a volcano of bitter feelings. Why did the people ill-treat the boy in this way? The boy had not committed any sin. But he was born in the Mahar cast. It was the belief of many Hindu that this cast is low and those born in this cast should not be touched by people of the other castes. Like the people of the Mahar caste, people of many other castes are called ‘untouchables’ and have suffered injustice for hundreds of years. Efforts To End Injustice There was no cast system during the Vedic age. There was no ‘un-touchability’. When and how did this system creep into the Hindu society? We do not know for certain. Did no one try to wipe out this injustice? Buddha admitted may ‘untouchables’ to his religion. Ramanujacharya, Basaveshwara, Chakradhara,Ramananda,Kabir, Chaitanya, Ekanath, Tukaram, Raja Rammohan Roy and other great men preached that no one is high and no one is low among God’s children. Mahatma Phooley and his wife dedicated their lives to the education of the ‘untouchables.’ Sayyaji Rao Gaekwad, the Maharaja of Baroda, established a school for the ‘untouchables’ as earty as in 1883. In this way many thoughtful leaders of the Hindu Society have been trying for hundreds of years to wipe out ‘Untouchability’. 103

Leadership – A New Dimension Both before and after India became free, many great man have sacrificed their lives for the truth and the principles they believed in. Ambedkar was one of them. Ideas of high and low had crept into the Hindu Society; Ambedkar sufferedbecause of this; he also fought hard against such differences; later he became the first Las Minister in free India. The credit for making a law and creating the necessary atmosphere to wipe out ‘Untouchability’ goes to Ambedkar. Early years There is a village called Ambavade in the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. Bhimrao was the son of Ramji Sakpal of that village. He was the fourteenth child of his parents. Ramji followed the teachings of saint Kabir. (Kabir taught that devotion to God, ‘Bhakthi’, alone is important) Ramji did not believe in differences of caste, creed and religion. It was his belief that all who performed ‘Hari Bhajan’ (prayer) belonged to God. Ambedkar was born on 14th April 1891. His full name was Bhimrao Ambavadekar. A story is narrated about Ambedkar’s birth. Ramji Sakpal’s uncle was a saint. Once he told Ramji, "You will have a son. He will become world famous, " and blessed him. Bhimrao Ambavadekar was born after this. His mother died when he was just five years old. The Sting Of Untouchability When he was still at school, he felt the sting of ‘untouchability’. He could not sit with the other students of the class. He had to drink water only when others poured it for him; and even then he had to cover his mouth with one hand. The boy could not understand why. These insults and pain they gave him self a very deep impression on the young boy’s mind. The boy felt ‘untouchability’ was a black mark on Hindu Dharma; he made up his mind to remove it. Fighting was in his very blood. The Mahars had the soldier’s blood in them. Father sakpal too had served in the army. Even from his boyhood Ambedkar had a mind of steel. Once it was raining very heavily. The boy Ambedkar said the would go to school. His friends said, "These are empty words, how can you go in this heavy rain?" In the downpour, the boy did go to school and that, too, without an umbrella! Ambavadekar Becomes Ambedkar When Bhimrao was a student at the High school, a Brahmin teacher admired Bhimrao’s lively mind. His family name was Ambedkar. The teacher liked Bhimrao so much that he changed his name from Ambavadekar to Ambedkar. When Bhimrao’s father married for the second time the boy’s mind under – went a change. He decided that he should be independent and the only way to achieve this was to study well. Why not go to Bombay, thought the boy. He needed money for the railway fare; didn’t he? For three days he tried to steal his aunt’s purse, and at last got it. He found just half an anna (three paise) in it! 104

Leadership – A New Dimension By next morning the boy was ashamed of and disgusted with his deed. He decided to struggle and stand on his own legs whatever the difficulties. Young Bhim was very fond of books and never tired of them. And his father even borrowed money and satisfied the boy’s thirst for books. At The High School He joined the Elphinstone High School in Bombay. The family found a house in a locality where the poorest of the poor lived. There was just one room for the entire family. This was at once the kitchen, the bedroom and the study. There was not space enough even for two to sleep. Bhim would go to bed early. Near his head there was a grinding stone and at his feet a goat. The father would be awake till two in the night. He would then lie down. The boy would get up, light the kerosene lamp without a chimney and begin to study. In the high school he received a wound he could never forget in his life. It was Bhim’s desire to learn sanskrit. Other Hindus of the School could learn Sanskrit. But it was ordered that he should not learn Sankskrit because he belonged to the Mahar cast! People born in other countries, people not Hindus at all were allowed to read the Vedas. No one objected. This injustice made him all the more bitter. But Ambedkar did learn Sanskrit in later life. The End Of One Stage Ambedkar passed in Matriculation examination. He was then seventeen years old. The same year his marriage with Ramabai was celebrated. Their marriage tool place in a shed in Byculla Market. Ambedkar passed his Intermediate Examination from Elphistone College. He obtained his B.A. degree in 1912. Ambedkar’s father died in 1913. Ambedkar was then working under the Maharaja of Baroda. The first chapter his life’s struggle was over. The second chapter had begun. In America The Maharaja of Baroda sent bhimrao Ambedkar to America. In America Ambedkar had experience of a new life. There was no ‘untouchability’. In this atmosphere, he quoted in a letter he wrote to his friend a few lines from shakespear, a great dramtist; they mean, ‘In the life of man now and again there is a swlling wave; if a man uses thisopportunity, it will carry him towards his fortune. Ambedkar wrote very learned and theories obtained his M.A and Ph.D. degrees. He returned to India on the 21st of August 1917. There is one thing to note in the years of Ambedkar’s education. He studied English and Persian languages in India. In America he studied Political Science, Ethics, Anthropology, Social Science 105

Leadership – A New Dimension and Economics. In this way he studied many subjects. He obtained his doctorate. Even at that time Ambedkar had a revolutionary mind. He had made an unshakable resolution to wipe out the injustice done to the people of the low cast; in this way he wanted to bring about a revolution in the Hindu Scociety. But – and this is important before becoming a revolutionary he increased his knowledge. Because of this his toughts were not mere froth. They had a solid foundation of information. This enabled him to pay a very effective part in framing the Constitution of India. Injustice and Humiliation Again Ambedkar was given a high post Baroda. He had a doctorate, he held a high office – but from the moment he set foot in India he felt the sting of ‘untouchability.’ No one came to welcome him, when he reached Baroda. Worse still, even the servants in the office would not hand over the files to him; they threw the files at him. No one in the office would give him water to drink. He could not get a house to live in. Even though he complained to the Maharaja, it was useless. Even nonHindu did not treat him properly. The fire of wrath against the Hindus blazed in Ambedkar’s mind. He returned to Bombay in a few days. In 1920, Ambedkar left for London for higher studies. The British Museum in London has a very good library. It used to open at eight in the morning, and every day Ambedkar would be there by eight. He read till five o’clock. In London he came to know a student called Asnodkar. He belonged to a rich family. He was not interested in study. Ambedkar said to him, "Your people may have made plenty of money. But think, you have born a man, what are you going to achieve? The Goddess of Learning will not come to you whenever you want. We must get her blessings when she comes." In 1922 Ambedkar became a barrister and the nest year he came back to India. 'Mook Nayak; ( The Leader Of the Dumb) To proclaim and to bring to light the humiliations suffered by the ‘untouchalbes’ and to fight for equal rights, a periodical called ‘Mook Nayak’ was started. Ambedkar gave his support to it. He wrote in the first issued of this paper, "The Hindu Society is like a tower of many stories. It has neither a ladder nor a door to go out…. A Society which believes the God exists even in inanimate things, also says that people who are a part of that very society should not be touched!’ By this time there were signs that the Hindu Society was beginning tounderstand that ‘untouchability’ is unjust. Sahu Maharaj of Kolhapur made arrangements for the free education of the ‘untouchables’ and secured jobs for many of them. In 1924, Veer Savarkar, a great fighter for freedom, was released from the Andaman prison; he also began to fight against ‘untouchability’. Mahatma Gandhi also was taking practical steps to wipe out ‘untouchability’. Chowdar Tank

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Leadership – A New Dimension Ambedkar had personal experience of the humiliation and the injustice of ‘untouchability’. He did not want the pity of other for the ‘untouchables’. In his view, others could not uplift the ‘untouchables’. Justice cannot be granted by others. Those who suffer because of injustice should themselves secure justice. Ambedkar felt that the ‘untouchales’ had lost their individuality for centuries; it was impossible to wake up such people through speeches and slogans. He decided to revolt against the blind beliefs of the Hindus. The Chowdar Tank Satyagraha was a result of this decision. The Bombay Legislature had already passed a bill. According to this, the government had decided that all could use public tanks to wells. On the basis of this decision, the Mahad Municipality in colaba district had resolved that Chowdar Tank could be used even by the ‘untouchables’. But they had not given effect to it. Ambedkar resolved to raise the flag of equality by using the water of this tank. On the appointed day Ambedkar touched the water first. Then, many of his followers drank the water. Till then the ‘untouchables’ had not been allowed to go near the tank. Ambedkar proved that water created by God belonged to all. But after a couple of hours some one spread the rumour that Ambedkar’s men would enter even the Veereshwara Temple. The other Hindus attacked Ambedkar and his men. In this clash, Ambedkar was injured. This incident opened a new chapter in the social life of India. Many sensible Hindus condemned these actions. They began to say that there is nothing wrong in the ‘untouchalbes’ taking water from wells and tanks. Should Not Hindus, Who Seek Justice, Give Justice? The ‘untouchables’ are Hindus. Therefore, the doors of temples should be open to them. If the Hindus can touch the Christians and the Muslims, why should they not touch the people who are themselves Hindus and who worship the Hindu Gods? This was Ambedkar’s argument. He gave a call that people who practise and support ‘untouchability’ should be punished. Some people argued that the ‘untouchables’ were not yet fit for equality. The Hindus say that they want independence and democracy. How can a people who have temple upon all the libertise of a backward group aspire to democracy? Ambedkar argued like this and thundered that these people had no right to speak of justice and democracy. In 1927 there was a big conference. It resolved that there should be no cast differences in the Hindu Dharma and that people of all castes should be allowed to work as priests in temples. The Chowdar Tank dispute went to the court. The court decided that tanks are public property. In Action The ‘untouchables’ who have been subjected to humiliation for hundreds of years should find justice. For this purpose Ambedkar indicated a few clear steps. No section of the Hindus should be kept out of temples. There should be more representatives of the ‘untouchables’ in the legislatures. These representatives should not be nominated by the government. They should be 107

Leadership – A New Dimension elected by the people. The government should employ the ‘untouchalbes’ in larger numbers I the army and the police department. A Fearless, Firm Mind Those who suffer in the Hindu Society should get justice. This was Ambedkar’s rock-like decision. He was prepared to oppose anybody to reach his goal. The British Government invited several Indian leaders to discuss the problems of India. The conferences were held in London; they were called the ‘Round Table Conference’. Gandhiji also took part in them. At the Round Table Conference Ambedkar spoke angrily against the government. He said that the backward sections did not enjoy equality with other sections, even under the British Government; the British had just followed the ways of the other Hindus. This was a time when Gandhiji was very popular in India. Millions of people followed his footsteps with devotion. Ambedkar openly opposed Gandhiji’s views on how justice should be secured for the ‘untouchables’. He supported the views which seemed right to him. Ambedkar secured for the Harijans (the ‘untouchables’) ‘separate electorates’ at the Second Round Table Conference in 1931. As a result, the Harijans could elect their representatives separately. The Mahatma's Fast Gandhiji felt that separate electrorates would only separate the Harijans from the Hindus. The very thought that the Hindu would be devided pained him much. He started a fast against separate electorates. He said he would fast unto death in necessary. There was anxiety in the country because of Gandhiji’s fast. Many Congress leaders went to Ambedkar to save Gandhiji. "Muslims, Christians and Sikhs have obtained the right of separate electorates. Gandhiji did not fast to oppose them. Why should Gandhiji fast to oppose Harijans getting separate electorates?" questioned Ambedkar. "If you are unwilling to give the ‘untouchables’ separate electorates, what other solution is there? It is essential to save Gandhiji. But just to save him I am not prepared to give up the interests of the backward classes," he declared. He said, reserve a larger number of seats for the untouchables’ than the British have given; then I will give up the claim for separate electorates." At last there was an agreement between the leaders who had gone for a compromise and Ambedkar. It was decided that ten per cent of the seats in the legislatures should be reserved for the Harijans. Ambedkar gave up the claim for separate electorates. Gandhiji ended his fast. This famous treaty is called the Poona Treaty was another important step in the struggle of the backward people We Need Dharma - But Casteism Should Go

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Leadership – A New Dimension ‘Undouchablity’ is a branch of casteism; until casteism is wiped out ‘untouchability’ will not go – this was Ambekdar’s firm belief. He argued that to wipe out casteism, political power was very necessary. He believed that Dharma was essential for men. But the revolted against those who, in the name of Dharma, treated some of their fellowmen like animals. Many people criticised him. Some newspapers also wrote against him. There were many occasions when his life was in danger. Also, Ambedkar knew from his own experience that even a bright man could not come up in life vacuse of casteism. People give his cast importannce and make him powerless. Ambedkar fought casteism. He was disgusted to find how difficult it was to secure justice and to find how many men were still narrow-minded. He even said that it would be better to give up the Hindu Dharma itself. Muslim and Christian priest and missionaries learnt about this declaration; they tried very hard to attract Ambedkar. They met and assured him that the ‘untouchables’ who changed their religion would be given equal status in their society. The Modern Manu Today Ambedkar’s name is remembered in the history of India also because of the role he played in framing the Constitution of India. India became free from foreign rule on the 15th of August 1947. Ambedkar became the first Minister of Law in independent India. With one voice all India welcomed his appointment. He took oath as a minister. The country, no doubt, got freedom. It was to be decided how a country with crores of people should be rules. How should elections take place? What are the rights of the people? How are laws to be made? How should the government works? How should courts of law function? - Such important matters had to be decided, and laws had to be made. The Constitution answers all such questions and lays down rules. It was a very difficult task to prepare the Constitution. A study of the Constitutions of many countries, a deep knowledge of law, knowledge of the history of India and of the Indian society, the patience and wisdom to weigh different opinion-all these were essential. On 29 th August 1947, a committee was constituted to frame the Constitution of India. Ambedkar was chosen as its Chairman. Shri T. T. Krishnamachari, a member of the committee, himself has said: "Though a committee of seven members was formed, one of then resigned. Another was nominated in his place. Another member died. No one took his place. One of the members was very busy with government work. Owing to ill health two other members were far away from Delhi. As a result, Dr. Ambedkar alone had to carry the entire burden of preparing the draft of the Constitution. The work he has done is admirable". As the Minister for Law, Dr. Ambedkar placed the draft Constitution before the Constituent Assembly on 4th Nobvember 1948. He gave satisfactory answers to many questions about the Constitution.

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Leadership – A New Dimension The part of the Constitution wiping out ‘untouchanblity’ was aproved on 29th November 1948. Ambedkar’s struggle bore fruit in his own life time. A new chapter began in social life. We should remember the words of Ambedkar in answer to the debate on the Indian Constitution: "India has lost her freedom only owing to treason of her own people. Raja Dahir of Sindh was defeated by Mahammad Bin Khasim. The only reason for this defeat was that the generals of the Sindh army took bribes from Jahsim’s men and did not fight for the king. It was Raja Jaichand of India who invited Mohammad Ghori to fight against Prithviraj. When Shivaji was fighting for the freedom of the Hindus, other Maratha leaders and Rajputs were fighting for the Mughals. When the Sikhs were fighting against the British, their leader did nothing…. Such things should not happen again; therefore, everyone must resolve to fight to the last drop of his blood, to defend the freedom of India" The Constituent Assembly accepted the draft India Constitution on 26th November 1949. Dr. Ambedkar was born in the Mahar Cast; he was pushed away as an ‘untouchalbe’, his very touch was supposed to make the water unclear; by his genius, by his learning and by his unbending will, he rose high and shaped the Constitution of India, and came to be called the Modern Manu. (Manu was a great Law-Giver of ancient India) Ambedkar’s fist wife, Ramabai, had died. He married a girl belongs to Saraswatha Brahmin – Dr. Sharda kabir; she was working in the nursing home where he was treated for sometime. In 1951, Dr.Ambedkar resigned his office as minister. After Resignation As A Minister In 1952, he was defeated by a Congress candidate in the election for the Lok Sabha. The entire country was shocked by his defeat. A few later he was elected to the Rajya Sabha. Whenever he felt that the government had not done justice to the Harijans he criticised it sharply. In 1953 the government brought a bill before the pariament. According to this bill those who practised ‘untouchablity’ would be punished; imprisonment, imposition of fines, dismissal from employment and withdrawal of licence to follow a profession – these were the forms of punsihement. To the Path of the Buddha Soon after the framing of the Constitution, Ambedkar’s mind turned towards Buddha. His mind was thirsting for peace and justice. He attended the Buddist Conference in Ceylon(Sree Lanka) in 1950. The bitterness of his mind was ever on the increase. In spite of it, he was not willing to embrace the Christian or the Muslim faith. Finally, Ambedkar decided to become a Buddhist. This was a great decision in his life, a decision taken after deep thought. Why did he choose Buddhism?

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Leadership – A New Dimension Ambedkar told his friend Dattopant Thengadi: " I am in the evening of my life. There is an onslaught of ideas on our people from different countries from the four corners of the world. In this flood our people may be confused. There are strong attempts to separate the people struggling hard, from the main life-stream of this country and to attract them towards other countries. This tendency is fast growing. Even some of my colleagues who are disgusted with ‘untouchability’, proverty and inequality are ready to be washed away by this flood. What about the others? They should not move away from the main stream of the nation’s life; and I must show them the way. At the same time, we have to make some changes in the economic and political life. That is way I have decided to follow Buddhism." There is a way of life which has come down as a steady stream in India for thousand of years. Buddhism is not opposed to it. The backward people must rebel against the injustice done to them; they must wipe it out. But ‘untouchability’ is a problem of the Hindu Scoiety. To solve this, a path which does not harm the culture and the history of Bharat must be followed. This is the basis of his resolution. He did not believe in the theory that Aryans came from a different land and that they defeated the Dasyus’ (the Dravidians) of this country. There is no foundation for this in the Vedas. The word ‘Arya’ appears some 33 or 34 times in the Vedas. The word has been used as an adjective meaning ‘the noble’ or ‘the elder’. It is said in the Mahabharata that ‘Dasyus’ can be found in all ‘varnas’ (castes) and‘ashramas’ (stage of life). In this way Ambedkar used to support this view. On 14th Octover 1956 at a big function in Nagpur, Ambedkar, with his wife, embraced Buddhism. A Life Of Fulfilment Ambedkar’s entire life was dedicated to one purpose – securing justice and equality to those people who are called ‘untouchalbes’. He had said many times "God will spare me till I complete my work for the ‘untouchables’. "He lived to see ‘untouchability’ declared a crime. The ‘untouchables’ had secured political equality. They should enjoy social equality also – this feeling was beginning to grow in the country. As early as in 1951, Ambedkar’s health had begun to fail. Yet he continued to work saying that he would not succumb to ill health when there was work to be done. On 16th December 1956 he breathed his last. Thousand and thousands of people watched the funeral procession and expressed their sorrow and admiration. Five hundred thousand people witnessed the last rites. Ambedkar was very fond of books. He had set apart a part of his house "Rajagriha’ for them. When he suffered from an eye trouble, he was particularly unhappy that he could not read. Whenever he went abroad, he used to buy books. Once he bought more than two thousand books in New York. "untoucalbes’, ‘Buddha and His Gospel’, ‘Revolution and Counter – Revolution in India’, ‘Buddha and Karl Marx’ and ‘The Riddle of Hinduism’ – these are some of the books he wrote. His books show how widely he had read, how he had gathered information, and how he could think for himself. Anger, Perserverence, Constructive Work and Kindness 111

Leadership – A New Dimension It appears that anger and perseverance are the two most important qualities that stand out in Ambedkar’s life. This is true from one point of view. The Hindus had called some people ‘untouchables’ and treated them very unjustly. This went on for hundreds of years. Ambedkar struggled hard to strengthen his people; he knew that those who are weak are bound to suffer. Once he said,"Goats are sacrificed, not lions.’ He attacked like lightening those who practised injustice. He opposed the British, he opposed the Hindu that were victims of the past, he opposed even Gandhiji, he opposed the Government of free India; he brought justice to the ‘untouchables’. At times his own life was in danger; but he gave no thought to it. It is important to notice another aspect of his Himalayan personality. He was very learned. At school he was not allowed to study Sanskrit, but later in life he did learn Sanskrit. As the president of the people’s Education Society he opened a number of schools and colleges; as a result people of backward classes could get education. He spent some days in Aurangabad. He saw that there were no plants or trees in the bit compound of the college. He said that any one who wanted to meet him should plant a sapling; otherwise he (Ambedkar) would not see him. In a few days more than a hundred saplings appeared inside the compound. Once in front of a hostel he saw shrubs. He himself began to clean the ground with a pick-axe and shovel. The root of his anger was kindness. It is no wonder that at the end he turned to Buddha, ‘the ocean of compassion’. His heart melted in pity when he saw those who, born as men, lived worse than animals, without the respect and the justice every man should receive. That is why he opposed ‘untouchability’. He felt that men need Dharma. "Food alone is not enough. Man has a mind, which also requires food. Dharma gives man hope and makes him active" he said. There was an old man among his followers. Once he went to Ambedkar. He said he had made avow to God and he begged for Ambedkar’s permission to carry out the vow. Ambedkar said with a smile, "Who told you that I have no faith in God? Go, do as you wish." Once an old lady knocked at his door at early in the morning. Weeping, she said, "My husband is very sick. I tried for 12 hours to admit him to the hospital. They said that there was no room in the hospital." Ambedkar himself went with her and admitted her husband to the hospital. Once, when Dr. Ambedkar resigned as Principal, a boy came to him crying. He was a Brahmin boy. He was very poor. He had a scholarship for two years. He was doubtful whether he would get it during the last year of his stay. Ambedkar was grieved at his story. He comforted him. He made him sit with him for food. Then he gave him fifty rupees. He patted him on his back and said "if you are in trouble again, come and tell me." When Ambedkar himself was in poor health, he heard that his gardener was not well. He took another man with him and, using a stick for support, went to see the gardener. "Who will look after my wife, if I should die?" – this thought troubled the gardener. Ambedkar comforted him. He said "Do not cry, everyone has to die one day or the other. I too have to die one day. Be brave. I will send you medicine. You will be all right." He sent the medicine. The very next day Ambedkar died in his sleep. A Lion Among Men Ambedkar was born in a cast which was considered as the lowest of the low. People said that it was a sin it they offered him water to drink, and that if he sat in a cart it would become unclean. 112

Leadership – A New Dimension But this very man framed the Constitution for the country. His entire life was one of struggles. And his personal life was too misirable; he had lost his first wife and sons. But even though he did not lost hid dareness. It is no wonder that everyone called him ‘Babasaheb’, out of love and admiration. Bhimram Ambedkar was the lion-hearted man who fought for equality, justice and humanity.

Gandhiji

Gandhiji's life was dedicated to the ideals of Truth, Non- violence and Love. He was the architect of India's freedom and one of the greatest men of this century

A traveler, who came from Europe to India about thirty-five years ago, was asked: ‘What do you wish to see in India?’ His reply was: 'The Himalayas, The Taj Mahal and Mahatma Gandhi.'It was neither wealth nor power that made Gandhiji so famous. He became famous for certain goodquality that he possessed. He always practiced what he taught. He did not do evil to any body; and also, he did not even consider the evil doer as wicked.He wished him well; and wished all well; he wished well to everything,and at all times.He looked upon all with love,and worked all through life to put an end to hatred and to spread love. From ancient times such a man of lovehas been called a 'Mahatma 'in India. Truthful and Religious Parents 'Gandhi' is a family name. The Gandhi’s had been merchants for many years. They lived in a town called Porbandar. It now belongs to Gujarat State. The town had stone walls around it. As the stones shone in the sun, the town was known as 'Shwetapuri' (the White City). Uttamchand Gandhi was the grandfather of Gandhiji. He was the Diwan or the Prime Minister or the Rana (ruler) of Porbandar. His son Karamchand Gandhi was Gandhiji 's father. Gandhiji's full name was Mohan- das Karamchand Gandhi. He was born on October 2, 1869. Karamchand Gandhi was the Diwan of Porbandar State for some time, and later became the Diwan of Raikot State. Like his father, he too was an honest and a courageous man. His wife's name was Putlibai. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was their youngest son. Karamchand Gandhi was a very practical man. Gandhiji describes his father in his autobiography as follows: 'My father was a lover of his clan, truthful, brave and gene- rous.'Often there used to be readings from the Ramayana and the Mahabharatha in his house.There used to be 113

Leadership – A New Dimension religious dis- cussions also among Jain,Parsi and Muslim scholars. Young Gandhi listened to all this with attention. Putlibai was in the habit of visiting temples every day. She used to take Gandhi also with her. She used to keep stern vows and fasts. Religious practices were her very life breath. Her influence on the son was great. Many years later,Gandhiji, recollecting his early years, said, 'If there is any purity in me, it is all due to my mother.' The son imbibed from his mother the qualities of service, sacrifice and affection for others. Gandhi as a Student Young Gandhi had his primary education up to the seventh year at Porbandar. Then his education continued at Rajkot. Gandhi was a very shy boy. He never found fault with elders. He was very obedient. Once an Inspector of Schools visited the school. The teacher dictated someEnglish words. Gandhi had miss-spelt the word 'Kettle'. The teacher noticed this, and made signs to the boy to correct it by copying from his neighbor. But Gandhi did not do so. He also felt that the same teacher, who had taught him that copying was bad, was not right in prompting him to do so. Still, the respect he had for his teacher did not grow less. At that time, Gandhi had occasion to see two plays. They were 'Shravana Pitribhakti' and 'Harishchandra'. These two plays left a deep impression on his mind.The devotion of Shravana to his aged parents was a model in itself. Harishchandra suffered great misery for the sake of truth. Gandhi began to consider if he could not also live like them. On the plastic mind of the young, example and company act as powerful forces. When Gandhi joined the High school in his thirteenth year, he fell into evil company. But he soon realized his folly and returned to the right path. Sheik Mehtab, a classmate of Gandhi, was a strong boy. He always excelled all the boys in games and sports. Gandhi came to believe that, in order to expel theEnglish rulers from our country, it was necessary that one should become strong like Sheik by eating meat. This false belief took deep root in his mind. He tried to eat meat in secret. He found it distasteful. In the same way, he smoked cigarettes. He also stole a piece of gold to pay his brother's debts. He felt sad because he had not the free- dom to act as he wished. In a moment of despair, he tried to kill himself, by swallow- ing Matura seeds (an effective poison). But he lost courage and could not do so. At last he felt sorry for his conduct. He confessed his guilt in a letter and, with trembling hands, handed it to his father. The father did not say even a word, and simply shed tears of sorrow. This melted Gandhi's heart. He touchingly refers to this incident in his autobiography: 'Those pearl-drops of love cleansed my heart, and washed my sin away.' Gandhi was only an ordinary boy both in the Primary School and in the High School. No special qualities were seen in him. At school he never took part in any games. He would not even freely mix with his companions. The fear that somebody would make fun of him always filled his mind. The Great Force of Religion 114

Leadership – A New Dimension Gandhi was married to Kastur Ba in his thirteenth year. Kastur Ba was also a girl of the same age. It was a case of child- marriage, and child-marriage was acustom of those days. It was a marriage of two persons, who did not understand anything about it. The immediate result of this was that a year's studies were spoiled. By the time Gandhi's High School education ended, a child was born, and died, and another was born. A boy of fifteen or sixteen years had already become a father. By that time Gandhi's father also had passed away. A Gujarati poem, by Shyamlal Bhat, that Gandhi read in deep impression on his mind. The lines were: For a bowl of water give a goodly meal; For a kindly greeting bow thou down with zeal; For simple penny pay thou back with gold; If thy life were rescued, life does not withhold. Thus the words and actions of the wise regard; Every little service tenfold they reward. But the truly noble know all men as one, And return with gladness good for evil done. This became the ideal of Gandhi's life. He understood that revenge was not true religion. He understood what the 'Religion of Humanity' was. He understood the great force of religion. In England After completing his High School studies, Gandhi joined the Samaldas College, Bhavnagar and continued his studies for some time. One day, a Swamiji who came to Gandhi's house remarked: "Why don't you send this boy to England for studies? The family can regain its honor." This appealed to Gandhi. He had a great desire to study medical science; but his brother was not in favor of it. Further, in those days it was supposed to be, against religion to cross the sea. His mother too did not consent. Her fear was that her son might take to liquor and meat eating. At last, Gandhi gave his word to his mother that he would not do anything immoral, and got her consent. His brother agreed to bear the burden of the expenses, though he was not a rich man. It was finally decided that Gandhi should go to England and study Law to become a Barrister. Gandhi was only nineteen years old then. He was to leave for England onSeptember 4, 1888. The elders of his caste learnt this. They opposed his journey. But Gandhi disobeyed them and left. The elders declared that Gandhi was an outcaste.

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Leadership – A New Dimension Gandhi had learnt from some elders about life in London as also about manners to be observed in English society. Friends had told him that it was difficult to live without drinking wine and eating meat, in a cold country like England. But Gandhi tried hard to keep his promise to his mother. He went in search of vegetarian hotels, and was content to eat whatever food he got there. Every day he had to walk a long distance from his residence to the hotel. But he never felt it a hardship. In the end, he decided to cook his food himself. Gandhi also tried to practice English gentlemen's ways and manners and to learn to speak French, dancing and the art of public speaking. His expenses increased. Neither could he learn any of them. And then the realization came to him that his brother was struggling hard tosend him money. Then he gave up all needless expenses, and began to live a simple life. His studies became his sole aim. Gandhi developed great intimacy with an English family. He pretended to be an unmarried man. He used to be quite free with the two-grownup daughters of the family. It looked as if the friendship would go beyond the proper limits. It was a testing time for Gandhiji. At that hour, he remembered the promise he had made to his mother. It saved him from a moral fall. He felt repentant, and wrote a letter of apology to the lady of the house, confessing that he was a married man and the father of a child. Gandhi stayed in England for two years and eight months. He obtained the degree of Barrister-at-Law. Without staying even for a day more, he started on the return journey to India, on June 12, 1891. During his stay in England, Gandhi tried some experiments in vegetarian diet. He came to the conclusion that a human being should not eat non-vegetarian food for any reason. He got acquainted with some great persons of the day, like Dadabhai Naoroji and Dr. Beasant. But there was no indication at all that some day Gandhi would become a great man. For the first time Gandhi read the Bhagavad Gita, in the company of two English Theosophist friends. Together they studied 'The Song Celestial' (the English translation of the Gita) by Sir Edwin Arnold. This roused Gandhi's interest in the Holy Books of the Hindu religion; and his interest grew with time.The teaching of the Gita was a source of spiritual strength to Gandhi. What Next? A great sorrow awaited Gandhi on his return to India. His mother had passed away while he was in England. But his brother had not informed him of this. In England, Gandhiji had dreamed of telling his mother how he had struggled hard to keep his promise to her and of her joy when she listened to his story. But Gandhi was denied this pleasure. Now, Gandhi was an young man of twenty- two. His son Harilal was a boy of four. Gandhi began the practice of law withgreat zeal in Bombay. But he lacked the courage to plead a case in the court. He could not conduct the very first case. He was deeply disappointed in the profession. He could not get any suitable work. At last he returned to Rajkot. His brother too was disappointed. At this time, there arose a hope that the eldest brother Lakshmidas might become the Diwan of Porbandar State. But he had incurred the anger of the British Political Agent. Gandhi had met that Political Agent when he was in London. Lakshmidas naturally expected that his brother would recommend his case. Though Gandhi was unwilling he called on the Political Agent and pleaded the case. He was warned that it was improper to make such a plea. Still Gandhi continued to plead 116

Leadership – A New Dimension for his brother. This put out the Agent, and he ordered his servant to show Gandhi the door. Gandhi felt greatly ashamed. But he was helpless. He felt distressed at his pitiable condition. This bitter event led to a total change in his way of life. The Call from South Africa Some Gujarati merchants had trade relations with South Africa. One of them, a relative of a merchant called Dada Abdulla Sheth, was a friend of Gandhi's brother, He asked Gandhi's brother if Gandhi would be willing to go to South Africa to assist his relative's English Lawyer in a lawsuit pending before a court. The work would take a year. All expenses would be borne by the merchant and, in addition, Gandhi would get one hundred and five pounds as fees. This seemed a good opportunity to Gandhi, as he was not only disappointed in the profession, but had also been put to shame by the English Political Agent. He obtained his brother's consent and set sail to South Africa in April 1893. He was only twenty-four years old. 'Do you have self respect?’ Two or three days had passed after Gandhi's arrival in Durban, in Natal State. Gandhi was wearing a turban on his head when he went to the court. The judge, noticing it, ordered him to remove it. All Indians, except the Muslims,who habitually wore a turban, had to remove it as a mark of respect to the court. Gandhi refused to remove it and went out of the court. This was the first insult that he had to suffer in South Africa. After a week Gandhi had to makea journey by train. He had bought a first class ticket. The train reached Maritzburg station. It was a bitter cold night. An officer of the railway came to Gandhi and asked him to vacate his seat for a white man, and to move to the van on the train. Gandhi refused. The railway officials, with the help of the police, had his things, thrown out. He was also removed from the carriage by force. The train left. Gandhi sat alone on the platform in the dark station and brooded over the insult he had suffered. In India a white officer put him to shame; should such a thing happen here too! The cup of sorrow was full. The next day, he continued the journey. It had to be done partly by horse coach and partly by train. Only Europeans were permitted to sit inside the carriage. Gandhi could not sit with them. He sat outside by the side of the coachman. Some time later, he was ordered to sit on the footboard. Gandhi could not bear it. He refused to carry out the order.The super- visor of the carriage, a European, attacked Gandhi and began to thrash him. Gandhi suffered the blows but did not at all move from where he sat. At last, the passengers intervened and checked the supervisor. Thus Gandhi was subject to untold shame. But when he learnt that such a shame was the fate of all Indian settlers, he was a transformed man. Indians had begun to settle in South Africa in 1860. Many of them were laborers in the sugar cane, tea and coffee plantation's belonging to Englishmen. In the eyes of the white Europeans all Indians were 'coolies'; the merchants were 'coolie merchants'; Barrister Gandhi was a 'coolie Barrister'. All were put to shame by being called 117

Leadership – A New Dimension 'Girmitias' and 'Samy'. (Girmitia is an ugly form of 'permit', and 'Samy' the ugly form of 'Swamy'.) In Natal no Indian was allowed to move about after 9 at night. In Orange Free State, no Indian could acquire property; he could neither be an agriculturist or a tradesman.In Trans- vaal, he had no right to own land;in addition to this, he had to pay a settlement tax of three pounds. All Indians had to live in dirty areas. Once Gandhi himself was knocked down by police patrolguards, for being out after 9 at night. In short, Indians were not considered as human beings. The South African Indian problem was thus a problem of life and death for a hundred thousand people.It was a problem of life and death for a hundred thousand people. It was a problem of life and death for a hundred thousand people. It was a problem of self- respect.All Indians suffered the shame mutely. Barrister Gandhi Leader of the fight for self-respect Gandhi was successful in bringing about a compromise in the lawsuit of Abdulla Sheth. His work in South Africa was over. The time to return to India had come. A meeting was arranged to bid him farewell. Those who had assembled discussed a news item, which had appeared in the papers that day, under the title 'The Indian Franchise'. Finally they decided to request Gandhi to stay in South Africa for some time more, to help them. Gandhi agreed. The assembly to bid farewell to Gandhi was converted into an action committee to fight for citizenship rights of the Indian settlers of South Africa. This laid the foundation for Gandhi's stay in South Africa. Thus the seed of the fight for the rights of Indian brethren was sown. Gandhi started an organization and called it 'The Natal Indian Congress'. It was to carry on the struggle of the Indians. He also started a newspaper. It was called 'The Indian Opinion'. The paper became an organ to give information about the struggle. It created unity and a sense ofself-respect among the Indian settlers. Gandhi once visited India and attended the session of the Indian National Congress; he spoke about the hardships of the South African Indians, and got the Congress to pass a resolution supporting the struggle. While in India, Gandhi made some speeches about the South African question. They were misreported in the press. The white men of South Africa who read the report became angry with Gandhi. They were waiting for Gandhi's return. As soon as he left the ship, they attacked him. His life was in danger. They kept shouting 'Hang Gandhi'. They also threw brickbats and rotten eggs at him. At that critical time, the wife of a European police officer courageously entered the fray, and led Gandhi to a place of safety. Gandhi was determined in his struggle. He united the Indian settlers and carried on the struggle. At that time, the Zulus, the natives of South Africa, rose in rebellion against the British. Gandhi suspended the struggle, formed a Red Cross Corps, and served the wounded soldiers. This was a great service. The British Government appreciated it, and awarded him the 'Kaiser-i- Hind' medal. The Birth of 'Satyagraha' Towards the end of 1907, the Government of South Africa tightened its laws against the Asian settlers in South Africa. It was called the 'Asiatic Act'. It lay down that all men and women of 118

Leadership – A New Dimension Asian origin above the age of eight years should get their names registered. In addition to this, the Government recognized only Christian marriages as legal. The result of this was that a Hindu couple or a Muslim couple who were married according to Hindu and Muslim religious rites were no longer considered as legally wedded husband and wife. Further, there was restriction on movement from one province to another. Gandhi advised his men not to honor and obey the Registration Law. This led to a fierce struggle.Gandhi called it'Satyagraha' ; it was the use of 'Soul-Force' or 'Love- Force' against 'Brute-Force' or violence. He trained men, women and children as volunteers to offer Satyagraha. He called his band a 'Peace Brigade'. It had to enter Transval from Natal. This was the civil disobedience that he planned. It continued for six months. All the Satyagrahisincluding Gandhi were arrested and put into prison. At last, the Government of South Africa came to an honorable settlement with Gandhi. The citizenship rights of Indians were recognized. Thus Gandhi was the champion of the self-respect of the Indians in South Africa. Satyagraha, this new way of struggle in South Africa, began a new chapter in the political history of the world, Politics is generally understood to permit cheating, killing and violence. Its policy is that the end justifies the means. But Gandhi taught the principle that both the end and the means must be equally pure and moral.He himself put that principle into practice. He showed that if this is to be possible, love or nonviolence alone is the way to it. 'Mahatma Gandhi' Gandhi now became a world-renowned person. He was considered by many famous persons in the West as an incarnation of Jesus Christ. This was for his nonviolent struggle - Satyagraha. He stayed in South Africa for 22 years. When he finally returned to India, he was welcomed and honored by the millions of his countrymen as 'Mahatma Gandhiji'. 'Sarvodaya' Gandhiji formed an Ashram near Ahmedabad. It was called 'Satyagraha Ashram'. The way of life that he practiced there was known as 'Sarvodaya' - the well being of all. It was the way of life that he practiced in South Africa. In South Africa, he had started two institutions -the Phoenix Settlement and the Tolstoy Farm. The aim of these Ashrams was plain living and high thinking. He believed that by such a way of life the well being of all men could be secured. 'A tooth for a tooth and an eye for an eye’ was not true religion, that is, revenge was not religion. His desire was that the individual should lead a truthful, religious and loving life. Man should strive to establish truth, piety and love in human society. It was Gandhiji's belief that the power of goodness that comes from such a life could transform the worst power on earth. Gandhiji -The Leader of India The people of India were also carrying on a struggle for freedom from the British rule. The Indian National Congress was striving for it. In 1919, British soldiers had acted in a brutal manner against an innocent and unarmed assembly ofpeople, who had gathered for a meeting at Jalianwala Bagh in Punjab. There were walls around with only a small passage to go out of the Bagh. The soldiers fired on the assembly, and killed and wounded many people mercilessly. 119

Leadership – A New Dimension Lokamanya Tilak, the great Indian national leader, passed away at that time. The nation was looking for an able leader. The Mahatma, the hero of the Satyagraha struggle in South Africa, had attracted the attention of many Indians. Thus leadership courted him naturally. There was great charm in his words. His conduct was flaw- less and crystal clear. He filled the nation with a new spirit. Under his leadership the weakest man, woman and child, as well as innocent ryots, were ready for a nonviolent fight. They were ready to sacrifice their all. Self-sacrifice and service became the religion of the nation. The Indian National Congress carried on five major struggles for freedom, during three decades, under the leadership of Gandhiji. In 1920-22, it was called 'The Non-Cooperation Movement'. Government schools and colleges, courts and Legisla- tures were all boycotted. Gandhiji himself was arrested, and was sentenced to six years imprisonment. His trial in the court at that time drew the attention of the entire civilized world. In 1922, there was Hindu-Muslim disturbances in Bombay.Many were injured and killed on account of religiousmadness. Gandhiji was shocked to the core, He called his son Devadas and advised him: "Go and tell Hindus and Muslims, wherever they may be fighting, that this hatred is bad. It does not matter even if they kill you. I would be happy to sacrifice my son for the cause of Hindu-Muslim amity." The Salt Satyagraha of 1930-31 became world-famous. It was known as the 'Dandi March'. Manufacturing salt from sea- water was the monopoly of the Government. By breaking the Salt Law Gandhiji desired to show that the Indians were a free nation. On March 12, he went on foot with seventy-nine trusted disciples, from his Ashram at Sabarmati to Dandi, a 0sea- side place 241 miles away. Staff in hand he walked about 10 to 15 miles each day. The determination of the 62-year-old 'young man' was wonderful. He was like one in quest of Truth. His action shook the foundations of the British Empire. The courage and the spirit of self-sacrifice with which he filled the hearts of millions of Indians were amazing. There was Civil Disobedience or non-violent breaking of the law throughout the country. Cities, towns and villages were all scenes of Satyagraha. Heroism was the order of the day. The British Government put Gandhiji in prison again. In 1932, when Gandhi was behind thebars, an extraordinary event took place. In the name of political reforms, the British Government planned to cut away millions of Indians called 'untouchables' from the Hindu Society. Their principle was to 'Divide and Rule'. In 1924, Gandhiji had fasted for 21 days to bring about Hindu- Muslim unity. He had been saying that un touchability was a shame to Hindu Society. Hinduism should be purged of that guilt. When he saw what the Government was doing, he became unhappy, and decided to fast unto death. There was great commotion in the entire country. The Government realized its folly and gave up the plan. There was an awakening among the people. Government temples, wells and public places were declared open to the untouchables. Gandhiji called the untouchables - 'Harijans' (men dear to God). He started three periodicals 'Harijan Sevak', 'Harijan-Bandhu' and 'Harijan'-all devoted to the service of the Harijans. He took a vow not to re-enter his Ashrarn at Sabarmati until untouchability became a thing of the past in India. He settled down at Sevagram,(near Wardha) a newAshram, which he started there. 120

Leadership – A New Dimension In 1941, the Satyagraha struggle took a different shape. It was called the'Symbolic Satyagraha', and was different from the previous mass Satyagrahas. Only the individuals, whom Gandhiji selected or permitted, had to offer Satyagraha. This change was made because Gandhiji, the Truth-seeker, knew that the past mass Satyagrahas had not been entirely free from violence. Thus he conducted this experiment to make Satyagraha free & from violence as far as humanly possible. In 1942, there came the final struggle for freedom. The call was 'Britishers, Quit India'. For this struggle, Gandhiji gave the inspiring message, 'Do or Die'. Gandhiji expected that the struggle would be purely non-violent. It did not happen that way. Out there was great national upsurge for freedom. Thousands were put into prison.They faced the lath and the bullet, and gave up their lives. A whole nation rose up against an alien empire. It took all the suffering on itself cheerfully, without a word of demur or hatred or ill will. The way India got her freedom is unique in the history of the world. And all the glory of this unique struggle goes to the great leader Gandhiji. Ordeal by Fire On August 15, 1947, India became a free country. But it was divided into two independent States - India that is Bharat and Pakistan. Gandhiji was totally opposed to this division of the country. Though the country was divided, the Hindu-Muslim riots did not cease. They increased. Lakhs of people were rendered homeless. Many lost their near and dear ones, and became orphans, In Noakhali and Thippera of East Bengal, the killings of Hindus and the shameful acts committed on women were a blot on humanity. It looked as if man had become a demon. For half a century Gandhi had tried to put into action the principles of love and nonviolence in his personal life and in public life; now it seemed to him that those principles had totally failed. Naked violence ruled every where. In that fearful situation, Gandhiji tried to test his great principles.Hedecided to go to those areas, as a messenger of peace. Political madness and religious unreason had reached the height of cruelty. He decided to bring about peace between the Hindus and the Muslims. Though he was seventy-seven years old, he walked from village to village. He brought hope and courage to the suffering, unhappy people. He addressed prayer meetings. He advised both the Hindus and the Muslims. It was a noble mission of compassion. It shines as a noble proof of the heights of divinity to which frail mancan soar. Peace returned to the unfortunate area. The people of both the communities had realized the shame of their senseless acts. Gandhiji returned to Delhi. He was staying at the Birla House. It was Friday, January 30. 1948. Gandhiji used to hold prayer meetings every evening at 5-30. Prayer was his sole strength. That evening too he was on his way to the prayer meeting A man called Nathuram Vinayak Godse had come to think that Gandhiji was partial to the Muslims and that he would be saving Hinduism by killing him. As Gandhiji was walking to the prayer meeting Godse bowed to him in respect, and then fired three bullets at point blank range. Gandhiji, the embodiment of the eternal message of the Gita, was no more. The tragedy sent tremors the world over. A great and noble spirit that showed the path of piety to man, disappear from the world- stage; all who had a heart to feel shed tears of sorrow. 121

Leadership – A New Dimension Gandhiji's Legacy The Swaraj or Freedom that Gandhiji dreamed was not merely of a political character. It was to be a means to create a new man, who would strive to create a new society,a new civilization and a newculture. He called the new social order 'Ramraj' - 'the Kingdom of God on Earth'. Lovewould be the sole law there.All would be dutiful. There would be no distinction of caste, religion and community. No one would be treated as untouchables.All would beequal in the eyes of religion, All would live by the sweat of their brow. The intellectual worker and the manual worker would be equals; neither could claim superiority.There would be no intoxicating drinks. Women would be honored. Every one would be ready to give up his life for the good of his country. Gandhiji called such a state of society 'Sarvodaya (The Prosperity of All). To realize Sarvodaya, man has to live with fellow men, with other living beings and nature in understanding and harmony. Service to the lowly and the lost in society was Gandhiji's first step towards Sarvodaya. Gandhiji taught that knowledge and wealth devoid of religion and morals led to the fall of men. He died as a martyr in the cause of true religion. A leader's responsibilities are high. He has to examine himself severely time and again, to convince himself that he is fit to lead others. He has to bear all the moral responsibility for all that his followers do. If he feels unable to do so, he has to retire from the field of action.Through selfcriticism and self-confidence, he has to work to lead this imperfect world in the way of perfection. This is the deathless message that Gandhiji has left us. Single-minded devotion to the God of Truth and prayer are lights that Gandhiji has bequeathed to us. He could not remain without prayer even for a single day. 'Silent prayer is my greatest strength' - he used to say. 'Raghupathi Raghava Rajaram, Pathitha Pavana Seetharam.' Whenever we hear this prayer Gandhiji's memory becomes alive. His soul will be present there unseen, and blesses all. It is the task of religion to purify the fallen; it is the power of goodness in man. What does it matter what name we give it? Let us all is blessed with goodness. This is the perennial message that Gandhiji has left to mankind. As a boy Gandhiji was afraid of ghosts and devils. A good nurse, Rambha by name, taught him to repeat the name of Shri Rama to get over this fear. It brought him hope and courage. He chanted it day in and day out. It is significant that, when the assassin shot at him and his bodyslumped to find eternal rest in the lap of Mother Earth, the last words he uttered were 'Rama', 'Rama'. Mahatma Gandhiji, called 'Bapu' by his loving countrymen, will ever be remembered as a saint and a great leader of men.

Sardar Patel 122

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India's Man of Steel. He gave up his practise in order to fight for the freedom of the country. He was sent to prision. As the Deputy Prime Minister of free India, he became the architect of the integrity of India by mer- ging of hundreds of princely states with the Indian Union

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was known in India as the 'Man of Steel'. A Family of Heroes Vallabhbhai was born in Nadiad. It was a small village in Gujarat. His father was Jhaverbhai Patel, and his mother Ladbai. Jhaverbhai was a poor farmer. He was a strong and sturdy man. His country and freedom were as dear to him as his own life. In 1857 the people of India fought for their freedom. Jhaverbhai, who was then a young man, fought bravely at that time. Vithalbhai, Vallabhbhai's elder brother, was also a wellknown patriot. He was the Chairman of the Indian Legislative Council. Once, when he was a small boy,Vallahbhai suffered from a boil in the armpit. There was a man in the village who used to cure boils by touching them with hot iron. The boy went to him. The man heated the iron rod till it grew red. But he hesitated, seeing at the boy's tender years. "What are you waiting for? The iron will grow cold. Hurry up, brand the boil," said the boy angrily. The man was even more frightened. The boy picked up the glowing rod and burnt the boil. Those who watched him were shocked and screamed. But there was not even a trace of pain in the boy's face. The Courageous Student This amazing boy was born on the 31st of October 1875. (This is the date generally accepted.) The elders were filled with pride and joy at the fearlessness of the little boy; the younger ones loved and admired him. No companion of his ever disobeyed him. By nature he rebelled against injustice. He showed a genuine interest in the welfare of his companions, constantly Enquirer about their needs and problems helped them as best he could, and promoted friendship and unity. Vallabhbhai's early education was in Karamsad. Then he joined a school in Petlad. After two years he joined a high school in a town called Nadiad. A teacher of this school used to sell the books,which the pupils needed. He used to force all the pupils to buy books only from him. If any boy bought books from others, the teacher used to tease him.Vallabhbhai thought that this was wrong. He spoke to his companions, and saw to it that not a single pupil attended the classes. For a whole week the school could not work. The teacher had to correct himself. 123

Leadership – A New Dimension When he was in Petlad he used to cook for himself. Every week he used to carry provisions from home, walking the entire distance. He could have gone by train, but he did not have the money to buy a ticket. During his school days, one day a teacher made a mistake in working a sum. Vallabh- bhai pointed out the error. The teacher was very angry and said, "All right, you be the teacher." The boy replied, "Very well, sir." He worked the sum correctly, and sat down in the teacher's chair! Vallabhbhai first chose Sanskrit. Then he changed to Gujarati. Sanskrit was dearer to the teacher who taught Gujarati than his own subject. When Vallabhbhai entered his class, the teacher wanted to taunt him, and said, "Welcome, great man!" Poor man, he did not know that the boy would one day become a very great man. He asked the boy, in anger, "Why did you give up Sanskrit and choose Gujarati?" Vallabhbhai answered, "If every one chooses Sanskrit, you will have no work." The teacher was in a rage. He complained to the headmaster. Vallabhbhai narrated to the headmaster all that had happened. The headmaster said, "I have not seen such a bold pupil." This made the teacher even more bitter. Vallabhbhai, too, did not wish to remain in that school. He went back. He studied at home and passed the examination.

Ashok

The Wheel which adorns the flag of free India has kept his memory green. Lord of a vast empire, after a great victory sick of violence and took an oath never to fight again.He was an Ideal ruler.

"All men are my children. I am like a father to them. As every father desires the good and the happiness of his children, I wish that all men should be happy always." These are the words of an emperor who lived two thousand and three hundred years ago. We see in history how even mere chieftains grew arrogant and used their powers selfishly and unjustly. But the emperor who said the above words ruled over the greater part of India. He had the power of life and death over millions of his subjects. 124

Leadership – A New Dimension Is it surprising that free India remembers him with admiration? This emperor was Ashoka (also called ‘Devanampriya Priyadarshi’). The wheel in the abacus of the pillar which he erected as a memorial at Saranath now adorns the national flag of free India. Who Was 'Priyadarshi'? The rock inscription of Devanampriya Priyadarshi were being discovered all over India for centuries. But for a long time the identity of this ‘Devanampriya Priyadarshi’ remained a puzzie. One day in the year 1915 near a village called Maski in Raichur District of Karnataka, a rock inscription was discovered on a hill. In this inscription for the first time the name of Ashoka was found with titles like Devanampriya and Priyadarshi. It was then certain that Devanampriya Priyadarshi was no othe than Ashoka. The Mauryan Emperor, whose name shone like a very bright star in the history of the world, and whom the world honors and lovers ven two thousand years after his death. The Emperors Ashoka was the grandson ofChandragupta Maurya. Chandragupta was the first ruler of the Mauryan Empire. He ruled for about twentyfour years, and then, seeking peace of mind, handed over the reigns of his empire to his son, Bindusara. This Bindusara was the father of Ashoka. Subhadrangi was the mother of Ashoka. She was the daughter of a poor man of Champakanagar. As a boy Ashoka was not only active also mischievous. He was a skilful hunter. From the time of Chandragupta Maurya the hunting expedition of the Emperor and the royal family was a splendid sight. Ashoka was not handsome. But no prince excelled him in valour, courage, dignity, love of adventure and ability in administration. Therefore even as a prince Ashoka was loved and respected by his subjects and by his ministers. Bindusara siscovered the ability of his son quire early and, when Ashoka was still young, appointed him Governor of Avanti. At Taxila They pleaded, "We do not hate either Bindusara or the royal family. The wicked ministers are responsible for our revolt. We misunderstood you because of their evil advice. We are not rebels. Please forgive us." Ashoka understood the real situation and punished those responsible for the revolt. He stayed there for some days and gave the people some advice in simple and beautiful words. When complete peace had been established in the city, Ashoka returned to his province. Days and years passed. Bindusara grew old. His body became weak. His health decllined. Among his ministers one minister by name Radhagupta was prominent. He and the others began to think about the future welfare of the empire. Bindusara’s eldest son was Susheema. According to custom he should have succeeded to the throne. But the rovolt of Taxila had exposed his weakness. Besides, he had begun to behave with insolence. The council of ministers felt that the empire would suffer and lose peace, and prosperity and that thee would be no justice in the land if Susheema was crowned king. Therefore they sent word to Ashoka that his father was ill and that he should rush to the bed side of his sick father. Ashoka Becomes King

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Leadership – A New Dimension Ujjain was the capital of Avanti. It was a beautiful city, and the home of knowledge, wealth and art. Within a few days of taking over the administration of Avanti, Ashoka became an excellent statesman. I t was when he was in this city tha he married Shakya Kumari, the beautiful daughter of a merchant of Vidishanagar. She gave birth to two children, mahendra and Sanghamitra. Ashoka’s volour, courage and wisdom were soon tested. The citizens of Taxila rose in revolt against the rule of Magadha. Bindusara’s eldest son, Susheema (also called could not put down the rebellion. Bindusara sent Ashoka to suppress the revolt. Ashoka to suppress the revolt. Ashoka did not have enough forces but yet moved towards the city boldly. A suprising thing happened. The citizens of Taxila never thought of fighting against Ashoka. They gave him a grand welcome. Emperor Bindusara had won the title ‘Amitraghatha’ (one who strikes those who are unfriendly). He had annexed the area between the east coast and the west coast in south India and extended his empire. He ruled over this empire for twenty-five years and died in 272 B.C. Ashoka who had come to pataliputra from Ujjain at the request of Radhagupta, the Chief Minister, was crowned king of Magadha after the death of his father. What happened after this is not very clear. Perhaps Susheema heard the news of his father’s deth and feared that Ashoka might be crowned King; he probably came from Taxila with a large army. He came prepared to fight if necessary. But he was killed even as he was attempting to gain an entrance to the city. There is a story that Ashoka had all his brothers killed for the sake of the kingdom. There is no historical basis for this story. Ashoka has spoken affectionately about his brothers in his rock inscriptions. The fifth day of the third month Jyestamasa of the year 268 B.C. was the auspicious day on which Ashoka ws crowned king. Pataliputra was gaily decorated. The auspicious time fixed for the coonation arrived. Auspicious music Sounded. Young and radiant Ashoka entered the court, surrounded by his bodyguards. The heir to the throne of Magadha bowed to the throne and ascended it. As the priests chanted sacred verses, the heir was adorned with the appropriate symbols of royalty and the crown was placed on his head. The citizens of Pataliputra rejoiced that the empire was blessed with an able ruler. Ashoka was a very intelligent statesman. He ruled over Magadha wisely and ably. The council of ministers and officers of state were obedient, dutiful and able. Therefore peace and plenty brightened the land. Happiness makes man forget how time passes. Eight years passed without anyone realizing it. Kalinga Ashoka became the lord of a vast empire. But Kalinga, a small state (now called Orissa), remained independent, beyond Ashoka's empire. Kalinga was a rich and fertile land between the Godavari and the Manhandi. The people of Kalinga were patriots and loved freedom. They were ready to fight and die in defense of their motherland. The Kalinga War- A Change Of Heart During Ashoka's grandfather's time the Kalinga army had only 60,000 infantry, 1,000 cavalry and 700 elephants. During Bindusara's reign and at the beginning of Ashoka's reign Kalinga must have improved its armed forces considerably. The mighty Magadha army marched towards Kalinga. Ashoka himself went at the head of his vast army. The Kalinga army resisted the Magadha army and fought bravely. They were not afraid even of death. But their valor and sacrifices were in vain. Every thinner and finally it accepted defeat. Ashoka won a glorious victory. 'What Have I done! True, Ashoka was victorious and Kalinga was his. What was the price of this victory? One of Ashoka's own inscriptions describes it: One and a half people were 126

Leadership – A New Dimension taken prisoners. A lake was killed during the battle. Many more died as a result of the war.' Ashoka who led the army saw the battlefield with his own eyes. As far as his eye could see he saw only the corpses of elephants and horses, and the limbs of soldiers killed in the battle. There were streams of blood. Soldiers were rolling on the ground in unbearable pain. There were orphaned children. And eagles flew about to feast on the dead bodies. Not one or two but hundreds of terrible sights greeted Ashoka's eyes. His heart was broken with grief and shame. He felt unhappy over the victory, which he had won at the cost of so much suffering. 'What a dreadful deed have I done! I was the head of a vast empire, but I longed to subjugate a small kingdom and caused the death of thousands of soldiers; I widowed thousands of women and orphaned thousands of children. With these oppressive thoughts in his minds he could not stay there any longer. He led his army back towards Pataliputra with a heavy heart. Matchless In History Ashoka became the lord of Kalinga as he had wished. But the victory brought him not joy but grief. The sights of grim slaughter he had seen dimmed the pride of victory. Whether Ashoka was resting, sleeping or awake, the scenes of agony and death he had seen on the battlefield haunted him at all times; he could not have peace of mind even for a moment. Ashoka understood that the flames of war not only burn and destroy on the battlefield but spread to other fields and destroy many innocent lives. The suffering caused by war does not end on the battlefield; it continues to poison the minds and lives of the survivors for a long time. At this time Ashoka was at the height of his power; he was the head of a vast empire; he had no equal in wealth or armed strength. And yet the Kalinga war, which was his first war, also became his last war! The power of arms bowed before the power of Dharma (righteousness). Ashoka swore that he would never again take to arms and that he would never again commit such a crime against humanity. And it proved to be the oath of a man of iron would. In the history of the world, many kings have sworn not to fight again, after they had been defeated. But how many kings have been moved by pity in the hour of victory and laid down arms? Perhaps there has been only one such king in the history of the whole world-Ashoka. The Noblest Victory 'The victory of Dharma brings with it love and affection. Devanampriya believes that, however small may be the love gained by its victory, it brings ample reward in the other world." This is what Ashoka has said in one of his inscriptions. The teaching of Buddha brought peace to Ashoka who was haunted by memories of the agony he had seen in Kalinga. Buddha's message of nonviolence, kind- ness and love of mankind appealed to the unhappy Ashoka. A disciple ofBuddha. Upagupta initiated him into Buddhism. From that day Ashoka's heart became the home of compassion, right living, love and nonviolence. He gave up hunting and eating meat. He put an end to the killing of animals for the royal kitchen. Realizing that it was not enough if he lived a righteous life, he proclaimed that all his subjects also should live a life of righteousness. 'Of all victories, the victory of Dharma is the noblest. One may win a piece of land by fighting a war. But by kindness, love and pity one can win the hearts of people. The sharp point of the sword spills blood; but from Dharma springs the fountain of love. The victory won by arms brings fleeting joy but the victory of Dharma brings lasting joy'-Ashoka realized this truth. So he taught his subjects this lesson: 'All people should live a life of truthfulness, justice and love. Respect your parents. Treat your teachers and relatives with affection. Be modest in their presence. Give 127

Leadership – A New Dimension charity. Do not be unkind to animals. No one should think that he end his religion are the greatest. All religions preach the same virtues. Just as it is bad to indulge in self-praise and slandering others, it is bad to condemn other religions. Respect for other religions brings glory to one's own religion.' Ashoka did not think of the good of only his subjects; he thought of the good of all mankinds'. He wished to win the hearts of people and to serve the world through religion and through good will and good action. He decided to dedicate his energy and all his powers and wealth to this goal. The first thing that Ashoka did to spread righteousness among his people was to undertake a pilgrimage. It took place two years the Kalinga war. His pilgrimage started with his visit so Sambodhi, the holy place where Gauthama, the Buddha breathed his last. He visited other holy places during the pilgrimage. Ashoka has explained in his own words the purpose of his pilgrimage. 'To meet Brahmins and Shramanas and to give gifts to them. To meet the elders and to honor them with gifts of gold. To meet people and to preach the law of Dharma and to discuss Dharma.' These were the important objects. Spreading The Message Of Dharma Ashoka was not content with visiting holy places. He believed that the message of Dharma should not become stagnant like standing water. He wanted it to spread within India and outside, too. He wanted the people of the world to bathe in its pure steam and purify themselves. Therefore he undertook a great task which could would be enduring. He got the laws of Dharma engraved on rocks and stone pillars both inside and outside the country. These inscriptions related to Dharma, social ethics and moral living. Ashoka himself has proclaimed that his desire was that his message should reach the people of all lands and enable them to follow and propagate the Dharma for the welfare of the world. Such inscriptions can be seen even today both in India and outside. In India they have been discovered in Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and at Siddapura of Chitradurga District, Koppala and Maski in Raichur District of Karnataka. Outside India they have been found in Peshawar District in Pakistan as well as near Khadahar in Afghanistan and on the borders of Nepal. The Seeds of Dharma We read in history about many kings who put up inscriptions about their invasions, charities, donations and the extension of their territories. But it is only Ashoka who got inscriptions carved on rocks and pillars, which lead people from untruth to truth, from death to immortality and from darkness to light. To this day they are like lights of wisdom. The laws of Dharma are like the seeds of virtue sown in the hearts of the people. They are steps leading to salvation. In order to foster greater understanding regarding Dharma, Ashoka took a bold and firm step. He wished to show that all religions teach the same path of virtue. In one of his inscriptions Ashoka says, 'We must respect the followers of other religions in every way. By doing so we can help the growth of our religion and we can help other religions also. If we act in a different way it will harm our religion and also other religions. The man who wants his religion to spread rapidly and honors only his religion and speaks ill of other religions will harm the interests of his own religion. The power of all religions should grow. Devanampriya does not consider charity and worship more important than this.' He appointed officers called 'Dharma - Mahamatras' in order to spread these ideas among the people. These officers met people of different religions and lived among them; they helped to remove the mistaken ideas they had about other religions and to know what was good in them. Often the money set apart for religious purposes in spent otherwise. Sometimes 128

Leadership – A New Dimension though it seems to have been spent for religious purpose, selfish people pocket it. It was the duty of the Dharma - Mahamatras to see that the money meant for religious purposes was spent properly. They toured the empire and visited the courts of justice also. They set right the errors in the conduct of affairs and in the awards of punishments. Such officers do not seem to have been appointed anywhere else in the history of the world. Besides these, other officers also toured the empire once in five years according to the orders of the emperor and spread the Dharma among the people. A Religious Conference After seventeen years of Ashoka's rule, unfortunately difference of opinion arose among the Buddhist monks and there was a split. There were many lazy and bad monks given to evil ways. These willful sanyasins were a curse to Buddhism. Buddhism was, therefore, losing its power. Ashoka felt unhappy over this. In order to save Buddhism for total eclipse and to increase its influence, Ashoka threw out many lazy monks from the Buddhist fold. He invited the worthy and the serious - minded monks to Ashokarama in Pataliputra for a conference. Moggaliputra Tishya presided over the conference attended by the Buddhist monks from the Four Corners of the country. Ashoka sat with the great teaches and sent for each Bhikshu and asked him, "What did Lord Buddha teach?" He discussed many things with them. After long discussions what Lord Buddha had taught came out clearly and unambiguously. Buddhism gained a new strength from this conference. Ashoka did not like other kings send his armies to foreign lands to conquer them. He who declared that the victory of Dharma was the real victory sent Buddhist monks to other lands the light he had received from Buddhism. He sent Buddhist preachers to Syria, Egypt, Macedonia, Burma and Kashmir. To Ceylon (Srilanka) he sent his own children Mahendra and Sanghamitra. As a result off this, Buddhism spread to all countries in East Asia. The Pillar At Sarnath In the twentieth year of his reign, Ashoka undertook his second pilgrimage with his daughter and Upagupta. This we learn from his inscriptions. During thispilgrimage he visited the ruins of Vaishali and the places where Buddha used to rest. From Vaishali Ashoka traveled east and came to Ramagrama. He visited the stoopa at Ramagrama built by a king who had collected and preserved the sacred bones of Buddha after his death. Later he also visited Lumbini, Kapilavastu, Shravanti, Gaya and other holy places. Wherever he went he caused pillars and stoopas to be erected in memory of his visit. They remind us even today of the visit of Ashoka to those holy places. There is one such memorial pillar at Sarnath. On the top of a stone pillar about fifty feet high there are beautifully carved figures of four standing lions. The figures of four standing lions. The figures of four standing lions. The figures of the lions are now to be seen in the official emblem of the government of free India, and the Ashoka Chakra adorns the national flag of India. In this way the government of India has paid a deserving tribute to the ideal king, Ashoka. But unfortunately the pillar at Sarnath is broken and mutilated. So we can see only fragments of the pillar. Of the eighty-four thousand stoopas said to have been built by Ashoka, the stoopa at Sanchi is both famous and splendid. To this day this fifty-four feet stoopa stands on a high pedestal and forms a semicircle. Besides these stoopas and pillars, Ashoka built cave dwellings, rest houses and Buddha Viharas in large numbers. They not only proclaim Ashoka's teachings but also are examples of the splendid architecture of those days.

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The People's Friend There have been many emperors in the history of India but few that ruled over such a vast empire as Ashoka's. His empire extended over a large part of India and Afghanistan and Beluchistan beyond the Northwest province and Nepal in the North, as well as the Bengal, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and a large part of Karnataka of today. The inscriptions discovered in these parts prove this. Though Pataliputra was the capital of the vast empire, for the proper administration of his empire, Ashoka divided his empire into four provinces. Malava, Punjab, Dakshinapatha and Kalinga. Ujjain was the capital of Punjab, Taxila of Malava, Suvarnagiri of Dakshinapatha and Kosala of Kalinga. He appointed a representative in each province. The representatives were chosen for their ability and not on the basis of birth or high connections. They enjoyed considerable freedom in the administration of their provinces. To assist the emperor there was a council of Minsters in the capital. If the emperor wanted to make changes, he used to consult the Minsters. After the council examined the pros and cons of a proposal it was implemented. Usually the emperor accepted the decision of the council of ministers. Chanakya (kautilya), the Chief Minister of Chandragupta Maurya, has described the daily life of the kings of that age as follows: 'The king gets up at 3 a.m. And till half past four examines various matters relating to the empire and takes decisions. He then receives the blessings of teachers and priests. Then he meets his doctors and the officials of the kitchen. He then goes to the court hall and considers from 6 a.m. to 7 Am. the revenue and the expenditure of the previous day. From 7.30 he grants interviews to persons who have come to meet the emperor on urgent matters, and examines their submissions. He retires to bathe at 9. After bath, prayer andbreakfast, the emperor meets officers of the empire at 10.30 a.m. and issues instructions on many matters. All noon he meets the council of ministers and discusses matters of state. After rest between 1.30 and 3 p.m. he inspects the various divisions of the army. After this he receives reports from messengers and spies who have come from different parts of his empire and from other kingdom.' Ashoka, who continued the ideal and the tradition of his grandfather Chandragupta, practiced in letter and spirit, the routine set down by Chanakya. Besides, Ashoka believed that the prosperity of his subjects was his prosperity; so he had appointed officers to report to him on the welfare and sufferings of the people. They were to report to him no matter what the hour was. His own order best shows his concern for the people: "Whether I am dining or in my private apartments, asleep or engaged in some work, setting out on a journey or resting; wherever I may be and whatever the time of the day or night the officers must come and report to me about the people and their affairs. Wherever I may be I shall think about the welfare of the people and work for them." These words are enough to show Ashoka's devotion to the welfare of his people Vanquisted Kalinga Ashoka defeated Kalinga in war, hadn't he? He then appointed officers to administer the kingdom. How do officers who go from the victorious state to the defeated land usually behave towards the people? They lose all sense of justice and fair play and behave proudly. They insult the defeated people. Ashoka did not want this to happen. He desired that the people of Kalinga should live in peace and honor. This was his order to the officers who were sent to Kalinga: "I have put you in charge of thousands of people. Earn the love and affection of all those people. Whatever situation may arise treat all people alike. Be impartial in your actions. Give up rudeness, haste, laziness, and lack of interest and short temper. Nothing can be achieved if we are bored and idle. Therefore 130

Leadership – A New Dimension be active. If you understand how sacred your work is and behave with a sense of responsibility, you will go to heaven, and you will also repay your debt to the king who appointed you." Ashoka who treated his subjects as his children, further said, "Like a mother who gives her child to an able nurse, trusting that she would bring up the baby well. I have entrusted my subjects to your care." Vigilant On All Sides Ashoka worked hard especially for the spread of education in his land. Nalanda is famous in history; it was the center of education and the University of Magadha. It is said that university of Magadha. It is said that Ashoka founded it. Students of that university were very much respected. During his time trade with foreign countries was carried on by sea routes. He encouraged agriculture, trade and industries. There were canals to help irrigation. All the money paid into the government treasury was spent for the welfare of the people. Ashoka has big roads laid to help the growth of business and industries. For the benefit of travelers he had trees planted on both sides of the roads. Wells were dug and guesthouses and rest houses were put up. There was free medical aid both for men and for animals. Ashoka is among the first in the world who built hospitals for the treatment of animals. He got medicinal plants and a variety of fruit-bearing trees from several places and planted them where they were not found. In one inscription he has expressed the wish that even the forest dwellers in his empire should live happily. Sandalwood wears itself out to give a cool and fragrant paste to men. Sugarcane gives up its sweet juice to men and reduces itself to mere skin in the process. The candle burns itself out that others may have light. All his life Ashoka lived like the sandalwood, like the sugarcane, like the candle. He worked hard without rest and taught the people to live a life of truthfulness, Dharma, Justice and morality. There was happiness and peace. There were social gatherings at which people of all castes and creeds gathered and enjoyed themselves without feeling of high and low. An Old Age Of Sorrow Ashoka who was the embodiment of pity, kindness and love unfortunately had to suffer much in his old age. The reason was this-his sons, Mahendra, Kunala and Teevala were engaged in spreading Buddhism and so his grandsons Dasharatha and Samprati started quarrelling over the right of succession to the throne. Even the queens quarreled over the issue. There was one among them, Tishyarakshite who was a wicked woman. Ashoka was a monk among kings and had given up all pomp and pleasures and lived a very simple life. This did not please Tishyarakshite who loved the life of ease and comfort. All this made Ashoka sad. By this time he had grown old. Not much is known about the last ten years of his life and about his death. Some say, 'The emperor got disgusted in life and therefore he went on a pilgrimage as a Buddhist monk with his teacher, for the peace of his mind. At last he reached Taxila and stayed there. Ashoka, the beloved of Gods and men, left the earth at the age of seventy-two.' However it is clear that Ashoka was unhappy in his old age.

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Leadership – A New Dimension For thirty-seven years Ashoka ruled over a vast realm as an able emperor, a skilled lawgiver, a hero who knew no defeat, a monk among the kings, a noble preacher of Dharma and as a friend of his subjects. He is unique in the history of mankind. Ashoka has called himself 'Devanampriya' and 'Priyadarshi' ion his inscriptions. 'Devanampriya' means the beloved of the Gods and 'Priyadarshi means one those appearance brings joy. These names are appropriate to Ashoka's nature. The Gods cannot but love a man of such virtues. There was no one to check him, no one to punish him if he did wrong. But he became his own teacher and checked his desires. He dedicated his life to the happiness and welfare of his people; it is no wonder that his subjects rejoiced when they saw him. Some historians say that Ashoka followed the teachings of Buddhism so devotedly that he himself became a Buddhist monk. Though he was the emperor he probably stayed in the Viharas often. When he stayed in the Viharas often. When he stayed in Viharas he must have fasted like the monk very strictly and must have rigidly observed religious practices. During his stay there, he learnt the teachings of Buddha in detail. Ashoka passed away from this world two thousand years ago, but his empire of truthfulness, Dharma, nonviolence, compassion and love of subjects has remained an ideal for the world to this day. This empire is deathless. Therefore H.G.Wells, an English historian, has said, "In the history of the world there have been thousands of kings and emperors who called themselves 'Their Highnesses', 'Their majesties' and 'Their Exalted Majesties' and so on. They shone for a brief movement and disappeared. But Ashoka shines and shines brightly like a bright star even today." This praise is fully merited.

A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam Born on 15th October 1931 at Rameswaram, in Tamil Nadu, Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, specialized in Aero Engineering from Madras Institute of Technology. He initially worked in DRDO in 1958 and then joined ISRO in 1963. Dr. Kalam has made significant contribution to Indian satellite and launch vehicles of ISRO and also in the missile programme of DRDO. As project Director, SLV-III, he contributed for the design, development and management of India’s first indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) to inject Rohini satellite in the near earth orbit. He was responsible for the evolution of ISRO’s launch vehicles programme and configurations. He rejoined DRDO in 1982 and conceived the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) for indigenous missiles. He was Scientific Adviser to Defence Minister and Secretary, Department of Defence Research & Development from July 1992 to December 1999. As Chairman, Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC), he generated the Technology Vision 2020 documents – a road map for transforming India from Developing India to Developed India. He provided overall guidance to a number of Homegrown Technology Projects and major technology missions such as Sugar, Advanced Composites and Fly Ash utilization. Dr. Kalam has served as the Principal Scientific Advisor to the Government of India, in the rank of Cabinet Minister, from November 1999 to November 2001. He was primarily responsible for 132

Leadership – A New Dimension evolving policies, strategies and missions for generation of innovations and support systems for multiple applications. Also, generating science and technology task in strategic, economic and social sectors in partnership with Government departments, institutions and industry. Dr. Kalam was also the Chairman, Ex-officio, of the Scientific Advisory Committee to the Cabinet (SAC-C). Dr. Kalam took up academic pursuit as Professor, Technology & Societal Transformation at Anna University, Chennai and involved in teaching and research tasks. Above all he is on his mission to ignite the young minds for national development by meeting high school students across the country. Dr. Kalam was conferred with the Degree of Doctor of Science (D.Sc. Honoris Causa) by 30 universities/academic institutions. He is recipient of several awards including the Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration 1997. Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam has been awarded Padma Bhushan in 1981, Padma Vibhushan in 1990 and BHARAT RATNA in 1997.

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11 CASE STUDY
Profile of a Leader: The Wallenberg Effect John C. Kunich Air Force Space Command Richard I. Lester Air University Executive Summary This is a study of the leadership principles employed by Raoul Wallenberg, a Swedish diplomat who went to Budapest in 1944 to intervene on behalf of Hungary's 700,000 Jews who were being deported by the Nazis to extermination camps. This extended case narrative profiles the extraordinary accomplishments of a truly unique leader. The leadership implications addressed herein are timely, because the study of leadership is beginning to overcome decades of intellectual neglect. Wallenberg is credited with having saved close to 100,000 lives. On 5 October 1981, the President and Congress recognized Wallenberg's contribution to humanity when they named him only the second person ever to be awarded honorary United States citizenship; the other is Winston Churchill. By joint resolution, the United States Congress also designated 5 October 1989 as Raoul Wallenberg Day. In addition, the street in front of the Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., has been renamed Raoul Wallenberg Plaza. Leadership is movement in a resistant medium. Leadership is also the capacity to translate intentions into reality and sustain them. Leaders take charge and make things happen. They create a new reality for the purpose they serve. This case study is intended to demonstrate how Wallenberg exercised leadership and how he refused to be indifferent, complacent, or ignorant of the suffering of others. Wallenberg emerges from a sordid chapter in human history as a courageous and compassionate leader--a symbol of the best mankind has to offer. During the waning months of World War II, the Allies were desperate for ways to stop Hitler's slaughter of innocent civilians in Eastern Europe. Even as the prospects for an Axis military victory dimmed, the Nazis grew more determined to complete the "final solution." Death camps operated at maximum capacity in a feverish effort to rid Europe of Jews and other target groups. Until a complete military triumph could be secured, the Allies were powerless to halt the genocide raging on behind enemy lines. Therefore, a volunteer was sought--someone who could go where Allied tanks and aircraft could not, and disrupt the insidious Nazi death machine. No one could have been a less obvious choice for this mission than Raoul Wallenberg. Wallenberg was 32 years old in 1944, a wealthy upper-class Swede from a prominent, wellrespected family. Sweden's neutrality in the war was only one in a long series of ready-made 134

Leadership – A New Dimension excuses life had handed young Wallenberg, had he wanted to use them to refuse the rescue mission. He was not Jewish; he was rich; he was well-connected politically; he was in line to take the helm of the vast Wallenberg financial empire; he had everything to lose and nothing to gain by accepting this challenge. Wallenberg was recommended for this endeavor by Koloman Lauer, a business partner who was involved with the new War Refugee Board. Lauer felt that Raoul possessed the proper combination of dedication, skill, and courage, despite his youth and inexperience, and that his family name would afford him some protection. Wallenberg proved eager to serve, but he boldly demanded and was granted a great deal of latitude in the methods he would use. When he learned that Adolf Eichmann was transporting roughly 10,000-12,000 Hungarian Jews to the gas chambers each day, Wallenberg hastily prepared to travel to Budapest. His "cover" was that of a diplomat, with the official title of first secretary of the Swedish legation. He conceived a plan whereby false Swedish passports (Schutzpasse) would be created and used to give potential victims safe passage out of Nazi-controlled territory. In conjunction with this, a series of safe`houses would be established within Hungary, in the guise of official Swedish legation buildings under diplomatic protection. With this scheme still forming in his mind, "Swedish diplomat" Wallenberg entered Hungary at the request of the United States War Refugee Board and his own government on 6 July 1944, with a mission of saving as many Hungary's Jews as possible from Nazi liquidation. He designed the fake passports himself. They were masterpieces of the type of formal, officialappearing pomp which was so impressive to the Nazis. Wallenberg, though young, had traveled and studied extensively abroad, both in the United States (where he attended the University of Michigan as a student of architecture) and in Europe, and he knew how to deal with people and get things done. He worked hard at understanding enemies as well as allies, to know what motivated them, what they admired, what they feared, what they respected. He correctly concluded that the Nazis and Hungarian fascists (Arrow Cross) with whom he would be dealing responded best to absolute authority and official status. He used this principle in fashioning his passports as well as in his personal encounters with the enemy. Wallenberg began with forty important contacts in Budapest, and quickly cultivated others who were willing to help. It is estimated that under Wallenberg's leadership he and his associates distributed Swedish passports to 20,000 of Budapest's Jews and protected 13,000 more in safe houses that he rented and which flew the Swedish flag. However, Eichmann continued to pursue his own mission with fanatical zealous devotion, and the death camps roared around the clock. Trains packed with people, crammed eighty to a cattle car, with nothing but a little water and a bucket for waste, constantly made the four-day journey from Budapest to Auschwitz and back again. The Hungarian countryside was already devoid of Jews, and the situation in the last remaining urban enclaves was critical. And so Wallenberg himself plunged into the midst of the struggle. Sandor Ardai was sent by the Jewish underground to drive for Wallenberg; Ardai later told of one occasion when Wallenberg intercepted a trainload of Jews about to leave for Auschwitz. Wallenberg swept past the SS officer who ordered him to depart. In Ardai's words, 135

Leadership – A New Dimension "Then he climbed up on the roof of the train and began handing in protective passes through the doors which were not yet sealed. He ignored orders from the Germans for him to get down, then the Arrow Cross men began shooting and shouting at him to go away. He ignored them and calmly continued handing out passports to the hands that were reaching out for them. I believe the Arrow Cross men deliberately aimed over his head, as not one shot hit him, which would have been impossible otherwise. I think this is what they did because they were so impressed by his courage. After Wallenberg had handed over the last of the passports he ordered all those who had one to leave the train and walk to the caravan of cars parked nearby, all marked in Swedish colours. I don't remember exactly how many, but he saved dozens off that train, and the Germans and Arrow Cross were so dumbfounded they let him get away with it!" (Bierman 91) As the war situation deteriorated for the Germans, Eichmann diverted trains from the death camp routes for more direct use in supplying troops. But all this meant for his victims was that they now had to walk to their destruction. In November 1944 Eichmann ordered the 125-mile death marches, and the raw elements soon combined with deprivation of food and sleep to turn the roadside from Budapest to the camps into one massive graveyard. Wallenberg made frequent visits to the stopping areas to do what he could. In one instance, Wallenberg announced his arrival with all the authority he could muster, and then, "You there!" The Swede pointed to an astonished man, waiting for his turn to be handed over to the executioner. "Give me your Swedish passport and get in that line," he barked. "And you, get behind him. I know I issued you a passport." Wallenberg continued, moving fast, talking loud, hoping the authority in his voice would somewhat rub off on these defeated people... The Jews finally caught on. They started groping in pockets for bits of identification. A driver's license or birth certificate seemed to do the trick. The Swede was grabbing them so fast; the Nazis, who couldn't read Hungarian anyway, didn't seem to be checking. Faster, Wallenberg's eyes urged them, faster, before the game is up. In minutes he had several hundred people in his convoy. International Red Cross trucks, there at Wallenberg's behest, arrived and the Jews clambered on... Wallenberg jumped into his own car. He leaned out of the car window and whispered, "/ am sorry," to the people he was leaving behind. "/ am trying to take the youngest ones first;" he explained. "/ want to save a nation." (Marton 110:11) This type of action worked many times. Wallenberg and his aides would encounter a death march, and, while Raoul shouted orders for all those with Swedish protective passports to raise their hands, his assistants ran up and down the prisoners' ranks, telling them to raise their hands whether or not they had a document. Wallenberg "then claimed custody of all who had raised their hands and such was his bearing that none of the Hungarian guards opposed him. The extraordinary thing was the absolutely convincing power of his behavior," according to Joni Moser. (quoted in Bierman 90) Wallenberg indirectly helped many who never even saw his face, because as his deeds were talked about, they inspired hope, courage, and action in many people who otherwise felt powerless to escape destruction. He became a symbol of good in a part of the world dominated by evil, and a reminder of the hidden strengths within each human spirit. Tommy Lapid was 13 years old in 1944 when he was one of 900 people crowded 15 or 20 to a room in one of the Swedish safehouses. His account illustrates not only vintage Wallenberg

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Leadership – A New Dimension tactics, but also how Wallenberg epitomized hope and righteousness, and how his influence extended throughout the land as a beacon to those engulfed in the darkness of despair. "One morning, a group of these Hungarian Fascists came into the house and said all the ablebodied women must go with them. We knew what this meant. My mother kissed me and I cried and she cried. We knew we were parting forever and she left me there, an orphan to all intents and purposes. Then, two or three hours later, to my amazement, my mother returned with the other women. It seemed like a mirage, a miracle. My mother was there--she was alive and she was hugging me and kissing me, and she said one word: "Wallenberg." I knew who she meant because Wallenberg was a legend among the Jews. In the complete and total hell in which we lived, there was a savior-angel somewhere, moving around. After she had composed herself, my mother told me that they were being taken to the river when a car arrived and out stepped Wallenberg--and they knew immediately who it was, because there was only one such person in the world. He went up to the Arrow Cross leader and protested that the women were under his protection. They argued with him, but he must have had incredible charisma, some great personal authority, because there was absolutely nothing behind him, nothing to back him up. He stood out there in the street, probably feeling the loneliest man in the world, trying to pretend there was something behind him. They could have shot him then and there in the street and nobody would have known about it. Instead, they relented and let the women go." (Bierman 88-89) Virtually alone in the middle of enemy territory, outnumbered and outgunned beyond belief, Wallenberg worked miracles on a daily basis. His weapons were courage, self-confidence, ingenuity, understanding of his adversaries, and ability to inspire others to achieve the goals he set. His leadership was always in evidence. The Nazis and Arrow Cross did not know how to deal with such a man. Here was someone thickly cloaked in apparent authority, but utterly devoid of actual political or military power. Here was a man who was everything they wished they could be in terms of personal strength of character, but for the fact that he was their polar opposite in purpose. It is impossible to calculate precisely how many people Raoul Wallenberg directly or indirectly saved from certain death. Some estimate the number saved as close to 100,000, and countless more may have survived in part because of the hope and determination they derived from his leadership and example. (House of Representatives Report, Ninety-Sixth Congress, 2-3). Additionally, he inspired other neutral embassies and the International Red Cross office in Budapest to join in his efforts to protect the Jews. But the desperate days just prior to the Soviet occupation of Budapest presented Wallenberg with his greatest challenge and most astonishing triumph. Eichmann planned to finish the extermination of the remaining 100,000 Budapest Jews in one enormous massacre; if there was no time to ship them to the death camps, then he would let their own neighborhoods become their slaughterhouses. To cheat the Allies out of at least part of their victory, he would order some 500 SS men and a large number of Arrow Cross to ring the ghetto and murder the Jews right there. Wallenberg learned of this plot through his network of contacts and tried to intimidate some lower-ranking authorities into backing down, but with the Soviets on their doorsteps, many ceased to care what happened to them. His only hope, and the only hope for the 100,000 surviving Jews, was the overall commander of the SS troops, General August 137

Leadership – A New Dimension Schmidthuber. Wallenberg sent a message to Schmidthuber that, if the massacre took place, he would ensure Schmidthuber was held personally responsible and would see him hanged as a war criminal. The bluff worked. The slaughter was called off, and the city fell out of Nazi hands soon thereafter when the Soviet troops rolled in. Thus, tens of thousands were saved in this one incident alone. But while peace came to Europe, Wallenberg's fate took a very different path. He vanished, and the whole truth of what happened to him has not been revealed even to this day [Editor's note: See addendum to this case]. From various sources, though, the following seems to have occurred. The Soviets took Wallenberg into custody when they occupied Budapest, probably because they suspected him of being an anti-Soviet spy. For a decade, they denied any involvement in Wallenberg's disappearance. Then they admitted having incarcerated him, but claimed he died in prison of a heart attack in 1947, when he would have been 35 years old. Since then, however, many people who have served time in Soviet prison have reported seeing Wallenberg, conversing with him, or communicating with him through tap codes. Others have heard of him and his presence in the prisons, but had no direct contact. The Soviets have denied the accuracy of all of these reports and have never deviated from their official position. But in 1989, Soviet officials met with members of Wallenberg's family and turned over some of his personal effects. Reportedly, a genuine investigation was launched in an effort to determine the truth. Whether the years and the prisons will ever yield up their secrets remains to be seen. In Israel, there is today a grove of trees, planted by the Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority, or Yad Vashem. Known as The Avenue of the Righteous, each tree memorializes a "righteous Gentile," someone who risked his or her life to help Jews during the Holocaust. The trees stand in silent testament to those who, in the words of a former speaker of Israel's parliament, "saved not only the Jews but the honor of Man" (Bierman viii). Along with Raoul Wallenberg's tree, there is a medal. His medal bears the language of the Talmud and summarizes his mission in the words, "Whoever saves a single soul, it is as if he had saved the whole world." The chairman of Yad Vashem, Gideon Hausner, who also prosecuted Adolf Eichmann, summarized his feelings for Raoul Wallenberg in this way: "Here is a man who had the choice of remaining in secure, neutral Sweden when Nazism was ruling Europe. Instead, he left this haven and went to what was then one of the most perilous places in Europe, Hungary. And for what? To save Jews. He won his battle and I feel that in this age when there is so little to believe in--so very little on which our young people can pin their hopes and ideals--he is a person to show to the world, which knows so little about him. That is why I believe the story of Raoul Wallenberg should be told and his figure, in all its true proportions, projected into human minds." (Bierman viii-ix) There is much we all can learn from Raoul Wallenberg's life. Young and old alike need heroes, role models, people to remind us of the immensity of human potential for good in the midst of evil. The United States Congress recognized this when it made Wallenberg only the second person ever to be awarded honorary United States citizenship; the other is Winston Churchill. On that occasion, one television news commentator spoke for millions when he said, "It is human beings such as Raoul Wallenberg who make life worth living." 138

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Leaders at every level can make use of Wallenberg's life and example to enhance their ability to inspire, to motivate, and to succeed. Leadership is difficult to define, but "you know it when you see it." Looking at Wallenberg's heroic work in Hungary one sees leadership in action. We will now more closely examine his leadership style. There are several elements of what we shall call "The Wallenberg Effect" which can be adapted and incorporated into each leader's own personal style and situation. 1. Knowledge Wallenberg's success was largely based upon knowledge--of his enemies, of resources available to both sides, of the limits as to what was permissible, and of himself. This information enables a leader to understand each situation within a context that will allow a reasoned course of action. This is why knowing the facts and the substantive details surrounding issues has always been and always will be an integral part of a leader's decision-making and problem-solving ability. The traditional types of information gathered, such as planned actions, location, movement, numerical strength, type and condition of circumstances, and availability of material resources are obviously important. But Wallenberg proved the utility of subtler information as well. Because he understood the way his enemies thought and felt, because he comprehended what motivated them, he knew which buttons to push in each individual situation. He knew the great deference to authority and the fear of those in positions of power that were part of the Nazi and Arrow Cross mentality. This enabled him to bluff them with his false passports and with his air of officialdom so as to achieve excellent, seemingly impossible results. Wallenberg had a commanding presence, which is a hallmark of the effective leader, but that presence was fortified with a knowledge of how he would be perceived by his adversaries. He also understood the rules of the game he was playing, as they applied to him, his associates, and their opponents. In effect, Wallenberg was very much a situational leader. He was able to adapt his behavior to meet the demands of the unique circumstances that confronted him. This is why he demanded and obtained authority from the Allies to use deception, bribery, and threats, and to invoke Swedish immunity as needed. He was in an environment where such tactics were the rule rather than the exception; they worked for others, and he knew he could make them work for him. As a leader, Wallenberg was out front, not hiding behind a desk or behind bureaucratic inertia. He showed initiative. He responded to an obvious need with imagination and creativity. He understood what was involved and he fully accepted the consequences. Finally, he knew himself. He had a grasp of his talents and weaknesses and how they fit in with those of his opponents. Thus, what he could not possibly have accomplished through military force or physical violence, he did through bravado, intimidation, and illusion. Any other tactics would have met with crushing defeat. This is not to imply that leaders should always behave in this manner. It simply suggests that these strategies employed by Wallenberg were essential to fulfill his objective under the most extraordinary of conditions, and that they were chosen with full comprehension of the alternatives and their consequences. In essence, the Wallenberg Effect suggests that becoming a mature leader means first becoming yourself, learning who you are and what you stand for. Implicit in this notion is the theory of selfdiscovery, getting in touch with oneself. Wallenberg teaches us that to grow as a leader involves 139

Leadership – A New Dimension reflecting on oneself, putting values in perspective, thinking about the task to be accomplished and influencing others to get the job done. Wallenberg's work in Hungary is a testimony that leaders are foot soldiers who battle for the ideals in which they believe, and that leadership has far less to do with using other people than with serving other people. Plato said that "man is a being in search of meaning." In essence, servanthood is the key to successful leadership, which in turn can result in meaningful accomplishments. Raoul Wallenberg found himself and the meaning of his life by losing it in the service of others. The process of learning about oneself and others, on an in-depth level, requires hard work. It is not something that can be gained solely from book study. It evolves best through personal introspection, human interaction and feedback, and through life experiences, observations, and analysis. It involves large quantities of common sense and realistic perspective. But its yield is high; it pays big dividends to those leaders who spend the time and make the extra effort to go beneath the surface, to discover what makes a person tick, because life and its activities are all part of the human experience. At bottom, it is all a matter of people, and the leader who understands people is prepared to win. 2. Objective Every leader must have a clear, specific objective in mind at all times, a destination towards which all actions are directed. When the leader says forward march, everyone must know where forward is. If the leader lacks a sense of direction, then the followers will wind up some distance from the goal, like explorers without a compass or a guiding star. Closely related to objective is vision, which implies having an acute sense of the possible. All effective leaders possess this capacity; they are able to focus sharply on what is to be done, seeing the objective as if through a powerful telescope. Wallenberg exemplifies the principle that a clearly defined objective is absolutely essential as the focal point of our energies. His work in Hungary suggests that effective leadership is not neutral nor sterile, but deeply emotional, and that leaders must hold a sense of mission, a deeply felt belief in the worth of their objective. Nothing less has the necessary power to motivate leaders or followers to stretch the limits of their abilities. Total commitment comes only from total conviction that the goal is significant and right. This ethical sense of mission grows out of a lifetime of value-building study and experience. However, the Wallenberg experience teaches us that much can be done in a short amount of time to impart principles upon which a given objective is based. All leaders should study the great foundational works of their nation to learn of the struggles of prior generations, ponder them, make them part of their being, determine how they apply to the situation at hand, and then transmit key principles to followers. History and philosophy form the underpinnings of the way of life for which people live and die. If values are thought to be only relative, if there is no right and wrong, if one system of government is morally equivalent to all others, then there is nothing worth sacrificing for. The leader will be limited to appeals to local pride and self-interest in attempting to inspire excellence. The result will often be halfhearted effort--and failure. 3. Ingenuity

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Leadership – A New Dimension Where only unquestioning obedience is valued, and where only strict adherence to rigid procedures is allowed, inflexibility and predictability are the consequences. But to succeed as a leader, or even to survive in a constantly changing and dangerous environment, creativity and adaptability are essential. This is where leaders must apply their foundational knowledge to the objective at hand and develop solutions, even in situations where there is no textbook answer. Wallenberg knew that he had virtually no tangible resources and few allies. He also knew the type of people who stood in his path. And so, out of scraps of paper and a surplus of courage and personal character, he intimidated and defeated seemingly invincible enemies, time and again. Nazi numerical superiority and force of arms were powerless when confronted with a man who knew their own game better than they did and who could think faster than they could. Throughout his entire experience in Hungary, in all that he did, Wallenberg had the daring to accept himself as a bundle of possibilities, and he boldly undertook the game of making the most of his best. Wallenberg instructs us that the leader is not a superman, but simply a fully functioning human being. Successful leaders are aware of their possibilities. Erich Fromm said that the pity in life today is that most of us die before we are fully born. Leaders such as Wallenberg are not merely observers of life, but active participants. They take the calculated risks required in exercising leadership and experimenting with the untried. It is surprising (and most aspiring leaders do not realize it) but much failure comes from people literally standing in their own way, preventing their own progress. Wallenberg never blocked his own path; rather, he created new paths where others saw only impenetrable walls. And in the process he was able to motivate others to do the same. He was a dispenser of hope in an environment filled with hopelessness and despair. History is replete with instances where small, militarily weaker forces triumphed on the strength of superior strategy and tactics. Ingenuity makes surprise possible and allows quick adaptation and reaction to an adversary's actions. Without flexibility, humans are reduced to automatons, programmed only for failure. Ingenuity requires information as its fuel. The established objective and the available tools and procedures provide the raw material for any leadership action. But much can be accomplished when leaders reach beyond traditional methods and use the status quo as a floor rather than a ceiling. Leaders must be evaluated on the basis of what they achieve. Results are what counts, not formulaic adherence to precedent. Wallenberg was an achiever; he was results-oriented. We, like him, can "do more with less" when we think creatively and are not confined to what has already been done. Military leaders are often criticized for preparing to fight the previous war. The best leaders think of all the possible ways in which available resources might be used or modified to achieve the objective, as well as how the opposition might do the same. Who would have thought, for example, that silicon, common sand, would be the basis for the phenomenon of microcomputer chips and would revolutionize modern society? To see each problem from multiple perspectives is to multiply the possible solutions and open the door for victories that would be inconceivable under "conventional wisdom." 4. Confidence

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Leadership – A New Dimension Leaders create an environment in which ideas can flourish and see the light of day. To do this, leaders must be self-confident, and have faith in themselves and others. People in leadership positions need a solid sense of self. It serves them well in times of turmoil, which inevitably await those who aspire to lead. The way people feel about themselves affects virtually every aspect of their lives. Self-esteem, which emerges from a sense of confidence, thus becomes the key to success or failure. In effect, leaders such as Wallenberg defy the law of averages and win because they expect success from themselves. An indispensable ingredient of Wallenberg's success was an almost tangible self-confidence. He radiated certainty, composure, and authority, and this breathed life into his otherwise foolhardy actions. He compelled his enemies to accept as valid passports things such as library cards, laundry tickets, and even nothing at all ... and he did it by infusing all of his actions with the sheer power of his personality. Through his aura of conviction he also inspired people who in many cases had already resigned themselves to execution to join in his actions and save themselves and others. Some would argue that the elusive quality we call "charisma" is a gift with which some people are blessed from birth. But even if this is true, everyone can cultivate a positive attitude and an air of self-confidence, within the bounds of his or her own personality. This unique aspect of leadership tends to develop as a natural consequence from the qualities previously discussed. As leaders learn about themselves and their opposition, they identify their respective strengths and weaknesses and compose a creative strategy for bringing their own greatest assets to bear against their opponents' most vulnerable areas. Wallenberg understood, as did Napoleon, that "Strategy is a simple art, it is just a matter of execution." When leaders act from a position of advantage, they feel confident that they will prevail ... and this confidence will be perceived by friends and foes alike. Further, the leaders' actions will be focused on a purpose which the leaders believe to be right. This sense of the righteousness of the cause will also strengthen resolve. Conversely, where the leaders do not believe in the virtue of their actions, they will lack commitment and will be hindered by self-doubt. Such uncertainty will be apparent to others, undermining the confidence of the followers and encouraging their opponents. It will contribute to eventual defeat and failure. Wallenberg teaches us that it is important for each leader to become convinced of the worthiness of the mission, on some deeply felt level. Even when the immediate objective seems questionable, the leader must find justification in some indisputable value, such as support of the nation's honor. Then, that conviction must fortify all of the leader's actions. Wallenberg is a clear example that when a leader exudes a quiet confidence, surety, and decisiveness, followers will be inspired and opposition will be weakened. Leaders have been described as "strong," "powerful," "magnetic," and "charismatic." But whatever else they may be, they certainly are self-confident, and from this confidence leaders are able to mobilize and inspire individuals and groups to make their own personal dreams and objectives come true. 5. Courage

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Leadership – A New Dimension When a sense of mission becomes powerful enough to motivate people to action, even in the face of personal danger or certain death, that is courage. To be courageous one need not be fearless; it is natural and good to be afraid when confronted with real risks. But so long as that fear does not paralyze, there is courage at work. Wallenberg knew he was entering a lion's den when he accepted his mission to Hungary. Innumerable times he ignored armed soldiers and even flying bullets to continue his rescue operations. He had the audacity to threaten high-ranking Nazi officers, who had proved their willingness to murder innocent civilians, let alone troublesome opponents, under conditions where they easily could have killed him. Although in constant fear for his life, he pressed on, risking and ultimately sacrificing himself for his mission. Can courage be learned? It can, in the sense that the development of deep devotion to a cause galvanizes a person to act on behalf of that cause. This type of fundamental belief in the value of the mission is essential to the cultivation of courage. If self-interest were the most important then self-sacrifice would be out of the question. Only a profound conviction that there is a good greater than self can spark a person to risk everything for others. Self-sacrifice, and the courage to take that chance, are the antithesis of "me-generation" philosophy. When the lives or liberties of others are valued more highly than one's own life, then true courage can provide the fuel for remarkable accomplishments. Wallenberg's life can help others form a series of constellations by which they can successfully chart their own contributions to humanity. A key element of what we call the "Wallenberg Effect is this idea: Do not give in to life nor its challenges. Dig in! Accept responsibility and in the process make a difference. To some people, life is like the weather; it just happens to them. But to those who display the Wallenberg Effect (heroic leadership under adverse conditions) life is a great journey in human accomplishment. Wallenberg, like the trees of the Avenue of the Righteous, stands tall in the annals of man's "humanity" to man. Few leaders will ever have the opportunity to help as many people as did Raoul Wallenberg. Still, each victory is immeasurably precious for those whose futures are spared. They, their children, their grandchildren, their entire posterity, and all whose lives will be touched by them, owe their existence to that one heartbeat of time when a person took action, despite the dangers. Although conditions may differ, the lessons for leadership that the Wallenberg Effect demonstrates should be valuable for all who aspire to more effective Leadership. With patient application, it can be transferred and applied to everyday leadership problems, whether on the level of nations or individuals. As Wallenberg's medal testifies, "Whoever saves a single soul, it is as if he had saved the whole world." DISCUSSION QUESTIONS AND IDEAS What do you think motivated Wallenberg, a wealthy, young, non-Jewish civilian citizen of neutral Sweden, to risk his life for the endangered Hungarian Jews? What motivates you in the duties you perform? Why are you in the occupation you now pursue? What enabled Wallenberg to inspire, in those he helped, a belief in the possibility of success and a willingness to try, in the face of hopelessness and resignation to defeat? Have you ever known leaders who could cause positive transformations in the attitude of 143

Leadership – A New Dimension the people under their care? How did they accomplish this? What effect have you had on the attitude of the people you lead? Why? How could Wallenberg, who had no weapons and little if any official status or power in Nazi-occupied Hungary, induce his Nazi and Arrow Cross enemies, including their highest ranking officers, to do his bidding? Have you ever faced a situation in which you had to "do more with less" and tackle a problem with seemingly inadequate resources? What did you do? What were the results? Was it morally wrong for Wallenberg to use deception, threats, and bribery in furtherance of his mission? Compare and contrast his situation with examples from your experience in which you were tempted to "bend the rules." Consider the following two sentences. Which comes closer to your own personal view? Why? For what, if anything, would you be willing to risk your life? Why? "Nothing is worth dying for." "If nothing is worth dying for, nothing is worth living for." How would you define the word "hero?" What qualities or feats constitute heroism? Have you known anyone you consider to be a hero? To what extent is heroism important to your life and career? Can leadership be taught? How do you identify potential leaders? What sets leaders apart from other members of an organization? How can you incorporate the Wallenberg Effect into your work? How would you rate Wallenberg as a leader? Why?

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Leadership – A New Dimension

Sunil Kumar Sonare
Sunil Kumar Sonare, A Faculty in Management as permanent and visiting, teaching in various Management Institution in Central India. He also provides IT consultancy to the various industries in the Software Development, Product Development, software application, including project facilitation, project management, design guidance, business modeling, data and process code generation, testing and implementation. He is providing corporate training on Software Project Management, Estimation, and Function Point. He is a trainer on soft skill sets i.e. Leadership, Self Esteem, Motivation etc.

He has got more than 14 years experience in IT industry and worked with public sector enterprise, Indian IT companies in India and provided consultancy and software to the manufacturing industries, hospitality industry, financial institution, educational institution etc.

In recent years, he has served extensively as a consultant to industry, ranging from startups to Fortune 1000 companies.

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