, MESRA, RANCHI EC6103 Module –1: Local Area Networks: Background, Topologies and Transmission Media, LAN standards IEEE 802 reference Model, Logical Link Control, Medium Access Control, IEEE 802.3 Medium Access Control, Ethernet, Fast Ethernet,Gigabit Ethernet, Token Ring and FDDI, Medium Access Control, IEEE 802.5 Transmission Medium Options. Fibre Channel Elements, Fibre Channel Protocol Architecture, Fibre Channel Physical Media and Topologies. Text Books: 1. “Data and Computer Communication”, 7/e. by William Stallings. 2. “Data Communication and Networking”, 3/e. by Behrouz A. Forouzan. Module – 2: Connecting devices and Backbone Networks: Bridges, Functions of a Bridge, Bridge Protocol Architecture, Fixed routing, Spanning tree approach, Connecting devices like Repeaters, Hubs, Bridges ,Two-layer switches, Routers and Three layer switches, Backbone Networks, Bus Backbone, Star Backbone, Connecting remote LANs, Wireless LANs, Applications, Architecture, IEEE 802.11, Architecture and Services, Medium Access Control, Physical layer. Text Books: 1. “Data and Computer Communication”, 7/ William Stallings. 2. “Data Communication and Networking” , 3/e. by Behrouz A. Forouzan. Module – 3: Internetworking: Principles of Internetworking, Requirements, Architectural approaches, Connectionless Internetworking, Addressing, Routing techniques, Static versus Dynamic Routing, Internet Protocol (IP), Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), IPV6 Structure, Header, Address and Header Formats, ICMPV6. Text Books: 1. “Data and Computer Communication”, 7/e. by William Stallings. 2. “Data Communication and Networking”, 3/e. by Behrouz A. Forouzan. Module – 4: Internet work Operations: Unicast and Multicast routing, Autonomous Systems, Unicast routing protocol OSPF, Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), Border Gateway Protocol, Multicast Trees, Integrated Service COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

7/e. Reliable Sequencing networks services. Forouzan. TCP Services. Forouzan. Handshake Protocol. Module – 5: Transport Protocols: Connection Oriented Transport Protocol Mechanisms. Change Cipher Spec Protocol. Module – 6: Network Security: Passive and Active Attacks. Window Management. Traffic Padding. 7/e. “Data Communication and Networking”. Forouzan. Client Server Model. by William Stallings. by Behrouz A. Queuing Discipline. “Data and Computer Communication”. by William Stallings. Alert Protocol. “Data and Computer Communication”. RSA Public Key Encryption algorithm. SSL Architecture. Key Management. 3/e. Text Books: 1. TCP Header Format. “Data Communication and Networking”. 3/e. 3/e. World Wide Web (WWW). 3/e. IP level security IPSEC. 7/e. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). TCP Congestion Control. Virtual Private Networks. Application layer security PGP. 2. Secure Socket layer and Transport layer Security. Message Authentication. “Data and Computer Communication”. 2. Differentiated Services (DS). ISA Approach. by Behrouz A. Firewall. SSL Record Protocol. Public-key Encryption. Encryption Algorithms. Key Distribution. 7/e. Symmetric Encryption. 2. Multipurpose Internal Mail Extension (MIME). Secure Hash function. Hash function. by William Stallings. by Behrouz A. Quality of Service. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) SNMP V2 and SNMP V3. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Overview Message Entities. Unreliable network services. Common Gateway Interface (CGI). . “Data and Computer Communication”. Socket Interface. TCP Mechanisms. TCP Implementation policy options. Components. Digital Signature. “Data Communication and Networking”. Socket Programming. Forouzan.Architecture. Text Books: 1. User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Retransmission Timer Management. “Data Communication and Networking”. Module – 7: Distributed Applications: Electronic Mail. Services. Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP). Text Books: 1. HTML. by William Stallings. File Transfer. Text Books: 1. 2. by Behrouz A.

3. What do backend networks mean? What are the typical characteristics? What is meant by Storage Area Network (SAN)? What is meant by a backbone LAN? Define LAN.TUTORIAL EC6103 Module –1: Local Area Networks: 1. Bus. 1. shared medium Hub and switching Hub. Differentiate among Ring. 11. Differentiate among Baseband. Star and Tree topologies. 4. MAN and WAN. Why unshielded twisted pair Baseband is popular? What does a Hub mean? Show how twisted pair star wiring is effected using Header and Intermediate Hubs. Which are the popular transmission media used for Bus/Tree LAN? Compare the data rate achieved with each medium. Broadband and Carrierband transmission techniques in Bus LAN. 3. 6. 6. COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS . 10. 7. 2. What are the functions of Logical Link Control (LLC) layer? What are the three LLC services? Where are they used? What does Medium Access Control mean? Why is it needed? Briefly explain the following 3 approaches of MAC techniques giving examples. Briefly explain the function of a Bridge connecting two LANs. Which are the popular transmission media used for Ring LAN? Compare the data rate achieved with each medium. 2. 4. (a) Round robin (b) Reservation (c) Contention. Differentiate among shared medium bus. Which are the popular transmission media used for Star LAN? Compare the data rate achieved with each medium. What are the main design aspects of a MAC relay bridge? Differentiate between Layer 2 and Layer 3 switches. 8. 5. 7. 5. 12. 9.

30. 100 BASE-T4 and 100 BASE-FX. 19. Differentiate among the following: (a) Non-Persistent CSMA (b) I-Persistent CSMA (c) P-Persistent CSMA Explain binary exponential back off. 26. 9. . and 1000BASE-t). What are the two types of Layer 2 switches available? What are the differences between them? Discuss the characteristics of different high speed LANs. transmission techniques. 23. What is meant by CSMA? How does CSMA/CD differ from CSMA? Compare CSMA with ALOHA and S-ALOHA. 20. 29. What is GMII in Gigabit Ethernet? Compare the physical sublayer of Fast and Gigabit Ethernet. 10. 14. single channel-broadband). 22. 25. 18. Compare the specification of 100 BASE-TX. Why Baseband signalling is not used in Tree topologies? Why is most Baseband co-axil systems. What is Fast Ethernet? How it is different from traditional Ethernet? What is the purpose of auto negotiation? Describe the different sublayers of the physical layer of 100Mbps Ethernet. Compare the different gigabit Ethernet implementations (1000 BASE-Sx. a 50-ohm cable is preferred to a standard CATV – 75 ohm cable? How segmentation is effected in Baseband configurations? Compare 10BASE5 and 10BASE2 co-axial Bus LANs (Ethernet and Cheaper net).8. 21. What are the different collision detection techniques? Why the collision detection time is more for a Broadband system than a Baseband system? What is the collision detection scheme employed in twisted pair Star-topology approach? 27. 28. 13. Compare the different fast Ethernet implementations. 12. Mid-split broadband and Dual cable broadband. 1000BASE-Lx. 16. 17. 15. 1000BASE-CX. 24. What does signal balancing mean? How the segmentation of medium helps signal balancing? Differentiate among Bi-directional (Baseband. 11.

1 B5 LAN F STATION 6 B6 LAN G STATION 7 . Differentiate between Token Bus and Token Ring techniques. What are the topology options for fibre channel? Under heavy loads. Explain Fibre channel protocol architecture. For fixed routing strategy. 3. B2. F and G. 33. D.31. of 7 LANs A. 34. and individual routing tables for each bridge. C. 38. 2. form the Control Routing matrix. how do the behaviour of CSMA/CD and Token Ring differs? Module – 2: Connecting devices and Backbone Networks: 1. How does a Token Ring scheme work as a MAC technique? What does Dedicated Token Ring (DTR) mean? How is a FDDI Ring standard different from IEEE802 Ring standard? Explain the features of Fibre channel switching fabric. E. 35. 37. B6 and B7 are shown in Figure 1. B4. connected via 7 bridges B1. B. STATION 1 LAN A STATION 2 STATION 3 B1 LAN B B7 LAN C B2 B3 LAN D STATION 4 B4 LAN E STATION 5 Fig . Differentiate between Passive Hubs and Active Hubs. B3. 32. 36. B5. What does a transparent bridge mean? An internet configuration.

2 . For the network. shown in Figure 2. highlighting the layer of operation of both. 5. as the root bridge. LAN 1 C=5 C=10 BRIDGE 1 C=5 BRIDGE 2 C=5 LAN2 LAN3 C=5 C=20 BRIDGE 3 C=10 BRIDGE 4 C=10 LAN 4 C=15 C=15 BRIDGE 5 C=15 BRIDGE 6 C=10 LAN 5 C=5 LAN 6 C=5 BRIDGE 7 C=5 BRIDGE 8 C=10 LAN 7 Fig.4. with Bridge 7. draw the spanning tree configuration. Differentiate between Bridges and Routers.

Explain the Frame Control (FC) field of the frame. 25. What is the concept of Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN)? How does a VLAN reduce network traffic? What does a remote bridge mean? What are the advantages of Wireless LAN over Wired LAN? What is its limitation? Compare the infrastructure and adhoc mode of operation of Wireless Local Area Network. Designated port and Designated Bridge? How address learning is effected in adaptive routing? When do you say a port from a LAN to a Bridge is blocked in that direction? What is the possible problem caused by ‘closed loop’ in routing? How is it solved? Distinguish among the following Routing directives. Explain the function of DCF MAC with RTS/CTS. Explain the difference between 802.6. (a) Individual. 7. 21.11a and 802. (c) All-stations. 12. 15. 13. Root Bridge. 9. . 23. 20. Root path cost. Give the MAC layer frame format of Wireless LAN. (b) Non-broad cast. 24. 14. 11. 19. 10. What does Spanning Tree Approach mean? How is it employed in routing? What are meant by Root port. 17. 18. (c) All-routes broadcast. 22. 16. Which are the techniques used in route discovery in Source Routing? What does a backbone network mean? Differentiate between a Bus backbone and a Star backbone. Why CSMA/CD protocol cannot be used in Wireless LAN? Describe the MAC protocol used in WLAN. 8.11b. (a) Null. 27. What is the purpose of using RTS/CTS? Explain the protocol architecture of Wireless LAN. Distinguish among the following 3 types of MAC addresses. (b) Group. (d) Single-route broadcast. 26. What is the function of a MAC Relay bridge? Explain the concept of Source Routing.

indicating the data length. 13. 3. 12. 18. 21. 7. Why padding is necessary in an IP header? Differentiate among the three principal network classes. What is meant by Datagram lifetime? Segment an original datagram of 656 octets into 3 segments of 256. 20. 6. 8. 19. an Internetworking facility must accommodate? Explain the Bridge protocol architecture. What does Internet Control Message Protocol mean? Where is it used? How a ‘Source quench’ message is used in flow control? What are meant by echo and echo reply? What are meant by timestamp and timestamp reply? What are meant by address mask request and address mask reply? What is the motivation behind implementation of IPv6 over IPv4? In what way IPv6 is different from IPv4? Compare the header formats of IPv6 and IPv4. 240 and 160 octets. offset and status of MORE flag for each segment. 11. What is meant by Subnet mask? Explain the IP header format. 14. on top of LLC and side-by-side of LLC.Module – 3: Internetworking: 1. Quote examples of X. What does an Internet mean? What does a Subnetwork mean? What does an Intermediate System mean? Which are the main different features of the Subnetworks. What are the different types of addresses used in IPv6? . 9. 10. Differentiate between Relaying and Routing functions done by a Router. 16. 17. 4. 5. 15.25 operating under LLC. Differentiate between Connection-oriented operation and Connectionless operation. 2.

24. 12. What is procedure for monitoring the membership? What is a path vector routing? Explain how the creation of loops is avoided in this mechanism? . 7. Module – 4: Internet work Operations: 1. What are the requirements for Multicasting? Compare link state versus distance vector routing. 27. 26. What is the role of the Dijkstra’s Algorithm in Unicast routing? OSPF. 8. is the preferred Interior Routing Protocol on the Internet. Explain. 6. 2. Differentiate among Broadcast. 10. a link state protocol. 9. 4. 5. If the “NTP server Group” has a group ID of A231 (Hex). In IGMP. then what will be the Permanently assigned multicast address for (i) All NTP servers in the Internet (ii) All NTP servers at the same site as the sender. Multiple Unicast and Multicast strategies.22. 3. What kind of information a routing table contains? How it is maintained? Discuss count to infinity problems with regard to Routing Information Protocol (RIP). What are the different conventional forms of representing IPv6 addresses? What you mean by unspecified address and loop back address? Determine the full format of the following IPv6 addressees: (i) FF05::B3 (ii) 0:A2:: 2163 How ICMPv6 is different from ICMPv4? Explain the three possible transition strategies from IPv4 to IPv6. Explain how does split horizon prevent counting to infinity problem? What is meant by an Autonomous system? Compare the two Unicast routing protocols RIP and OSPF. explain how a Host/Router joins or leaves a group. IPv6 treats the IPv4 tunnels as linklayer protocols. Give the message format of IGMP message and explain every field in brief. 11. 25. Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not? 23. It has been said that when IPv6 tunnels through IPv4 routers.

with the costs shown aside. Draw the resulting directed graph.13. An autonomous system is shown in Figure 3. N12 N 1 3 1 RT1 N3 N 2 3 RT2 RT3 2 N11 3 N4 8 6 1 1 1 RT4 8 8 8 N13 8 RT5 7 6 RT6 8 N14 6 Ia 7 N12 6 RT7 2 N15 9 RT9 1 1 2 RT11 1 1 lb N 8 3 5 RT10 N6 1 RT8 N9 1 H1 10 RT 12 2 4 N7 N10 Fig. Also draw the SPF tree for router RT6. and derive the Routing table for it. 3 .

15. 17. Z). Module – 5: Transport Protocols: 1. Neighbour Reachability c. . What you mean by Quality of Service? How the IP networks offer QoS? What is RSVP? Explain how it offers Quality of Service? Is it possible to guarantee QoS in two directions? What are the difficulties associated with the per flow reservation resources (such as RSVP)? How these difficulties are avoided by using Differentiated Services? Explain the two sets of functional elements associated with the Differentiated Service Architecture. Why do the Transport layer services are important in a Communication network? Which are the three types of network services defined by ISO? Distinguish among Type A. Host B has two loyal members belonging to group W and logical means belonging to group Y. 24. What is the purpose of IGMP? What is Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)? Why it is based on path vector routing instead of distance vector or link state routing? Briefly explain the following terms in Exterior Gateway Protocol. Explain the four different types of messages used by a router employing BGP. 18. Network Reachability. What are the two major classes of service offered by the Intserv architecture? What are the two key features lying at the heart of Intserv (Integrated Services) architecture? 16. Host A has three logical messages belonging to group W and one loyal member belonging to group X. Neighbour Acquisition b. 23. 2. X. 26. a. Name the three main categories of IGMP messages and briefly discuss their function. Explain Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ). 19. Why queuing of packets are necessary in the IP networks? Explain the operation of Priority queuing model. A multicast router list contains four groups (W. 20. 3. There are three hosts on the LAN. 25. Y. Type B and Type C network services defined by ISO.14. 27. Host C has no processes belonging to any group. Show the IGMP messages involved in monitoring. 22. 21.

9. 7. . 14. Which are the possible ways by which a transport entity knows the address of a destination transport user? What are meant by primitives with respect to an O. Why a Credit Scheme is often preferred to a simple Sliding window protocol by a Transport entity? Explain the Connection establishment and termination procedure. Response and Confirm.I. In a Non-sequencing network services. 13. 20. 15.4. How duplicate detection is done by a Transport protocol entity in an unreliable network? Why the sequence number space has to be large in an unreliable network? How a deadlock condition can result in a credit scheme used for an unreliable network service? How is it avoided? Differentiate between Two-way handshake and Three-way handshake in connection establishment. 21. which could be adopted by a Transport protocol entity? Distinguish between Sliding window protocol and Credit Scheme flow control techniques. Indication. 16. 12. layered architecture? Interrelate the following primitives: Request. the credit scheme often can create problem. 6. 19. (a) Retransmission timer (b) Reconnection timer (c) Window timer (d) Retransmit RFC timer (e) Persistence timer (f) Inactivity timer. Why a Three-way handshake is preferable to a Two-way handshake for connection establishment in an unreliable network? Explain the connection establishment and termination procedure for an unreliable network. 17. 18. What is the nature of the problem? How is it solved? How is the EOL (End of Letter) used in stream traffic in a non-sequencing network with maximum TPDU size specified? What is meant by a failure prone Network Service? How a Transport entity deals with Reset and Restart conditions in such a case? Briefly explain the functions of the following timers in a Transport protocol.S. 8. 10. What are meant by Protocol Data Units? Which are the flow control mechanisms. 5. used by a Transport entity in the case of Type A networks. 11.

34. 2. What does Failure Recovery mean? Explain the functions of the following flags in a TCP header format. 27. 5. 32. RST. Individual transmit policies in a TCP implementation. 25. FIN. 28. 35. 29. 6. What is meant by encryption? Differentiate between code and cipher methods of encryption. ACK. data transfer and connection termination using various flags? What does a pseudo-header in TCP format mean? What does Urgent pointer in a Transport protocol header format mean? Differentiate between In-order and In-window Accept policies used in a TCP implementation. Explain the RTT Variance Estimation (Jacobson’s Algorithm). 30. PSH. Explain the technique of Window Management. 4. 26. SYN. Batch. URG. 7. 3. What does Quality of Service mean? What are the characteristics attributed to it? What are the techniques adopted to improve the Quality of Service? How does UDP differ from TDP? Module – 6: Network Security: 1. How a TCP entity perform connection establishment. Compare the immediate and cumulative Acknowledge policies in a TCP implementation. 23. 33. Differentiate between passive and active attacks. What is network security? Identify the desirable properties of secure communication. 36. 24. What do Plaintext and Cipher text mean? Differentiate between Conventional encryption and Public-key encryption. What is the main advantage of the latter method over the former method? What is symmetric key encryption method? . 31.22. Differentiate among First only. Explain the technique of Retransmission Timer Management using Exponential Average approach. Explain the technique of Retransmission Timer Management using Simple Average approach.

d=3. 21. 12. which provide authentication. 11. Explain the RSA public key encryption algorithm. 20. 26. I and J. Discuss the strength of DES algorithm. q=11. m=5 ii) P=5. 25. Suppose N people want to communicate with each of N-1 other people using symmetric key encryption. How many keys are required in this case? What are the different encryption algorithms available? Explain DES (Data Encryption Standard) algorithm. 24. 23. 15. m=9 What does key management mean? What is meant by public-key certificate? What is the purpose of Secure Socket Layer (SSL)? Outline the features provided by SSL. q=11. What is the importance of key distribution? What is Merkle’s puzzle? What is Shamir’s method for key distribution? Explain an automatic key distribution method for Connection oriented protocol. 10. 18. Explain how SSL works. 22. How many keys are required in the system as a whole? Now suppose that public key encryption is used. what should be the properties of a Hash function? What are the properties of secure Hash Function? What is public key encryption? How secure it is? Where it stands with conventional encryption standard? Differentiate between weak and strong Hash functions. 17. 13. is visible to all other people in this group of N and no other person in this group should be able to decode their communication. 28. 19. Perform encryption and decryption using the RSA algorithm for the following i) P=3.8. What is meant by Digital signature? What are the factors it should take care of? Briefly explain two Digital signature schemes. 16. 27. What is the purpose of Hash function? To be useful for Message Authentication. All communication between any two people. . d=7. 14. 9. What is Traffic padding? What is meant by Message authentication? Why often Authentication is also needed besides encryption? What is Message Authentication? What are the different approaches to Message Authentication? Explain Message Authentication using a one-way Hash function.

29. 39. What are the two methods of data encoding defined by MIME? Explain in brief. What is the purpose of a Firewall? Explain the both Packet Filter Firewall and Proxy Firewall. Give a generic diagram and explain how local e-mail service operates. main transfer and connection closing are affected in Simple Mail Transfer Protocol? What are the limitations of SMTP? What is MIME? Explain in brief the purpose of all the five headers defined by IT. 37. choose p=3 and q=11. 41. 34. What are the two services provided by SSL Record Protocol? What are the different steps in operation of SSL Record Protocol? What is the difference between SSL connection and SSL session? What does Change Cipher Spec Protocol mean? Explain Alert Protocol. Summarize the key difference in the service provided by the Authentication Header (AH) protocol and the Encapsulation Security Payload (ESP) protocol in IPSEC. 3. 30. 31. What is SMTP? Explain how e-mail is delivered from the sender to the receiver by using this protocol. 42. Module – 7: Distributed Applications: 1. 40. . 5. How the Application layer is made secured? Explain the implementation of PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) at the sender and receiver side. 43. Are both AH and ESP needed for IP Security? Why or Why not? What are the two protocols defined by TLS? Explain in brief. What is IP Sec? Explain the two protocols defined by IPSec. Apply the decryption algorithm to the encrypted version to recover the original plane text message. 35. What is VPN (Virtual Private Network) and why it is used? Using RSA. 36. 2. 32. 4. 6. and encode the phrase “hello”. How connection setup. 38. 33. Explain Handshake Protocol.

What is the protocol used for the transfer of files over IP network? Show the basic model of such protocol. 23. What you mean by a process? How it is related to a program? What do you understand by a socket? Define the socket structure and explain each field. 12. 25. Manager b. 16. 14. What is meant by Party Auth Life time? How is it important in Message Authentication? 18. 10. Define the socket interface for connection oriented concurrent server? Explain how it handles multiple clients simultaneously. 21. Name the different socket types. 9. Differentiate between interactive and concurrent server. 22. 11. 24. Define a client server model. . 26. a. 8. 15. 17. 19. What are the three FTP transmission modes? Explain. What you mean by socket interface? Define the socket interface for connectionless interactive server. How the communication takes place over control and data connection? What is the purpose of FTP? What are the different types of file transfer? Describe the functions of two FTP connections. in MIBs? Differentiate among Local. What is the concept of a party in a network management scheme? What are the main modifications effected in SNMPv2 over SNMP? What does the Structure of Management Information (SMI) mean? What is the main advantage of Get-Next-Request -PDU? What is the main advantage of Get-Bulk-Request -PDU? How does an agent respond to such a PDU? What is meant by a Trap-PDU? For what purpose it is used? Why do you require Snmp-Set-Serial No.7. Proxied and Remote parties. 13. Agent c. 20. 27. Network management protocol. Management Information base d. Briefly explain the following key elements in a network management system. Briefly explain what is meant by a decentralised network management scheme.

35. which could arise. 29. 37. 39. 36. How does clock synchronisation achieved in Message Authentication schemes? What are the possible problems. 32.28. 30. if clock synchronisation is not done? Why a Manager has to periodically retrieve manager party clock values from agents? What are the improvements made in SNMPv3 over SNMPv2? What is the purpose of HTTP? What are its different characteristics? What is the difference between an HTTP PUT command and the HTTP POST command? When each of them is useful? Explain the architecture of World Wide Web (WWW). 34. What does Uniform Resource Locator (URL) mean? What is the difference between static and dynamic documents? What is the function of HTML? How does a browser distinguish between a document that contains HTML and a document that contains arbitrary text? What does CGI stands for and what is its function? . 38. 31. 33.

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