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1. Define the terms information and knowledge and discuss, using a suitable example, the relationship between them. 
Information consists of processed data or data with a context. Knowledge is derived from information by applying rules to it. For example, For example, • • •
data could be 1.03, 1.07, 1.15
information could be 1.03, 1.07, 1.15 minutes, times in a swimming race. Knowledge would be that the 1.03 has won
because the rule is that the person who completes the swim in the shortest time is the winner. 2. Some data is encoded before entering it into a system Give two advantages using distinctly different examples of encoding data. Give two advantages of coded data Example M instead of male • Is faster to and takes up less effort to type in one character than 4 • Takes up less storage space in memory m is one character males is 4 characters • Less likely to make data entry errors typing M instead of male/mail/mael
3. . Encoding data can lead to inaccurate data. Explain using two different appropriate examples.
Coarsening data when looking at eye colour example are your eyes blue or bluey green If there are not enough categories this can lead to the coarsening of data e.g. if you are asked to describe yourself as young middle aged or old there is no clear boundaries and young people might catagorise themselves as middle aged.
Value judgements in limited list
• Limited choice in a value list example Do you like a tv program? excellent or rubbish If you asked if you love or hate a TV program you may like it sometimes but not other times and be forced to opt for one category.
g cost Validation is done by the computer The automatic checking of data entered into a computer system Validation is the checking that the information is sensible and reasonable 6.g Postcode for delivery address Data type no letters entered into a number field e. If someone puts alphabets in a house number field. The error message will come up because you have to put 'numbers' in that field. the if a hotel only has 100 rooms you would put a range check on room number between between 1 and 100 but if someone enters 1100. the type of error each technique is designed to prevent. For example. (Read before you submit). For example. 3) Range Check:. using examples. Presence check makes sure that something has been entered in that particular field and it hasn't been left blank. Other wise you could book someone into a room that does not exist and have irate customer.It is an error trapping method It makes sure that the data entered lies within a correct range usually numbers and dates. I) Presence Check:. Describe three distinct types of validation technique that can be used and explain. 2) Data Type Check:. . For example in an online shopping you are required to put in the security no on a card if you don’t you will not be allowed to purchase the goods. The quality of the data input can often be improved by the use of validation techniques.It is a validation technique designed to make sure that no null value is entered. Reading details of an order including totals and any hidden delivery charges before submitting Double entry – having to type in twice e. Validation means checking data upon entry to make sure it is reasonable or sensible and rejecting any unreasonable data.This check makes sure that the data that has been entered is of the correct type./2010 Format check stock code has 2 letters followed by 4 number SC5643 or on email address must have@ Presence check on certain fields e.g re-input your email address and password when creating your account Range check no stupid dates like 45/12. Can’t deliver letter.ICT As Interpreting Questions Verification is done by the user is the checking that data has been copied accurately from one medium to another Proof reading. Three types of validation are as follows. the error message will appear to show that data doesn't lie within the correct range.
give one field that has coded data and explain one advantage of coding this data. • • • Is faster to and takes up less effort to type in one character than 4 Takes up less storage space in memory m is one character males is 4 characters Less likely to make data entry errors typing M instead of male/mail/mael (b) The field ‘Disabled’ is a Boolean data type. Describe what you understand by the term Boolean data type and describe one disadvantage of using this data type for this field.ICT As Interpreting Questions A school stores data about its PUPILS on a database. True or False.  The gender field has coded data it is an advantage because. Some may be very disabled whilst others are only slightly disabled. PUPIL Number 678 986 243 734 175 764 Gender M F M F M F YEAR 13 13 12 08 10 13 Disabled N N Y Y N N Name S Johnston R Begum P Davies L Phillips D Kowolski A Jones House TY PO TF TY TY PO (a) Using the database shown above. Part of this database is shown below.  This can only be in one of two states there is no third state ie. .yes/no One disadvantage is that it is difficult to categorise people because of their degree of disability.
report on mock exam results for all year 11 pupils Import /export Outputting data from a database to a different piece of software compatible with the database in inserting the data into that software Presenting data from a database in a way and format controlled by the user Report 10 A solicitor uses word processing software in the running of the business. using an appropriate example. Describe. how both features can be used in the running of the solicitor’s business. (a) Query  (b) Report  (c) Import export Features of database software Feature Query Definition Interrogating a database with a request for specific information Example A search to find all the pupils in a certain house to organise them into teams for inter house competitions e. In each case. CTRL V Examples Pasting in standard paragraphs into legal documents or inserting todays data.g. Example Sending a letter to all clients in their database informing them of change in fees / new regulations Template Definition Master documents which are stored have predefined layout Example Use tenancy agreement / wills / A letter to another solicitor for a client / renting flats (remember to expand upon these) Macros Definition A commonly used set of commands which are stored ready to reused usually by a combination of key presses e.ICT As Interpreting Questions (c) Define the following features of word processing software. In each case. Define the following features of word processing software.g. using an appropriate example. all pupils in Ty house to get them to represent Ty Taking data from name and address fields in a database and putting it into a wordprocessed document to form a mailmerged letter inviting parents to a parents evening e. Describe. how both features can be used in the running of the school. (a) Mailmerging  (b) Templates  (c) Macros MUST BE WORDPROCESSING NOT ANY OTHER TYPE OF SOFTWARE Mailmerge Definition Data from an external database in automatically inserted into predefined positions in a solicitors standard document. .g.
questionnaires operators could be given the sack or weak points in the sent to a sample of homes) and sales figures system can be revised. Advertising and marketing a product should be aimed at people likely to buy it otherwise it is a waste of time and money. If statistics in a report is too complicated for a manager they may make the wrong decisions about future sales strategies. if you use 20 year old mailing lists then letters may be sent to dead people upsetting families • • • • .g.ICT As Interpreting Questions Good quality information is needed to make informed decisions. people in the street many problems they can solve.g. Other than aiding the decision making describe using examples other ways good quality information can add value to an organisation Call centres Measuring the speed and quality of call centre Monitor progress Information obtained by operators to see how many orders they can process or how market research (e.g. Information about customers’ buying habits is valuable here and can lead to an organisation or company becoming more profitable A company decides to spend money on Area A because sales are slow and they want to revitalise the market to get more interest in the products and more sales. Missing postcodes will delay delivery Relevant: information should not be included if it has no bearing on the users needs No point in collecting details on potential markets for sushi in Newcastle if you are going to open a sushi restaurant in London Up to date as information changes with time need to ensure information is date stamped and not too old and out of date e. Wrong fitting or delivery dates could cause items to be delivered when customer is not available Correctly targeted: information should be presented to the people who need it e. Complete: information should include all the data needed to make a decision. Describe four characteristics of good quality information.and good efficient operators could can help to achieve this. And they area aware their rivals are getting complacent so they see an opening . giving information about state pensions to young children. be given productivity bonuses Can target reasoning and strategy making to gain a competitive advantage Buy more of a certain commodity because sales are good. Slow or inefficient stopping certain passers-by. giving information about meat cutting techniques ifs no good for vegetarians Understandable: the meaning of the information should be clear to the user The level of detail and language used should reflect the user. Illustrate with distinct examples  Good quality information has to have the following characteristics: Good Quality Information is • • Accurate: is error free and a true reflection of what it represents.
Stress and strain Working out the weights materials can take Wire drawings See design without any finishes or solid form Different finishes or materials can be displayed Enhance parts of a drawing to make it bigger Produce estimate of cost of building materials Hatching or rendering Zoom Costings . The database will only remain accurate and up-to-date if changes to customers’ details are reported and then updated. Can do many ‘what if ‘ type investigations to explore the best finishes To produce work of more detail or add detailed design Automatic estimates are given and designer can investigate different options or work within a budget. your Time taken to enter data / time taken to check data on the system. If new programs are written then it takes time to process the results of the data maintains a database of its customers. Use suitable different example sin each case Financial: Data collection Time: Processing Human Resources Maintenance and updating New staff have to be employed to go and ask people questions or a market research company has to be employed name being entered into a free prize draw if the form is completed and returned The company often pays for an incentive is given to encourage people to respond e. an organisation Features of CAD software Feature Rotate Walkthrough Definition Rotate in 3D across X Y and Z axis Visit rooms etc in 2D Advantage See design from all angles on the outside Allows the designer to see in a virtual reality way what the inside of the building will look like as if you were walking through the real thing Allows the designer to see if there are any load bearing problems with the design before it is built to avoid a disaster Helps with perspective and requires less processing to display so loads more quickly for investigations.g. Staff have to be employed to keep the hardware running and to modify the software when legislation changes or when errors are found in the system For example.ICT As Interpreting Questions Describe two costs in terms of time money and human resources to obtain good quality information.
ICT As Interpreting Questions Types of HCI For the following HCi give an example and an advantage and disadvantage HCI Command driven Command line text based e.g user start up profiles Children’s learning programs e.g Dos USE Used by expert programmers to write batch files on networks e. font sizes/ backgrounds favourite DISADVANTAGE you need to know the commands of the operating system in order to perform jobs. There is a lot of typing Takes up more memory and is slower to navigate And needs more powerful processors GUI’s Graphical User Interface Describe three factors affecting the efficiency of data processing Suitability of HARDWARE for the task If the system has a slow old processor it may take too long to process the data : cost of upgrading to a new system may be prohibitive Ability of the user to operate the new system.easy to learn Fun and engaging Online tutorials Customised environments e.g. System could be technically good but beyond the skills of the users to operate If you need a quick uptodate system which can handle video and sound then it is not good running it on an old batch command line system • Can the various devices talk to each other without the data beimng corrupted ot getting lost • Does the final system do what the user intended it to do Has the system been fully tersted for all predicable eventualities and is there a maintenance plan in place to detect and correct any future errorsINPUT / GIGO (Garbage in garbage out) If the data is in correct or in the wrong format it could crash Ease of use of SOFTWARE and HCI SUITABILITY OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM COMMUNICATIONS TESTING .g maths program ADV short cut keys to give commands faster /Needs very little overheads • • • • Intuitive .
an empty file.g. e.ICT As Interpreting Questions What could cause problems • Insufficient testing. Calculations are carried out accurately and messages sent out across the world instantaneously.g.g. • Poor maintenance procedures (keeping files/ software/virus programs up to date). it would be impossible to produce accurate weather forecasts for the next five days without a powerful computer / credit card transactions. • Poor post implementation procedures. e. a police check will find information on a particular car almost instantly. carrying out the same task to the same standard repeatedly.g.g. Describe the advantages of using ICT over manual systems Advantages Speed of processing Illustrate with a concrete example Speed of processing: carrying out many complex computer calculations in a relatively short time interval. Repetitive processing done to consistent standard Data storage capacity Accuracy and speed of data communications Production of different output formats. keep error logs ask customers what they think of the service. e. e. Processing the payroll run on a computer for a large organisation.g.g. Speed of searching: Able to find information quickly. a scientist producing a report will include data in a table and to make some of them easier to understand will produce some of them as graphs. . an email can be sent from the UK to the USA within seconds. all the information on the pupils in a large school will fit on a hard drive compared to a huge number of filing cabinets. Able top store an enormous amount of information in a small space. e. System may crash when unexpected input is received e.: must continually evaluate the system. e. Information can be produced in tabular or graphical format. Other than faster processing of data.
Central backup of all files. Easier to backup data by being able to do it from one central location. • Extra cost of maintaining the network because of the need for more technicians. on the network can share one printer or one Auditing software keeps a record of who has logged on. how long. Allows users access to information which outsiders cannot have. Therefore any illicit use of the system can be tracked and evidenced • • Web conferencing without leaving the desk. Disadvantages • The extra cost of cabling required and routers.ICT As Interpreting Questions Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using networks in a college or school • Better monitoring the administrator can see what websites or files their pupils go on Network managers can observe what users are doing and send them messages • • • Remote management Network managers can fix software or system problems without the need to visit the station A workstation left unattended can be logged off. Quicker central to install software such as the latest virus detection updates it can be done centrally and then shared out to all stations without physically going to each one. what programs and data was used and what was amended. (b) A closed private network only accessible by certain users. Pupils can share one printer e. Sharing programs and data • Programs. wireless router to access the Internet.g. Allows staff to access privileged work from home. information and data files can be shared and collected from a central pool and the user can work at a multitude of workstations and are not restricted to one. when. firewalls etc • Health problems associated with wireless networks .
ICT As Interpreting Questions Discuss the advanatages and disadvantages of networkls • • in the home Better monitoring Parents who are the administrator of the network can see what wbsites their children go on . Quicker central to install software such as the latest virus detection updates it can be done centrally and then shared out to all stations without physically going to each one.g. Easier to backup data for all the family pictures etc by being able to do it from one central location. • Health problems associated with wireless networks Benefit of having internet access in the home • Online shopping/ booking • Online banking • Can telework • Send work between home and work • Can have video conferencing with relatives abroad. • • Disadvantages • The extra cost of cabling required and outers. Central backup of all childrens homework and parents personal files. . Parents and children can share one printer e. on the network can share one printer or one wireless router to access the Internet.
They can be used for teaching Maths. see things in 3d. ICT etc. Special needs software Spelling programs which have an interactive component testing student with games. . E – learning sites are now available. 'Tutorial' sessions. see processes developing in Geog. Often after 3 tries the answer or clues will be given to them Interactive whiteboards Allows interactive and dynamic learning e. Allows user to ‘go over’ earlier work again in case they did not understand i. Interesting screens . Questions might be asked and the session continues only if the user enters the correct answer. Picture and sound are used to enhance the experience. Available at any time. uses videos animations and sound to hold interest. Subscribers can even do A levels online approved by exam board Chat rooms to discuss courses and problems with tutors • Good for pupils with learning difficulties as they don’t have a human telling them off. which allow the user to learn by following simple instructions on the computer. Offers a variety of different ways to learn and a variety of information sources. . Online testing and quizzes Revision programs eg.e repeat sections they found difficult earlier.g. GCSE byte size A scoring system allows students to assess their progress.ICT As Interpreting Questions What are the advantages of ICT in supporting teaching and learning Advantages Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) Many software packages come with • • • Pupils work at own pace. • • Quicker feedback in online tests/ Can gauge their own progress. • • • Shared expertise.colour/ animation/ sound/ video. • Classes can run with small number of pupils. quizzes and tests. Greater interactivity holds a pupils attention • • • Don’t have to be in the same location as teacher. Diminish literacy – texting. / assess their own progress with online tests Often after 3 tries the answer or clues will be given to them so progress is not restricted Picture and sound are used to enhance the experience.
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