Syllabus also curriculum a description of the contents of a course of instruction and the order in which they are to be taught. Language-teaching syllabuses may be based on (a) grammatical items and vocabulary (see STRUCTURAL SYLLABUS) (b) the language needed for different types of situations (see SITUATIONAL METHOD) (c) the meanings and communicative functions which the learner needs to express in the TARGET LANGUAGE (see NOTIONAL SYLLABUS) Notional syllabus also notional-functional syllabus (in language teaching) a SYLLABUS in which the language content is arranged according to the meanings a learner needs to express through language and the functions the learner will use the language for. The term NOTIONAL is taken from NOTIONAL GRAMMAR. A notional syllabus is contrasted with a grammatical syllabus or STRUCTURAL SYLLABUS (one which consists of a sequence of graded language items) or a situational syllabus (one which consists of situations and the relevant language items (see SITUATIONAL METHOD)). A notional syllabus contains: a. the meanings and concepts the learner needs in order to communicate (e.g. time, quantity, duration, location) and the language needed to express them. These concepts and meanings are called notions. b. the language needed to express different functions or SPEECH ACTS (e.g. requesting, suggesting, promising, describing). These notions and functions are then used to develop learning/teaching units in a language course. Functional syllabus (in language teaching) a SYLLABUS in which the language content is arranged in terms of functions or SPEECH ACTS together with the language items needed for them. For example, the functions might be identifying, describing, inviting, offering,
aunt belong to a lexical field whole relevant features include generation. into smaller parts or components. mother. usually words or sounds. in different types of DISCOURSE (i. kinship terms such as father. Lexical field also semantic field the organization of related words and expressions (see LEXEME) into a system which shows their relationship to one another. etc. uncle. componential analysis is applied to a group of related words which may differ from one another only by one or two components. or writing.
. reading. For example. speech or writing). The language skills involved might be listening. For example. speaking. The absence of a word in a particular place in a lexical field of a language is called a lexical gap. brother. The language items needed for these functions are called exponents or realizations. (in semantics) an approach to the study of meaning which analyses a word into a set of meaning components or semantic features. sister.e. membership of the father’s or mother’s side of the family. the meaning of the English word boy may be shown as: [+human] [+male] [-adult] Usually. Componential analysis 1. This approach was developed in ANTHROPOLOGICAL LINGUISTICS for the study of kinship and other terms in various languages. sex. For example:
Type of discourse spoken Skill speaking listening Function asking for directions Vocabulary bank harbour museum Exponents Structures Can you tell me where X is? Where is X?
Often this term is used to refer to a certain type of NOTIONAL SYLLABUS. This approach has been used in phonology and semantics.etc. 2. any approach to linguistics which analyses linguistic units.
e. Sometimes.g. walk. and so is the feature [+adult] but other features are needed to give the whole concept or sense of father. run. the transformational component transforms these into sentences. child [+human] man boy Base component also phrase structure component (in TRANSFORMATIONAL GENERATIVE GRAMMAR) the part dealing with syntax is divided into two components: the base component and the TRANSFORMATIONAL COMPONENT. in English there is no singular noun that covers both cow and bull as horse covers stallion and mare. the semantic feature [+male] is part of the meaning of father. e. semantic properties the basic unit of meaning in a word. [+movement] is part of the meaning of a whole group of verbs and nouns. gallop. the rule S → NP + VP means that a sentence (S) can be analyzed (rewritten) as consisting of a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP). The base component generates the basic sentence patterns of a language.For example.g. semantic features are establishes by contrasts and can be stated in terms of [+] or [-]. The main rules are called phrase structure rules or rewrite rules. Semantic feature also semantic component. The same feature may be part of the meaning of a number of words. For example. The meanings of words may be described as a combination of semantic features. For example. For example. jump. The base component consists of a set of rules and a vocabulary list (lexicon) which contains morphemes and idioms (see under LEXICAL ENTRY). The rule VP → V (+NP) [+human] [+human] [-adult] [+adult] [-adult] [+male] [+male]
Phrase Structure Rules 1. T(ense) → PAST A diagram. and information about the grammatical structures with which the word may occur. N for nouns. The lexicon gives information about the class that a word belongs to. NP → DET(erminer) + N (non) 3. the English verb sleep cannot have an object after it. called a tree diagram. VP → T(ense) + V(erb) 4.g. For example. e. This semantic structure is
. S → NP + VP 2. Generative semantics an approach to linguistic theory which grew as a reaction to Chomsky’s syntacticbased TRANSFORMATIONAL GENERATIVE GRAMMAR. It considers that all sentences are generated from a semantic structure. This simplified diagram shows the basic DEEP STRUCTURE for the sentence The baby slept. may show the way the rules are applied and how the words from the lexicon are fitted in for a particular sentence. The simplified table below shows the rules and lexicon which are necessary to form the basic sentence structure for the baby slept. V for verbs.means that a verb phrase can be further rewritten as simply a verb or as a verb and noun phrase. S baby: N sleep: V – Object the: DET Lexicon
NP DET the N baby T PAST
VP V slept
The rules of the transformational component change the above structure into the sentence The baby slept (surface structure).
In interpretive semantics. Linguists working within this theory have. generative-transformational grammar. Chomsky has changed his theory over the years. Transformational-generative grammar also transformational grammar. as part of the grammar. for instance. which insists that the semantic component is the most basic part of a grammar from which all sentences of a language can be “generated” (see GENERATIVE GRAMMAR. This component contains rules which interpret the meaning of sentences. syntactic rules operate on the meaning of a sentence to produce its form. RULE2). Chomsky attempted to provide a model for the description of all languages. This theory differs from GENERATIVE SEMANTICS. called the semantic component. It has since been developed by him and many other linguists. The most well-known version was published in his book Aspects of the Theory of Syntax in 1965. because they both have the semantic structure of X perceives that Y is similar to Z. Interpretive semantics a theory about the place of meaning in a model of TRANSFORMATIONAL GENERATIVE GRAMMAR. generative transformational theory a theory of grammar which was proposed by the American linguist Chomsky in 1957. and This dog reminds me of her master. semantic rules operate on the words and syntactic structure to reveal its meaning. suggested that there is a semantic relationship between such sentences as This dog strikes me as being like her master. In generative semantics. It considers a meaning component. with a system of rules. the knowledge which a native speaker of a language uses in forming grammatical sentences (see COMPETENCE).often expressed in the form of a proposition which is similar to logical propositions in philosophy. It is often referred to as the Aspects Model or Standard Theory. This model consists of four main parts:
. TG grammar. A transformational generative grammar tries to show.
Competence (in TRANSFORMATIONAL GENERATIVE GRAMMAR) a person’s internalized grammar of a language. a speaker of English would recognize I want to go home as an English sentence but would not accept a sentence such as I want going home even though all the words in it are English words. c. The relationship of the four components to one another can be seen in the simplified diagram below:
semantic component base component Example Ann1 + PAST = injure Ann1
transformational component semantic interpretation phonological component
[æn indЗ∂d h∂self]
Chomsky and others later modified the Aspects Model. the BASE COMPONENT.a. including sentences they have never heard before. which changes or transforms these basic structures into sentences called surface structures. the phonological component. the semantic component. b. It also includes a person’s knowledge of what are and what are not sentences of a particular language. which deals with the meaning of sentences (see INTERPRETATIVE SEMANTICS). d. which produces or generates basic syntactic structures called DEEP STRUCTURES. For example. This means a person’s ability to create and understand sentences. They felt that not only the base component but also the transformational and phonological components had some effect on the semantic interpretation of a sentence (Extended Standard Theory). which gives sentences a phonetic representation so that they can be pronounced (see GENERATIVE PHONOLOGY). the TRANSFORMATIONAL COMPONENT.
. a learner’s performance in a language may indicate his or her competence (see PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS). or their listeners may get bored or forget what has been said if the sentence is too long. Their actual use of language on a particular occasion may not reflect their competence.
A Syllabus is a description of the contents of a course of instruction and the order in which they are to be taught. which is the actual use of the language by individuals in speech and writing. The difference between linguistic competence and linguistic performance can be seen. Psycholinguists attempt to describe how competence is used in the actual production and understanding of sentences (performance). in the production of long and complex sentences (see RECURSIVE RULE). In second and foreign language learning. excitement. These may be due to performance factors such as fatigue. They may run out of breath. lack of attention. People may have the competence to produce an infinitely long sentence but when they actually attempt to use this knowledge (to “perform”) there are many reasons why they restrict the number of adjectives. adverbs. for example. Performance (in TRANSFORMATIONAL GENERATIVE GRAMMAR) a person’s actual use of language. In using language.Competence often refers to the ideal speaker/hearer. A distinction is made between competence and PERFORMANCE. The errors they make are described as examples of performance. A difference is made between a person’s knowledge of the language (COMPETENCE) and how a person uses this knowledge in producing and understanding sentences (performance). nervousness. and clauses in any one sentence. people make errors (see SPEECH ERRORS) or false stars. that is an idealized but not a real person who would have a complete knowledge of the whole language. There is also a somewhat different way of using the term “performance”.
Generative semantics considers that all sentences are generated from a semantic structure. called the semantic component.A Notional syllabus (in language teaching) is a SYLLABUS in which the language content is arranged according to the meanings a learner needs to express through language and the functions the learner will use the language for. Interpretive semantics considers a meaning component. Performance is a person’s actual use of language. Componential analysis (in semantics) is an approach to the study of meaning which analyses a word into a set of meaning components or semantic features. What does a tree diagram show? 7. Describe Chomsky’s Aspects Model or Standard Theory. What does a base component consist of? 6. What is a notional syllabus contrasted with? 3. What does a notional syllabus contain? 4. What can be language-teaching syllabuses based on? 2. as part of the grammar. Competence is a person’s internalized grammar of a language.
1. What is the difference between generative semantics and interpretive semantics? 8. What is the difference between competence and performance?
. The Semantic feature (also semantic component. A Functional syllabus (in language teaching) is a SYLLABUS in which language content is arranged in terms of functions or SPEECH ACTS together with the language items needed for them. semantic properties) is the basic unit of meaning in a word. What is a lexical gap? 5. The Lexical field (also semantic field) is the organisation of related words and expressions (see LEXEME) into a system which shows their relationship to one another.