the study of the use of language in communication, particularly the relationships between sentences and the contexts and situations in which they are used. Pragmatics includes the study of: a. how the interpretations and use of UTTERANCES depends on knowledge of the real world b. how speakers use and understand SPEECH ACTS c. how the structure of sentences is influenced by the relationship between the speaker and the hearer Pragmatics is sometimes contrasted with SEMANTICS, which deals with meaning without reference to the users and communicative functions of sentences. Usage1 the ways people actually speak and write. In this sense, usage is closely related to PERFORMANCE, and can be studied by the analysis of specimens of AUTHENTIC language and by experiments of various kinds. The study of usage can reveal, for example, that the passive voice (see VOICE1) is more than ordinarily frequent in scientific writing, or that the spellings all right and alright both occur. It is also possible to study reactions to usage, and on this basis to make recommendations when usage is divided. Usage guides attempt to do this. They may say, for example, that people write both all right and alright, but that there are still strong feelings against the spelling alright, and that therefore it is better to write all right as two words. Usage2 a distinction has been proposed by Widdowson between the function of a linguistic item as an element in a linguistic system (usage) and its function as part of a system of communication (use). For example, the PROGRESSIVE ASPECT may be studied as an item of grammar or usage (i.e. to consider how it compares with other ASPECTS and TENSES in English and the constructions in which it occurs) and in terms of its use (i.e. how it is used in DISCOURSE for performing such communicative acts as descriptions, plans, commentaries, etc.).
and family structure. Uptake the illocutionary force (see SPEECH ACT) a hearer interprets from an utterance. Mother: You can stop doing your homework now. Some areas of anthropological linguistics are closely related to areas of SOCIOLINGUISTICS and the ETHNOGRAPHY OF COMMUNICATION. Ethnography of communication the study of the place of language in culture and society. ceremonies.g. and the meaning it has as an example of use is called its value.The meaning a linguistic item has as an example of usage is called its signification.g. and related this to the overall structure of the particular community.
a branch of linguistics which studies the relationship between language and culture in a community. the uptake or interpretation by the mother is as if the child had said “Can I stop doing my homework now?” But sometimes there may be a difference between the intended uptake (what the speaker wants the hearer to understand) and the actual uptake (what the hearer actually understands). For example. beliefs. and meetings. For example in the following exchange: Child: I’m tired. anthropological linguists have studied the ways in which relationships within the family are expresses in different cultures (kinship terminology). how people in a particular group or community communicate with each other and how the social relationships between these people affect the type of language they use. Language is not studied in isolation but within a social and/or cultural setting.
. and they have studied how people communicate with one another at certain social and cultural events. Ethnography of communication studies. rituals. e. its traditions. for example. e. The concept of an ethnography of communication was advocated by the American social anthropologist and linguist Hymes and this approach is important in SOCIOLINGUISTICS and APPLIED LINGUISTICS.
or they are considered as being part of the SOCIOLOGY OF LANGUAGE or the SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF LANGUAGE.g. The structure of speech events varies considerably according to the GENRE they belong to. a conversation. LANGUAGE ATTITUDES. which may be different in different communities. where’s my red jumper? Mother: Bottom drawer in your bedroom. the key (see KEY1) and the CHANNEL. two people meeting in the street and having a brief conversation. Child: Right. a classroom lesson. educational level and type of education. etc. ethnic origin. an enquiry. sometimes called micro-sociolinguistics. Speech events are governed by rules and norms for the use of speech.g. but usually it refers to any situation which is associated with speech. e. Such areas as the study of language choice in BILINGUAL or MULTILINGUAL communities. may be included under sociolinguistics and are sometimes referred to as macro-sociolinguistics. the MESSAGE. SPEECH EVENTS.g. that is. the PARTICIPANTS and their ROLE RELATIONSHIPS. The term speech situation is sometimes used instead of speech event. SEQUENCING1 of UTTERANCES. SPEECH ACTS. a party. etc. e. or it may contain a number of speech events. Linguists differ as to what they include under sociolinguistics. e. e. age. I’ll have a look.
. For example: Child: Mum. a large dinner party. an exchange of greetings.g. sex. and also those investigations which relate variation in the language used by a group of people to social factors (see SOCIOLECT).Sociolinguistics
the study of language in relation to social factors. some going on at the same time. social class.g. LANGUAGE PLANNING. Many would include the detailed study of interpersonal communication. A speech situation may consist of just one speech event. Speech event a particular instance when people exchange speech. The components of a speech event are its SETTING. e.
Language planning planning. (lower sociolect) The sociolect with the highest status in a country is often the STANDARD VARIETY. In some cases. the topic. a question is usually followed by an answer but can. The differences are referred to as sociolectal variation or social dialectal variation. Sequencing is governed by rules known as sequencing rules. (higher sociolect) “Im’n me was goin’ there. the speakers. in certain circumstances. and other language problems. For example. the addition of new words to the language. The speakers of a sociolect usually share a similar socioeconomic and/or educational background. Sociolects may be classed as high (in STATUS) or low (in status). as in greetings and leave-takings (see ADJACENCY PAIRS) but often there is a range of possibilities depending on the situation. spelling reforms. which may be different for different languages or different varieties of the same language. be followed by another question: A: What are you doing tonight? B: Why do you want to know? Sociolect also social dialect a variety of a language (a DIALECT) used by people belonging to a particular social class. that is. the sequence of utterances is quite strictly regulated. and their intentions at the moment. The difference between one sociolect and another can be investigated by analyzing the recorded speech of large samples of speakers from various social backgrounds. ways of spreading the use of a language.Sequencing (in CONVERSATIONAL ANALYSIS) the relationship between UTTERANCES.
. which type of utterance may follow another one. usually by a government or government agency. For example: He and I were going there. concerning choice of national or official language(s).
social STATUS.Through language planning. The measurement of language attitudes provides information which is useful in language teaching and LANGUAGE PLANNING. etc. An Uptake is the illocutionary force (see SPEECH ACT) a hearer interprets from an utterance. and family structure. ease or difficulty of learning. Language attitudes may have an effect on SECOND LANGUAGE or FOREIGN LANGUAGE learning. Attitudes towards a language may also show what people feel about the speakers of that language.
Pragmatics is the study of the use of language in communication. degree of importance. age. educational level and type of education. elegance. social class. an official language policy is established and/or implemented. Malay was chosen as the national language and was given the name Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian language). Sociolinguistics is the study of language in relation to social factors. particularly the relationships between sentences and the contexts and situations in which they are used. e. There were several spelling reforms and a national planning agency was established to deal with problems such as the development of scientific terms. For example. that is. beliefs. Ethnography of communication is the study of the place of language in culture and society. etc. It became the main language of education. Expressions of positive or negative feelings towards a language may reflect impressions of linguistic difficulty or simplicity. in Indonesia. ethnic origin.g. Language attitudes the attitudes which speakers of different languages or language varieties have towards each other’s languages or to their own language. its traditions. sex.
. Usage is the ways people actually speak and write. Anthropological linguistics is a branch of linguistics which studies the relationship between language and culture in a community.
spelling reforms. What does micro-sociolinguistics include? 6. What are speech events governed by? 8. usually by a government or government agency. What does macro-sociolinguistics include? 7. an exchange of greetings. ways of spreading the use of a language. the addition of new words to the language. an enquiry. Language planning is the planning.A Speech event is a particular instance when people exchange speech. How can be sociolects classified? 9. concerning choice of national or official language(s). What is usage related to? 3. e. What kinds of study does pragmatics include? 2. How is an official language policy established? 11. Sequencing (in CONVERSATIONAL ANALYSIS) is the relationship between UTTERANCES. What is a standard variety? 10. What do language attitudes show?
. The Language attitudes are the attitudes which speakers of different languages or language varieties have towards each other’s languages or to their own language. What is the difference between usage and use as proposed by Widdowson? 4.g. What have anthropological linguists studied? 5. and other language problems. that is. A Sociolect (also social dialect) a variety of a language (a DIALECT) used by people belonging to a particular social class. a conversation. which type of utterance may follow another one.