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Kumari Sudha Research Scholar Deptt of History P.U., Patna Forming the central sector of the Himalayan are, the Uttaranchal Himalaya provides a revealing insight into the history of sedimentation and tectonics of the entire Himalaya. The rocks are highly deformed. They from various thrust sheets and nappes and are traversed repeatedly by transverse faults. The Uttaranchal Himalaya comprises all the four latiudinal zones identified on the basis of varied geotectonic and physiographic features and various metallic anf non-metallic minerals are videly distributed within them. Though the variety of minerals found in Uttaranchal is not very large, however there are significantly small deposits of metallic minerals which include lead, zinc copper gold tungsten, antimony etc. The non metallic deposits are large and if properly assessed and utilized, have the potential of bringing economic revolution in the region. occurrences of substantial deposists of magnesite, dolomite, limestone, paving stone, talc are known from a number of localities in Uttaranchal Himalaya. The succinct account of the occurrences of major and minor mineral deposist, their distribution, quality and estimated reservesd are given below.1
Limestone/Dolomite is found in many parts of Uttaranchal. The Gangolihat Dolomite formation of eastern part is predominantly made of dolomite occuring in three belts, namely the Jhulaghat-Gangolihat-Jhirauli belt, the Panthsera-Rain-Kanda belt, and the Dharchula Kapkot belt extending westward into the Pindar valley is of the order of several billion tonnes. Large deposits of Dolomite/Limestone occur in Krol belt of Nainital Hills and Dehradun-Mussoorie Syncline. The main deposits have been reported from sisoli, Bhatta, Hathipaon, Jharipani localities. These deposits have high Ca0 ranging from 50 to 57% whith low Mg0, iron oxide, silica and alumina content and belong ot Krol ‘C’. The limestone occuring in the upper part is dolomitic in nature. The limestone belonging to Tal formation has high silica content than Mg0. The good qulaity limestone deposits are exposed around Sahastradhara area. The limestone deposits exposed around Kalsi and Dagura, Tila Gwar and Bhadsi near Lansdowne are also of significant quality.2 The basal part of the Gangoliht Dolomite (=Deoban) consists of limestone at a number of places. Overlying the Gangolihat dolomites, the Sor slate also consists of several bands of cement-grade limestone in a number of places. In the Pithoragarh district, three
71% South of the Munsiari Thrust the third chain extends from Painya in the east to Tuper Jakh and Jakheri (Lahor valley) in the west. CaO 1. The magnesium oxide content (35-45%) of the magnesite is almost uniform throughout its vast extent.g. A reserve of about 7 million tonnes of cement-grade limestone has been estimated at Jaurasi by the U. Dewalthat. Deopala.000 tonnes of reserve of calc tuffa (Cao 32-53%.P. extending westward along Bhulgaon. Directorate of Geology & Mining. State Cement Corporatioon. and investigations so far carried out have shown the possibility of setting up of mini cement plants at a number of places. Baste. Tithait. Cement-grade limestone is also found near Jirauli (Matela area) where the total reserve is of the order of 8.Agar and Kanda.4 million tonnes of cement-grade limestone with average Ca0 74. The magnesite-horizon occurs in three lognitudinal belts.83%. Boragar.4% and insoluble residue 10-13% A thin band of cement-grade limestone has also been recorded from the base of Gangolihat dolomite west of Berinag in the Postala-Kulur Gad area. A horizon of marmorized limestone occurs north of Nainital in the Kosi valley. Matela (Jhirauli area) and Bhulgaon. The Second chain is found extending from Panthsera. Ganni.2%.3 The calcareous tuffa of the Krol Formation of Nainital is of the cement grade. About 55. Phadiari. Dungi. R2 O3 1. A mini cement plant of the capacity of 2 lakh tonnes per annum has been proposed near chaunala by U. North of Pithoragarh it extends along Bisabajer.77 million tonnes. The average composition of the deposit at Dewalthat is MgO 43. Mgo 2%. extending through Nargolgad.P. containting about 3. Betalghat.4 Magnesite The most spectacular features of the Gangolihat Dolomite (=Deoban) is the lentiform deposits of coarsely crystalline magnesite in its uppermost horizon. Gandoli. the calcium content of the limestone varies from 45-50%. In the east it is approximately 20km long and 230 mthick. Al2o3% Sio2 1-10%) have been located in the Chunakhan Saulena-Adaura area northwest of Nainital.20% about 60 million tonnes of limestone reserves has been estimated. Chaunala. The first band stretches from Baste to Naulara (Ramganga Valley). Salia and Dhjuraphat (Gangoli area). Bagaur.5 . Harigaon.80% and Si varies from 5-13. extending from Betalghat through Jaurasi to Nathuakhan.66%. long and 25 m thick.distinct belts of limestone are reconizable. the amount of Mg being low-from 0.75 to 1. It will be evident that the reserves of limestone are quite large.53% and R2 O3 3. at Jaurasi. CaO 1. Mg0 2.40%. having 16 million tonnes of limestone. The chemical composition of these deposits at Chandaak-Dharigaon is MgO 42.39%. SiO2 5. The horizon of magnestie deposit streches from the Kali River in the east to the Alaknanda Valley in the west. SiO2 2. Tachhini. Asam. Chunala and Suitola.51%.30%. Another very significant 13 km long and 50-200 m thick horizon coours south of Gangolihat. Rain. Dol-Tusrani. This belt is about 6 km. e. Bauri. Dewaldhar towards Girichhina and Someshwar.
90 50.T. The magnesite is mainly used in the steel and cement industries.00 Talc Talc is found intimately associated with the magnesite deposits. by the Magnesite and Mineral Ltd.23 14. tanning and textiles.) 32. Gulabkoti and Mamolta area of Chamoli district. An estimated reserve of about 2 million tonnes has been calculated for the . Ritha-Raintola (Ramganga Valley). Preliminary survey indicated high-grade talc occurrences in Almora and Pithoragarh districts. The magnesite would require uprading by suitable beneficiation for the manufacture of matallic magnesium. Kholi-Amthal Jhirauli Dewaldhar Girichhina Kanda-Musauli Pungar Valley Lahor Valley Palla-Gulabkhoti District Pithoragarh Pthoragarh Pthoragarh Pthoragarh Almora Almora Almora Almora Almora Almora Chamoli Average Thickness (m) 6.The region had large magnestie deposite. The Chandaak and Jhirauli deposits are being mined. Panya-Pauri and Imkhola (Gori Valley). cosmetics.6 Magnesite also occurs in Palla. The deposits of Jakhera. some of which have already been quantiatively and qualitatively evaluated. paper. Kanda.10 3. Jakhola.5 to 120 m.15 15. However.24 Estimated Reseve (M. Dewalthal-Bungachhina Boragar-Rain Agar (South of Berinage) are economically exploitable.50 18. Agar-Girichhina (east of Someshwar). A total reserve has been estimated to be 50 million tonnes. The Dewalthal deposite is being evaluated by the Bharat Refractory Ltd. Pharmaceuticals. Dayali and Masauli (Pungar Valley). and the Almora magnesite Ltd. A small deposit has also been located in the Kharidhar. each producing about 100 tonnes of dead-burnt magnesier daily. Gopvernment of India undertaking. Healang.20 12. Biskha and Surag (Lahor Valley). respectively..06 45.00 79 3.34 52. Khuna. there is large scope for utilising it in a large number of other industries such as synthetic. The reserve position of some of the important deposits is given below. plastic. paints.35 9. The mineral body vary in length ranging from 75 to 720 m and in thickness from 12.58 12. Kimana. Reserve of some important manesite Depoists Locality of Deposit Dewalthal Chandaak Gol. Malahula Thal.65 4. Maulagar. north or Dwarahat.
The Ramgarh Groups also comprises good-quality slates at various places.6 Talc is used in various industries-for-making of soap. In the Pithoragarh district near Malajhula about 4 km ling and 60m thick talc was recently discovered. As a matter of act. paint.7 SMALLER DEPOSITS Copper In the last four decades. pesticides and lubricants. Chiteh near Dwarahat and Labha near Garisen are of good quality traditionaly Kanalichhina Baldhoti. The Pungar valley deposits are estimate to have 3.000 by 5m (Dyeli). Badolisera. In the Bora Agar area about 300 m long and 29 m thick talc band has been located.25 m (Surag). The talc of the Kumaun region is suitable for various types of industies. 200 by 6m (Birkhal) and 2. In central Kumaun. Kanalichhina. the entire places having suffix ‘Agar’ Were ancient minning/Metallurgical centers. the Alomra crytallines at a umber of places contain high-quality slates and pavingstone.4 million tonnes of massive to flaky industiral-grade soaptone. magnesite and talc schist of the Gangolighat (ii) Chlorie schist of Bearing fromation and (iii) mylonitic prorphyry schist and quartz porphyry of the Ramgarh Groups. Slate and Pavingstones Slate has been used since times immemorial as a roofing material. Chimta and Kanda. the magnesite and dolomite show dissemination of chalocopyrite.deposits of Girichhina. North of Pithoragarh near Chandaak and east of Kanalichhina minor veins of pyrite chalcopyrite are seen within the Gangolihat Dolomite. The occurence of copper minerals are confined to three lithostratigraphic units (i) dolomite. The Lahor valley deposits are smaller in dimension -500 by 1. Baldhoti. The total resrves of Gypsum associated with the Krol sediments have been estimate to be 1. Dhapila and Joginath. In the Dwelathal area. At rain Agar an 18 m long and 0. Gypsum Gypsum occurs in Naintial. Gypsum occurs in pocket and in small bands in Garari Chatti and Ranagargaon Sera locality of Tehri District. The Kanalichhina deposit (Pithoragarh) contains an established reserve of about 0. detailed investigation were carried out for copper and other base metals. South of Bering near Rain-Agar.12 million tonnes. insecticides. Chieth near Dwarahat and Labha near Gairsen are good quality and traditionaly mined since olden times. The oldest sedimentary rocks of eastern Kumaun Himalaya consist of slates of brown and grey colours. The gypsum have also recoreded from Kharrari Chatti near Lakshman Jhula. The Sor Slate Formation throughout its vast extent contains valuable roofing and pavingstone material. In Naintial district Gypsum occurs in pockets and lenses near Hanumangarhi. Tehri and Pauri districts. The deposite of Gumalikhet. traes of ancient mining and smelting are seen. A sizble mineraliztion of Gypsum is associated with Krol limestone in Jharipani-Sahastradhara and Kalighat area of Mussoorie synline. Dehradun.1 million tonnes.5 .
with minor amounts of marcasite. chalcocite. .30m in width an average Cu content of 1. galena.32% and Zn 3. cubanite and stinnite. The mineralization is mainly represented by sphalerite. the average being 4. Timar and Ulgad in eastern Naintial District. Rain Agar and Bheridhauri. At Maldeota the phosphatic band has a thickness of about 7 m extending over 1300m. Direcotrate of Geology and Mining have so far established a reserve of 1.29%. Bhalodeo and Gaul. The Nagthat quartizites interbedded with metavolcanic stain besides also contain chalcopyrite.08% to 33. In Garhwal synline in Tehri and and Pauri districts phophorite has also located at Kundyarsin and Kowdyaia area.5 km long extending between Tusrani and Dol. Chamasari and Jakholi areas. The Bora Agar mineralized zone is about 1. south of Rain Agar and Najibia (South of Berinage) Chandaak. A reserve of about 18 million tonns has been estimated in the Mussoorie deposits. Lead Occurs invariably associate with copper sulphides such as at Sisakhani. the follow in investigations carried out by U.77 million tonnes of copper-lead -zinc ore.8 Lead Evidence of ancient of lead is seen at Sisakhani. The Sisakhani deposit is the only occurence of some promise. pyrrhotite. Phosphorite The Mussoorie and Nigalidhar syncline has signifiant mineralization around Maldeota. with an average Cu content of 0.A total reserve of 0.5% has been located. with an average grade of 9% metal. Chhanapani.m wide lode of chalcoyrite and prite.95%. in the area west of Chhanapani the 15m by 6m zone contains minutes specks thin veinlets of galena in dolomite.P. Kimukhet.47 m. In Ramgarh rocks. Bheridhauri (Ashok0Sandeo). chalcocite. Bhainskhet. Paritiba. Dewalgarh.80% and weighted average lead content of 3. covellite besides goethite and haematite occuring in stringers veins and as caity filling such as seen at Jhulia-Tamakhani. and 5. The weighted average composition is Cu 2.004 to 1. A polymetallic copper deposit has been located near Askot. The thckness of the ore zone is variable.34% Likewise. This is the only occurence of significance.41 million tonnes of the ore. the quarts-veins cutting across quartz porphyry and granite porphyry have been found to contain sulhides at Galpakot. has been estimated for this polymetallic deposite by the Geological survey of India. Durmala. bornite. The Phosporite occurs with black shale chert association in lower part of Krol Fromation. pyrite. However. long extending between Sisakhani and Baldeo Hills. with the lead content ranging from 0. The mineralised zone is about 4 km. The P2O5 content varies from 6-30%. The P2 O5 content varies from 15 to 25%. Hairakhan. bornite. The result of the regional integrated survey are not encouraging. Tachhira. Lead and Zinc mineralizations is also associated with Krol limestone and dolomites as developed near Shahastradhara near Dehradun. chalcopyrite and aresenopyrite.
extending over 15km. but so far deposits of significance are not known. animony. in the Almora crystalliness in the Petsal-Palsima.10 Pyrite and Sulphur The Gangolihat dolomites. the Kumaun phosphorite deposits are not economical for exploitation.5 to 7% graphite are commercially being exploited. The total estimated reserve is of the order of 1. In view of the poor quality.11%. An average of about 0. Petsal and Barini Devi. A reserve of about 10. garnetiferous mica schist and gneisses of the Almora Group.88 to 37. Conspicous dissemination of pyrite are seen in the Tejam Zone between Kali and Alaknanda Valley. Dhaulichhina and Jaurasi (Chuaukhutia) area. is found associated with banded quartizite. northwest of Almora. Scheelite The U. the phosphate occurring in the form of thijn bands. and associated minerals bishmuth. tungsten ore. Phalsima and Palon.Phosphorite is localized in two differnet lithostratiraphic groups. Sirar. and Halpati). There is every possibility of finding good deposite of scheelite in these crystalliness at many other places.A. The Complex folding is responisble for the repetition of this horizon in the north in Gurungdesh (Ratwali.9 The uppermost Krol dolomite and contiguous Tal Strata at Shewrwood college and Tiffin Top in the Naintial Hills are slightly phosphatic. Munsiari. Baste. southeast of Munsiari in the Tanta and Dhamigaon area.S. Resarch on the beneficiation would help utilizationh of the Pestal-Kalimat-Sirar deposits.. South of Berinag.W. Sor Slate and Infra-Krol contain in a number of localities the disseminations of pyrite and encrustations of sulphur. Directorate of Geology and Mining has recently discovered scheelite.04% to 0. Garjoli. about 2 to 2. Graphite The occurences of graphite schist and graphite nodules are known from Kalimat. The grahite schist belt.9% tungsten is present in the rocks. Detailed exploration is still in progress. Tatrota. graphite bands in mica-schist containing as low as 2. along the Gori between Madkot and Sirtola in the vicinity of Garjia. The Phosphate content is very low. in the Ramganga-Jakhala .5 million tonnes. It may be noted that in Alabama and New York regions Of U.5 in thickness and having a strike extension of 225 m in the E-W direction have average P2 O5. The Gangolihat dlomite of Pithoragarh-Gangolihat area contains phosphorite in the stromatolitics horizons traceable from jarmalgaon through Bhandarigaon.P. Chandaak. gold etc. Dhari. Ukkakot and chhira in Champawat area. Content of 7-10%. Tragaon and Marhgaon to Bisabajer. Small but significant occurences in the Munsiari Formation are also known from Bult. Diuri. The phosphatic bands are cherty and granular in character.70 million tonnes has been estimated in the Kalimat-Sirar area. The Carbon content of the deposite ranges from 5. and only a few lentils and pockets contain about 10-20% of P2O5 Phosphate is also assocated with the stromatolitic dolomitic limestone near the P. Guest House at Ganolihat and near Bora Agar.D.
K. Dr. Omega Publication. and the Pindar Valley west of Kibara. resulting in the degradation of land. P-36 . G.J.68 7. P-48 5.11 Although the varitey of minerals in Uttranchal is not very large. Vikash Ranjan Kumar. regeneration of the disturbed exosystem on sustaibale basis. Indian Quains.K. Vikash Ranjan Kumar. Gargi Prakashan. 2009. G. Uttarakhand Ka Itihas. Ibid. The mining plan for such regions incorpate rehabilitation. G. P-46 6. pollution of air and water and ground failure affecting the geohydrology of the area. Univeristy. Gargi Prakashan. Shyam Narayan Singh. In the Krol belt other extensively developed Infra-Krol shows pyrite in a number of localities. 1970. Haridwar. Uttarakhand Sangrahalaya Darshan. Caution has to be taken in mining of minerals in the ecologically senstitive and geological fragile terrain of Uttaranchal. Uttarakhand Ka Itihas. P-316 8. P-56 4. P. Dr. Puratataw Sangrahalaya Haridwar. Ibid 3. the Saryu-Lahur valley north of Bageshwar. P-36 2. P-183 10. References : 1. Puratataw Sangrahalaya Haridwar. Rapsan. Agra. Univeristy. Puratataw Sangrahalaya Haridwar. In mining operation the problem starts with the extraction of minerals. the Pindar valley west of Bageshwar. Pahad: 10. however the minerals prsent in abundance could be utilized for the economic benefit of the nation. Shyam Narayan Singh. P-36 6. Univeristy.near Tejam. 2007.K. E. P-12 9. Haridwar. Ibid. Agra. Bhagat Singh Pawar. Haridwar. P-68 11. Shyam Narayan Singh. 2009. Ibid.
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