GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS

INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD

PROJECT ON DATA BASE MANAGEMENT PREPARED BY:
AAMIR HAYAT & CLASS MATES STUDENTS OF INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD

DATABASE OF SUNNY TRUST, PAKISTAN.
Database Management System.

Department of Management Sciences,

International Islamic University, Islamabad.
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Contents:
Chapter Chapter 1: Introduction: 1.1 Introduction to Organization: 1.2 Locations: 1.3 Departments: 1.4 Entity Classes: 1.5 Enterprise Data Model: 1.5.1 BASIC ERD. 1.5.2 PLANNING MATRIX: Chapter 2: Existing System: 2.1 Existing System: 2.1.1 Components Of Existing System: 2.1.2 Drawbacks: Chapter 3: Proposed System: 3.1 Proposed System: Chapter 4: Design: 4.1 System Design: 4.1.1 Organizational Chart Of Hospital: 4.1.2 Business Functions: 4.1.2.1 Hospital Management. 4.1.3 Data Flow Diagram: 4.2 Database Design: (Conceptual Data Model) 4.2.1 Entities: 4.2.2 Attributes: 4.2.3 Keys: 4.2.4 Relationships 4.2.5 Cardinalities 4.2.6 Business Rules 4.2.6.1 Entity Integrity 4.2.6.2 Domain 4.2.6.3 Triggering Operations 4.3 Logical Data Model: 4.3.1 Representing Entities 4.3.2 Representing Relationship 4.3.3 Data Dictionary 4.3.4 Normalization Chapter 5: Implementation. Page No. 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 8 8 8

9 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 14 15 15 15 18 19 20

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Appendix A: Detailed ERD. Appendix B: Data Flow Diagram. Appendix C: Screen Shots. Appendix D: Reports Printouts.

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION:

1.1

INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATION:

The prevailing drug abuse problem in Pakistan is of colossal magnitude (estimated 4.3 million addicts), very complex and varied. It was dramatized in the early 1980s with the explosive spread of heroin culture among all social classes, particularly the urban youth. The nature of problem has evolved with changing supply-demand and availability of new types of drugs. Nonetheless, drug abuse remains widespread and socially destructive since past twenty years. A single addict usually affects lives of 15-25 extended family members, besides society at large. Given ineffective enforcement measures, hence assured supply of various Norco-drugs, drug abuse will tragically persist for the third decade into the 21st century. The prevailing drug abuse problem in Pakistan is not only colossal in magnitude (estimated over 4 million addicts) but very complex, varied and changing in nature. It was dramatized in the early 1980's with the rapid spread of primarily heroin culture among practically all the social classes including, notably, the student community and the urban youth. The treatment and rehabilitation facilities for drug addicts in Pakistan remain inadequate and mostly unsatisfactory. Thus high relapse rates often promote the cynical view that drug addiction is incurable. Yet Sunny Trust Pakistan (Regd.)/Addiction Treatment Centre stands out as a unique experiment in the effective curing of drug addiction based on homeopathic medication and a comprehensive system of self-discipline, spiritual training and socio-psychological rehabilitation. Founder Sunny Trust Pakistan Dr. Munawar Fiaz Sunny and his dedicated team combine a decade long experience in curing over 4000 drug addicts (including patients from foreign countries), based on the Sunny methodology. The process of their cure involves reclaiming the addicts from the stranglehold of drugs and then systematically harnessing of their inherent God-given attributes, towards a positively transformed life. As Dr. Sunny has painstakingly demonstrated, drug addiction is a convincingly curable condition with selective homeopathic medicinal interventions as part of a more comprehensive healing process of the body, mind and soul.
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1.2

LOCATIONS:
1.2.1 ISLAMABAD OFFICE MURREE ROAD, BARA KAHU ISLAMABAD. The 50 bed Islamabad Centre, established in 1995, remains operative to full capacity. It provides an open, clean and healthy environment for drug abuse treatment and rehabilitation.
1.2.2

FAISALABAD OFFICE MAIN BAZAR, LIAQAT TOWN. .The 30-bed Sunny Trust Faisalabad facility, established in March 1992, is presently under reorganization.

1.3

DEPARTMENTS:
1.3.1 PATIENT MANAGEMENT: This department manages the admissions, stay, and discharge of patients in the hospital. 1.3.2 CLINICAL SERVICES: This department is responsible for all the extra services provided to the patients such as pharmacy, X-Rays, Ultrasounds and psychiatric tests.

ACCOUNTS AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT: This department manages the finances and accounts. It deals with all the cash, receipts, payments etc. INVENTORY MANAGEMENT: This department contains all aspects about inventory such as medicines, equipments, furniture etc. PAYROLL MANAGEMENT:
it deals with the payment of salary of the entire staff of the hospital. 6

1.4

ENTITY CLASSES:
1. PATIENT. 2. EMPLOYEE. 2.1. DOCTOR. 2.2. NURSE. 2.3. ACCOUNTANT. 2.4. PURCHASER. 2.5. DAILY WAGES. 3. BILL. 4. MEDICINE. 5. VENDOR. 6. PATIENT HISTORY.

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1.5

ENTERPRISE DATA MODEL:
1.5.1
BILL

BASIC ERD.
PATIENT HISTORY LAB TEST

Has Pays Has

PATIENT

Treats Registers

DOCTOR
NURSE CLERCK

Gets

Gets Gets

BILL

SALARY
Paid

PURCHASE R

MEDICINE

VENDOR

Purchase

Provides

FIG. 2 BASIC ERD OF SUNNY TRUST, PAKISTAN.

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1.5.2

PLANNING MATRIX: P A T I E N T D O C T O R N U R S E C L E R C K M E D I C I N E V E N D O R P U R C H A S E R B I L L P H I S T O R Y L A B T E S T

HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT.

PATIENT REGISTRATION PATIENT STAY. PATIENT DISCHARG. PHARMACY. PATIENT TREATING. PATIENT MONITORING. GENERAL ACCOUNTING. BILL PATIENT. INVENTORY MANAGEMENT. SALARY PAYMENT.
FIG. 3 PLANNING MATRIX OF SUNNY TRUST, PAKISTAN.

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CHAPTER 2 EXISTING SYSTEM:
2.1 EXISTING SYSTEM:

The existing system of Sunny Trust, Pakistan is maintained manually on registers. This system contains all information about patients, clinical services, accounts management, inventory management and payroll system.

2.1.1 COMPONENTS OF EXISTING SYSTEM:
       Registration of Patients. Patient Fee. Staff Record. Payments. Purchases. Medicine. Vendor Information.

2.1.2 DRAWBACKS:
        Low Efficiency. Low Security. Redundancy. Inconsistency. More Chances of Errors. Loss of Time. Wastage of Storage. Low Sharing.

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CHAPTER 3 PROPOSED SYSTEM:

3.1

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

The system we are going to create will be computerized. All data will be saved in computer files. It is hoped that the proposed system will provide fast, accurate and automated data collection to all the departments. Some general features of the proposed system are as follows:          Efficiency. Controlled Redundancy. Error Free. Accuracy. Flexibility. User Friendly. Consistency. Full Sharing of Data. Controlled Security.

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CHAPTER 4 DESIGN:
4.1 SYSTEM DESIGN: 4.1.1 ORGANIZATIONAL CHART OF HOSPITAL:

OWNER

GENERAL MANAGER

HEAD ACOUNTANT

RESIDENT OFFICER

ACOUNTANT

PATIENT

PURCHASER

DOCTOR

INVENTORY

NURSE

FIG. 1 ORGANIZATIONAL CHART OF SUNNY TRUST, PAKISTAN.

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4.1.2 BUSINESS FUNCTIONS:
4.1.2.1HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT. 4.1.2.1.1 PATIENT MANAGEMENT. 4.1.2.1.1.1 PATIENT REGISTRATION. 4.1.2.1.1.2 PATIENT STAY. 4.1.2.1.1.3 PATIENT DISCHARG. 4.1.2.1.2 CLINICAL SERVICES. 4.1.2.1.2.1 PHARMACY. 4.1.2.1.2.2 PATIENT TREATING. 4.1.2.1.2.3 PATIENT MONITORING. 4.1.2.1.3 ACCOUNTS AND FINANCE. 4.1.2.1.3.1 BILL PATIENT. 4.1.2.1.3.2 GENERAL ACCOUNTING.

4.1.3 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM:
Please consult Appendix B Page No.

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4.2

DATABSE DESIGN: (CONCEPTUAL DATA MODEL)
The conceptual data model prepared for the project has the following features.

4.2.1 ENTITIES:
We have the following entities in our project: PATIENT, P HISTORY, BILL, MEDICINE, VENDOR, EMPLOYEE, DOCTOR, NURSE, VENDOR, ACCOUNTANT, DAILY WAGES, PURCHASER

4.2.2 ATTRIBUTES:
Following are the attributes of the entities: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. PATIENT (P No, P Name, P Add, P Phone, P Relative) P HISTORY (P No, D. O. Add, D. O. Leaving, Room No, Disease) BILL (B No, Amount, Description) TEST (T ID, T Name) MEDICINE (M No, M Name) VENDOR (V No, V Name, V Add) EMPLOYEE (E No, E Name, E Type) a. DOCTOR (E No, Salary, Specialization, D. O. Joining, Timing) b. NURSE (E No, Salary, Timing, D. O. Joining) c. PURCHASER (E No, Salary) d. DAILY WAGES (E No, Rate) e. ACCOUNTANT (E No, Salary, D. O. Joining)

4.2.3 KEYS:
ENTITIES PRIMARY KEYS

PATIENT P HISTORY BILL TEST MEDICINE VENDOR EMPLOYEE DOCTOR NURSE

P No P No, D. O. Add B No T ID M No V No E No E No E No
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PURCHASER DAILY WAGES ACCOUNTANT

E No E No E No

4.2.4 RELATIONSHIPS
 PATIENT has a relationship with P HISTORY, BILL, TEST, MEDICINE, DOCTOR.  P HISTORY has a relationship with the PATIENT.  BILL has a relationship with PATIENT.  TEST has a relationship with PATIENT.  MEDICINE have a relationship with VENDOR.  EMPLOYEE provides services. o DOCTOR o NURSE o PURCHASER o DAILY WAGES. o ACCOUNTANT

4.2.5
• • • • •

CARDINALITIES
One PATIENT can has only one BILL,DOCTOR and one PATIENT can has one or more P HISTORY as well as one PATIENT can has no or more TEST, MEDICINE. There can be one or more P HISTORY against a PATEINT. One BILL can have no or more PATIENTS and one PATIENT can have only and only one type of BILL TEST has a zero to many relationship with the PATIENT and PATEINT has also zero to many relationship with TEST. MEDICINE has a zero to many relationship with the VENDOR and VENDOR has also zero to many relationship with MEDICINE.

4.2.6

BUSINESS RULES 4.2.6.1 ENTITY INTEGRITY

Each entity has a separate primary key satisfying the entity integrity.

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4.2.6.2

DOMAIN

PATIENT Patient has only one type and they are Resident Patient. BILL Three types of bill. Rich bill, middle bill and poor bill. EMPLOYEE doctor, nurse, purchaser, daily wages, accountant.

4.2.6.3
User Rule Event Entity Event Entity Conditions Action

TRIGGERING OPERATIONS
       Time of arrival must be before departure. Departure of PATIENT. PATIENT. Prepare bill. BILL. If Arrival is after Departure. Reject.

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4.3

LOGICAL DATA MODEL: 4.3.1 REPRESENTING ENTITIES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. PATIENT (P No, P Name, P Add, P Phone, P Relative) P HISTORY (P No, D. O. Add, D. O. Leaving, Room No, Disease) BILL (B No, Amount, Description) TEST (T ID, T Name) MEDICINE (M No, M Name) VENDOR (V No, V Name, V Add) EMPLOYEE (E No, E Name, E Type) f. DOCTOR (E No, Salary, Specialization, D. O. Joining, Timing) g. NURSE (E No, Salary, Timing, D. O. Joining) h. PURCHASER (E No, Salary) i. DAILY WAGES (E No, Rate) j. ACCOUNTANT (E No, Salary, D. O. Joining)

4.3.2 REPRESENTING RELATIONSHIP
Relationship Between PATIENT and BILL:
PATIENT P No P Name P Add P Phone P Relative

BILL
B No Amount Description

PAYMENT P No B No Amount

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Relationship Between PATIENT and TEST:
PATIENT P No P Name P Add P Phone P Relative

TEST T ID T Name

RESULT P No T No Date Result

Relationship Between PATIENT, DOCTOR and MEDICINE:
PATIENT P No P Name P Add P Phone P Relative

MEDICINE M No M Name

P No

MEDICATION M No

D. O. Starting

D. O. Ending

E No

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Relationship Between VENDOR and MEDICINE:
VENDOR V No V Name V Add

MEDICINE M No M Name

SUPPLY V No M No Date Quantity

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4.3.3 DATA DICTIONARY
Data Type
Number Text Text Text Text Number Date/Time Date/Time Number Text Number Number Text Number Text Number Text Number Text Text Text Text Text Text Number Text Date/Time

Entity
PATIENT PATIENT PATIENT PATIENT PATIENT P HISTORY P HISTORY P HISTORY P HISTORY P HISTORY BILL BILL BILL TEST TEST MEDICINE MEDICINE VENDOR VENDOR VENDOR EMPLOYEE EMPLOYEE EMPLOYEE DOCTOR DOCTOR DOCTOR DOCTOR

Attributes
P No. P Name P Add P Phone P Relative P No. D. O. Add D. O. Leaving Room No. Disease B. No Amount Description T ID T Name M No. M Name V No. V Name V Add E No. E Name E Type E No Salary Specialization D. O. Joining

Width
5 20 50 15 20 5 10 10 2 50 5 10 50 5 20 10 15 10 20 50 5 20 10 10 5 20 10

Primary Unique Format Key
Y N N N N Y N N N N Y N N Y N Y N Y N N Y N N Y N N N Y N N N N Y N N N N Y N N Y N Y N Y N N Y N N Y N N N NNNNN

NNNNN dd-mmyy dd-mmyy NN NNNNN

NNNNN NNNNN NNNNN

NNN-X

NNN-X NNNN dd-mmyy

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DOCTOR NURSE NURSE NURSE NURSE PURCHASER PURCHASER DAILY WAGES DAILY WAGES ACCOUNTATNT ACCOUNTATNT ACCOUNTATNT

Timing E No. Salary Timing D. O. Joining E. No. Salary E No. Rate E No. Salary D. O. Joining

Date/Time Text Number Date/Time Data/Time Text Number Text Number Text Number Date/Time

10 10 5 10 10 10 5 10 5 10 5 10

N Y N N N Y N Y N Y N N

N Y N N N Y N Y N Y N N

hh-mmss NNN-X hh-mmss dd-mmyy NNN-X NNN-X NNN-X dd-mmyy

4.3.4

NORMALIZATION

1NF All the tables are already in 1NF as: • There were repeating groups in PATIENT table TEST and BILL. • There are no Multi-valued attributes. 2NF All the tables are already in 2NF as : • There is no Partial Functional Dependency in any table. • There are composite primary keys in Patient History , Result , Payment , Medication , Supply. • In these tables no non-key attribute depends on a part of composite Primary key. 3NF All the tables are already in 3NF as : • There is no Transitive Dependency in any table. • No two Non-key attributes depends on each other but on primary keys.
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CHAPTER 5 IMPLIMENTATION:
We implemented this software using the MS Access tool. The soft copy of the software has been attached.

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APPENDIX A

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APPENDIX B Level Zero.
PATIENT

Admits in Hopital

0 Treatment Process

Patient Concern Data

PATIENT

Employee Concern Data

EMPLOYEE

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Level One
Patient Related Data

PATIENT

Patient History

Admits in Hospital

Doctor, Nurse Concern Daata

Patient Schedule

Patient Registration

Treatment Process

After Recovering

Patient Discharge

Payment of Bill

PATIENT ACCOUNTANT

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APPENDIX C Screen Shots.

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