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ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Roger Russell has had extensive experience in the mining industry and broad industrial exposure to training methodology and resource management…
He has designed and implemented Interface Communications Training at Anglo American and led the Training & Development Design Team for National Alignment at Anglo Platinum, South Africa. He currently specialises in Structure & Development of Company Training Teams, Implementation of Tailored Training Systems and Assessment of Competency. His company FREEROAD COMMUNICATIONS supplies: Supervisory Skills, Training for Middle Management Structure & Development of Training Teams Design & Installation of Modular Training Programmes Role Descriptions & Work Design Assessments, Inspections & Auditing Systems He was educated in East Africa, Bournemouth UK and Johannesburg SA. He has qualifications in Business Administration and Production Management from Damelin as well as Training from the Institute of Personal Management, SA and the University of Johannesburg. He has provided Training and Development consulting for Chibuluma in Zambia, Ruashi in the DRC and FQM both in Zambia and Finland. Roger has written three other books (available at SCRIBD); The Road of Hope, Visible Gold and Footbridge. This is his first venture into a technical work. He lives with his wife Cynthia on Loki, a Broads Cruiser in Cambridgeshire. They work together and travel all over the world as needed. Roger and Cynthia are people who believe in contributing to the community; in this regard they have both been involved in Adult Education, Tech-Prep for Rural Children and worked with the Rustenburg Association of Business for several years. Roger has walked over 17000km in aide of Cancer Awareness and in support of Community Policing
ABOUT THIS BOOK
WHERE IT STARTED, HOW IT IS PUT TOGETHER AND WHAT IT IS SUPPOSED TO DO
My wife and I work together and over the last five years it has been our lot to firstly upgrade training departments and then eventually to structure them from the ground up for several organisations. During this period we have found ourselves advocating systems and attitudes that we have believed in against some very strange and antiquated ideas from production managers and other players, some of whom should know better. The result has been a refining and in most cases confirmation of how training should be approached. Nearly all the places we have been fortunate enough to work in have responded well to what we have tried to do and we believe that our successes bear out the wisdom of these reactions.. The content of the book is split into three sections: 1. THINKING ABOUT IT... which provides some, hopefully not too radical, opinions on the training discipline and its environment. 2. DOING IT... which is a reasonably complex set of instructions on just that. 3. TAKE ANOTHER LOOK... which is a ready reference to all the contents as well as a set of quick, simpler reminders of the essence of the same. It is not possible to work everywhere or to preach our gospel within all the board rooms or training offices around the world and we hope that this book which is a presentation of our experiences and the systems that are derived from them will find some following amongst the many training people out there who have to build and/or manage training departments on their own. It would be nice to think that it was kept on your desktop or in the drawer of your desk and well used. An assumption of some prior knowledge and exposure to the basics of training underlies the content and hopefully this does not detract from the simplicity of what has been provided. Roger Russell Upware Marina, Cambridgeshire June, 2013
SECTION 01 – THINKING ABOUT IT TRAINING AS A BUSINESS TOOL; A SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINE WITH STRUCTURE AND LAWS. Introduction, why train? Human Resource Engineering.
SECTION 02 – DOING IT. SETTING UP WHAT IS NEEDED AND DESIGNING/SOURCING MATERIAL What you will need, the process, how to create content and working with results.
SECTION 03 – TAKE ANOTHER LOOK SUMMARY OF CONTENT AND GUIDE TO THE CONTENTS OF THE BOOK Quick reference and learning aide
1. THINKING ABOUT IT
MANAGING CHANGE, TRAINING AS A BUSINESS TOOL, A SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINE WITH STRUCTURE AND LAWS. Introduction. Why train? Human Resource Engineering.
CHANGE IN EMPLOYEES IS BROUGHT ABOUT IN FOUR AREAS… The assets contained in the person of the employee are considered to be 1. His or her knowledge 2. His or her understanding 3. His or her ability to do things 4. His or her experience Knowledge – Is considered to be the information a person possesses that allows decisions to be made or a particular course of action to be selected because one is aware of specifications, needs or reactions to relevant factors. Understanding – Is considered to be an awareness of cause and effect. It allows decisions or a selection of actions to be applied based on the need for or impact of such decisions or actions. Ability to do things – Is considered to be an inherent or learned skill in the execution of a task be it manual or mental. It’s application is largely decided by a person’s knowledge and understanding of relevant factors. Experience – Is special because it is a learning that has combined the best of training approaches which are; the reality of the work situation, personal evaluation of situations and events and finally, commitment to a set of opinions formed by one´s self. It could be considered to be a personal set of working directives that is based on all of the other three attributes. Work across all levels of endeavour is a combination of these four assets; the mix being directly related to the nature of the position in the organisational hierarchy.
Consider the table below and the graphic beside it…
At senior levels the mind needs to express itself and verbal or manual skills are at the service of the thinking processes. i.e. Keyboards, discussion, reading. At the bottom of the model the output of the hands, body or verbal expression is key and the mind is at their service. i.e. Planning, assessing, approving. When designing your objectives consider the role that each of these four assets are to play in the changed person who leaves your program. Structure an appropriate profile that will support the individual’s role in his team
MANAGING CHANGE IN A TRADITIONAL WAY…
PLANNING, ORGANISING, LEADING AND CONTROLLING… Planning, Organisation, leading and Controlling is a tried and proven set of management tools or principles that underpins a lot of what we do to make things happen in an organisation. It is just as effective when applied to the management of training and this book uses the P.O.L.C directives to support much of the work it recommends in managing the structures it proposes. Planning – When we structure in thought or on paper how we will move from what is our current state to what we want. This will always be the best possible way we can use our facilities, people and their or our own Knowledge, Understanding, Abilities and Experience. Organising – When we actually get up and schedule or arrange the facilities and resources we will need, including our own inputs, to ensure that they are available when and as we will need them. This includes the who, how and when of the people participating in what we plan to do. Leading – The activity of getting people to support or participate in the achievement of objectives. Good leadership is associated with creating a personal desire in individuals to achieve the goals of the group. When a team or individual is meeting all the designed requirements of a programme in a cost effective manner and is at the same time happy to do so, he or she is probably well led.
Controlling – This is the art of monitoring feedback on results, evaluating it and responding effectively. Effective response is that response that includes on-going adjustments to planning, organising and leading to improve or re- align results so that the objectives are not demeaned or even changed. Note; A well-structured and successful training effort will include each of the above… In fact a good training program is a fine example of the deliberate application of all of them. If you cannot find them in your structures and lessons you are not being professional.
RISK MANAGEMENT… Another not so easily recognised but very effective management tool is Risk Assessment. When applied to all aspects at risk in an organisation it can focus efforts sensibly and pertinently on important issues. We have all heard of the 80/20 rule. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (HIRA) allows one to select the top 20% of all your training needs and deal with them. The theory says that in this way you should address 80% of your training needs. We can ask, how does this relate to Risk? Safety and Training are irrevocably linked and so the common perception of risk in terms of the need to be aware of incident or injury is easy to appreciate. But when we see risk as encompassing much more than harm or damage, if we can understand that it includes the risk of financial loss, management error, contract breach, political or social change then we can see that lifting the ability, knowledge, understanding and experience of our people is vital to a achieving a properly controlled and staffed business organisation. Our input is training and development. Some of our own issues put us at risk. Protecting your assets... An individual who is fully competent and even demonstrates superior skills and abilities is undoubtably a valuable asset on the job, however as long as that asset resides in a single individual it is an asset at risk. Modern work culture encourages mobility which means that no one is locked into a position at any one company anymore and despite the best efforts of supervisors and managers such a person can move, change careers, die or otherwise be lost to the team. By ensuring that such knowledge, understanding or ability is transferred to many, the risk of losing the asset (not the person!) is dramatically reduced.
THE DINOSAUR WITHIN…
This is an important part of making sure your training is at the sharp end. Any opinion or belief forced on you or by you which is based on conditions that no longer exist presents a risk of failure. Test your beliefs and opinions against the young people in the organisation and listen to the heavy breathing of modern trends: What were good principles a few years ago are often extinct now, including some of the ones in this book.
WHY TRAIN ANYWAY?
A limited view of training sees only the specific task of providing the employee with an ability to perform the activities detailed in a job description. For many senior people training is seen as a lower level occupation confined to those that execute tasks and well below the level of those that manage them. Sometimes it is seen as little more than meeting the demands of commercial or industrial norms. Appoint a trainer, have them report to a head of an appropriate department and the job is considered done. Even though this book concerns itself with the delivery of training to those levels of employees that execute or directly supervise work we have to appreciate that the management of this training sits with equal importance alongside Finance, Production, Human Resources and other needs of a modern organisation. Training, especially at the workface, is an essential business tool. In the past it has been difficult to evaluate as such but has become, through the advances in the gathering, storing and presentation of data, a completely quantifiable and valid input into the control of an organisation’s effectiveness. To allow any training to run without proper planning, effective organisation and informed controlling is not valid in a modern business. A well-managed training department is an essential part of making profits. Progressive training philosophy has provided new and useful concepts that are not only changing the way we train but also directing the way training is used and its place in business. We can accurately measure the effect any training intervention or thrust has on the results of productive effort so we can compare the costs of training to financial benefits in the workplace or market place. However training will be a largely wasted investment if it is not properly planned, monitored, reported on and responded to. In basic terms; it cost X amount to have Joe on the factory floor, he uses a certain amount of resources and delivers a specific product to the organisation. If we assess his knowledge, skills and understanding we can identify that there are aspects to his input that fall short of what we think provides a valid return and could be trained up. We create a training program, addressing only those aspects we have identified, put Joe through it and send him back to work. We add the cost of the training to the cost of having Joe on the floor; measure any reduction in the cost of the resources he is using and the gains, if any, in the amount of product he is delivering to the organisation. If the training program was effectively planned and correctly executed the cost of the training will be justified by an appreciably higher benefit; either in terms of lower resource or support costs and/or improved productivity. This is the basis of the concept of outcomes based training, it advocates that outcomes (desired results) are measured; shortfalls are identified and related to production failures or resource cost concerns. Only those shortfalls are addressed. The outcomes are again measured, the impact on productivity and utilisation of resources evaluated and the results used to justifying dropping, changing or continuing the training. This is not the work of the hands on trainer although he or she should understand it. This input needs a qualified and experienced management person with support for assessment processes, record keeping and all the administrative needs of a small department. This book is about setting up such a department. It assumes a broad exposure to your host industry and a training background with appropriate qualifications but does not demand them. It also assumes that the senior management team of the business are aware that they need the contribution the training department will make to their cost effectiveness. Training is not about covering backsides or satisfying corporate ethics, it is about building a better business, it is about making money. The answer to the question, “Why train?” is obvious.
THE PROFESSION OF APPLYING SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES TO THE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF VEHICLES, BUILDINGS AND MACHINERY
HUMAN RESOURCE ENGIN EERING…
THE PROFESSION OF APPLYING SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES TO DESIGNING AND MAINTAINING FIT FOR PURPOSE, RESULTS DRIVEN TRAINING SYSTEMS
No one buys a production machine far bigger or more powerful than what makes sense for the purpose for which it is required. In engineering parlance when a building is constructed too strongly or a machine designed far beyond its purpose it is over - engineered. This normally occurs when the designer or builder is not sure of the suitability of the materials or of the scope of work that will be required. If we do not know let us play safe and provide much more than will ever be needed. In training parlance we also have a term; this is known as the shotgun approach. Spray training liberally and in all directions and we are sure to hit the target. Much of the training theory and practise this author has been exposed to is vague on specifics, even needs or gap analysis tends to float on the surface of the role profile needs and does not dive down into the detailed needs of the role holder. Outcomes based systems in some simulator training is the closest we seem to come to evaluating the abilities of a person and selecting training content only around what is missing. The way we work with expensive production machinery is good, we define the purpose in terms of the process design and then we order or have built the units that fit that purpose as closely as possible. Our investment is clearly financial and we only spend what we have to. We then put in place an engineering department, the staff of which advises us on aspects of working with these units and maintain productivity at maximum levels. There is very little argument about having time with the unit for services or repair. The concept of machines needing planned down time for optimum performance is universally accepted. The way we work with expensive people is not so good. Just a short time ago the “flavours of the month” for companies included the phrase, “our people are our most valuable asset!” Yet many training departments are understaffed and under resourced. Sometimes there is no department, only a trainer reporting to a production person. This is a bit like employing a mechanic and having him report to a production person.
A UNIVERSAL MODEL OF WORK
Graphic representation of the way work is structured… To claim that all work is subject to a single all-encompassing set of rules is presumptuous but to find a model that applies to most work is attempted here. This allows us to set some general truths about work in terms of delivering better results and understanding the role of Training and Development. In the first place most production processes roll out as depicted below…
We have a starting point, a specific given situation or item that could be anywhere in a continuous or repeated cycle to which value must be added or changes made in order to justify the entire process. This could be a marketable product or service or other objective. In order to add value or desired change the input of machinery, resources and/or people is required and we can refer to this input as an activity or a series of activities, each with a measurable result. Each result is taken up by the following locus of input (or activity) and so on until the final product is delivered. The same holds true within each activity, these components of the activity we can call tasks; each task with a measurable result contributing to the execution of the next task. Again tasks are made up of contributing components we can call steps, each step requiring some specified result that supports the next.
The first model shown is a bit simplistic and there is much more to work than a simple process. Factors such as provision of safety needs and inputs from service departments, quality control and systemisation all come into the mix and how they do that will depend on the processes peculiar to your organisation. On the delivery side of your process there are possibly multiple customers for single activities, delivery to different processes or watchdogs that must be satisfied.
Finally if we develop the model further we see that the simple process takes on a complex life of its own requiring the planning, organisation of resources and controlling we were discussing earlier. In order for companies to achieve superior performance every part of this effort needs linking to competencies and therefore training. Because much of this is instinctive in traditional management there are few places where design and specifications exist formally aside from Policies and procedures… But never mind, trainers are Human Resource Engineers and work to whatever design and specifications are available to them, if they need more they research it and develop it themselves. All of the above has been offered as a possibly different way of looking at some of the environment and characteristics of training. Nothing is set in stone and if it broadens your current understanding or even allows you to contest much of it, that is all we need to achieve.
A BROAD VIEW OF RESOURCES
Training consists of identifying sources of the learning (Your assets) that you want to transfer to the employee, finding a way and a place to capture what you need and store it and then a way and a place to transfer it to the learner. You will need to present the material using equipment, documents and/or trainers, then test the results and finally record all of those processes in a logical and easily accessed system. Identifying your assets You will find the knowledge, understanding, experience and skills you need in many different formats but mostly in formats associated with the kind of learning you want to impart. So we might find knowledge in reference books, understanding in dissertations and seminars and experience and skills in people. To think that you can find all of the expertise you will need in your own training staff is naïve. The scope of training required to fill all the needs of a single organisation is beyond the budget of most companies. So by accident rather than design your training team ends up with some of the talents required and you buy in the rest from commercial training providers. BUT DO YOU NEED TO DO THIS…? If your organisation has been around for even a short period of time and recruitment has been reasonably effective you are sitting with much of the expertise you need in the workforce; on the production floor or in the offices. Any training effort designed around harvesting and distributing these existing skills makes a great deal of sense. Refer to the figure again as it illustrates another principle useful in this regard Not only does the nature of the effort change as we move up and down the hierarchy of an organisation but so does the nature of the training needs as well as the nature of the available resources.
A SME or Subject Matter Expert is anybody who through virtue of their experience with or understanding of a subject can not only direct you to material that is effective and useful but also serve as a source of learning themselves. Consider the situation where one person is known to be the star of the production team because of his or her ability to perform at very high levels. This person is an absolute asset to the organisation, he or she is also an asset that you can use (Note: This expertise is never depleted by tapping into it). If you can transfer this person’s ability into others you not only improve the productivity across the team but you increase the size of your SME pool! (A training asset) This is not without risk… A popular criticism of using abilities that exist in people is the, “ We are going to transfer bad habits” school. However, do not back away from such valuable repositories of skill and experience because of this; you must manage them and make sure that the training works towards the
required quality of the final product. One of the most important tools of training is the assessments you perform. (There will be more about this later.) It is also common for management to be selfish about assigning such people to training on the grounds that they are too important to production – Does this make any sense at all? Think about it! In the same way that the demonstration of ability changes from dexterity to cognitive as you go up the ladder the source of material changes in nature from person based to written or document based. In this model we illustrate the comparative importance of the four aspects of expertise at the opposite ends of the graphic shown. At the top we have Knowledge and understanding as being key and at the bottom we have Skill and experience as being key. So at the top we can look to the written word and presentations as being the major sources of material whilst at the bottom we can find what we need in manuals, skills and experience of people. Similarly the tool we might use to transfer these skills differ; at the top levels Mentoring and lower down the scale Coaching. Obviously we are generalising and it is true that experience counts a great deal at the top of the scale and understanding is very necessary at the bottom. However be guided by the broad concept and you will find not only the repository of much of what you need but also the tools to get it across.
DECIDING HOW YOU WILL DO IT
The decisions you make about how you will train will dictate the resources you will need. Using the concept discussed above you will minimise your spend and your research work. However, the more traditional approach could be safer for you. So rather than actively exploiting the talents you have in your workforce you will look carefully at what you have closer to home in your own team. Trainers should be first and foremost facilitators or presenters. Using the material and expertise provided by suppliers of equipment or specialised courses, they guide or lead others through learning experiences. So the actual craft or trade of the trainer is not critical. I am often asked “What is your background?” as if this compromises or supports my ability to train in a particular field. An accomplished trainer will learn to lead his participants through a learning experience, providing the correct material, referring students to the proper people when required, no matter what the trainer´s background. Professional trainers manage the learning experience; they are not necessarily the fountain of all knowledge. If you are going to invest in a member of your training staff and develop skills such as; writing training material, presentation and facilitation. Why would you limit that person to one trade or craft such as Recruitment when he could also be used for Role Writing or Disciplinary Procedure courses? Having said all this, the more traditional training teams are comprised of specialists in different disciplines and so we have the Engineering Training Department, the Financial Training Officer or the Human Resources Trainer. If this works for you then you must examine how you are applying their expertise? Through what media are they working? And how much use do you make of their availability. Like any asset; availability and use of availability are key indicators of your management skills.
There are various ways training can be presented and teams structured, each has its own benefits and/or drawbacks… Here is an example of possible planning and a few organisational models On the following pages there are some methods and tools followed by several layouts and structures providing options for structuring the organisation of a training team and resources. I have detailed relationships, needs and responsibilities. Again more food for thought than directives… Look at the bar chart on the opposite page showing how a tradItional set up might be planned. It is based on 1 x Trainer per 100 staff. These numbers are just guesswork and you will change them to cater for the type of the training you want to provide and how your organograms are populated. This planning here is quite a burden for one person and it would only be possible if the trainer had no other responsibilities. However, an administrator and/or a manager would alleviate the pressures somewhat and make a viable exercise of the whole thing. Please use the charts and models as a chopping blocks and modify or adopt them to your circumstances.
Trainers do admin at least 1/2 day x week = 6 weeks
52 WEEKS IN A YEAR 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52
A THUMBSUCK ESTIMATE OF THE BURDENS OF A TYPICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT IN ANY INDUSTRIAL ORGANISATION. ASSUME A TRAINER AND AN ADMINISTRATOR AND ABOUT 100 STAFF MEMBERS
LEAVE Senior staff attend external training 5 5 4 75 25 5
Trainers must have training
Supervisors/Mid man attend program purchased externally Skilled & semi-skilled attend internally developed programs
Trainers must learn to present one purchased course per year and present it at least twice PREP & PRESENTION FOLLOW UP Trainers should develope one course internally and present it at least five times per year PREP & PRESENTION FOLLOW UP PREP & PRESENTION FOLLOW UP PREP & PRESENTION FOLLOW UP PREP & PRESENTION FOLLOW UP FOLLOW UP PREP & PRESENTION FOLLOW UP
DEVELOPMENT PREP & PRESENTION
Trainers to visit the workforce and assess on the job at least 1 /week = 10 weeks Refresher training & induction 1 day/ week = 8 weeks 15 15 15 15 15 15 15
105 1 x Trainer to 100 employees
Complex graphics and easy text. Time consuming to create.
Once done can be widely distributed Learner paced and allows testing of content against reality No one is removed from the workplace. Assessment is thorough and `on the job´ Normally aligned to National standards and transportable across organizations. Allows any appropriate learning transfer systems Allows absorption of in situ skills and experience. Allows learner to build ownership of valid material/ systems Careful control and problem solving possible. Individual attention and redress for shortfalls easily done One on one interaction. Good performance is recognized and learning focuses on shortfalls
High printing costs Requires motivated learners. Needs back up from supervisors and trainers. Assessment is time consuming Uses actual production environment for training. National standards must be agreed by committees. Lengthy assessment systems also agreed by all parties Subjective assessment by coaches/ mentors. Difficult to arrange and monitor Personalities can clash. Long protracted system. Requires universal standard of assessment. Transfer of bad habits or shortcuts is always possible. Very dependent on relationship and communication skills of coach Not easily used for individuals or small groups. Often takes large numbers from production floor. Takes time to create. Requires good presentation skills Facilitation must be of a high standard. Not easy to get enough high powered people from the same company together
Small learning units with clear outcomes and assessment criteria
Utilises coaching and/or mentoring from role players in the company. Programmes must be carefully structured Lengthy one on one transfer of learning. Programmes must be formally structured. Task focused system using SME´s to develop and guide learner
Designed learning experiences bringing several different methodologies to play. Classroom techniques. Structured slide shows normally in Powerpoint as with modules sometimes complex graphics. Gatherings of likeminded or similar backgrounds to receive and discuss new or complex ideas and concepts. Best if participants are drawn from different companies. Used as a component of structured courses where discussion and personal inputs are important
Formal presentation of learning material with question and answer sessions
Discussions can become out of control. Strong people can sway opinions and impact on learning of weaker participants. Can be boring and lengthy. Very dependent on quality and interest level of notes. Very dependent on communication skills of lecturer.
Unstructured discussion around an issue or concept where random thoughts and inputs are encouraged.
Can bring new thinking and creative solutions to problems
Needs a good facilitator and respect for all by participants. Learning is unstructured and can move off the point. Easily dated and not always relevant.
Purchased video clips professionally made addressing common specific issues.
Planned discussion around a particular aspect of the learning. Free input on any issue not clear to participants Real life situations presented for analysis and comment
Acting out situations with learners taking the roles of players in the scenario.
Normally tasks given to encourage research and reporting on identified issues
Once purchased can be used again and again. Often humorous and always interesting when properly selected. Good as part of a larger learning experience. Allows expression of concerns from participants. Brings out concerns that might have remained hidden Allows application of learning to real situations with actual results. Analysis of participant’s solutions against actual events and results Integrates personalities and characteristics of learners with the circumstances or events in the play Given enough freedom allows for learners to bring creative interpretation and responses to event. Needs active participation with real players in the organization. Can reveal valid info on many aspects of the business which are needed by the learner.
Must stay controlled and needs a good facilitator.
Information provided is not always sufficient or real.
Difficult to set up to allow the required interplay between participants and bring out the learning issues. Takes time to set up and present. Requires good participation from assignee and committed research. SME´s must co operate and make themselves available
I have listed the typical and more common of techniques and tools. The art of creating these training tools is complex and require a broad range of skills. It would take another book to provide any meaningful material and the subject is better suited to workshops and direct skills transfer. However there are many sources of a vast spectrum of exercises testing and developing all sorts of subjects. Again try the net.
ORGANISING YOUR TEAM AND ENVIRONMENT
WHAT TRAINERS WILL DO…
WHAT TRAINERS WILL NEED…
These are important…
These are estimates...
WHO THEY MIGHT DO IT TO…
Using the organisation structures to see who does what to whom we can get a better idea about potential direction of effort and numbers...
2. DOING IT
SETTING UP WHAT IS NEEDED AND DESIGNING/SOURCING MATERIAL What you will need, the process, how to create content and working with results.
WHAT YOU WILL NEED
If you want to run a halfway decent training department you must have the following;
Facilities: Places that allow skills, knowledge and understanding to be transferred from any source to your learner. Equipment: Furniture, fittings and tools that simplify and enhance communication between any source and your learner. People: A range of appropriately skilled and knowledgeable providers that smooth the transfer of learning from any source to your learner. Material: The source of all the learning; resident in texts, cyberspace, commercial, private or educational property or in subject matter experts and transferred using the facilities, equipment and people.
No training will take place without an appropriate combination of all four of the above.
Mock ups/Artificial environments/Real environments
MOCK UPS / ARTIFICIAL ENVIRONMENTS SUITABLE REAL ENVIRONMENTS LECTURE ROOMS ADMINISTRATION SPACE
Where it is difficult or unsafe to develop skills and understanding in real conditions, it has been considered to be good practise to create a false reality simulating key elements of the working environment. This allows mistakes to be made and learning to proceed without harm or unwanted cost.
These range from structures which look like the place where work will be performed and are relatively cheap to construct to sophisticated machines which faithfully reproduce the behaviour and required inputs of huge trucks, loaders, aircraft and other sensitive equipment. The first we can term ‘Mock ups’ and the other ‘Simulators’. All are artificial environments and, as most users are well aware, lack a certain reality no matter how good they are. There has long been a wide rift between production and training, most aptly demonstrated by the words of the foreman on the return from training of one of his team, “Forget all that shit you have just learnt! Here we do the job like I say.” Can it be possible that such a disregard for the value of training and development can exist beyond the foreman to more senior levels? Very much so I am afraid, when the chips are down and money is tight training is the first expense to go out of the window. The cost of artificial environments is mostly an unnecessary one and just one reason for being wary of their use. Unfortunately we do not live or work in a perfect world and when Training professionals demand perfection in training set ups they are being less than clever. The beauty of the real environment lies in the fact that it exists and is always available, it can always be considered to be properly equipped because no matter the condition of what is in it, it does constitute the truth that the trainee will have to eventually work in and so is the perfect training environment. It also costs the training department nothing; it has been paid for by production. The real environment or what is sometimes known as ‘On the job’ is an essential part of developing real ability because of the importance of doing the actual work rather than an even ever so slightly watered
down substitute. The main disadvantage of being ‘Real’ is that mistakes are most definitely costly and often very harmful. The only way to bring the risk of such incidents down to an acceptable level is to have a very high ratio of teacher/ student relationships; in the best case 1:1. Trainees need to be assigned to carefully selected experts who take responsibility for their care and support. This will also allow transfer of an elusive quality not easily found in training material; we can call it workplace wisdom. All assessments should anyway be done on performance delivered in actual conditions and the final measure of good training must be by results in the real world. So why not use the real world from the get go. If you do have a perfect world simulated in the training department it is probably sneered at as unrealistic by working staff and frontline supervisors, whilst the rather lawless world of the workplace is considered significantly flawed by the trainers. You will probably be told by Production Supervisors and Training Managers alike that if you train in the workplace you will be perpetuating bad habits and shortcuts. This is a strange thing for any manager or supervisor to admit. We should be aligning the reality of the workplaces and the dreams of the trainers by working together to uplift employee performance yet keeping it practical. Trainers that are part of production and supervisors that maintain training standards are the answer to using the best environment there is – the real one. However this set up should be such that training encourages the use of correct methods within production’s own deep understanding of the quickest and best way to do things. The real environment provides a special backdrop to making your training work for the company needs, never underestimate it. Lecture rooms/classrooms Any meeting room can serve as a venue for presenting learning experiences but the characteristics of the room need to be evaluated against the need for space, focus and interaction between the students and the learning material, be it direct or through a facilitator or presenter. A boardroom style room with its upmarket decor supports the importance of the learning but formalises the contact between the facilitator/provider and the participants; it provides class but also provides distractions. The old adage; “The devil finds work for idle hands...” could become; “The devil finds interests for idle minds...” So a room with simple white walls and only the minimum of necessary equipment is correct. (This idea will be expanded in the section on equipment.) The author believes that a natural relaxed interaction with learners brings the best results. Rooms that lend themselves to formal arrangements and provide a front area looked upon by an audience put up an invisible wall that promotes a more traditional student/teacher relationship. Note; You might like this sort of arrangement and not know why! You probably feel safer if you maintain the “I am in charge here” rather than opt for the “Hey let´s do this together”, approach. In spite of this common reluctance to expose yourself, long rooms are out and square, spacious rooms are in. How the square is utilised is also important as a square room crowded with seating and work tables is as bad as a long room. The figure shows an informal set up that allows easy movement around the room and close contact with all participants. Classrooms tend to be equipped in a way that makes them traditional although, thanks to modern thinking, even schools use classroom space differently these days. Rows of students are out and small groups are in; Concentration gives way a little bit to active participation. However having said this each room is suited to specialist functions and when these functions take precedence then choose what will work.
Administration space An essential part of any training effort is the running of the logistics and to cramp or short change the person and equipment that facilitates the making of arrangements, keeping of records or creating and running programs is to demean your entire operation. In order for your products to achieve excellence the support behind them must be excellent. NOTE: Excellence is a popular word, used by all and sundry to denote a superior level of achievement. What we sometimes overlook is that excellence demands quality in every aspect of effort. There can be no small detail which somehow falls short of what is required. Pay attention to the equipment and people that look after administration.
Your administration area must be large enough, pretty enough and positioned where it can be seen to be alive, well and in place. When anyone enters or has enquiries about your services it is just as important for them to see an effective office as it is for them to see an effective training room or a shelf full of books. Remember your administrator is not the only person who performs admin work. Every trainer/facilitator has a large administrative component in their work. Each of them will only produce well if they possess the best personal work areas you can give them. The better the work environment for performing these tasks the better the products will be. A typical training layout shown here demonstrates that the area allocated to administration is at least half of the area allocated to training rooms.
EQUIPMENT Time on production Some skills are best learned in the “Muck and the Bullets” Dealing with production pressure is one of them. Learning where you are provided with all that you need and only the trainers really care if you succeed is not the same as being in the real world and dealing with a shortage of or inadequate equipment whilst trying to meet targets. It is not the same as being in a competitive environment ultimately responsible for your own outputs.
TIME ON PRODUCTION MACHINERY & EQUIPMENT IN THE TRAINING ROOMS IN THE OFFICES
Even if you have the best equipped training facilities in the world it is good at some stage to organise time in the real world, both for trainees and trainers. This will add a dimension to the development of your people you will not get anywhere else. Let us assume that it is not always possible to utilise production or expose learners to actual situations then at least make sure that your trainers spend a lot of time in the production or business environment in an effort to bring the reality to the training venues, this also builds good relationships with production staff. Trainers belong in the workplace and in the environments where business is done! Anecdote: Whilst facilitating a management discussion on Black Empowerment for a leading South African construction company some of the white participants were a little patronising about how they were helping the only Black participant to learn the office politics involved in the boardroom. This man eventually leaned back in his chair and smiled, “What you people do not realise,” he said, “is that for the last six months I have been watching how you play games in the meetings, misleading and undermining each other’s issues wherever you can. I will not repeat the mistakes I have seen, not because you have condescended to `help me´ but because I am not as stupid as you assume and have been grossly underestimated by nearly all of you...” This training could not have been reproduced as effectively in a classroom. Not for the Black manager or even the other managers involved in the discussion.
Machinery & Equipment This would fall into two categories; there is the machinery and equipment you will need to perform the work in your department. Then there is the machinery and equipment that you might need to simulate the conditions in the workplace or business world. We have discussed at length providing trainees with valid learning experiences, either on machinery at the training centre that they will meet in the workplace or in artificial scenarios providing opportunity for decision making and prioritising. We only need to add that if you are doing this then your machinery must faithfully represent what is in the workplace and your scenarios truly reflect current practise and environments. Machinery and equipment you will need to perform the work in your department Your lecture/seminar rooms must be equipped with furniture, how you select and organise it is up to you and you will obviously try to make them fit for purpose. These facilities must also be equipped with flipcharts, white boards, projectors and screens. Chairs, tables and desks There is a whole range available. It is possible to spend large sums of money here, just make sure that they are comfortable and practical. People will spend a lot of time in the room and being able to keep everything clean as well as being able to make a number of different arrangements is important. Most catalogues will show you versions of training layouts and furniture, the trapezoidal format being the most popular. Keep it flexible, comfortable and practical.
The curtains and carpets are also important and should be neutral colours and hard wearing. Curtains might be needed to shut out the external environment so some substance is required. Flipcharts Seem to be old fashioned but have some special qualities you might want to make use of. Anything written or drawn onto a flipchart can be kept. Flipchart sheets can be torn off and stuck around the walls of your training room for participants to refer to. They can also be FLIPPED! Which allows you to have your scribbling handy but out of sight until you need to go back and refer to it, then you can FLIP the sheets back again. If you prepare drawings very lightly in pencil on the flip chart paper beforehand then, because you are right in front of them and your audience is not, you can seemingly draw skilful pictures quickly and easily. You should have at least two flipcharts in any reasonably sized training room. Whiteboards Nothing can be sensibly kept on a whiteboard for too long. They are by their very design meant to write on and then delete from. Their failure comes in the fact that, like blackboards, they again encourage a teacher student interaction. This can be reduced by having them cover most of the free wall space so that where ever you are in the room you can grab a pen (Erasable whiteboard marker by the way) and illustrate a point. They are easy to use and re use and so allow a freedom of expression without too much commitment. Make sure that you have some space left for your projector image. It is not necessary to buy an expensive screen. Any wall decorated in a flat white or very pale grey paint does fine and allows you to set up the presentation from any side of the room. Just leave enough space around the room in between the whiteboards. Projectors Technological sophistication seems to require we have a permanent projector built into the ceiling of the training room (Boardroom style) and connection points strategically positioned for whatever computer needs to be accessed. This does not allow informal flexibility for trainers who might like to use a different direction for their presentation or re arrange the seating to suit a particular purpose. A desk projector is better and it is transportable, it can be taken to venues that are not so well equipped if needed. The brightness of the projector lamp is of interest and at least 3000 lumens is good as it allows some background lighting in the room. Dark rooms are not good as trainers need to be observing and responding to participant body language at all times. Printers and copiers Training is expensive in terms of documents and graphics. Even projected presentations from a computer memory bank require printing when in the creative phase. Quality colour prints are helpful to manage visual impact and design layouts. Training guides and other hand-outs also are better when quality printing and copying is at hand. Not a lot of training departments print their own books and leaflets but if they did their service would be that much more cost effective and able to keep pace with constant updates and changes in material. The truth is that material and content of training changes as fast as does technology and social norms. When this happens keeping your material current means keeping the trainees current. To re visit the printers each time is expensive and eventually your printed material will be out of date and it will stay out of date. You will need a printer/copier unit capable of dealing with multiple pages and able to collate and staple. If you can add the tools you will need to bind and cover your material so much the better. Computers The problem with computers is that they are a managed industry; the size of the software (Memory it requires) is always a little bit beyond what you last purchased in terms of your
computer capacity. This means that you can go out today and buy the best your money can get and know that you will have to upgrade or buy new within a year or two. The hardware is important and for a trainer transportability is essential. A laptop with a docking station is good. When doing presentations away from the office the ability take your computer with you and to work off of the computer’s files is convenient if not critical. The screen deserves special mention and this is why a docking station is recommended. A trainer spends a lot of the time in front of this window into the data and graphics he has in the computer. Aside from larger graphics being helpful for creativity, fatigue is a consideration here. The laptop screen is not man enough to do the job for a trainer. The software should include a full office suite with a word processing program, database and drawing support. Letters, notices, hand-outs, graphics and records will use all of the available programmes in a modern office package. It is not necessary to have sophisticated, specialised drawing software, what comes with the office suite is normally enough although media management for photographs and video clips is important. Workspaces Desktop A reasonable work area is important for layout and sorting material – a minimum of 600mm x 2.0M is required. This does not include the computer station which must hold the computer and have an additional 600mm x 600mm for documents and other reference material, so 1.2M x 600mm additional computer space is good. If space is at a premium then a communal worktable could be the answer with a dedicated small computer station for each trainer. A whiteboard or a noticeboard for each trainer is important for schedules, notes and comments. Filing cabinets with hanging files or at the least a single hanging file drawer for each trainer is essential for an orderly approach to dealing with material and control of development programmes; coaching and/or mentoring.
INSTRUCTORS PRESENTERS FACILITATORS OFFICE STAFF SUBJECT MATTER EXPERTS
The people who staff your department as well as those you identify to provide source material will make or break your value to the organisation. Those who work for you in the training rooms and offices are important both in the way they are selected and the way you lead them. Those you choose to use in the working place must also be carefully selected and handled but they must also fit into the environment.
The types of trainers are as many as the different kinds of material you will need. The main categories are: Instructors are normally supposed experts in the type of work they train. They need to be experienced and recognised by employees as top of the line operators. They must work with the employees on the equipment they are training and although they do use slides, presentations and hand-outs they have to rely heavily on their own backgrounds and knowledge to interact with and develop the trainees. Select those that can communicate well and ensure that they spend time in the production environment – their abilities
and understanding must remain current. They also need to spend time being trained and this can take the form of supplier training. The old adage, “those who can, do and those that can´t, train” is a bit cynical and should not apply. Presenters are much more than just figures leading participants through a slide show, they manage transfer of learning and control interaction. They must be able to gauge group participation, identify and support stragglers and work with difficult participants. Any presenter worth his salt should be able to create his or her own slide shows using the drawing tools on his computer to their full potential. Selection of such people should include seeing a sample of their work. During the course of their stay in your employ their presentation skills must be constantly assessed. Doing planned evaluations should be a natural event and feedback positive, tackling difficulties not presenters. Developing the necessary skills and wisdom is both possible and necessary as there are courses and reams of information around the key issues. Facilitators for this author are the elite of the training fraternity. A good facilitator is a mentor, coach and presenter all rolled into one. The responsibilities range from an intimacy with all the needs of specific individuals to concern over their development and successes. This role goes way beyond managing a discussion or meeting of minds in a boardroom, it is about making it easy to get trainees from an uninformed approach to an informed one; about making keen (or sometimes not) employees into effective contributors to life. Note: I say life not work, as the spin offs here include helping people become better family and community members. In terms of selection this would mean asking for a lot of training experience and broad abilities in communication, writing and presenting as well as managing groups of senior people. This person must love people and demonstrate tolerance. If you find any look after them. Office staff people who take care of themselves will normally be organised and careful. Neat and well presented people will give you neat and well presented information, logistics and the image you need. When selecting for these positions pay attention to the way the CV looks and their presentation of documents. Look for people who are careful with their commitments but positive about their abilities. They are gold; give them what they need to work well, take care to respect their personal time and if necessary love their families. Subject matter experts (SME´s) within your organisation are important to production and it is often the case that they will not be released to you for your own devious targets. If Mohammed will not come to the mountain then the mountain must go to Mohammed; use them in the workplace! What is important here is success. If you are regularly providing skilled people to production and the output of these key individuals is not suffering then supervisors will support you. Select only people with a proven record of high output; you want to tap into commitment and ability, not provide excuses to slow down on the job. A committed worker who agrees to take somebody under his wing will not leave out the need for productivity in his coaching or mentoring. Ensure that you and your trainers visit such relationships often and make sure that your trainees are doing their part. Solve problems and keep it smooth, never forget praise for the SME when glorifying the achievements of the student. A successful SME training program should end up with production people asking you for trainees not the other way around.
Traditional text based. This is the most obvious source of the “how to” gospel. Surprisingly Trainers are conservative and believe rigidly in published dogma. They like manuals and books. It is only trainers that think that they know what constitutes perfection and they will tell you it is in a book; but of course they don’t and it is not. Is it surprising that production people view them with scepticism and distrust. They go to the books for some reason believing that if it has been published it must be true and the author must know what he is talking about!
TRADITIONAL INTERNET BASED SUPPLIERS COMMERCIAL PROGRAMMES INSTITUTIONS CONSULTANTS IN HOUSE HUMAN ASSETS COMPANY FILES
Books and publications, including collections by Training Societies and colleges are a massive fountain of good thinking and enlightened direction but there is so much more. Some of it freely available and much more relevant to your home environment. The Internet or WWW… So much, an ocean to drown in. In fact the problem is that there is possibly too much. To really use this source of information you must learn to Surf and use the search engines properly. Time must be spent in the cyber world so that you can learn where the useful highways and byways are. If you do not you will waste more time going through reams of material without achieving anything than makes any sense. One should not mention the internet without saying WIKEPEDIA. Try it… Google any subject followed by Wikipedia (Hopefully you know what Google is) Suppliers of any equipment or machinery provide service and operation manuals to go with their range of products. Because they are in the business of being competitive they are more than keen to provide safety sheets and user instructions to you. Possibly again across the internet if your product is not new, but in the box if it is. These documents are normally well researched and concise. Use them. In addition to documents larger suppliers have trainers who will come to site and present instruction. If you take advantage of this service include your own training staff amongst the participants and make sure they do well – eventually they will able to provide the training freeing you from dependence on outsiders and increasing your own department’s range of abilities. Commercial programs (Courses provided by businesses) are there to make money and you have two options; one is to spend the money every time and call in the provider when you want to run the program. The second is to buy the rights to present the program yourself which means that you will pay for your trainers to be developed to present the program and then pay a small fee or buy a kit for each participant every time you run the program. This can be expensive but there are some really good, well thought out and presented programs out there, especially in the communication, supervisory and management fields. There is no shortage of suppliers; if you manage training you will get regular junk mail around this source of material. Pay attention but sift carefully and trash much. Institutions are sometimes legitimate and sometimes not. My grandmother used to call short term enterprises “Fly By Nights” meaning here today but gone tomorrow. Most institutions which have some official capacity, either linked to government monitored services or those which have had to meet some sort of licensing regulations are legitimate. Some few are legitimate by virtue of their time in the arena and successes which they have had. It is a problem for recruiters to have placed before them certificates and diplomas from a large number of different training providers; unknown and for all anybody in the industry
knows a “fly by night” business. It is an important responsibility to only select those institutions which are generally recognised as legitimate to train people in your organisation, otherwise the certificates and diplomas are basically worthless. Consultants are another group of people with a fair share of poorly qualified and sometimes downright inexperienced sales experts.(For these consultants read con artist) They sell their services to gullible managers but rely on the knowledge and skills within your own organisation to provide their services. However at the same time there are some very expert and wise professionals who make the consulting industry a very good source of material; knowledge, understanding and skills for higher level development; business acumen, Human Resource management, talent management, appraisals and the like. Look for those with well-known successes and word of mouth references from large organisations. Note: Because brochures and websites are colourful and professional it does not mean that the services are. In house training assets or repositories of the skills, knowledge, experience and wisdom you need. Where your supervisors only see a productive person, you should see a container holding all the skills and experience required to develop others to perform specific production activities safely and effectively. As long as those abilities remain the property of a single individual they are limited in their application and at risk of being lost. The answer is to transfer such abilities to others in the organisation, to capture if you like, the property of the person in question and stick it into the training department stock. Even if this noble purpose seems elusive and you cannot literally get it down on paper and into your training manuals the transfer of it into other employees provides a spread which reduces the risk of loss considerably. It also means that today you have one asset, tomorrow you have two and then you have three and so on. Appoint such assets as coaches, leave them in production if you must but use them and spread the abilities around. Company files contain all the recorded (secured) information about how its employees must interact and how most tasks must be performed. This information will be contained in its Policies, work procedures and standards. Policies describe the way that the company wishes to perform its functions and will provide the creator of training material with guidelines to behaviour and help to maintain the character of the organisation throughout all of its activities. Much of the way the company interacts with its surroundings will be contained in such documents and training outcomes must support these commitments. Work procedures are described in documents sometimes called SOP’s or Standard Operating Procedures. Every job or work activity performed on the company premises should be done in a particular way. The way the work is done must be clearly described and correctly sequenced so that all the other support functions around the work can be adequate and cost effective. If an organisation has a complete set of SOP’s it is able to do the same things the same way and then observe, analyse and manage such methods to achieve consistent results or perhaps even better the results. Standards define the products of work. Again in the name of consistency everything that is done must meet specifications as to its number, material makeup, dimensions and appearance. This should be true for all the stages in the work cycle. Employees must be trained to perform activities in such a way that their products meet the requirements of the next phase in the cycle, so standards will always be a source of material for training practitioners. Standards define objectives!
THE TRAINING PROCESS
WHAT YOU HAVE TO DO…
The processes that you will have to put into place are defined by the work that any employee is required to perform to fill his place in the structure of the organisation. We have to look at what we need to achieve to make the employee comfortable in his role, skilled in his tasks and motivated to realise his development through the wellbeing of the organisation. There has long been criticism around seeing employees as purely income generators and the motivation of all contributions to their life as primarily concerned with the effect on profits. We need to get real and understand that without the company there are no contributions and quality of life in general is at considerable risk. We must accept that the company must ensure the goodwill of its major resource; its people, and provide whatever employees need to perform. What they need is much more than knowledge, understanding and skill; they also need to be at home in the environment where those attributes must be called upon. Although we are again moving into traditional intangibles and evidence of return on your efforts is hard to quantify, there is sufficient evidence and a great deal of literature to support the proposal that happy employees are productive employees. Environments are crucial to this as are loyalty and commitment. Organisations and their people are bound irrevocably together in the mutual pursuit of wellness; selfish or philanthropic, it matters not, as long as they are in it together. THE ROLE OF ROLES
SITE ALIGNMENT (INDUCTION) JOB SPECIFIC WORK METHODS
COMPANY POLICY & PROCEDURES CAREER DEVELOPMENT
The role profiles should be a clear description of the expectations that the organisation has of the employees that fill them. Unfortunately this is not always the case. Human Resource practitioners sometimes forget an important branch of their tree; Human Resource Development (HRD) and will not have the information you need in their role structures.
The delivery concept for role outputs is not always understood and the expectations of those on the receiving end of the role incumbent´s work is often overlooked. Our purposes require that we clearly define the expectations of the people that work with and around the role we are targeting. The model below illustrates the environment in which the role operates and divides it up into four quadrants each with two levels…
In order to quantify training & development needs for the role the first step is to establish the expectations of each sector. This is not too difficult. Find out who the people are who populate each sector and then choose those who work directly with the role. Ask them, “What do you expect from this person/role?” However your needs must take the answer a little further than this and so we have to also ask them; “How do you as a customer of the role measure the quality of these expectations? Are there time constraints involved or specific quantities required? Must the product meet certain specifications?” If the answer to any of this is yes, find out what these standards are. Frequently you will find that the recipient of such services or products have a pretty good idea of how to gauge the quality of what they want.
THE SURVEY; All about delivery 1. What the organisation expects…
Managers: Have higher expectations than what might be considered valid on the workshop floor. In fact when you talk to senior levels above the role you will probably get what the company expects from the role. Look for Safety issues, commitment, support for security needs, company ethics, organisational mission statements and adherence to policies and procedures. Supervisors: Will expect punctuality and the like but your questions must push for more substantial work issues in terms of the work product. Ask the question, “Why does the company pay money to the person in this role?” Then explore the contributions the role makes to justify its earnings. Supervisors have a more intimate understanding of the actual work that is to be performed and know what is critical to their own performance results. Finally in both cases seek out the tangible products that are delivered and ask the questions, “How do you know you that have received a satisfactory contribution. How do you judge the quality of the product? Is there a specific quantity that is required? Do you measure the product in any way, are there specifications? Where must the product be delivered and what are the time constraints?” We often look to the production line in terms of what is actually delivered at the end of the shift but we should also consider what is delivered within the shift along the line as well as the care and utilisation of the machinery and the other resources involved. Ask about issues in terms of checks and response to read outs and alerts.
What the co-workers expect… Direct peers: All employees involved in the same work area will have expectations from the role: safe behaviour and reasonable work ethics being part of it, but ask questions of the people who fit into the work cycle after the role has made its contribution and must continue to add value in the production cycle. Shift workers are a good example, consider the outgoing shift product, i.e. What do they leave for the next shift? Such start of shift customers are an excellent source of what must be delivered and how it must be measured.
Indirect peers: These are those people in the organisation in other departments with responsibilities that need the cooperation of the role in question. Safety and Health will definitely have expectations from the role at just about any level in the organisation; these should be defined in specific terms. Again do the research into how these products are measured and so on. Such departments would include; Security, HR, Stores, Finance and Safety.
What subordinates expect… Direct subordinates: Often have very definite ideas about what their supervisor/manager must provide for them. The relationships between supervisors or managers and their subordinates are key to achieving committed inputs from employees. Communications, fair and informed discipline, knowledge and understanding of company benefits as well as provision of resources, support in disputes as well as training will help to define proper development of the senior role incumbent.
Their subordinates: Will have similar needs and the role you are dealing with must be able to support the level below it in terms of their delivery to employees below them.
What people outside the company expect… Depending on the way the organisation is structured, delivery external to the Business Unit and/or the Organisation can be looked at from the view of incoming and outgoing products or services. It is mostly the case that in both instances the role you are busy with will have plenty to do with service providers such as contractors or consultants and little to do with the sale of the final product. Also external to both the BU and the organisation are all political and industrial watchdogs; safety departments, environmental agencies, unions and the like. Explore what they might expect from the role especially in terms of respect or support on site. By choice your Business Unit and Organisation might have dealings with the Community and various sports bodies or charities. If the relationship includes the role then the relationship must be explored.
Do not forget that customers of the role outside of the Business Unit should include persons in the organisation but not in the hierarchy of the site. These could be corporate people such as lawyers, financiers, discipline leaders, talent management and Risk Management staff or other sites in the same company. If they work with your site find out what they expect and from whom. When doing this exercise focus on the role not the personality currently in the role.
DEALING WITH ALL THE DATA Obviously all of this data can be useful to HR in structuring the role description and but it will also support your program for the training and development of the person who ends up in the role. Work design should have had an input into the structure of the role but it is rare indeed to find an organisation that has had its roles properly designed. The norm seems to be to create broad outlines and key details then start recruiting and hope it will all settle down into a working organisation. Specific processes will have clear
roles based on the experience of those who know how, but departments like training and HR will often be structured as the company grows and more service staff is required. So you may find that your need for very specific and detailed information from the role is not understood or even supported by existing management. Never mind! Go ahead, do your analysis, call the result something; Training Profiles or the like and keep them somewhere for your own use. VIVA LA DIFFERENCE! It is a good idea to use something like Excel to record all the detail you have gathered. With it you can sort all the similar deliverables into groups and see which are close repeats of the other. Do this for all the role customers; if a an expectation from the supervisor is the same as an expectation from the Safety Manager then if you train for the one you are training for the other. Delete the repeated expectations leaving one example of each. Where the specifications or quality of the expectations differ take the higher or more stringent. e.g. LHD (Load Haul Dump) OPERATOR
CUSTOMER Crusher Foreman Pit Superintendent Engineer Safety Manager Pit Superintendent EXPECTATION Tonnage to crusher Start-up check Reports faults Check safety devices Operates the LHD Adheres to company safety practice QUANTITY 75 loads Ix As identified All 75 loads TIME 7 hr shift Start shift Immediate Start shift End shift 7 hr shift QUALITY High Grade Checks all key items Full report Visual inspection To spec SPECIFICATION Minimum 50 tons/load Fragmentation <.8M See checklist Provide time, Screen info, symptoms & action taken Expiry dates Go/No Go indicators Minimum 50 tons/load Fragmentation <.8M No spillage Accident Incident targets
5point Safety System
Whilst on mine property
From this data you can create a delivery profile and provide it with Key Performance Indicators. This is good information for HR personnel in terms of the requirements for recruiting an individual for this role. They can set experience and qualification needs, even describe preferred attitudes and behaviour. You on the other hand must now continue and find out how these deliverables are to be provided. What tasks must be executed, are there any decisions to be made or information to be shared. What competencies are required in the future incumbent? Do any of these things require training and what will need to be measured to prove the competencies exist? All of this creates an essential framework to which the finer details of your training programmes will be added. The effectiveness of any recruitment is evident in the comparison of the profile of the selected employee against the requested competencies of the role. The problem is that ordering employees is not like ordering a pump or a spare part. When you do that you have a reasonable expectation of getting what you want. When ordering a person the chances that you will get all the skills, attitudes and behaviour you have asked for are slim to non-existent. However by assessing what you did get and comparing it to what you wanted you can clearly identify the shortfalls and therefore the training and development you are going to have to provide. In this sense the concept of outcomes based training and development again comes to the fore. You have the desired outcomes of the recruitment, you measure the qualities of the new recruit and only where there are shortfalls do you train or develop.
Most companies pay some sort of attention to their role catalogue but the roles themselves often leave much to be desired Trainers would find much of their work simplified if this was not the case and unfortunately the task of updating company roles is too onerous to be tackled as an add on to training. It is normally a fulltime job for a specialist.
STANDARD ROLE DESCRIPTION FORMAT COMPANY BRANCH/UNIT NOT IMPORTANT FOR TRAINING LOCATION EXCEPT FOR IDENTIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT WHO AND WHERE SECTION AUTHORISATION AUTHOR DEPARTMENT HEAD MANAGER ROLE RELATIONSHIPS REPORTS TO WILL TELL YOU WHO TO IS REPORTED TO BY ASK ABOUT EXPECTATIONS INTERNAL RELATIONSHIPS EXTERNAL RELATIONSHIPS QUALIFICATIONS EDUCATION Academic Technical OCCUPATIONAL TRAINING Commercial IF THE RECRUITMENT PROVIDES Industrial SOME OF THESE ASSETS THEN THOSE Managerial THAT ARE MISSING WILL BE THE COMPETENCIES Hard skills FIRST PRIORITY IN TERMS OF Soft skills TRAINING. THE REQUIREMENTS OF EXPERIENCE Within a discipline THE NEXT ROLE IN A CAREER PATH WILL HELP TO DETERMINE THE In an occupation SUCCESSION NEEDS Positional BEHAVIOURAL TRAITS WORK STANDARDS TO PROVIDE THESE QUALITIES IS ETHICS FROM THIS SECTION YOU WILL DIFFICULT AND NEEDS A SAFETY DEVELOP YOUR COMPETENCY PARTICULAR APPROACH TO STRESS CAPACITY PROFILE AND THEN YOUR TRAINING SKILLS TRAINING PROGRAMMES CREATIVITY SELF DISCIPLINE DELIVERABLES GENERAL WORK DESCRIPTION CORE WORK OUTPUT IF THIS EXISTS THEN IT WILL PROVIDE THE STANDARDS YOU TECHNICAL WORK RESPONSIBILITIES MUST MEASURE PRODUCTS KEY DELIVERIES Safety AGAINST Supervisory Quality control PERFORMANCE FRAMEWORK QUALITY QUANTITY TIMING RISK MANAGEMENT INFO HAZARDS Likelihood Severity IDENTITY
A QUALITY ROLE DESCRIPTION FROM A LARGE CORPORATION
So the first exercise could be considered to be a practical way of doing a needs analysis; defining the expectations and then describing everything needed for the role to meet them. When you tick off what you actually have available in your employee and then work out what is missing you have what is known as a Gap Analysis. A Gap Analysis always makes the best sense when applied to individuals but obviously does give valid information about the departments or the organisation as a whole. The evil of traditional training is the so called “Shotgun approach” which provides training and development programs that address all the needs (and sometimes more) and not just the gaps. THE ROLE ENVIRONMENT
SITE ALIGNMENT (INDUCTION) JOB SPECIFIC WORK METHODS
COMPANY POLICY & PROCEDURES CAREER DEVELOPMENT
SITE ALIGNMENT All sites have particular characteristics and new employees must fit into the social and industrial norms that surround them. The requirements of interactions beyond the employees immediate work environment such as canteen, transport, organisational structure and company expectations must be provided.
Refer to the list of expectations from the role and seek out those that are required by customers listed in the sections to the left and right of the circle. Choose those expectations that are defined In terms of delivery to the larger environment and especially those departments charged with the wellbeing of the employee and fellow workers e.g. HR and Safety. Look for all services that the company provides beyond the workshop floor. Check that the employee rights and access to protection is part of the list.
JOB SPECIFIC WORK METHODS An example from a role description: VEHICLE MAINTENANCE MECHANIC Key delivery 2:
Key Task: 1 Sub tasks
Breakdowns are effectively dealt with
Draws required tools and parts from stores a Completes required loan requisition b Receives and checks tool issue c Signs and hands in control sheet d Cleans and returns tools to store e Receives and files control sheet
From the role description Key Deliveries, a list of associated key tasks and subtasks is derived. The original expectation described by the production supervisor or the foreman was that breakdowns were effectively dealt with, when asked what that actually meant they probably described as a requirement that the correct tools were drawn, cared for and returned. This amongst other things must be done according to the company procedures. The company procedures will provide the detail that dictates the content of a part of the training program for this job. Examine the key delivery schedule and all of the key tasks and sub tasks it contains to ensure that your training program covers all the training needs of the job. When you look at all of the jobs in a department at a specific level you have all the training and development you might have to provide if anyone or part of those key deliveries is found to less than it ought to be. Remember the training will then be based on defined outcomes (Expectations). The needs above include all of it. A gap analysis describes only those requirements that are missing or substandard when the actual competencies of the role incumbent are compared to these expectations
SITE ALIGNMENT (INDUCTION) JOB SPECIFIC WORK METHODS
COMPANY POLICY & PROCEDURES CAREER DEVELOPMENT
ENVIRONMENTAL FIT Without argument this is another way of saying “Induction” but at this point it refers specifically to the workplace. In terms of the interaction of the new employee with his environment there exist two distinct zones; one is the larger environment of the organisation, its people and its requirements whilst the other is the more intimate work environment with its protocols and judgements. The duty of the company induction does not include the nittygritty of producing within the safety and supervisory characteristics of the place of work.
It is not always necessary, but if you have to create a workplace induction, look to the expectations of the supervisors, subordinates and again Safety and Health to find out what are the issues the recruit must be aware of and comply to. There are local aspects of the workplace such as where different equipment and/or facilities are sited, ingress and egress, smoking or break protocol and avenues of communication that must be correctly utilised. How will he or she do this? What must be known, understood and done to meet the expectations? COMPANY POLICY AND PROCEDURES This set of documents must be available to you at all times and the training effort must be kept informed and updated on any changes or additions to the company way of doing things. If they are relevant and up to date they will provide an invaluable source of direction for much of the training content and nature of the programmes you are supposed to provide. Unfortunately very few organisations know who is supposed to write these things down let alone keep them up to date. People in the organisation often know that they are needed but again have only a very vague concept of why. Safety considerations are in there somewhere, as is proof of managerial consensus on how things should be done. Frequently because they are key to a large part of what you do, you will find
that you are in fact the source of many of them. If you do find that you have become the procedural champion then there are solid ways to make them effective and useful to you as a training provider. In terms of training if every stake holder can agree to a defined way of doing things that includes safety activities, equipment and material lists, and sequential activities, tasks and finally specifications the training becomes a consistent provider of necessary knowledge, understanding and skills. The creation of detailed content and valid assessment is made an exercise of specifics and not, “Hell, lets include everything and hope that no one checks how much it cost!”
SITE ALIGNMENT (INDUCTION) JOB SPECIFIC WORK METHODS
CAREER DEVELOPMENT This title denotes a personal bias whilst the term succession planning has stronger connotations of a company interest. Is it a good idea to promote from within the ranks or should one seek new blood?
COMPANY POLICY & PROCEDURES CAREER DEVELOPMENT
NOTE: Consider the principle of eventual incompetence…Most employees keep on getting promoted as long as they are performing well in their current position. Once they reach a level where they start to fail they stop climbing and sit. This means that we end up with a large percentage of positions that are staffed by people who are failing. Recruitment on the other hand pre-supposes a critical interest in the ability to perform the job in question. When a person has achieved the required levels of outputs in his current position he or she should definitely be considered for the next rung in the ladder. It does not make sense to put that employee into the higher position and then start to train and develop the necessary skills. Identify appropriate outputs in the targeted role that are essential to providing the minimum expectations for that role. Start the training whilst the candidate is still in the lower position. When assessments prove the abilities exist, then he or she can be considered ready for promotion. A picture of the organogram with key competencies (or outcomes) linked to each role on it will provide a career plan in terms of training for the upward movement of each employee.
DEVELOPING FOCUSED TRAINING CONTENT
The amount of training one can throw at employees is awe inspiring and a sensible but comprehensive approach needs to be adopted. What this approach will be will depend a lot on the directives you receive from your organisation but it is important that if you have the say that you make sure that you are providing exactly what is necessary and no more. The following part of the book looks at two different demands only; what is needed for the execution of a person’s role and the occasional needs presented by management or changing circumstances that expand or alter the role. The model is our guide to discussing these needs.
It all starts with work design... How jobs fit together and the structure of the organogram (or reporting protocol) as well as the distribution of responsibility dictates the characteristics or profile of the working roles. Once these parameters have been set then the outputs of the person in the role can be defined. The role profile will indicate the general level and nature of knowledge, understanding and skills needed to support those outputs. The role must also tell you what are the key performance areas in which the person in the role must produce results. There will be more than one and if the role does not specifically use the terminology presented here then look under Work Responsibilities, General Description of Work and Core Work Outputs. If necessary use the interview process described in the section ”The role of Roles” to upgrade the information contained in the roles.
Once these key performance areas have been identified this question must be asked; ”In these areas of performance what measurable components must be delivered to the system by the role incumbant for the system to work effectively?”. The answers you get will provide a list of of products that define the usefulness of the role in terms of persuing the objectives of the team, department or section. This is known as the DELIVERY SCHEDULE. Employees must be trained to deliver the goods as economically as possible. NOTE: In today’s working world many organisations have appraisal systems which are based on something called Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s); these are a shortcut to determining the important deliveries required of the role if you need it. ADDITIONAL DELIVERABLES
This route to the identification of a list of deliverables is applicable to a general analysis of the training needs of the role and is called just that, NEEDS ANALYSIS. However there are instances when a single or a specific set of deliverables is identified as important, normally as a result of a GAP ANALYSIS , but also possibly because of a new need or function added to some one´s role. The part they play in the development of your training content is the same.
Anybody who is required to produce some tangible contribution to the achievement of any objective has to complete some activity in order to transform what he or she is provided with into a state where it they can deliver their contribution. These activities would comprise of a number of Key tasks and tasks. An example of an almost universal deliverable for a supervisor might be: ”SAFETY TARGETS ARE MET”... (We will follow this example throughout the explanation) Here are two appropriate Key Tasks and several sub tasks for each.
SECTION SAFETY TARGETS ARE MET
KEY TASK 1 Maintains high level of Safety Awareness across the section 1 2 3 4 KEY TASK 2 Maintains zero tolerance policy with regard to mining practices TASKS Ensures constant awareness of safety needs throughout the section Ensures all employees are correctly & fully inducted Liaises with Safety & Training staff around auditing & reporting on work practises & conditions All accidents/incidents are investigated and proactive corrective actions implemented & followed up on TASKS Ensures all Team Leaders are aware of & understand current procedures and safety standards applicable to section Ensures that workplace conditions & mining practise complies with all aspects thereof Performs regular over inspections and responds appropriately to sub-standard performance of deviations
This deliverable is a valid responsibility any supervisor might have to bear in order to run a section in an effective manner. The key tasks are based on the idea that Safety Awareness is important in ensuring that everyone contributes and that no deviation from standard practise is permitted. The sub tasks define what must be done to execute the key tasks. Each of these sub tasks require any or all of the three aspects of competency. The safety needs of the section must be known, the need for employees to be aware of them and the implications of not knowing must be understood. An ability to perform the necessary activities needed to maintain the awareness must be demonstrated.
TO DETERMINE WHAT IS NEEDED TO BE JUDGED COMPETENT
We can review the significance of the three basic components of competency... Knowledge Understanding Ability Experience – provides a frame work within which one can make decisions and/or adopt specific courses of action – provides justification and or consequence to a broad range of decision making or actions. – allows one to execute the actions or implement the decisions selected. – is not normally considered a foundation of competency by the training fraternity but is essential in developing a personal relationship with the application of the other three. It is a result of practical exposure and personal ownership and therefore hard to quantify or set objectives for. It is not discussed here as a training need.
NOTE: The significance and management of experiential learning is well worth further research by the reader especially in its inclusion into the structure of standard training and development techniques. See previous discussion under THINKING ABOUT IT… Example of K.U.D’s for key task 1, sub task 2
TASKS 1 Ensures constant awareness of safety needs throughout the section 2 Ensures all employees are correctly & fully inducted 3 Liaises with Safety & Training staff around auditing & reporting on work practises & conditions 4 All accidents/incidents are investigated and proactive WHAT MUST BE UNDERSTOOD corrective actions implemented & followed up on The recruitment constraints faced by the HR TASKS department 1 Ensures all Team Leaders are aware of & understand The needs of the training department. current procedures and safety standards applicable to The legal implications of proper induction section The impact of proper induction in the workplace 2 Ensures that workplace conditions & mining practise The impact of no or substandard induction on complies with all aspects thereof safety and production 3 Performs regular over inspections and responds appropriately to sub-standard performance of deviations
SECTION SAFETY TARGETS ARE MET
KEY TASK 1 Maintains high level of Safety Awareness across the section
WHAT MUST BE KNOWN The relevant recruitment policies and procedures The induction programme schedule KEY TASK 2 Maintains zero tolerance policy with regard to mining practices WHAT MUST BE DEMONSTRATED The required contribution to the induction programme is performed New employee is correctly welcomed to the section and allocated to fellow worker. Follow up on new employee is performed correctly and problems effectively resolved
TO CONFIRM THE COMPONENTS OF COMPETENCY
From the example evaluate the selection of required knowledge, understanding and ability for the sub task ”Ensures all employees are correctly and fully inducted” in terms of the desired responsibility ”SECTION SAFETY TARGETS ARE MET”
If the supervisor has this knowledge will it support the delivery of the objective effectively. Understanding
Think about each one carefully; Are they all essential to his/her input, do any of them seem unnecessary and if so what will be the consequences if they are dropped? Ability
Is there anything missing that you can add... Something in terms of knowledge, Something in terms of understanding and/or some additional ability that will significantly improve the delivery of results? If the supervisor has ownership of these ten qualities wil he/she be able to meet the responsibility (deliver the objective) effectively.
TO REFINE THE COMPONENTS OF COMPETENCY
DELIVERABLE: SECTION SAFETY TARGETS ARE MET KEY TASK: MAINTAINS HIGH LEVEL OF SAFETY AWARENESS ACROSS THE SECTION
TASK: ENSURES ALL EMPLOYEES ARE CORRECTLY AND FULLY INDUCTED
You have now created a needs profile for only one of the tasks contained in the key task. You must do the same for all of the tasks contained within the deliverable; SECTION SAFETY TARGETS ARE MET
But we need a full list of everything in the three catagories for all the key tasks and tasks so that we can eliminate any similar needs.
For this deliverable “SECTION SAFETY TARGETS ARE MET” create a complete list of all the knows, understands and do’s for the entire set of tasks. Go through each list and eliminate all similar descriptions of the required knowledge, understanding or do’s in the list so that you remain with a compacted list of knows, understands and do´s with no repetitions. Work through the graphic on the next page step by step and look at the end results…
DESCRIBING A COMPETENCY FROM ROLES OR OTHER SOURCES Some guidelines to defining a competency… Creating “able to” statements 1. The first must is a valid role description that will indicate the key deliveries required from it. If this is not available you must do a circle analysis and define them yourself. 2. Then you must decide what it is that must be done to deliver the outcome or delivery you hoping to get. This can be as simple as converting the text of the described delivery to an “able to” statement. 3. Where this proves to be difficult the delivery must be examined to see if it is in fact two or more deliveries each with an “able to” statement. SOME KEY DELIVERIES FROM A PRODUCTION SUPERVISOR ROLE
NOTE: The competency statements must be complete – In this case the delivery required is that Procedures and Standards are complied with which is more than just monitoring them although the monitoring is an important skill on its own. The competency statement must be completed by providing for an ability to successfully respond to noncompliance. If the delivery needs more than one competency make sure that you have all that is needed to achieve the full delivery as described in the role.
MAKING JUDGEMENTS AND RECORDING EVIDENCE Once you are sure that you have the full range of competencies enabling the role to deliver its purpose in the organisation and that you have listed everything that the role incumbant needs to know, understand or do to perform all the tasks required for these competencies then you must decide what proof he or she must be asked to provide that will allow you to make a decision about that competency and how you are going to examine this proof and record your findings. YOU HAVE A COMPETENCY PROFILE... This tells you what the learner must finally be able to deliver in terms of the role. Once your learner is at work you will have the actual performance on the job which might meet requirements or might not. If the performance is unsatisfactory an investigation is required; how do you, or anyone else for that matter, know that the employee ever had the ability to deliver. There are many factors here not the least of which is that the employee can actually deliver but decides not to. The evaluation of non -performance also includes possibilities such as a change in circumstance, poor health, lack of proper resources , negligence and much more. A key question here is; ”Could the employee do it once?” If the answer is YES then the
investigation needs to look at what has changed, if the answer is NO it implies a standing lack of ability that can be rectified and is not the fault of the employee. However how will you answer this crucial question unless the employee has presented a set of evidence and proven the existence of the competency at some point in the past. This evidence must be still available which means that it was kept and/or recorded so that the answer to the question can be based on fact and cause of non-performance be sought elsewhere. If the evidence does not exist or shows a not yet competent finding then training has failed; not necessarily in the content or delivery but in the management of it. Non performance in the workplace would be measured by failure to deliver the key responsibility to specification, in this case failure to meet the Safety targets. One would then have to review the evidence on file to make sure that the employee could deliver once, forcing an examination of other factors or a re assessment of the employee to see which evidence no longer meets the criteria. If such a condition exists then scheduling of re training in just those areas and no others would be required. To summarise - In order to make a valid judgement as to the competency or non competency of an employee against the profile you must have enough quantity and quality of evidence to support a COMPETENT/NOT YET COMPETENT decision. This evidence must be tangible, complete and relevant. It must also have permanence; be available over time to be re examined if required. An important need for this availability could arise from an incident involving loss or injury where proof of competence becomess part of an investigation.
THE NATURE OF ASSESSMENT In order to fully appreciate the use of assessment as an evidence gathering tool we must describe the nature of the beast… There are popularly two forms of assessment: FORMATIVE AND SUMMATIVE however this categorisation tends to reduce the significance of assessment performed as part of the task of doing a thorough Gap Analysis. So here we further divide Formative assessment into two parts… FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT Formative Assessment can be useful in two ways; the first and foremost being the assessment of the status of current knowledge, understanding and skill possessed by individuals and hence teams, departments and ultimately the entire organisation. This assessment occurs outside of the training interventions. When these realities are compared to the needs of the individual, team or of the organisation they indicate clearly what training is yet to be done in order to bring individuals, teams or the entire company to a required level. (Gap Analysis) This is such an important aspect in providing cost effective training on an organisational level that it should have its own singular classification; ANALYTICAL ASSESSMENT This leaves the other important function of Formative Assessment; the reporting on and control of persons participating in any kind of training or development intervention; this occurs during or at the end of training. Any gathering of evidence that allows informed modifications of learner participation or indeed changes in the way a program is structured or presented is controlling in nature and hence we could term such assessment FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT Summative Assessment refers to a GO or NO GO assessment aimed at determining the final level of achievement of a particular individual participating in a training intervention or program. All assessments performed during the delivery of such an intervention would be Formative Assessments, their purpose
being the reporting and control of the participants, individual or group. Assessment performed at the end of learning to determine a level of achievement that a participant takes with them back to their normal environments is Summative. Obviously summative assessment is also used to review and evaluate the effectiveness of training and should have an impact on the design and presentation of training and development, results of such assessments indicate performance of the training team. An individual might be required to present evidence of knowledge, understanding or skill or any combination of all three on numerous occasions whilst moving through the prescribed learning but as long as it is used to manage the learning such requirements are FORMATIVE. When it is used to provide an end result recorded and assigned to an individual as an overall achievement for a defined course or program it is SUMMATIVE. TO SIMPLIFY: ANALYTICAL ASSESSMENT – Gathering of evidence to determine the existing knowledge, understanding or skills against needs. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT – Gathering of evidence to evaluate progress of participants and effectiveness of training. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT – Gathering of evidence for assigning competency or scores to participants WHEN CREATING ASSESSMENTS (Opportunities for trainees to present recordable evidence) there are some fundamental principles that must be adhered to… EVIDENCE WHERE CIRCUMSTANCES SUPPORT PERFORMANCE IS NOT AUTHENTIC Case 01: A learner is asked to point out all the parts on an actual machine that must be checked before it is started Case 02: A learner is asked to write a list of all the same parts in a room which has on its wall a large poster listing all the parts. EVIDENCE THAT DOES NOT INCLUDE PERFORMANCE IS NOT SUFFICIENT Case 01a: A learner is asked to point out all the parts on an actual machine that must be checked before it is started. This must be done on a unit kept at the training premises Case 01b: A learner is asked to point out all the parts of a machine that must be checked before it is started. This must be done on the actual unit as part of start of shift procedures on a normal shift. Case 01c: A learner is asked to point out all the parts of a machine that must be checked before it is started. This must be on a diagram provided in the classroom.
VALID EVIDENCE IMPLIES COMPETENCY IN THE WORKPLACE If evidence is presented in the workplace, competency is proven, not implied. However if this is not possible the evidence must support an ability to reproduce the behaviour or skill in the workplace
JUDGEMENTS MADE ON THE BASIS OF PRIOR PERFORMANCE ARE EXCLUDED Case 03: A learner is asked to list all the parts of a machine that must be checked before it is started. The learner presents a list he or she says they wrote out at home the night before. Case 04: A learner is asked to list all the parts of a machine that must be checked before it is started. The learner says there are on record the results of performance in this regard done several months previously under assessment conditions. NOTE: Previous performance, life competency and recognition of prior learning must not be confused… Previous performance: Unsupported claims about the existence of evidence without the evidence must be seen as hearsay and is invalid. Life competency and recognition of prior learning: When evidence has been presented, evaluated and recorded under properly controlled conditions it need not be reassessed unless it has a specific period of validity; it stands as permanent proof of measured ability. However proof of learning does not , Recognition of prior learning gives the claimant just that, learning is recognised but assessment of competency must still be done , evidence presented and judgement made. FAIRNESS No hindrance or advantage to any learner beyond that experienced by all the learners. All persons undergoing assessment must be prepared the same way, face the same environment, the same demands and have the same support. The assessment is performed in the environment where the competencies are applied. In so far as is possible, any assessment should be done in the same way and under the same circumstances that the knowledge, understanding and skills are to be produced in the course of the work. This is not always practical or even possible but the assessment should be as close as possible VALIDITY The assessment matches the intent and application of the outcome. The outcome should describe clearly the intent of the learning provided. It is essential that the assessment seeks the evidence that this intent has been met. The outcome is aimed at a specific set of conditions in a particular environment. The evidence must prove the ability to perform in those circumstances. The assessment addresses no more and no less than is required by the task or the defined Competency. The content of the assessment will underpin the structure and content of the learning. The requirement of the task or competency defines the same - both must be in accordance; the assessment proves the learner can perform under working conditions and the training develops the ownership of the necessary abilities. PRACTICABILITY The assessment utilises already existing environments for provision of assessment conditions. Assessment minimises the time away from the workplace. This entire concept demonstrates the fitness of the workplace as the environment in which assessments should be performed; performance in the workplace is what needs to be proven and the workplace is an existing environment. No further investment is needed, the stresses of delivery are real and not contrived.
It is always available if, and this is the big if, the assessment is not disruptive and performed whilst the candidate is busy with the normal duties of the job. The burden is placed on the shoulders of the assessor; he or she must be able to record, interrupt and/or continue the assessment of evidence as workplace demands dictate. WE CAN MAKE THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS… Simulations should only be used where it is difficult or impossible to assess in actual conditions. Knowledge and understanding can be inferred where possible from the performance or the product. Extended assessment, a process by which evidence is accumulated over days, or even months, remains valid. Any number of competencies or their components can be assessed together. Naturally occurring evidence can be collected in a workplace or site and recorded until competency can be assigned. CREATING ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES AND ASSESSMENT GUIDES There are several different forms of evidence and these are normally defined by the particular component of competency you are addressing... WRITTEN EVIDENCE (Nearly all evidence ends up written down some where) Tests proving knowledge of components, procedures and specifications Tests exploring cause and effect of the application of principles OBSERVED PERFORMANCE Recorded,signed checklists monitoring performance of specific tasks Critical examination and sign off of end products Written comments on the probing of key aspects of selected task Steps or tasks Appropriate role plays demonstrating correct behaviour COGNITIVE EVIDENCE (Response evaluation) Problem solving Case studies– Subjective evaluation of results ”In basket exercises” KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING DEMONSTRATION DEMONSTRATION UNDERSTANDING DEMONSTRATION
Once all the components of each competency have been defined and compacted suitable evidence formats must be selected that will test each component and at the same time provide evidence that you can record in some way for future reference. Then you must compile a set of instructions that includes all the required documents and proformas needed for the assessment.
ASSESSMENT GUIDES An assessment guide is a complete set of instructions for an assessor, enabling the creation of opportunities for an individual to present the proof required to show competency and have it evaluated, thus enabling the assessor to make a competency judgement.
There are technically only two statements possible for an assessor once the evidence has been presented and evaluated; COMPETENT or NOT YET COMPETENT. COMPETENT is a closing statement in terms of training, meaning that in so far as the competency in question is concerned training is at an end; mission accomplished! NOT YET COMPETENT is open ended... This statement can be considered a directive to both the training department and the learner that there is still some work to be done. CHECK YOUR WORK...
MUST KNOW… The relevant recruitment procedures
…normally things that can be listed or selected from lists. They can also be specifications or other factual data. Evidence that someone knows something would be the answers to written tests or the correct choices on a simple multiple choice quiz. In this case the candidate might be asked to list the steps in the recruitment process.
MUST UNDERSTAND…The needs of the training department
…normally the causes and/or the implications of the need to perform certain acts or decisions. Evidence that someone understands something would be written explanations of why or what if. Also valid responses to probing questions as to why specific standards or procedures are being followed and what the results of noncompliance might be.
MUST DEMONSTRATE…The required contribution to the Induction program
…normally the ability to perform the required activities listed in the competencies that underpin the delivery of the responsibility. These can be artificially created or performed in the reality of the workplace where there are valid opportunities.
Some examples of the kinds of activity that might be arranged to test the three components of the task; “ENSURE ALL EMPLOYEES ARE CORRECTLY AND FULLY INDUCTED”
NOTE: FROM ASSESSMENT PRINCIPLES: An assessment activity which proves the same knowledge, understanding or ability and results already on the record does not need to be repeated. Such existing evidence is valid and supports competency where ever it is relevant.
If the learners are asked to list the entire recruitment schedule we can see that they will provide all the evidence needed for this part of the assessment. We can in fact pass a positive judgement on the knowledge component of the sub task… Ensures all employees are correctly and fully inducted.
So the first part of our assessment guide is to write down the complete Recruitment program for any new employee. All the evidence proving the knowledge that we need is contained within the answer… If it is correctly given. The answer sheet becomes evidence as does the signed record of the result. Both must be kept on file.
DAY ONE 1. Entry interview; all personal details taken and file opened 2. Medical examination 3. Visits payroll, tax, salary, union membership explained 4. Signs agreement. DAY TWO 1. Assigned to training centre 2. Safety and security 3. Disciplinary code 4. The Mission statement, company policies and organogram DAY THREE 1. Welcome by Section supervisor 2. Relevant procedures and section protocols
We have listed all the evidence we need to prove that the transfer of learning has taken place and now must describe the opportunities we will create to give our learner the opportunity to present that evidence. Keeping in mind the principles we have just discussed and the three aspects of competency we wish to prove. KNOWLEDGE… Knowledge is based on the mind’s ability to file information and not on the ability to use it in decision making or problem solving. All we need to prove is that information is stored, accessible and linked to specific issues in the mind of the candidate. UNDERSTANDING… Understanding is the appreciation of cause and effect that a learner has in terms of his or her activities, solutions or decisions. Be careful! If a student has learned a list of causes or consequences to specific actions or lack of them it is not understanding it is knowledge. Understanding is implied by adequate responses to variations of causes or modified activity that the learner is exposed to in the course of the assessment. DEMONSTRATING… The ultimate test of learning. Nothing is more conclusive or appropriate than the demonstration of an employee’s fitness for the productive environment than the performance to specified standards of the required tasks. Even this is a little old fashioned, advanced managerial thinking tells us that the end result of the performance should be the only criteria; if the employee is consistently producing the objective (Quality, quantity, time) then the skills are proven.
PUTTING TRAINING AND ASSESSMENT INTO THE PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENT Degradation of training outcomes (deterioration of performance) in the workplace over time? OR What you accept is what you get? Supervisors will never be replaced by trainers or assessors. Similarly trainers will never be replaced by Supervisors… This is a practical reality and it is not a development we would like to see anytime soon. However that they should both be active in achieving superior performance by the employees is a given. Go a little further and say that they should both be active in the workplace and we will take performance to a new level. The merging of the training dream world and the reality of production? This has been extensively discussed elsewhere, producers tend to see trainers as disruptive and impractical whilst trainers tend to see production as a mine field of irresponsible shortcuts and priorities. Supervisors
must accept that doing it the right way is productive in the long term and trainers must learn that money (Productivity) is the essential driver of training.
Measurement and feedback allows employees to train themselves? When people are observed and the results are noted and discussed with them in a positive way the results always improve. Frequently, at the start of such relationships, defensive behaviour is displayed but persistent positive input makes friends of all and the exercise becomes mutual problem solving with all the good things that goes with it. Where should trainers work? Trainers/Assessors must be in the workplace; firstly assessing, evaluating and responding to short falls immediately by coaching and secondly where required to arrange training experiences for the long term. If an assessor has an assessment guide against which performance is being checked it will indicate where input is required and at the same time allow the accumulation of evidence on record that eventually will allow a judgement of Competent.
LEARNER MANAGED DEVELOPMENT
How does the system hang together?
Let me show you another model...
Simply put the system is made up of a module, an assessment guide and record keeping. The module has several components; an introduction, instructions on how to use it and how the learner will be assessed and move through the learning. It also contains one or more sections or units which deal with the subject of the module; each of these units has components that deal with safety, the tools and equipment, the methods to be learned and how to check the work and shutdown the job. At the end of each section there are exercises forcing revision of the section content, a project testing understanding and a self-test dealing with the required knowledge components. The assessment is designed to evaluate competency on the job in the real world but also includes elements of knowledge and understanding probed verbally by the assessor as the skill is being demonstrated. The ideal tool for such assessment is found in a PDA device which allows access to individual records showing competency granted or in progress of being granted. This is important as it supports interaction between learner and assessor that promotes movement through the module and ultimately through the system. The records are dynamic on the PDA or hard copy clipboard and static on the database. Periodic downloads and uploads to and from the database allow both systems to be synchronised and provide current data for management, both of the entire program and of the individuals on the system.
THE MODULE – how to create it! Introduction – This should welcome the participant to the program, provide some detail about the potential rewards and explain how the system fits into the way the organisation works. A welcome comment from the General Manager or CEO is appropriate in order to show management support for the learner’s aspirations. Instructions for use – The content here will depend a lot on how your system is structured but basically how one applies to join the system, how you request your module and who will be your coach/assessor. What is expected of you in terms of the learning and how and when you will be assessed. Informal coaches such as recognised SME’s or Supervisors might be named. How you must use the revision material and the self-tests must also be explained. Last but not least any details of the social group interaction and what incentives you are entitled to receive and for what. An example of instructions for use from an existing set of modules…
How it actually works…
Subject matter – There could be one or more sub-sections to the body of the learning material; each one will have specific content. Look to the section on creating targeted content earlier in this book, the same rules apply. You must decide what are the required outcomes, list the evidence you will need to prove them and then provide the learning that will enable the learner to produce it. However having said this we also need to divide the evidence we are looking for into groups such as Safety, tools and equipment, doing the job, checking it and shutting it down. In each group we need to look at proving specific knowledge, understanding and skill. This will all point to learning content but also to assessment structure. Another example from an existing set of modules, this one on the subject of pipes…
A TIP FOR ALL MODULE WRITERS – TEXT AT A MINIMUM AND LOTS OF PICTURES
Learning aides – All modules worth anything do not just provide subject matter but also appropriate revision exercises. An obvious inclusion is a summary of the material, but also required is some kind of exercise requiring the learner to work through the material seeking answers to questions such as finding specific data or filling in missing words in a text. Written self -tests can test knowledge, projects can test understanding and practical demonstrations with the coach/assessor can demonstrate skill. Once the learner is happy about their own abilities then they can request a comprehensive written test under supervised conditions and if successful ask for a practical skills test. ASSESSMENT – What it must look like… Whether you have electronic assessment or not the principles stay the same, it just the amount of paperwork and margin of error that differs. Quite dramatically as it happens! What follows is a section of a typical assessment guide for a module called “WORKING WITH PIPE COLUMNS” It has been created on Excel in “Office” and it deals with the activities involved when extending a column by adding a new length of pipe. On a clip board the assessor would enter the name and date of the assessment, record the findings and then file the sheet under the name of the learner. There would probably be a master copy on which a record of the progressive results would be kept resulting in a final finding of competency for the learner in this module. The amount of paper work and the problems in ensuring that the assessor has the right piece of paper at the right time in the right place are awe inspiring. To have the entire system on a PDA means that all learners and all modules and all the working places are available immediately in a unit the size of a cellphone is already fantastic, the fact that errors are almost unheard of and the database is immediately updated on connecting the device is beyond price.
To structure the assessment guide in Excel is simple; take each activity, divide it up into tasks, and then into steps. Against each step describe the required behaviour, standard or specification and give each a place to designate ‘YES’ for competent or ‘NOT YET’ if the requirement is not met. Use your outcomes evidence as a check and make sure that you have in fact listed all the proof that is required. If the contents of the module are good and the tests and assessment are comprehensive then the progress through the program is easy and the results will be excellent. RECORDS – How are they managed… Personal files – Start with the employee profiles which should include a record of all learning to date including formal schooling and tertiary education. Short courses, especially in house training and development must be detailed. This data forms the background to recording results on the modular training program. As soon as an employee gets assigned a module a separate record sheet is created which holds the details of the assigned module, the assigned assessor/coach and an ongoing summary of progress through the module, section by section with all test, project and assessment results until the module is completed and the learner signed off as competent. Once this has been achieved then the assigned competency is entered on the employee profile and the profile printed and kept as hard copy. Working files – Again it does not matter if this is kept electronically or manually the control of any individual through the learning process of any one module lies in the hands of the assigned assessor/coach. A learner must be able to work with his or her resources and have the support of the training team and colleagues on a continuous basis. The concept of study at home, learn at work means that the learner goes through the material in the module at home and then tests it against the reality of the workplace. This will involve asking questions and exploring issues on the job with the work team and /or the assessor. As competency develops and the assessor/coach records successful demonstrations or records test results, he works with the records of each of his learners until granting competency. All these records must be kept and filed for future reference as they constitute the evidence required to support the competent decision.
GETTING EMPLOYEES TO DO IT… The best motivation and the most effective use of the workplace and training material in training comes from providing targets, coaching (Constant assessment and feedback) and self -realisation to the employees themselves. No one manages learning better than a committed individual who has linked his or her future to a self-improvement program. We therefore like Modular programs. What is needed for this to work, to get people to buy into it? Money works – so financial reward for progress through sets of learning material and/or prestige as learners achieve sequential milestones will help to keep interest going. Linking appraisals and promotion to participation in such learning programs also helps to ensure commitment. However the final incentive has to be the creation of a social group within the organisation that identify each other with a vibe created in part by the trainers, in part by quality material and steady success. Let’s face it, you cannot force people to learn even if you take them to the classroom and provide them with everything that they need. This approach does one very good thing; it identifies those employees that will learn and gives those that really deserve it everything that they want to do it with.
3. TAKE ANOTHER LOOK
SUMMARY OF CONTENT AND GUIDE TO THE CONTENTS OF THE BOOK Quick reference and learning aide
CHANGE IN EMPLOYEES IS BROUGHT ABOUT IN FOUR AREAS… PAGE 6 Knowledge –information that allows decisions or actions Understanding –awareness of cause and effect. Ability–skill in the execution of a task Experience –a personal set of working directives gained from application of the other three. At senior levels the mind needs to express itself and verbal or manual skills are at the service of the thinking processes. At the bottom of the model the output of the hands, body or verbal expression is key and the mind is at their service.
MANAGING CHANGE IN A TRADITIONAL WAY… PLANNING, ORGANISING, LEADING AND CONTROLLING…
Planning – When we structure in thought or on paper how we will do something. Organising – When we actually get up and schedule or arrange the facilities and resources. Leading – The activity of getting people to support or participate in the achievement of objectives. Controlling – This is the art of monitoring feedback, evaluating and responding effectively RISK MANAGEMENT… PAGE 8
Another effective management tool is Risk Assessment. Use the 80/20 rule. Risks must include financial loss, management error, contract breach, political or social change. Lifting the ability, knowledge, understanding and experience of people is vital to a achieving a properly controlled business organisation.
Protecting your assets... as long as competence resides in a single individual it is an asset at risk. Such a person can move, change careers, die or otherwise be lost to the team. Ensure that such competence is transferred to many. THE DINOSAUR WITHIN… PAGE 8
Test your beliefs and opinions against the young people in the organisation and listen to the heavy breathing of modern trends. WHY TRAIN ANYWAY? PAGE 9
For many senior people training is seen as a lower level occupation confined to those that execute tasks and well below the level of those that manage them. Appreciate that the management of training sits with equal importance alongside Finance, Production, Human Resources and other needs of a modern organisation. A well-managed training department is an essential part of making profits. We can accurately measure the effect training has on the results of productive effort. However training is wasted if it is not properly planned, and reported on. This is the basis of outcomes based training. Desired results are measured; shortfalls are identified and addressed. The impact on productivity and utilisation of resources is evaluated and the results used to justifying dropping, changing or continuing the training. This input needs support for assessment processes, record keeping and all the administrative needs of a small department. This book is about setting up such a department. It is about building a better business, it is about making money. The answer to the question, “Why train?” is obvious. Note; PAGE 10
ENGINEERING… THE PROFESSION OF APPLYING SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES TO THE DESIGN,
CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF VEHICLES, BUILDINGS AND MACHINERY HUMAN RESOURCE ENGIN EERING… THE PROFESSION OF APPLYING SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES TO DESIGNING AND MAINTAINING FIT FOR PURPOSE, RESULTS DRIVEN TRAINING SYSTEMS A UNIVERSAL MODEL OF WORK Graphic representation of the way work is structured PAGE 11
An activity is a defined set of actions called tasks which can be further broken down into steps. Each is dependent on an acceptable result from the previous activity, task or step. Because much of this is instinctive in management people there are few places where design and specifications exist formally aside from policies and procedures. A BROAD VIEW OF RESOURCES PAGE 13 Training consists of identifying sources of the learning (Your assets) that you want to transfer to the employee, finding a way and a place to capture what you need and store it and then a way and a place to transfer it to the learner. You will need to present the material using equipment, documents and/or trainers, then test the results and finally record all of those processes in a logical and easily accessed system. Identifying your assets PAGE 13 We will find knowledge in reference books, understanding in dissertations and seminars and experience and skills in people. To think that you can find all of the expertise you will need in your own training staff is naïve. In this model we illustrate the comparative importance of the four aspects of expertise at the opposite ends of the graphic. So at the top we can look to the written word and presentations as being the major sources of material whilst at the bottom we can find what we need in manuals, skills and experience of people. . Deciding how you will do it… PAGE 14 Using the concept discussed above you will minimise your spend and your research work. Professional trainers manage the learning experience, they are not necessarily the fountain of all knowledge. METHODS & TOOLS AVAILABLE TO YOU AS A TRAINER See tables in main text. PAGE 16/17/18
I have also provided a bar chart showing how a tradtional set up might be planned. See it and some organisational diagrams in the main text. ORGANISATIONAL MODELLING PAGE 19/20
WHAT YOU WILL NEED PAGE 21
If you want to run a halfway decent training department you must have these…
Facilities: Places that allow skills, knowledge and understanding to be transferred. Equipment: Furniture, fittings and tools that simplify and enhance communication. People: A range of appropriately skilled and knowledgeable providers. Material: The source of all the learning. No training will take place without an appropriate combination of all four of the above.
FACILITIES PAGE 22 Mock ups/Artificial and Real environments These range from structures which look like the place where work will be performed to sophisticated machines which faithfully reproduce the behaviour and required inputs of sensitive equipment. The first we can term „Mock ups‟ and the other „Simulators‟. The final measure of good training is from results in the real world. So why not use the real world from the get go. Lecture rooms/classrooms A room with simple white walls and only the minimum of necessary equipment is correct. Administration space Do not cramp or short change the person and equipment that facilitates the making of arrangements, keeping of records or creating and running programs. EQUIPMENT PAGE 25 Time on production Some skills are best learned in the “Muck and the Bullets”. Machinery & Equipment There is the machinery and equipment you will need to perform the work in your department. Then there is the machinery and equipment that simulate the conditions in the workplace Machinery and equipment you will need to perform the work in your department Your lecture/seminar rooms must be properly equipped. Chairs, tables and desks Make sure that they are comfortable and practical. Flipcharts Old fashioned but have some special qualities you might want to make use of. You should have at least two flipcharts in any reasonably sized training room. Whiteboards Have them cover most of the free wall space so that where ever you are in the room you can grab a pen and illustrate a point. Projectors Table top projectors are better and they are transportable, they can be taken to venues that are not so well equipped if needed. Printers and copiers Printers/Copiers allow documents to keep pace with constant updates and changes in material; keeping material current means keeping the trainees current.
Computers You can go out today and buy the best computer your money can get and know that you will have to upgrade or buy new within a year or two. The hardware – a laptop with a docking station and a larger screen is good. The software – should include a full office suite with a word program, database and drawing support. Workspaces Desktop A reasonable work area is important for layout and sorting material. A whiteboard or a noticeboard Needed for each trainer is important for schedules, notes and comments. Filing cabinets Hanging files or at the least a single hanging file drawer for each trainer is essential PEOPLE PAGE 28 The people who staff your department as well as those you identify to provide source material will make or break your value to the organisation. Instructors Need to be experienced and recognised by employees as top of the line operators. Presenters Manage transfer of learning and control interaction. Facilitators A good facilitator is a mentor, coach and presenter all rolled into one. Office staff Neat and well presented people will give you neat and well presented information, logistics and the image you need. Subject matter experts (SME´s) Select only people with a proven record of high output; you want to tap into commitment and ability not provide excuses to slow down on the job. Never forget praise for the SME when glorifying the achievements of the student. MATERIAL PAGE 30
Traditional text based. The most obvious source of the “how to” gospel. Books and publications, including collections by Training Societies and colleges are a massive fountain of good thinking and enlightened direction but there is so much more, some of it freely available and much more relevant to your home environment. The Internet or WWW… So much, an ocean to drown in, one should not mention the internet without saying WIKIPEDIA.
Suppliers Of any equipment or machinery provide service and operation manuals to go with their range of products. Commercial programs Courses provided by businesses. There are some really good well presented programs out there, Institutions Are sometimes legitimate sometimes not. It is an important responsibility to only select those institutions which are generally recognised as legitimate. Consultants There are some very expert and wise professionals who make the consulting industry a very good source of material. Look for those with well-known successes and word of mouth references from large organisations. In house training assets Or people who are the repositories of skills, knowledge, experience and wisdom you need. Company files Contain all the recorded (Secured) information about how its employees must interact and how most tasks must be performed. Policies Describe the way that the company wishes to perform its functions and will provide the creator of training material with guidelines to desired behaviour. Work procedures Are described in documents sometimes called SOP‟s or Standard Operating Procedures. The way the work is done must be clearly described and correctly sequenced. Standards Everything that is done must meet specifications as to its number, material makeup, dimensions and appearance. Standards define objectives!
THE TRAINING PROCESS
WHAT YOU HAVE TO DO… PAGE 32 The processes that you will have to put into place are defined by what we need to achieve to make the employee comfortable in his role, skilled in his tasks and motivated to realise his development through the wellbeing of the organisation..
THE ROLE OF ROLES
The role profiles should be a clear description of the expectations that the organisation has of the employee. Unfortunately this is not always the case. Our purposes require that we clearly define the expectations of the people that work with and around the role we are targeting. The role model is divided into four quadrants each representing customers of the role outputs. THE SURVEY; All about delivery PAGE 33
1. What the organisation expects… Managers: When you talk to senior levels above the role you will probably get what the company expects from the role. Supervisors: Supervisors have a more intimate understanding of the actual work that is to be performed and know what is critical to their own performance results. 2. What the co-workers expect… Direct peers: All employees involved in the same work area will have expectations from the role: Indirect peers: These are those people in the organisation in other departments with responsibilities that need the cooperation of the role in question. 3. What subordinates expect… Direct subordinates: Often have very definite ideas about what their supervisor/manager must provide for them. Their subordinates: Will have similar needs and the role you are dealing with must be able to support the level below it in terms of their delivery to employees below them. 4. What people outside the company expect… Delivery external to the Business Unit and/or the Organisation can be looked at from the view of incoming and outgoing products or services. Also external to both the BU and the organisation are all political and industrial watchdogs and dealings with the Community and various sports bodies or charities. DEALING WITH ALL THE DATA PAGE 35 All of this data will support your program for the training and development of the person who ends up in the role. VIVA LA DIFFERENCE! PAGE 36 With Excel you can sort all the similar deliverables into groups and see which are close repeats and eliminate them. From this data you can create a delivery profile and provide it with Key Performance Indicators. SEE A TYPICAL ROLE FORMAT PAGE 37 THE ROLE ENVIRONMENT PAGE 38 All sites have particular characteristics and new employees must fit into the social and industrial norms that surround them.
JOB SPECIFIC WORK METHODS PAGE 38 Examine the key delivery schedule and all of the key tasks and sub tasks it contains to ensure that your training program covers all the training needs of the job. ENVIRONMENTAL FIT PAGE 39 This refers specifically to the workplace. Normal company induction does not include the nitty-gritty of producing within the safety and supervisory characteristics of the place of work. COMPANY POLICY AND PROCEDURES PAGE 39 If they are relevant and up to date they will provide an invaluable source of direction for much of the training content and nature of the programmes you are supposed to provide. Few organisations know who is supposed to keep them up to date. CAREER DEVELOPMENT PAGE 40 This title denotes a personal bias whilst the term succession planning has stronger connotations of a company interest. Is it a good idea to promote from within the ranks or should one seek new blood? Start the training whilst the candidate is still in the lower position.
DEVELOPING FOCUSED TRAINING CONTENT
A sensible but comprehensive approach to training content needs to be adopted. We only look at what is needed for the execution of a person‟s role and the occasional needs presented by management or changing circumstances that expand or alter the role. It all starts with work design... How jobs fit together and the structure of the organogram (or reporting protocol) as well as the distribution of responsibility dictates the characteristics or profile of the working roles. The outputs of the role derived from the responsibilities is known as the DELIVERY SCHEDULE. ADDITIONAL DELIVERABLES PAGE 42 A general analysis of the training needs of the role and is called a NEEDS ANALYSIS. A GAP ANALYSIS is the difference between what the employee has and what is required of him. TO DETERMINE WHAT IS NEEDED TO BE JUDGED COMPETENT PAGE 43 Review the significance of the four basic components of competency... Knowledge Understanding Ability Experience TO CONFIRM THE COMPONENTS OF COMPETENCY PAGE 44 If the employee has ownership of your selected knowledge, understanding, ability and experience will he/she be able to meet the responsibilities effectively and ask yourself is there anything you could add to these qualities or perhaps take away without compromising the delivery?
TO REFINE THE COMPONENTS OF COMPETENCY PAGE 45 It is required that nothing is repeated; all of the components can only appear once. All the components are listed and compared. Likes are eliminated These shortlisted Knows, Understands and Do‟s will be the components of the required role competency… and will indicate what must be assessed to make the decision... COMPETENT/ NOT YET COMPETENT. DESCRIBING A COMPETENCY FROM ROLES OR OTHER SOURCES PAGE 47
Some guidelines to defining a competency… Creating “able to” statements 1. The first must is a valid role description that indicates the key deliveries required from it. 2. Then you must convert the text of the described delivery to an “able to” statement. 3. Sometimes it is in fact two or more deliveries each with an “able to” statement. MAKING JUDGEMENTS AND RECORDING EVIDENCE PAGE 47
Decide what proof must be provided that will allow a decision about the competency and how you will examine this proof and record your findings. YOU HAVE A COMPETENCY PROFILE... This tells you what the learner must finally be able to deliver in terms of the role. The evaluation of nonperformance includes many possibilities. A key question here is; Could the employee do it once? To summarise - In order to make a valid judgement as to the competency or non competency of an employee against the profile you must have enough quantity and quality of evidence to support a COMPETENT/NOT YET COMPETENT decision. THE NATURE OF ASSESSMENT There are popularly two forms of assessment: Formative assessment into two parts… PAGE 48 FORMATIVE AND SUMMATIVE… We further divide
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT PAGE 48 Formative Assessment can be useful in two ways; the assessment of the status of current knowledge, understanding and skill possessed by individuals and hence teams, departments and ultimately the entire organisation. When these realities are compared to the Needs Analysis they indicate clearly what training is yet to done Gap Analysis. This is such an important aspect in providing cost effective training on an organisational level that it should have its own singular classification; ANALYTICAL ASSESSMENT. Gathering of evidence that allows informed modifications of learner participation or changes in the way a programme is structured or presented we can call; FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT PAGE 48 Summative Assessment refers to a GO or NO GO assessment aimed at determining the final level of achievement of a person/s participating in a training intervention or programme.
TO SIMPLIFY: ANALYTICAL ASSESSMENT – determine the existing knowledge, understanding or skills. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT – evaluate progress of participants and worth of training. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT – assign competency or scores to participants There are some fundamental principles that must be adhered to… PAGE 49
EVIDENCE WHERE CIRCUMSTANCES SUPPORT PERFORMANCE IS NOT AUTHENTIC Where information requested is supplied openly for use by the learner. EVIDENCE THAT DOES NOT INCLUDE PERFORMANCE IS NOT SUFFICIENT Where theory is not supported by action. VALID EVIDENCE IMPLIES COMPETENCY IN THE WORKPLACE The assumption that ability will be shown to be evident in the real world. JUDGEMENTS MADE ON THE BASIS OF PRIOR PERFORMANCE ARE EXCLUDED Hearsay without assessment under controlled conditions is not valid. FAIRNESS PAGE 50 No hindrance or advantage to any learner beyond that experienced by all the learners. All persons undergoing assessment must be treated the same. The assessment is performed in the environment where competencies are applied. In so far as is possible, any assessment should be in the course of the work. VALIDITY The assessment matches the intent and application of the outcome. The outcome should describe clearly the intent of the learning provided. PAGE 50
The assessment addresses no more and no less than is required by the task or the defined Competency. The content of the assessment will underpin the structure and content of the learning. PRACTICABILITY PAGE 50 We use already existing environments for provision of assessment conditions. Assessment minimises the time away from the workplace. Performance in the workplace is what needs to be proven. WE CAN MAKE THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS… PAGE 51
Simulations should only be used where it is difficult or impossible to assess in actual conditions. Knowledge and understanding can inferred where possible from the performance or the product. Extended assessment; a process by which evidence is accumulated over days, or even months, remains valid. Any number of competencies or their components can be assessed together. Naturally occurring evidence can be collected in a workplace or site and recorded until competency can be assigned.
CREATING ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES AND ASSESSMENT GUIDES
There are several different forms of evidence and these are normally defined by the particular component of competency you are addressing... ASSESSMENT GUIDES PAGE 51
An assessment guide is a complete set of instructions for an assessor, enabling the creation of opportunities for an individual to present the proof required to show competency. There are only two statements possible for an assessor COMPETENT or NOT YET COMPETENT. COMPETENCY PROFILE PAGE 53
We have listed all the evidence we need and now must describe the opportunities we will create to give our learner the opportunity to present that evidence. Keeping in mind the principles we have just discussed and the three aspects of competency we wish to prove. PUTTING TRAINING & ASSESSMENT INTO THE PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENT PAGE 54 Degradation of training outcomes (Required performance) in the workplace over time? OR What you accept is what you get. Supervisors will never be replaced by trainers or assessors. Similarly trainers will never be replaced by Supervisors…
Trainers/Assessors must be in the workplace; firstly assessing, evaluating and responding to short falls immediately by coaching and secondly where required by arranging training experiences for the long term.
LEARNER MANAGED DEVELOPMENT
Simply put the system is made up of a module, an assessment guide and record keeping. The module has several components; an introduction, instructions on how to use it and how the learner will be assessed and move through the learning process. The assessment is designed to evaluate competency on the job in the real world but also includes elements of knowledge and understanding probed verbally by the assessor as the skill is being demonstrated. The records are dynamic on the PDA or hard copy clipboard and static on the database. THE MODULE – how to create it! PAGE 57
Introduction – This should welcome the participant to the program. Instructions for use – The content here will depend a lot on how your system is structured Subject matter – There can be one or more sub-sections each one will have specific content. We also need to divide the evidence we are looking for into groups such as Safety, tools and equipment, doing the job, checking it and shutting it down. Learning aides revision exercises. – All modules worth anything do not just provide subject matter but also appropriate
ASSESSMENT – What it must look like… PAGE 59 To structure the assessment guide in Excel is simple; take each activity, divide it up into tasks, and then into steps. RECORDS – How are they managed… PAGE 60 Personal files – Start with the employee profiles which should include a record of all learning to date. This data forms the background to recording results on the modular training program. Working files – The control of any individual through the learning process of any one module lies in the hands of the assigned assessor/coach. GETTING EMPLOYEES TO DO IT… PAGE 60 The best motivation and the most effective use of the workplace and training material in training comes from providing targets, coaching (Constant assessment and feedback) and self-realisation to the employees themselves. Money works - But let‟s face it, you cannot force people to learn even if you take them to the classroom and provide them with everything that they need.
This approach does one very good thing; it identifies those employees that will learn and gives what they want to do it with.
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