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The guide of Marine Frequency Converters


Table of contents

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION FOR MARINE FREQUENCY CONVERTERS Siemens Marine frequency converters AC motors controlled by Marine frequency converters Overview of the Marine frequency converter operation The Marine frequency converter's load on the power supply

5 5 5 6 7

APPLICATIONS WITH MARINE FREQUENCY CONVERTERS Marine frequency converter used in diesel-electric propulsion Booster Cargo pumps Winches Thrusters Fans and cooling systems Other applications

7 7 9 9 11 12 13 14

OTHER ISSUES Energy saving Pump characteristic with throttle valve control Pump characteristic with speed control Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Harmonic currents and tuned filter circuits Harmonic distortion of mains supply Marine frequency with three possibilities for Bus communication Communication with PROFIBUS Communication between drives by Siemens DRIVE-CLiQ Commissioning and service with a Personal computer Dynamic load limitation (DLL)

15 15 15 15 16 17 17 18 18 18 19 19




The shipping industry is facing ever greater challenges, especially regarding energy saving and the environment. Lurking in the background are political shadows like CO2 duties and dire predictions concerning the cost of fuel in ten years time. Authorities and owners are consequently focusing more and more on shipping concepts involving less environmental risk and energy saving. Shipping installations having higher fuel efficiency in all operational stages will be increasingly favored and will presumably have great potential for future growth. Additionally, the requirements of reliability, redundancy, maneuverability and concerning long maintenance intervals and short service response time are gradually becoming stricter. Parts of these requirements can easily be met by controlling the speed of electric motors. In this guide, you will get a brief introduction to the operational principle of a frequency converter, its construction and application. When connected to a frequency converter, an AC motor exhibits unique properties in providing rotational speeds from standstill to values in excess of the rated speed, and also in maintaining exact torque control. The Marine frequency converter system represents a new concept due to its uniform power range. The regulation and control properties of Marine frequency converters enable the use of the same type of frequency converters with all drives on board. Even hydraulically operated equipment may advantageously be replaced by Marine frequency converters and electric motors. This brochure will guide you through the majority of applications of Marine frequency converters on board a ship, pointing out the advantages of using them. It will present to you the properties of Marine frequency converters in given applications and suggest the corresponding solutions. At the same time, we will present the possibility of integrating Marine frequency converters in automation systems. Any frequency converter will by nature create distortions in the supply voltage and can thereby cause disturbances to other on-board equipment. We will present how to avoid such disturbances by the selective use of Marine frequency converter configurations and show the potential for improvements.

Technical Description for Marine frequency converters

AC motors controlled by Marine frequency converters
Marine frequency converter

Siemens Marine frequency converters

Frequency converter requirements vary with respect to functions, the required survey and the uniformity of control throughout the power range. The frequency converter should also be connectable to all system supply voltages. The new Marine frequency converter family from Siemens has been developed for the ship industry market and complies with all the associated requirements. The Marine frequency converters can also be delivered with rectifiers drawing a pure sine-shaped current, thereby reducing total harmonic distortion to less than 1 %. All frequency converters in the Marine design have the following properties: Frequency conversion using IGBT technology Uniform control philosophy Same type of control panel Identical electronic solutions and basic functions Identical connection of control functions Identical commissioning technique Open software for customized applications A function (a parametric number) given in one unit has the identical meaning in all other units found in the range. The same applies to the function of the signal terminals and their allocation. The same also applies to functions like diagnostic memory, trace and reaction to faults. All units react in the same way to control commands. This is an important advantage to you as user: if you know how to use one Marine converter, you know how to use them all. Marine frequency converters from Siemens is the first frequency converter system on the market covering all kind of applications with the same frequency converter philosophy. Here, the smallest units may be used for driving pumps and fans, while the larger units may drive transverse thrusters and motors for main propulsion. You will deal with only one concept with respect to operation and maintenance.

Frequency converters using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) inverter units provide the most favorable technical and economical solution for controlling AC motors. New IGBT transistor technology components favor AC motor drives. Highly integrated microelectronic components having powerful calculation capabilities and nearly unlimited storage possibilities make it possible to realize large and complex functions at low cost with small space requirements. The speed-controlled AC motor has been a major innovation in all branches of industry, and the rapid rate of innovation will cause a further increase in the need for such drive systems. The quality of a speed-controlled drive depends on the accuracy and the dynamic ability of the power exertion (the torque) to be transferred to the driven machine and also on how precisely the speed regulation can be controlled. Additionally, it is extremely important to achieve optimum efficiency and to minimize power consumption. Today, it is almost unthinkable to drive modern machinery without speed-controlled drives. Economical as well as technical conditions must be evaluated when investing in new motor drive technology. Disregarding the efficiency of the motor and the frequency converter, the load on the primary power source is the active power required by the working machinery at any time only. This will be the case even when the motor operates in the partially loaded area, i.e. with unity power factor against the mains. The onboard generators are not loaded with reactive power and do not need be dimensioned for this. The figure below shows the typical efficiency factor of a motor and a frequency converter throughout the speed range with a constant load torque at all speeds. Marine frequency converters use optimum Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) causing the connected motors to maintain a high efficiency and high torque utilization over the complete speed range.

The efficiency curve throughout the speed range for a Marine frequency converter controlled motor

100 90 80 70 60 Motor Converter Total

0 0 40 60 80 100 Speed n/nrated [%]

Large drives such as diesel-electric propulsion systems normally get their electrical power from three or more diesel engines. Here is a great potential for energy saving in using only the number of diesel engines needed for the desired propulsion and the other energy needs on board. Auxiliary diesel engines will no longer be needed and the planning of maintenance becomes easier. A diesel-electric propulsion system enables a more flexible and optimal positioning of the heavy and bulky components and will at the same time reduce the total requirement for area and space. Simultaneously, improved system planning will result in reduced service costs. Cooling water pumps and fans also represent a great energy saving potential since they are dimensioned according to classification requirements with respect to temperatures. The result is the use of excessive energy in pumping unnecessary volumes of air and water through the system. For much of the year, air and water temperatures are normally considerably lower than the criteria used as the basis for the classification requirements. Investment in Marine frequency converters with integrated temperature regulation will soon pay for itself. For other uses such as winches, thrusters, discharging pumps, etc., a Marine frequency converter-fed AC motor will exhibit better operational features than hydraulics. A Marine frequency converter will regulate the speed accurately and make the motor yield an exact pre-set torque. The rugged squirrel cage motor may be controlled to give a uniform torque from standstill to well beyond the rated speed. Speed-controlled motor drives have the following advantages: Lower investments Energy saving in the partial load range Low maintenance costs as wear of machinery and materials are saved by the controlled motor operation Less space in relation to hydraulic or diesel solutions Technically better process solutions: Improved operation reliability Less wear, less maintenance Simple monitoring and operation Fast and safe fault diagnosis Economically friendly operation

Diesel-electric propulsion of a luxury yacht

Overview of the Marine frequency converter operation

The task of the frequency converter is to convert the fixed frequency and voltage of the power supply (mains supply) to a variable frequency and voltage for feeding the motor. The speed of the motor will change linearly with the frequency. In order to exert an exact control of the motor torque, it is important to keep the ratio of voltage and frequency constant throughout the speed range of the motor, i.e. V/f ~ = constant; is the magnetization flux of the motor. The rectifier of the Marine frequency converter converts the AC supply voltage to a constant DC voltage, and the task of the AC inverter is to transform this DC voltage into a variable AC voltage. The Marine frequency converter performs this energy conversion in an almost loss-free way. The efficiency of the Marine frequency converters lies in the range of 9798 %. The power rectifier, consisting of diodes or thyristors, does this in a way to ensure that the current drawn from the supply is in phase with the supply voltage, i.e. the Marine frequency converter will only draw active power from the supply, i.e. almost unity power factor, and there is no need for reactive power. Ignoring the efficiency factor of the motor and the Marine frequency converter, the motor drive will only draw the active power at any time needed by the driven load. This also applies when the motor operates in the partial load range. The high efficiency of a speed-controlled squirrel cage motor throughout the speed range is superior compared with other forms of drives.

V 3AC 208 - 690 V 50/60 Hz Rectifier V DC link t Inverter V 3AC 0 - Vrated

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The construction of a pulse width modulated Marine frequency converter with power rectifier, intermediate circuit and AC converter

The Marine frequency converter's load on the power supply

The figure below shows the principle of a Marine frequency converter controlled motor drive. The two graphs show the current, voltage and power supplied to the motor or driven machine and corresponding conditions on the supply side as a function of the motor speed. The condition here is that the driven machine requires a constant torque T over the speed range. The physical relation between torque T and power P is T [Nm] = 9.55 . P [W] / n [rpm] We see from this that the output power P will increase linearly with the motor speed n when keeping the torque constant. Because the control system of the Marine frequency converter ensures that the motor operates with constant magnetization , the motor current will be directly proportional to the torque T, i.e. I [A] ~ . k . [Nm]. The condition for a constant magnetization is that the applied voltage V increases proportionally to the frequency f, i.e. V/f = constant = . The basic physical law stating that P is the product of voltage V and current I, i.e. P = V . I is evident from the diagrams.

Applications with Marine frequency converters

Marine frequency converter used in diesel-electric propulsion

For most types of vessels, a diesel-electric propulsion system is superior to a conventional diesel system with respect to technical, operational and economical aspects. The five most important aspects making a diesel-electric propulsion system attractive are: Reduced maintenance work Increased reliability Better maneuverability Improved environment Considerable saving in energy A diesel-electric propulsion system is normally equipped with two propellers and three or more generators, giving high availability. One or four propeller systems are also not uncommon depending on the type of vessel (e.g. for large ferries). A system of four diesel engines will normally be the most flexible system. The number of engines simultaneously in use will depend on the desired thrust and the speed of the propellers. This implies that the number of engines in operation will be restricted to the actual number needed for restoring the energy balance. The highest availability will be achieved when three diesel engines are in operation and the vessel can still maintain 90 % of its maximum speed. With a system of this kind, an auxiliary diesel engine is superfluous. This means that planned maintenance may be performed without jeopardizing system reliability. In large propulsion systems where Marine frequency converters use a three-winding front transformer, a special front feeding system is used for charging the DC link circuit of the Marine frequency converter. When using the Active Front End (AFE) as the feeding system, an input transformer is not applicable in case the line voltage is equal to the input voltage of the drive system. With this system, the harmonic distortion is not only extremely low (less than 1 %) but a power factor compensation of the power line is also possible.
Machine room with electrical motors each 3 MW

3AC 208 - 690 V 50/60 Hz Rectifier


Feeder side

Current I Power P Voltage V

DC link V P T I Motor side

nrated n [rpm] Voltage V Power P Torque T Current I


3AC 0 - Vrated

M ~

nrated n [rpm]

Power and current load on the mains and motor when operating a constant torque loaded motor through its speed range

Noting how the physical factors on the supply side of the converter changes as a function of the rotational speed when keeping the torque of the working machine constant, the absorbed power Pi from the power source must necessarily be identical with the output power of the motor Po when ignoring the efficiency. As the power voltage V is constant and the physical condition P = V . I must be met, the current I, which the Marine frequency converter draws from the power supply, will increase proportionally to the motor speed, even when the motor current I and the torque remain constant. These two currents will be identical only at the rated motor speed. From the given physical conditions, the current load will be very low at low speeds or at low loads. Starting a motor directly from the power source, the motor current will be 67 times the rated current. When using a Marine frequency converter, the source current will be only a fraction of the rated motor current. This means that the mains voltage drop caused by a Marine frequency converter-controlled motor, small or large, is negligible.

Advantages of diesel-electric propulsion systems Economically favorable

Diesel engine

Optimal fuel consumption of the diesel engine for generating electricity

G ~ G ~ G ~ G ~


Less sooting due to optimum operation with respect to rotational speed and load range High efficiency factor throughout the speed range Reduced maintenance cost due to increased service intervals caused by optimum operation time of the diesel engines Better conditions of maintenance planning Minimum downtime for maintenance and service Flexible use of generators

Main switchboard


Marine frequency converter

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Operational reliability Modular construction and redundant systems with a minimum of possibilities for total loss of propulsion Radical reduction of moving mechanical parts Experience through more decades with the used electrical components MTBF (Mean time between failure) is vastly improved using a diesel-electric system with fixed propeller instead of a conventional system with controllable pitch propeller Flexibility The modular construction of a diesel-electric propulsion system permits a flexible placement of onboard units: No long propeller shafts More practical location of diesel engines Reduced space and area requirements Flexibility in the choice of diesel engine speed Easier to make a sectioned engine room

Induction motor

A diesel-electric propulsion system with generators and two propulsion propellers

In conventional propulsion with variable diesel engine velocity, the specific fuel consumption varies with the speed of the engine (see figure on page 5). This can often be found in smaller ships, in which the velocity of the ship is not controlled by a pitch shift propeller but by the velocity of the engine. There is a point of optimum fuel consumption for one certain speed, which in this form of propulsion is not reached very often, as it relates to only one fixed velocity of the ship. Now using a variable speed drive with diesel-electric propulsion, the speed of the boat is neither regulated by the pitch shift propeller nor by the variation of the diesel engine velocity, but by the Marine frequency converter and the electric motor. Therefore, the main power plant of the ship, the diesel engine, can always run at the point of optimum fuel consumption. The effect: Less sooting of the diesel engine, thereby less maintenance. Smaller, high-speed diesel engines that have lower prices. Lower fuel consumption. In total: lower costs.
Fuel consumption in relation with speed

Propulsion room with one 736 kW motor for bow thruster and one 900 kW motor for a retractable azimuth propeller

Power [kW]

Torque [Nm]

Specific fuel consumption [g/kWh]





5000 6000 Speed [rpm]

Marine frequency converters for booster

Booster drives increase the main power propulsion of vessels by using an electric motor in combination with the main engine. They support the ship's diesel engine when accelerating, relieve it over the complete speed range, guarantee consistently high speeds and improve its efficiency. In the diagram below, you will find an overview of a booster drive system implemented in an electrical system.

For on-deck location, the motors must have a degree of IP56 heavy sea protection and must often have an explosion-proof design. Speed-controlled pump drives using Marine frequency converters provide much better flexibility, efficiency and noise level than hydraulically-driven pumps. Also pump-related special Technology software can be part of this solution for protection of the pump and a higher productivity of the total pump system. Marine frequency converters offer both speed and torque control and with AC motors of high thermal reserve, supreme flexibility can be achieved in a pump system of this kind. The figure shows the high torque obtained with Siemens AC motors used in conjunction with Marine frequency converters, even above the rated motor speed.
Constant flux range Field weakening range


M ~
Diesel engine Generator Torque T/Trated [%]

G ~

G ~

G ~

G ~

100 90 80 Utilization according to temperature class F Utilization according to temperature class B 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Frequency [Hz]

Main switchboard

70 60

Example of a booster drive system with 3 auxiliary generators

The Booster drive can operate in conditions such as: Main engine is out of order. This means that the propeller of the vessel is controlled over the Booster drive. In case the vessel is at crawl speed, the main engine can be switched off and propulsion power is delivered by the Booster drive. When the main engine is running at nominal power and the speed has to be increased. Highlights for this device are: Main engine and main generator can be smaller due to the fact that additional propulsion power can be supplied by the booster. Also the auxiliary generators will be used more optimally. Lower energy consumption especially in partial loads. Also fuel saving by switching off the main engine at crawl speed. Less maintenance due to the fact that auxiliary engines are running at optimal condition and main engine is not used at low speed where low power is applicable.

Typical torque utilization characteristic for a self-cooled squirrel-cage motor as a function of speed

AC-connected systems Input power to the Marine frequency converter feeding the cargo pumps comes from a circuit breaker via the main distribution board. Each cargo pump has its own Marine frequency converter and is individually controlled. The Marine frequency converters communicate with the automation system via conventional I/O signals or via serial communication channels, for instance PROFIBUS, Ethernet, and CAN-Bus. The Marine frequency converter may form part of the main switchboard or be mounted in separate cubicles or cabinet systems.
Cargo pumps with AC-connected system
Main switchboard 3AC 380 / 690 V, 50/60 Hz

Marine frequency converters for cargo pumps

In connection with transport of goods, we need equipment for loading and unloading ships. These are for example pump drives for oil tankers, chemical tankers or edible-oil tankers. As the Marine frequency converter system is of a modular construction, it is possible to customize pump concepts according to the number of pumps, their sizes and their simultaneity factor. The pump drives with associated electrical motors are either located in a pump room or longaxled pumps are used with their motors placed on deck.

AC Busbar

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M ~

M ~

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DC-connected system Especially where pumps are not to be simultaneously operated, it may be practical to allow the Marine frequency converters to be fed from the main switchboard via two rectifiers or Active Front End. The rectifiers or Active Front End in turn feed each converter via a DC busbar. The dimensioning of the rectifiers should be based on the simultaneity factor of the pumps, and not on the totally installed pumping power. The advantage of such a system is that the total dimensions of the main switchboard including the Marine frequency converters are optimized.
Main switchboard 3AC 380 / 690 V, 50/60 Hz

Main switchboard 3AC 380 / 690 V, 50/60 Hz

M ~

M ~

M ~

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DC Busbar

Block diagram of a pump drive system by means of cross connection

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An interconnection between each low voltage drive system is also available for maximum availability of the pump system. In case a Marine frequency converter is out of order, an interconnection can be made to the other one to ensure that the tanks can be unloaded. Thereby you guarantee maximum availability of the pump system. All contactors (output and interconnection) and pumprelated Technology software are controlled by the Marine frequency converter itself by using the PLC and process functionality inside the low voltage drive system and a connection to the automation system is also possible.

Cargo pumps with DC-connected system

AC-connected low-voltage drives in cross connection One Marine frequency converter is feeding a combination of cargo pumps but is controlled individually. The power of the Marine frequency converter depends on the power of the pumps, the amount of pumps which can be in operation and if it is necessary to start a pump on a running converter. It is also possible for example to control two different types of motor power ratings on one Marine frequency converter by means of selection in the Marine frequency converter. All contactors (output and interconnection) and pumprelated Technology software are controlled by the Marine frequency converter itself by using the PLC and process functionality inside the low voltage drive system. Furthermore, a connection to the automation system is possible. For maximum availability of the pump drive system, an emergency control is available in front of the low voltage drive cubicle. With this solution, an unloading of the tanks is still possible in case the overall automation system is out of order.

Cabinet of cargo pump


Operator desk

Main switchboard 3AC 380 / 690 V, 50/60 Hz

Touch panel

Remote access Interface connection I/O or serial communication

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Block diagram of a pump drive system by means of a matrix connection

AC-connected system in matrix connection The output of each low-voltage drive Marine frequency converter is connected to a contactor matrix. All low-voltage drive converters are controlled over PROFIBUS by a SIMATIC PLC system which controls: The contactors in the matrix by distributed I/O modules. On the touch-screen mounted in front of the converter drive system information on the status of the system as well as an emerging mode can be selected. Interface connection to the overall automation system (for example cargo computer) by I/O signals or of a serial communication link, for instance PROFIBUS, CAN-Bus and Ethernet. Interface connection by I/O or serial communication with operator panel. Interface connection by serial communication with touch panel. Faster diagnosis, shorter downtime, reduced maintenance cost by using remote access. Easy upgrading or adding of supplementary services. The matrix combination provides maximum flexibility and availability.

Marine frequency converters for winches

Windlasses, mooring winches, etc. have until now mostly been equipped with hydraulic or pole changing motor drive systems. Winches using squirrel cage motors and Marine frequency converters have improved operational features and a simplified total concept. The robust squirrel cage motor provides a standstill torque twice the rated torque, and at the same time, the maximum speed of rotation is 2 to 4 times the rated value. Winch drives using Marine frequency converters will exhibit improved control and optional features using Marine frequency converters with Vector Control since the exact control of speed and torque from n = 0 throughout the total speed range is guaranteed. For most winches, the Marine frequency converter will be equipped with the technology board fitted with an application-oriented software. Among other things, the technology board takes care of all the superior speed and torque control as well as of the control of the holding brakes. It also continuously supervises the brake momentum versus the desired rotational speed.


LV Switchgear Emergency Stop Frequency converter Winch interface Electric motors PROFIBUS Motor interface Windlass control system


Principal sketch of a winch control (Winch)

Windlasses on a Hopper dredger 300 kW

With Marine frequency converters, electrical braking can be performed as follows: The electrical braking energy is fed back to the mains. The precondition is that the mains is able to receive the superfluous electrical energy, i.e. other heavy loads must be connected. The electrical braking energy is absorbed by a brake resistor. With braking of long duration, this will lead to a lot of heat being dissipated from the resistor, requiring more space than the previous braking option.

In conjunction with Marine frequency converters, the controllability requirements for winches are analogous to those for cranes, be it grab cranes or container cranes. On a crane, there are often many motor drives, like for instance for the main hoist, an auxiliary hoist, gantry movements and transverse movements. Considering power load and the simultaneity factors, the most compact configuration of the Marine frequency converter system would be to use a common mains rectifier feeding all converters via a DC busbar. The rectifier may well be of the feedback-of brake-energy type or with a common brake chopper mounted on the DC busbar. The DC busbar will then work as an energy smoothing connection.

Marine frequency converters for thrusters

Warp speed [%] 200 Electric drive 150

Bow Thrusters have until now mostly been equipped with hydraulic systems. This hydraulic system contains a fixed speed motor driving the thruster with a fixed speed, the water flow itself is controlled by changing the pitch of the propeller through the hydraulic system.

100 Hydraulic drive


0 0 50 100 160 Torque [%]

With the Marine frequency converters, the speed of the thruster can be changed in a wide range where the pitch is fixed. In other words, the water flow by the thruster is controlled by the speed of the motor. The complete control of the thruster is part of the Marine frequency converter. For the steer able thruster, the Marine frequency converter is also an optimal solution. Both movements (rotating and speed control of the thrusters) can be controlled by the drive.

Comparison between features of hydraulic drives and Marine frequency converter controlled motor by winch application


Marine frequency converters in fans and cooling systems

On board most ships, there are a great number of pumps serving multiple purposes. Cooling water pumps are especially dimensioned to have their rated capacity at a water temperature of 32 C or 38 C. When operating in cooler seas, this means that unnecessary high volumes of cooling water are pumped through the systems, resulting in high cost of energy and wear of the mechanical equipment. Vessels used for instance for transporting fruit require very stable temperatures. In passing through climatic zones with changing temperature conditions, a Marine frequency converter controlled cooling system will ensure constant storage room temperature. On board passenger and cruise vessels, considerable energy is used for ventilation and air conditioning. Day cycles and changing environmental temperatures mean the motor power requirement for systems of this kind will undergo large variations. With temperature control, only the required motor power will be used to maintain the desired temperature. For supply vessels, the ballast pumps, cargo pumps for fuel, brine and mud, etc. are installed with speed regulation using Marine frequency converters. The use of Marine frequency converters in regulating engine room temperature has also proved to provide great savings in energy. Most pump and fan systems pay for themselves within a couple of months of operation through energy saving. The operational advantages of reduced wear and maintenance come in addition to this. The first figure above shows the principal conditions in a temperature-controlled pump. The temperature behind the pump is measured using a transducer giving a 420 mA output signal. The Marine frequency converters have integrated PID regulators which may be used for controlling temperature, volume, pressure levels, etc. In the given figure, the desired temperature is entered as a 010 V, 020 mA or 420 mA signal. The Marine frequency converter controller will cause the AC motor to rotate at the speed needed to achieve the desired temperature.

Required temperature 4 - 20 mA PID Temperature signal 4 - 20 mA

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Temperature regulation of a pump with Marine frequency converter

Required pressure 4 - 20 mA PID Measured pressure 4 - 20 mA

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Pump control with Marine frequency converter, pumps working in parallel with only one speed-controlled machine

For two or more pumps or compressors working in parallel, only one machine will actually have to be speed-controlled whereas the others may be directly engaged or disengaged from the mains. In such cases, the Marine frequency converters are equipped with application software. This software completely controls and supervises both the Marine frequency converters and the pumps operated directly from the mains. When the Marine frequency converter operates its controlled motor at maximum speed and there is a need for a still higher volume or pressure, the Marine frequency converter will switch the next motor directly on line. The Marine frequency converter will now automatically reduce the speed of its controlled motor during the acceleration process of the directly engaged motor, thus preventing pressure jolts and oscillations in the piping system.

Supply vessel converter drives for cargo pumps, seawater cooling pumps and ventilation on board


Marine frequency converters for other applications

The Marine frequency converter drives can also be used for other applications such as cranes and conveyor belts. Especially where speed or torque-controlled drives are necessary, the marine drives are at their best. With the open software functionality, customized applications can be easily adapted in the Marine frequency converter by using this open software.

Main switchboard 3AC 380 / 690 V, 50/60 Hz

DC Busbar

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Main lift

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Braking chopper

Principal sketch of a Marine frequency converter for a crane


Energy saving
Within the ship industry, fuel consumption is an important part of operational costs. Especially when oil prices are rising, the fuel consumption of the vessel will get a more important priority within these costs. Energy saving is then an attractive way to reduce the fuel costs of a vessel. With Siemens Marine frequency converters, a substantial amount of energy can be saved, especially in partial loads at pumps and fans. Shown below is a comparison between pump operation with throttle valve control and with variable speed control. Pump characteristic with throttle valve control The pump can deliver the amount of energy E given by the pump characteristic (blue) while the plant (i.e. cooling or heating circuit) needs only the energy shown by the plant characteristic (red). The energy difference (red arrows) has to be throttled away = wasted. The energy consumption at the input is approx. the same, throttle valve means mechanical control at the output.

Other Issues
Pump head H [m] 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 100 200 300 400

500 600 Flow Q [m3/h] n = nA n1 < nA n2 < n1 n3 < n2 n4 < n3

Operation point Q = 400 m3/h at 150 m Qmax = 450 m3/h Available power in operation point *) To despense (throttle away) 210 - 50 = 160 m!

Throttle valve control along pump characteristic (blue)

Energy E / Pump head H

Pump characteristic with speed control The pump can due to variable speed n which means variable/controlled flow Q deliver the amount of energy E which is in every moment necessary in the process/plant. No energy difference has to be wasted. The energy consumption E at the input follows the speed control, i.e. it decreases with the speed reduction. Speed control means electrical control at the input.

n = nA

Power P

Flow Q

n = nA

Energy E / Pump head H



Qmax Flow Q

Legend Blue: pump characteristic Red: process characteristic

Red arrows: energy throttled away Black: power consumption

The following graph shows the pump characteristic (blue) and the various regimes of the plant/process (red), regimes achieved using the throttle valve control. The energy waste is materialized by the pump head difference which is not used. Example: necessary flow 200 m3/h: necessary Q = 200 m3/h at 50 m (equiv. potential energy), but the pump can give 200 m3/h at 210 m (equiv. potential energy), results 210 50 = 160 m wasted pump head, in other words this means 160 m wasted equiv. potential energy (see graph right above).

Power P n

Flow Q

QA Qmax

Flow Q

Legend Blue: pump characteristic Red: process characteristic Black below: power consumption at various speeds


Pump head H [m] 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 Flow Q [m3/h] 600 n

To limit the interference emissions of Marine frequency converters, the following measures have to be taken: Interference suppression filters to limit conducted emissions. The Marine frequency converters are equipped with filter components to reduce the conducted emissions according to the standard EN 61800-3 for Industrial Environment and in accordance with the specifications of the ship classification societies like DNV, GL, LR, ABS and BV. Shielded motor cables to reduce radiated emissions. This precaution has to be taken when installing the drive system. Compliance with the installation guidelines. This part is delivered together with the operating instructions of a Marine frequency converter. To ensure the immunity of Marine frequency converters, the following measures have to be taken: Shielded signal cables to protect the wires connected to the controller against electromagnetic interference. This precaution has to be taken when installing the drive system.

Speed control: along plant/process characteristic (red)

Siemens Marine can support you with the calculation of the amount of energy saved see graph below:

Electrical power Pel [kW] 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Operation point Q = 400 m3/h at 150 m Qmax = 450 m3/h Available power in operation point Flow Q [m3/h]

Compliance with the installation guidelines. This part is delivered together with the operating instructions of a Marine frequency converter. When all these measures are taken, the Marine converters are operating reliably without interfering with other equipment in the same environment.

The shaded area represents the energy saved due to the variable speed i.e. speed control Black: energy consumption with throttle valve control Red: energy consumption with speed control

The same effect will be with application with a constant torque characteristic such as reciprocal compressors.

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)

The electromagnetic compatibility according to the definition of the EMC directive defines the capability of a device to operate satisfactorily in an electromagnetic environment without itself causing electromagnetic interferences which would be unacceptable for other electrical devices in this environment. In order to ensure that the relevant EMC standards are complied with, interference emissions must be limited to compatible values on the one hand, and the devices must achieve a sufficient level of immunity on the other hand. Marine frequency converters are producing electromagnetic emissions in their power sections by switching on and off high electrical voltage very fast. This creates emissions which are conducted to the environment by the connected power cables and radiated to the environment by air. These emissions must be limited. The controller and other electronic components of Marine frequency converters consist of very sensitive electronic devices which must be protected against electromagnetic interference.


Harmonic currents and tuned filter circuits

All power electronic units where diodes and thyristors are used will cause distortion of the mains voltage. Thyristor rectifiers will in addition cause considerable inductive reactive currents. The rectifier current consists of a multitude of sine-shaped currents, a basic frequency component and a lot of harmonic currents of frequencies several times that of the mains frequency. The network impedance will cause all these currents to generate voltages superimposed on the fundamental sinusoidal wave form of the mains. This leads to distortion of the mains voltage which may give rise to mains faults and fall-out of other subscribers. The mains rectifier loads the network with the basic frequency I1 and returns to the network (power line) currents with harmonic numbers v + 1, k = 1, 2, 3, ... v=6.k
Uphase IL

Medium voltage network Transformer Low voltage network

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Tuned filter circuit

Absorption of harmonic currents in filter circuits

As seen from the figure, the capacitance and inductance play crucial parts in the reduction of harmonics. This means that to avoid resonance, the inductivity of the network is important in the dimensioning of the filter circuits. The number of generators in operation will change the network inductivity, i.e. the short-circuit reactance of the network and the filter circuits must be dimensioned to cater for such operational situations as well.

Harmonic distortion of mains supply

I(5) I(7) I(1)

All mains rectifiers used in DC and AC motor drives equipped with diodes and thyristors have the characteristic of drawing non-sinusoidal current form the mains. Consumption of this kind will thereby distort the mains voltage. The degree of distortion is known as the Distortion Factor (DF) The classification companies often require that THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) must be less than 5 %, which must be taken into account when choosing a drive concept. The higher the total Marine frequency converter power is relative to the generator power and its short-circuit power, the higher the distortion of the mains voltage. A network with high voltage distortion might damage other network components and lead to unexplainable fall-outs. Marine frequency converters for small and medium power outputs are designed with so called 6-pulse mains rectifiers, i.e. with 6 diodes or thyristors used in the rectifier. The figure gives the current drain from a generator supply of a 6-pulse frequency converter, and also shows how this distorts the mains voltage. If such concepts are used for large consumers, the main source distortion may amount to something like 20 to 30 %.

Decomposition of the rectifier current into basic and harmonic components

The filter circuits may be connected directly to the low voltage side to keep higher harmonic currents away from the mains network. The filter circuits consist of capacitors in series with a coil (inductor). The resonance circuits are tuned to give approximately zero resistance to each of the harmonic components. Thus, the major parts of the harmonic currents are absorbed by the filter circuits. Only tiny parts of the unwanted currents will return to the mains network, causing only a negligible distortion of the mains voltage. As seen from the mains (50 Hz or 60 Hz), the filter will appear as a capacitive impedance. This means that the filter circuits will not only absorb the harmonics but also conduct capacitive currents. They will therefore additionally act as reactive compensation for the complete network. With filter circuits, the harmonic currents may be reduced to a maximum of up to 90 %. Sensitive equipment of other types may not be connected to the network unless separated by a transformer.


For higher motor powers (as seen in relation to the generator capacity), the Marine frequency converters should be constructed with a 12-pulse rectifier, i.e. 2 times 6-pulse mains rectifiers connected to a separate supply system via a three-winding transformer. The transformer output (Dy5Dd0) group is arranged to give a 30 electrical phase shift between the two secondary winding systems. The connection to the pre-connected mains circuit will in this case result in a reduction of the mains voltage distortion. With two such Marine frequency converter drives, the connection groups of the two transformers may be 15 phase shifted relative to each other. We have then obtained a so-called 24-pulse connection to the mains; however, in order to obtain the full reduction of the harmonic distortion, it is a condition that the two motor drive system are equally loaded. With their Marine frequency converters, Siemens is having a complete type range of mains rectifiers using transistor technology (IGBT). In construction, this rectifier is identical to the frequency inverter. The advantage of transistors is their ability to be turned on and off. The Marine Active Front End mains rectifiers are controlled in a way to draw an undistorted sine-shaped current from the mains. This means that the power factor is exactly equal to 1. However, the Active Front End rectifier may be parameterized if the power factor is required to deviate from 1. The value of the power factor may be parameterized to be either capacitive or inductive. This means that Marine frequency converters with Active Front End mains rectifiers may take over the task of the generator to supply reactive power to inductive loads like for instance motors directly connected to the mains. The voltage distortion from an Active Front End is below 2 %, which means that the distortion is not visible in the oscilloscope picture. For vessels with an amount of large consumers relative to the generator power at its maximum, the Active Front End is the ideal solution. This is true both with respect to price and space requirements, and the resulting low network distortion. The use of an Active Front End will make a clean power machine superfluous, e.g. a rotating or static converter.

Marine frequency with three possibilities for Bus communication

The digitalization of control and regulation facilities provides potentials for new possibilities. Marine frequency converters may be connected to automation systems via serial interfaces and data bus systems. Parameters from Marine frequency converters may then be exchanged with those from an automation system for process control (scale values, actual values, commands and messages), for process adaptation (control set points, choice of curve characteristics) and for service cases (stored fault messages, times of operation, measured and calculated process parameters). The quality of the data interface, the structure and content of parameters as well as the operational and service philosophy form parts of the essential quality properties of a speed-controlled motor drive.

Communication with PROFIBUS

Marine frequency converters may be connected to the PROFIBUS system standardized by DIN 19245. Other components are also available, like actuators, valves and sensors connectable to the PROFIBUS standardized bus system. All information previously connected to the Marine frequency converter via the conventional I/O terminal block may now be transferred via the bus system on a two-wire cable. The automation system delivers its commands and scale values through the cable in the form of telegrams. Status reports and actual values run in the opposite direction for possible presentation on a screen-based control system. PROFIBUS guarantees a quick and safe data transmission using the Master-Slave principle. The high transmission rate of 1.5 Mbit/sec and the short reaction time enables transmission periods of less than 1 ms to and from the automation system (the master) for instance connected to a Marine frequency converter (a slave).

Communication between drives by Siemens DRIVE-CLiQ

When operating cranes and winches where one motor drive is mutually dependent on the operation of other drives, much equipment and planning may be saved by letting the motor drives communicate directly with each other. This fast connection may convey information of changes in both speed and torque to the other motor drives. The signaling between drives is extremely fast due to the fact of the Ethernet communication. This fast communication may be made with or without PROFIBUS. When PROFIBUS is used, non-time-critical information can be handled over this communication net, the time-critical information over the DRIVE-CLiQ bus. In this way, more time-critical information can be handled.

The principal construction of Marine frequency converters as 6-pulse, 12-pulse and as Active Front End with the associated network current loads
6-pulse rectifier 12-pulse rectifier Active Front End

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Commissioning and service with a Personal computer

For the Marine frequency converters powerful service tools are available. STARTER is a tailor-made visualization program for commissioning and service, creating figures and text to aid you safely through implementation. Having put the Marine frequency converter into service, STARTER may be used for easy adjustments of parameters and functions. Having commissioned or made the necessary changes in parameters, the complete content of the Marine frequency converter parameter memory may be stored in a PC. This will be a safe back-up and may come in useful when the day comes for replacing the Marine frequency converter or its control board. You will then only have to transfer the complete set of stored parameter data from the PC. STARTER also has an oscilloscope function where up to six physical values, for instance current, rotational speed, torque, etc. may be simultaneously measured on the PC.

The dynamic load limitation system will continuously adapt and limit the power consumption to the generators' maximum load. Enabling the complete electric system, and particularly the generators, to be run according to their nominal loads, no other control system is needed to ensure the reliability of the power supply on board. If one diesel generator has an unexpected sudden shutdown, the DLL system will immediately react. The power consumption of the heavy consumer system will, within 160 ms, be reduced and kept within the nominal load limits for the remaining generators. The dynamic load limitation system is so fast that a black-out is avoided. The dynamic load limitation system is an option in the Marine frequency converter and is independent of the Power Management System (PMS).

Dynamic load limitation (DLL)

Siemens philosophy is that a heavy load drive system with its generators, main switchboards, Marine frequency converters and motors is one system even with respect to dynamic load changes. Due to the largest consumers, it is of vital importance that this consumer is not able to overload the generator, or in a worst-case scenario, cause a black-out in the electric system. Such a large consumer with Marine frequency converters can be equipped with a dynamic load limitation system. This is a control system which continuously limits the power consumption of the heavy consumer drive according to the actual, available generator capacity. In case of electric propulsion and the dynamic load limitation option, the Marine frequency converters are also adapted to the dynamic behavior of the propeller. The Marine frequency converters ensure that the power oscillation of the propellers in heavy sea does not result in power oscillations in the generators and on the main bus. All these important characteristics of the Marine frequency converters and the dynamic load limitation system enable the heavy consumer drive to act as a small consumer in the ship's electric system.

Royal Carribean International: Radiance of the Seas

Load [%] 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 50 100 Load on generators Drive output power 150 200 250 300 350 Time [ms]

Dynamic load limitation: Power reduction of the drive when available generator power is suddenly reduced by 50 %



Royal Carribean International: Radiance of the Seas

The main customer benefits and important characteristics of the Marine frequency converter are: Easy to order, order specific documentation, fast logistics and worldwide service Universal operation, Engineering and Service of the equipment PROFIBUS Interface for easy implementation in higher-ranking automation systems Easy integration into existing installations, compact with small erection area needed Low noise level Standard and compact cabinet in IP22 and IP54 in air and water cooling Easy commissioning, for standard applications only few parameters have to be adjusted Easy operation through menu-guided control panel with graphic-supported plain text display Excellent serviceability Special security concept for protection against unintentional or unauthorized calibration changes Encoder-free Vector Control for robust and reliable operation

Siemens AG Automation and Drives Large Drives, Marine Equipment Postfach 47 43 90441 NRNBERG FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY Tel. +49 911 433 9516 Fax +49 911 433 9751

The information provided in this brochure contains merely general descriptions or characteristics of performance which in actual case of use do not always apply as described or which may change as a result of further development of the products. An obligation to provide the respective characteristics shall only exist if expressly agreed in the terms of contract. Order No.: 6ZB5731-0AB02-0BA0 Printed in the Federal Republic of Germany 18402/522275 Vog 1104 0.5