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Tutorial 1

SCI1301

1. Vector A has components Ax=1.30 cm and Ay= 2.25 cm; vector B has components Bx=4.10 cm, By=-3.75 cm. Find a) The components of the vector sum A+B b) the magnitude and direction of A+B c) The components of the vector B-A d) The magnitude and direction of B-A. Ans: a) 5.40 cm, -1.50 cm, b) 5.60 cm, -15.5o, c) 2.80 cm, -6 cm, d) 6.62 cm, 64.98o

2. Find the vector product A B where 3.00 y A 4.00 x 2.00 y B 5.00 x What is the magnitude of the vector product?
Ans : 23

3. An egg is thrown vertically upward from a point near the cornice of a tall building. It just misses the cornice on the way down and passes a point 50 m below its starting point 5.0 s after it leaves the throwers hand. Ignore air resistance. a. What is the initial speed of the egg? b. How high does it rise above its starting point? c. What is the magnitude of its velocity at its highest point? d. What are the magnitude and direction of its acceleration at the highest point? Ans: a) 14.5 m/s, b) 10.7 m, c) 0, d) 9.8 m/s2

4. The table shows the variation with time t of the distance s travelled by an aircraft as it starts moving along a runway. t/s s/m 0 0 1 1 2 6 3 17 4 37 5 67

a) State, giving your reasons, (i) Whether the speed of the aircraft is increasing, decreasing or remaining constant. (ii) Whether the acceleration of the aircraft is increasing, decreasing or remaining constant.

Tutorial 1

SCI1301

b) A parachutist falls from an aircraft which is flying horizontally. The parachute opens some time after the start of the fall. (i) State why the initial acceleration of the parachutist is approximately 10m/s2. (ii) State and explain what happens to the vertical speed of the parachutist after the parachute opens. 5. A train initially at rest accelerates and moves along a straight horizontal track. a) With the help of a sketch, show how the displacement of the train varies with time. Explain how the instantaneous velocity is obtained from the graph. (b) A cricketer throws a ball vertically upwards and catches it 3.0 seconds later. Neglecting air resistance, calculate the following: (i) the time which the ball reaches the maximum height; (Ans: 1.5 s) (ii) the speed with which the ball leaves his hands; (Ans: 14.7 ms-1) (iii) the maximum height reached. (Ans: 11.025 m) (Take g to be 9.8 m/s2) (c) Sketch a graph to show how the velocity of the ball in (b) above depends on time during its flight. Mark on your graph the time at which: 1. the ball leaves the cricketers hands (t1) 2. it comes to the maximum height (t2) 3. it reaches his hands again (t3) 6. (a) (i) Define the following terms and state their corresponding SI units: 1. Force 2. Kinetic Energy 3. Pressure 4. Power (ii) Hence express the SI units of the physical quantities in (a) above in terms of base units. (Ans: 1. Kgms-2, 2. Kgm2s-2, 3. Kgm-1s-2, 4. Kgm2s-3) (b) A ball is thrown from the horizontal ground with an initial velocity of 15 ms-1 at an angle of 25 to the horizontal. Assuming no air resistance, calculate the following: (i) the maximum height; (Ans: 2 m) (ii) the time of flight, and (Ans: 1.27 s) (iii) the maximum horizontal distance reached by the ball (Ans: 17.24 m) (Take g to be 10 m/s2) 7. (a) (i) With the help of an example explain what is meant by derived units. (ii) State any five basic quantities and their corresponding SI units.

Tutorial 1

SCI1301

(b) (i) Explain what is meant by the following terms and identify clearly which one are scalar and vector quantities: 1. Acceleration 2. Velocity (c) (i) Figure 1 below defines the motion of a golf ball during a projectile motion. A u O R
Figure 1

H B

Use the equations of motion to derive expressions for the following: 1. Maximum height (H), at position A 2. Time of flight (T), to travel from O to B 3. Range (R) from O to B where u is the initial velocity and is the angle of projection. Take g to be the acceleration due to gravity. (ii) Using the equations from c(i) above, show that the maximum range can only be achieved when = 45. 8. (a) Figure 2 below shows the speed-time graph of two buses A and B travelling in the same direction. Bus A overtakes bus B at time t = 0 as shown on the graph.

Figure 2 In order to catch up with bus A, bus B accelerates uniformly for 15 seconds until it reaches a constant speed of 25 m/s. (i) What is the distance travelled by bus A during the first 15 s? (Ans: 300 m) (ii) Find the acceleration of bus B during the first 15 s. (Ans: 300 m)

Tutorial 1

SCI1301

(iii) What is the distance travelled by bus B at t = 15 s? (Ans: 262.5 m) (iv) How far is bus A ahead of bus B at t = 15 s? (Ans: 37.5 m) (v) What additional time from t = 15 s will it take bus B to just overtake bus A? (Ans: 1.5 s) (vi) By then, what will be the distance travelled by each bus since t = 0 s? (Ans: 330 m, 300 m) (vii) Find the time taken from t = 0 s for the two buses to attain the same speed. (Ans: 10 s) (b) (i) Quantities in physics are classified as basic and derived. State three examples of each and give their corresponding units in S.I. (ii) Define a scalar quantity and a vector quantity giving 3 examples of each quantity. (iii) A ball is thrown vertically upwards from the ground with an initial velocity u. The time taken by the ball to reach a height h is T1. The ball then takes a further time of T2 to return to the ground. Find in terms of T1 , T2 and g (acceleration due to gravity), (a) the initial velocity u , (b) the height h (c) the maximum height H reached by the ball. (c) A helicopter, flying in a straight line at a constant height of 500 m with a speed of 75 metres per second, drops an object. The object takes a time T to reach the ground and travels a horizontal distance D in doing so. Taking acceleration due to gravity g = 10 ms-2 and ignoring air resistance, what are the values of T and D? (Ans: T= 5 s, D=279.5 m)