IniuerattH Sjihtary
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Cornell University Library

PE 1139.P17
English intonation

systematic exerc

3 1924 027 389 935

There are no known copyright restrictions in text.Cornell University Library The tine original of tiiis book is in Cornell University . the United States on the use of the http://www.archive.


LONDON agents: SIMPKIN.. HAMILTON. MARSHALL. KENT AND CO. First Edition Second Edition 1922 1924 . LTD.

" etc. "C'est le ton qui fait la chanson.. Author of *'A Grammar of Spoken English. Late Lecturer in Spoken English." CAMBRIDGE W. London.ENGLISH INTONATION WITH SYSTEMATIC EXERCISES BY Harold E. 1924 PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN . Palmer Linguistic Adviser to the Japanese Department of Education. University College. HEFFER & SONS LTD. etc.


4. in order that tonetic texts may be produced inexpensively and abundantly for the use of teachers and students. object of this book is fourfold: To place on record a characteristic collection of the tones and in the speech of tone-compounds as observed 2. To set forth a simple yet adequate system of tonetic notation. most Southern English people in ordinary conversation. It may be no more than a personal opinion of mine. I base this opinion on psychological grounds. Systematic exercises in pronunciation have the effect of causing students to observe the sounds of the language. pronunciation and intonation. . The successful mastery of a language depends on how successfully the student can imitate the models 3.Preface The 1. I have more especially designed it for the use of foreign students of spoken English. Mimicry is the most potent factor in the study of foreign languages (whether spoken or written). To suggest a scheme of classification and terminology by which these tones and tone-compounds may be divided into classes according to their degree of resemblance or difference. To formulate in a series of laws or rules the facts which have so been discovered concerning the relation between tones and meanings. systematic exercises in intonation have the effect of causing students to observe the tones of the language. No one who wishes to use the EngUsh language in the manner of English speakers can any more ignore the phenomena of its intonation than he can ignore the phenomena of its pronunciation. similarly. The general utility of the book can be gathered by reference to the four objects for which it has been composed. are so bound up with each other that it is futile to teach or to leam one without the other. but I am convinced that the two things. far which serve as his standard.

And yet a teacher of intonation cannot do efficient work if he is ignorant of the nature (nay. As I have already mentioned. for he and to reproduce tone-differences wUl thereby be enabled to recognise. the reader wiU notice the ease with which one can read and write sentences intoned in a number of various ways. referring to the tonetic transcriptions in Part XII. but to teach foreigners to pronounce EngUsh without teaching them to intone it is an unbalanced procedure." intoned as the English as remarkable (not to say laughable) as the converse effect. " Je ne "I did not see him yesterday. Furthermore. the EngUsh student of Chinese and other "tonelanguages" will find his work greatly facilitated by a conscious knowledge of his own PREFACE This book should be of equal (or even greater) service to teachers of spoken EngUsh. of the very existence) of the tones of the language he is teaching. The effect French sentence. A teacher of pronunciation cannot do efficient work if he is ignorant of the nature (nay. of the ver}' existence) of the sounds of the language he is teaching. This book may be of interest to the Enghsh-speaking person whose intonation differs from that here recorded." I'ai is pas vu hier. A By ready knowledge of the characteristic intonations of EngUsh. I have confined my attention to the study of that of the natives of England. for it will enable him to become his familiar with the main features of other types of intonation than own. distinguish which elude the ear and the mimetic capacities of one without such knowledge. of this book. The pronunciation used in these exercises is in general conformity with that given in Professor Jones' EngUsh Pronouncing Dictionary. facilitate the together with the possibility of reading and writing tonetic transcriptions. of the only to put him on his guard against speaking such languages with his native intonation. The study of English intonation should if be of great utility to the English student of foreign languages. Scope. must enormously work of teachers and students of diction. system of intonation which is generally used by most I have taken the data afforded by the .

PREFACE pioneers of tonetic research^. I have endeavoured above all to express myself in a clear and simple manner. — . Klinghardt (various works). graded and arranged in their order of importance. some years with a view to making a contribution to the literature of the subject. Head and Tail is my own. The reader will find. and the results seem to justify it. \ — (2) _ _ I can see him. . and proceeding from the simple and fundamental to the complex and particular. the great significative differences between (i) I can see him. introducing each element and aspect of the subject in the most appropriate place. In the absence of a special semantic terminology expressing what are even fundamental aspects of meaning. Where I am unable to explain a given phenomenon categorically. — . I do so tentatively. H. No can ascertain) to express. for instance. O. in certain aspects. adequate terms exist (so far as I I and experimented have to content myself with desig- nating some of the tone-functions in a circumlocutory manner. (3) I can see him. the four groups of tones which seem to stand out distinctly both in form and in function. ' I am particularly indebted to Mr. collected voluminious data of for vii my own . As the subject is one which is likely to be unfamiliar to the majority of my readers. The conception of Nucleus. I have more especially endeavoured to set forth the basic principles of our tone-usage. In the following pages I describe the method of approach by which I have obtained these results. to also Intonation Curves Phonetics Teubner Mr H. I have used this system in actual teaching. Coleman (Intonation and Emphasis Professor Daniel Jones (Outline of English International Phonetic Association) Teubner) and.

and that its difficulties are such that few foreign students are likely to speak as Enghsh natives do until they have trained themselves to observe and to reproduce what they hear. but suggest them with diffidence. is the fact that we all recognize immediately and without effort each of the attitudes associated with the tones. and we realize them and invariably observe them in actual conversation. however. we express or conceal our thoughts by choosing the tone or tone-compound most Ukely to serve otir purpose. And aU this we do with such complete unconsciousness that most of us are ready to assert either that we have no tone-system in English. part xii. . do wish to emphasize. This last consideration is the chief function of these Systematic Exercises in English Intonation." Great as these differences are. or that our tone-system is so elementary that no dif&culty can possibly be experienced by any I What foreign student in "picking it up." The contents of this book may convince those who are not already convinced that we have in English a most remarkable series of significative tones. or that we have tones but no system. we feel that no existing semantic terms are adequate to describe them. And this is only one case out of many. a different attitude towards the person addressed.^ In some cases I suggest appropriate terms. each of the three sentence strongly as may constitute a contradiction to or a denial of the "You can't see him.viii PREFACE The difference between these three modes of strong assertion is so great that no native English speaker would ever use one for the other: we aU feel that each expresses a different sort of assertion. we use them and respond to them. that it constitutes a distinct and coherent system. • See the alternatives and variants given in the pages devoted to tonetic transcription of texts. But they are aU assertions. being only too well aware that such terms may not evoke in the reader's mind the particular significance which I wish them to convey.

18-21 [/] [1*] [-j] .. .. Tone-Group 4...38-41 ..22-25 SECTION V.. Hints for Teachers and Students First Definitions III. One-Syllable "Heads... : Inferior Head Head Superior Head Superior Head Inferior Head Inferior [ [ — — — — — ^J . Tone-Group3. The "Tail..58-61 SuperiorHead %] ScandentHead ["^-^l .10-13 ... i] /] 1^] ...26-29 ." Rules : Exercises Tone-Group I Intensified Tone-Group i Tone-Group 2 Tone-Group3 Tone-Group4 [\] ['>] . Tone-Group i Tone-Group i.54-57 .50-53 .30-33 .Table of Contents EXERCISES PREFACE KEY TO PHONETIC SYMBOLS SECTION I...46-49 Head [ [ .. Introduction A Few SECTION SECTION II. The "Nucleus" Rules 1-5 Exercises SECTION IV.. Intensified Tone-Group I... Intensified Tone-Group 2 Tone-Group 2." Rules Exercises Tone-Group I. Tone-Group 3..42-45 SuperiorHead Inferior .. .6-9 .14-17 .... 34-37 [ [ [ . '\] [ >] '\] .

3. i. i. 2. i. 3.— TABLE OF CONTENTS EXERCISES SECTION VI. 3." Exercises Tone -Group Intensified Tone-Group Tone-Group Intensified Tone-Group Tone-Group Intensified Tone-Group Tone-Group Tone-Group Tone-Group Tone-Group Tone-Group Tone-Group Tone-Group : i. i. Head Head Superior Head Superior Head ScandentHead ScandentHead Inferior Head Superior Head ScandentHead Inferior Head Superior Head ScandentHead Scandent Head Inferior Inferior [ [ [ — — ^] '\] >] [ \\ "^] ["^"^1 [" [ [ — J} '/] [^'Z] [ [ [ [' 'U] 1*] '1>] ^] . 2. i. 2. Two-Syllable Rules ' Heads. 4.

.. . I..192 . Tone-Group 3.... [ -»] . ... 167-170. 2. 82 -] of the Summary Semantic Functions of the Tone-Groups 84 86 .188-190.165-166. [ 1*] . in Varying Positions : 65 Exercises Tone-Group I Tone-Group 2 Tone-Group 3 Tone-Group4 [\] [/] [1*] .185-187. 64 SECTION Vni.. TABLE OF CONTENTS EXERCISES xi PAGE Tone-Group 3.. 2.194 7° 71 ••195 SECTION X. — 1*] /] 78 80 81 '^^] 3 4.....171-174. . Exercises on Heterogeneous "Heads" : Exercises Tone-Group I Tone-Group 2 Tone-Group 3 Tone-Group4 [X] [-^] . . Superior Head . .... of the Tone-Groups 72 Superior 2..... ••• ••.. 60 61 62 63 Unbroken Scandent Head [ %] Broken Scandent Head . ..191 .... 175-178. . .... ••• 69 70 [T>] [_<] . Tone-Group 4.161-164.... 73 73 76 >] >] -/] ... I.[' %] Unbroken Scandent Head ["^-^l Broken Scandent Head . . ...179-184. The Semantic Functions Rules and Examples: Tone-Group Tone-Group Tone-Group Tone-Group Tone-Group Tone-Group Tone-Group Tone-Group Synoptic I. 66 67 67 68 69 [^] SECTION IX. Tone-Group 3.193 . with the Nuclei Five-Syllable Exercises on the Tone-Groups.. Tone-Group 4...... .. . Head Head Scandent Head Inferior Head Superior Head Scandent Head Inferior -^] ..

Phonetic Texts in Tonetic Transcription 96 .xii TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE SECTION XI. "Sequences" of Tone-Groups Co-ordinating Sequences : 87 89 [\\] 89 90 im [%%] Subordinating Sequences: 90 91 [V] [A] [>T^] [l'^] 91 92 93 94 95 [^'^] SECTION XII.

The phonetic Association. in transcription used is that of the International Phonetic its simplified or "broad" form. t.Phonetic Symbols. m. s. 1. b. r. w. h. The remaining phones . v. k. Key words are not required for: p. n. z. are: d. f.

Phonetic symbols printed in represent sounds which are some- times inserted and sometimes omitted. my The symbols of the exercises. For further details concerning the phonetic notation see Professor Jones' Pronouncing Dictionary. half- long or short. indicates that the vowel by which italics it is preceded may be long. his Outline of English Phonetics. relating to tonetics will each be explained in the course . or First Course of English Phonetics.xiv ['] PHONETIC SYMBOLS.

" what meaning would it convey to you? At first sight you might interpret it as: "He lends his books to nobody. however. on the first syllable of the word anybody. and the last on the mid-tone.tongue is EngHsh. you could only judge from the context which of the two ideas your correspondent wished to convey. pitch the syllables nybo on a very low note. that a Scottish speaker may intone the word in neither of these manners." But it may also mean: "He is rather particular as to the persons he lends his books to. In the second case the voice will probably rise from a lower note to a higher one during the emission of the first syllable. and remains low during the emission of the following three syllables. a difference perceptible to all whose mother. itself will now contain an element which will adequately differentiate the two meanings. It is not a difference in the stress or emphasis. for in both cases the wording would be identical.Section If I. In the first case." Now how would you know which of these two meanings was intended? The sentence being a written one. and conclude with the syllable dy approximately on the same level as the beginning of the word. Introduction anyone wrote the following sentence in a letter to you: "He doesn't lend his books to anybody. the voice falls from a relatively high to a relatively low note. I . he doesn't lend them to everybody. Let us add. the sentence talking to us. But there is a difference. as an alternative. the second on a high tone. for in both cases the stress falls on the first syllable of the word anybody. What is this element ? It is not a difference in the words. the first syllable may be pitched on a mid-tone.^ * Or. Let us now imagine that the sentence is used by someone who is In this case we need no context to help us. it is a difference of tone or musical pitch. the third on a low tone.

the sentence would mean: "Goodness gracious! Do you notice how warm it is?" Expressions such as "Good morning" or "Good evening" are sung in different ways according to whether they are used as a greeting to someone we meet." If anyone were to say to us: "I say it's warm. 1.2 ENGLISH INTONATION Let us express this difference graphically. With the falling tone. the sentence means: "It was on account of the rain that he didn't come. -the sentence will mean: " It was not on account of the rain that he came." with the word say on the falling tone. "here" means "I tell you this is the place". A-NY-BO-DY High Note—> — — — — Low Note —> Mid Note 2." Intoned in a different way. Here is a second example. — A-NY-BO-DY A-NY-BO-DY — Mid Note — Low Note —> High Note — — — — or possibly — — — We see. then." If we sing the word rain on a falling tone. that the meaning of a given word or sentence may depend upon the relative pitch of the note or notes upon which it is sung. Let us take the sentence: "He didn't come on account of the rain. Consider the different shades of meaning we may give even to single words such as "here" or "now" by singing them in different ways." If we sing the word rain on the mid-high-low-mid combination of tones [%]. I merely say it. or to someone we are leaving. on a . we should interpret his sentence as " I don't think or believe that it's warm.

but in this place.INTRODUCTION rising tone the 3 same word means "Is this the place?" With the midhigh-low-mid combination [%] the same word means "Not in the place you mention. Beach. the foreign student of spoken English is shown exactly what the EngUsh tone-system is. it enables us to use and to quicken our powers of observation. The are no longer at the desultory. That part which is concerned chiefly with the tone-curves irrespective of their meanings has been called Tonetics} Whether Tonetics is a branch of Phonetics or whether it is an independent science. of the University of Peking. The science which is concerned with the nature and meaning of this tone-play is called Intonation.. mercy of the "hit-or-miss" method.. We need only note that what Phonetics does for sp&Gch. whereas without such linguistic sciences there is no path at all. on Chinese Intonation are of Chinese. the following effect: it makes us conscious of what we already do unconsciously in our native tongue.. (or branches) among others. we proceed by sure steps from the known to the imknown. but there is at least a path for him to foUow. our and generally unsuccessful attempts at reproducing foreign speech phenomena is replaced by progressive and systematic exercises based on positive data.sounds.. M. and what steps he must take in order to speak as the English d6. a more or less clearly defined track. haphazard We 'By studies Professor D. Tonetics does for speechtones. the student has to grope his way across a treacherous ground without guides or indications of any sort. They wouldn't get far if it did (rise fall rise on did) = It would hinder them. does not appear to be a vital question. likely to have important effects whose remarkable on the teaching and learning ." Coleman has furnished me with the following interesting example: They wouldn't get far if it did (fall on di^ =It wouldn't matter. In both cases the rational application of these sciences to language-teaching has. and affords us opportunities for systematic ear-training. The path of the student is still beset with difficulties. With the development of the science of intonation.

Was your sentence an assertion." frequently turns out to speakers of English may be a foreign intonation. The science of intonation thus felt. "C'est le ton qui fait la chanson. an exclamation." or foreign " accent. If we say to a very young child. but. as a sentence. "Aren't you a nasty wretched little brat " in the same intonation as "Aren't you a dear precious little angel " the effect produced will be that of the latter sentence. a comment. a corroboration. is told not only what the French tone-system but (what is perhaps more important) that he must refrain from using his English tone-system when he is speaking French The English student of Chinese wiU not only be told in what respect Chinese intonation differs from English. This is also one of the aims of Tonetics. I often have occasion to say to my understand your sentence.4 ENGLISH INTONATION English student of French is. Many characteristic tones are as important as or even more important than characteristic sounds." . Observers have also fre! ! quently remarked that dogs and other animals react not so much to the words we use but to the tones on which the words are pitched. which is already keenly comes to supply a want and to regularize and codify what has hitherto been done on more or less empirical lines. or a question?" meaning of what they are : One of the aims of Phonetics proper is to cause us to speak the foreign language in such a way as not to betray our nationality. Many foreign be faultless in their English sounds. students of Chinese. and even English stress. but he will also be shown in what ways he can utilize his English tone-habits as an aid to learning the like it Chinese system. What is often diagnosed as a foreign "pronunciation. that they are not English. Bantu. a contradiction. I cannot see what you wish to convey. and other groups of languages must necessarily master the tone-systems as an integral part of the vocabulary and grammar of such languages. Whether they or not. and often but they intone in such a manner that we at once detect we fail even to understand the " I quite foreign students saying. excuse me.

just as rising tones at the . The student or students exercise. due to the utter novelty of the exercise. win then imitate the teacher's performance.INTRODUCTION 5 A FEW HINTS FOR TEACHERS AND STUDENTS. are unaccustomed to use a long low-level succession at the end of a sen- most Serbians are unaccustomed to use a succession of end of a sentence. such difficulties are almost invariably overcome. but let me assure those who make no claim to having a good musical ear that the advantage is not so great as might be supposed. no matter whether musically trained or not) are users of and consequently already possess the elements of any intonation AU they have to do is to perform wittingly and consciously what they are already in the habit of doing unwittingly and unconsciously. The musician evidently has an advantage in this respect. Most Swedes. the student may be called upon to read off the examples without being prompted. This inability to recognize or to produce a given tone is generally. indeed. in imfamiliar positions In some cases the student must be exercised in using familiar tones and circumstances. at a point just above the cartilage of the glottis (Adam's apple) . rising or falling accordingly. Let the student press the tip of his finger lightly but firmly then as he sings on a rising or falling pitch he will actually feel this cartilage difficulty. rising and level tones. however. It must be remembered that aU users of speech (no matter what their nationality or language. at the outset. Having successfully imitated the teacher. Then the general procedure wUl be as follows: The teacher will first pronounce (with the intonation indicated) the five examples of the He may do this once or several times. The following device will prove of service in overcoming this initial tones. tence. the teacher may intone with exaggerated slowness or degree of pitch. system. they may often do just the contrary. Sometimes. With a little practice. some students experience a little difficulty in distinguishing fjdUng from rising tones. The first aim of the student should be to recognize the difference between falling. for instance. if not always. when called upon to drop the voice. Should they experience any difficulty.

and of imitating them mentally. may of . correct observation and correct imitation. The student must form the habit of noticing how people intone. There is only one remedy. One of the chief objects of this book of exercises is to teach the student how to notice and what to notice. and to read correctly from his transcription. The more serious dif&ctilty is the teaching of the semantic values of the tone-groups. and yet be unable to use the appropriate tones in actual speech. These syllables articulates one or be meaningless ("nonsense syllables") or may simply be repetitions any elementary sound or sound-compound. The teacher more syllables and calls upon the students to write down in tonetic s5rtnbols what they think they have heard.6 ENGLISH INTONATION Another type of work will consist of tonetic dictation. how to imitate and what to imitate. such as [la:] or [ma:]. viz. The student may be able to imitate correctly.

re- Enghsh by the use of musical tones by varjdng the pitch of the elements contained in the sentence). word-group prominence. command. A text marked by such toneS37mbols is caUed a Tonetic Transcription.Section II. First Definitions Various forms and shades of emphasis (such as word-prominence. A Tone-Group may be defined as a word or speech containing one and only one maximum series of words in connected of prominence. find. Each Tone-Group contains a Nucleus. The nucleus corresponds to what is usually called sentence-stress.) .^ which is the stressed syllable of the most prominent word in the Tone-Group. concession. we must consider that English speech is cut up into Tone-Groups. occasional examples of special tone-groups containing no (See pp. or when deemed more convenient. The words contained in such a transcription may be written in phonetic characters. All phenomena connected with this musical pitch or tone are designated by the term Intonation. iWe nucleus. intensity. in traditional orthography. || | The limits of a Tone-Group may be marked by placing the signs or on either side of it. These tones may be indicated by means of an appropriate notation consisting of special signs or symbols. etc. or two adjacent tone-groups may be separated by the same sign. doubt.) are expressed in (i. For the purpose of determining and classif5dng the phenomena cormected with intonation. assurance. 100-105.e. however.

The High-Rising. „ „ Falling-Rising [1*]. consequence of this. Intensification. it is convenient to consider is cases in which this tone it as the normal form. This intensified Nucleus-Tone may be marked by the use of the symbol ['\]. — 2. „ „ Low-Rising [^].Section III. there are four kinds of Tone-Groups: In Tone-Group 1. In Southern English there are foxu: characteristic Nucleus Tones: The Falling. 8 . Tone-Group 2. In those few not intensified. The same word used in languid assent may drop not more than a half-tone.e. The Nucleus RULES. „ Tone-Group 3. The Falling-Rising. „ „ High-Rising [/]. which may be marked by placing the sign [V] immediately before the nucleus syllable. the word "Here?" may start on the lowest. but when used in different circumstances (i. The Low-Rising. „ The terms "Falling" and "Rising" are relative. being aJmost invariably intensified. which may be marked by placing the sign [/] 3. 4. The FaUing Nucleus Tone [>] or [>] is said to be "intensified" when the actual fall is preceded by a slight rise of pitch. to express languid indifference) the word may rise not more than a half-tone. not absolute. containing the Falling Nucleus-Tone: ["V] or [>]. which may be marked by placing the sign [_«] immediately before the nucleus syllable. The Falling-Rising Nucleus tone [%]. and rise to the highest pitch of the speaker's voice. 1. the Range of a faUing or mation of the speech. the symbol [ U] may be used. rising tone varies according to the degree of ani- The word " No " when used in angry contradiction may start at the highest. and drop down to the lowest pitch of the speaker's voice. „ Tone-Group 4. immediately before the nucleus syllable. Similarly in a surprised or indignant query. which may be marked by placing the signs [>] or [>] immediately before the nucleus syllable.

\du:. Tone-Group i. ^aegks. 1»hi9. JAe Falling-Rising Nucleus: [%]. '\nou. Exercise 5. /wel. 'Wai? Exercise 3. TAe Low-Rising Nucleus: [_<]. _<rait. T^nau. \nou. "Vou. The High-Rising Nucleus: [/]. ajes. ^ou. '\du:. T^main. Tone-Group 4. /jes. The Falling Nucleus: [\]. TAe Falling Nucleus {Intensified): ['\].THE NUCLEUS EXERCISES. ^jes. Tone-Group 3. _<praeps. Tone-Group 2. >jes. _<nou. Ulaek. Wah. . ihi9? /main? /wen? Exercise 4. Wai? Exercise 2. Exercise 1.

it is (Tone-Groups 2 and the nucleus and tail. Any syllable or syllables following the nucleus in the same ToneGroup is termed the "Tail" of the group. ''The Tail" RULES. 4) participates in the rise. The Tail-syllable or group of syllables following the Falling Nucleus (Tone-Group i) is pitched on the low level. instead of distributed over itself. i.. being equivalent to \ the faUing nucleus-tone followed some speakers by a f ailing interval. When by a frequently (or even habitually) replace the falling-tone proper * instead of "V The Tail-syllable or group of syllables following the two Rising Nuclei other terms. such tails need not be marked in tonetic transcription. This being an invariable rule.• The Tail-syllable or group of syllables following the Falling-Rising Nucleus (Tone-Group 3) [1»] participates in the Fall-Rise of the nucleus. Thus: WAn 1*ai T^riidir) mait laik it '\»evribodi = = = 10 '\/ '"V. .Section IV. in the rise taking place in the nucleus-syllable This being an invariable rule.e. the group may this be written "Vai wontid ta is si: im. tail.. . in other terms the curve of the nucleus is distributed over the nucleus and tail. they pitch the nucleus on a high tone and leave the fall to be inferred by the first syllable of the low tail.. ^_- wount help j u' veri mAt J = 'V ... /nev3? Thus: /wot did _<hi: ju' sei? ^9sei)k ju' wount maind it = = = = . such taUs need not be marked in tonetic transcription.•' .

g. the fall is not distributed over the tail. rules.• and not tails •.. E. 57. but merely the rise. Thus: 1*ai mait si: im = "%. that when the FalUng-Rising Nucleus consists of a monosyllabic word. .• These being invariable transcription. such need not be marked in tonetic Other peculiarities of the exercises based will be noticed in the dot notation of some on Tone-Group 3."THE TAIL" II Note. however. Exercises 56.

"VSaet s or or or not Qa keis. >5aet s or or or or or nou gud. \nouws3. wount teik "Vfraidi sju:tid Ap mAtJ mi oikait.. \hu: sed sou? Vniid ju' gou? \. 2-syll.. x-syll... "V. 'V or' or' or' or' \ \ \ >evribodi si:mz to 6igk sou. Falling Nucleus.. it. \evribodi.. V. Wai not? \du: ju'? or Exercise 7. Non-intensified.. Non-intensified. Non-intensified. \a:gjuir) wi6 im dAznt siam to bi eni gud. \. V. Falling Nucleus. Exercise 6. Tail.. Tail. Exercise 8. Falling Nucleus.. \giv "Vhu: it tould ju' tu'? ju' teik it? V. Falling Nucleus. Non-intensified... . \iu: sei it. tu im... \msentjist3... [\]. or or >kud Exercise 9. V. "V. V.. \ai didnt teik "V5set or'.12 ENGLISH INTONATION Exercises Tone-Group 1.. "V.. or or or "Vlisn... "V. \. Tail of 4 or tnore Syllables. "Vai or du:. taim.. 2-^yll. Tail. V.

['\]."THE TAIL' Intensified 13 Tone-Group 1. '\lAvli! .

/A5az 3v dAn /wi: neva sed it wud. Exercise 14. . or or or or /wot neim? /nev9 ? y y y Exercise 15. Tail of 4 or more Syllables. /wot did ju' sei? /dAz i' biir) Sam? Exercise 17. 2-syll. /wot /did s jo' ju' neim? gou? Exercise 16. ksen. /ai dount Gigk sou. /6is High-Rising Nucleus. [/]. if ju' /trai laik. /saevidsiz doiint. /sAmtaimz. /msentjistar iznt on bs sau9 koust. /sAmtaimz it ainsaz veri wel. High-Rising Nucleus. /ai didnt noutis eni9ig pgtikjabr gbaut it. Tail.14 ENGLISH INTONATION Tone-Group 2. High-Rising Nucleus. High-Rising Nucleus /" /• x-syll. it. or ^main woz. iz. Tail. wAn /membaz /pos9bli. 3-syW. /trai it. TaiZ.

. 'UsAmwsa. WSaz. Tail. Falling-Rising Nucleus."THE TAIL" Tone-Group Exercise 18. 15 i-syll. [1*]. '\y '\/ 3. or or 'y ^/ Waii mait.

[ .i6 ENGLISH INTONATION Tone-Group 4.

be marked by placing the sign [ ] immediately before the head element. Scandent. An inferior head-tone before the rising nucleus-tones may be marked by placing the sign [ ] immediately before the head element: Aaen. be marked by placing the sign [ ] immediately before the head element. An Inferior head is one the tones of which are never higher in pitch than the initial point of the Nucleus-Tone. or Heterogeneous. and starts 4). \ _/ ai kaen. Before the rising nucleus-tones (Tone-Groups 2 and always level. but such inferior head-tones may be left unmarked: ai T^mei = 17 % start 'But may rise slightly. One-Syllable RULES. % __. gud i) bai. an inferior on the low tone (on the same pitch as that of the initial point of the nucleus -tone). syllable or syllables preceding the nucleus in the is Any ai — si:. A Head may be Inferior. Superior. if necessary. ai gud ^bai. ' ' Heads ' Group same Tonetermed the "Head" of the group. if necessary. — ai mei. It may. but such inferior head-tones may be left unmarked: — — head is ai >si: or simply ai \si:. 'But may on a low pitch. a one-syllable inferior Before the falling nucleus-tone (Tone-Group head-tone (about voice) .^ and starts on the mid or neutral pitch midway between the highest and lowest notes of the speaker's An inferior head-tone before the falling nucleus-tone may.Section V. .^ is generally level. An Group inferior 3) is head-tone before the falling-rising nucleus tone (Tone- on the low pitch.

is between a superior and a scandent The difference increases however pro- portionately to the length of the head. ai sei! wud ju:?! not nau! gud bai! A scandent head may be marked by "^wud /ju:?! placing the sign [ ] immediately before the head element: ai "^sei! "^not T^nau! Note.or of a high-pitch. Heterogeneous head The nature of these a combination of any of the three foregoing heads is explained on page 69. This highest point (which may be termed the " vertex") is therefore higher in pitch than the initial point of any nucleus. may be marked by immediately before the head element. Where may be marked by the sign [ ]: or or ^nekst — —gud ^nekst /wi:k? /wi:k? ^bai. according to the degree of intensity with which the tone group is uttered. A Scandent head is one the tones of which rise or climb from the mid- level to the highest pitch of the whole tone-group. . significative difference is one-syllable head not great. ^wot >fo:? Before the rising nucleus-tones (Tone-Groups 2 and is level a superior head be of a mid. a superior head level and is pitched on a fairly high tone. and may A superior head before the rising nucleus-tones [ placing the sign — it ] necessary. '\^ ~ ^ Before the falling and falling-rising nucleus-tones (Tone-Groups i and 3). A superior head before the faUing sign [ ] and falling-rising nucleus-tones is marked by placing the immediately before the head element: not 'l>nau! 4). gud Jbai. A types. however.i8 ' ENGLISH INTONATION A Superior head is one the tones of which are higher in pitch point of the nucleus-tone. —^The —gud ^bai. than the initial wot ~\ fo:? nekst wi:k? not nau! — is / ^ gud bai.

ONE-SYLLABLE "HEADS" Exercises Tone- J9 .

i-syll. i-syll. i-syll. '\. 3'\nA59 wAn! . '\. Inferior Head. z-syll. '\./ 'Xkois not! 5aet s '"Vdifrant! '\lAvli! kan '\aihelp? y y (Intensified). Falling Tail. Inferior Head. Exercise 30. Nucleus (Intensified). Exercise 32.20 ENGLISH INTONATION Falling Tail. or or or or or . '\. Inferior Head. Falling Nucleus Tail. Nucleus (Intensified). gud 9V it s '^moinig! '\. I-syll. No in'\di:d! ai '\du:! it s A •'\ Imain! '\els? -^ teik '^main! '\ •''V wear Exercise 31.

W3t >W3Z it? . i-syll. ">. ^sit xiaun. 93:>ti:n. 21 Falling Nucleus. luk >hi3. Falling Nucleus.ONE-SYLLABLE "HEADS" Exercise 34. ^nia -^lAndan. Superior Head. No Tail. i-syll. hu: xIaz? Exercise 35. Tail. Superior Head. z-syll. ^i>no:m3s. hau >o:kw3d! let >mi: trai.

.22 ENGLISH INTONATION Falling Exercise 38.

Inferior Head. /kaen. 2. i-Syll. Inferior Head. Tail of 3 or more Syllables. 23 High-Rising Nucleus. No Tail. i-Syll. i-Syll./ Exercise 43. bi'. it /mei tain aut /o:t ta saksiid. 2-Syll. if it wa gouig ta kliarAp. z-Syll. /luk kliin. ^9ei it /mei Exercise 44. i-Syll. wil /blaek ^a/griid ta WAnz du:? gou? __iin/posabl? Exercise 45. High-Rising Nucleus.ONE-SYLLABLE "HEADS" Tone-Group Exercise 42. it High-Rising Nucleus. Inferior Head. o:l /rait. gouig ta teik pa:t in it? ^a . it /woznt./ /walks. Inferior Head. ^hi' /sed sou. it wi" ^it /luks az /ju: /dount gou Sea veri oifn. Tail. ta/morou. Tail. fain. it J . /lukt bat /A6az mei. [>]. o:lrait. J . ju' . ai /du:./ wi' /mait. High-Rising Nucleus.

i-Syll. —bai /tjuizdi? — /sed sou? — — ^S9:tn? ai /0o:t Ji" la:st ^fraidi? ^not Exercise 48. Superior^ Head. —did im? wAn du:? —wud —did — gou? — /jelou wau? iju: tel /5is /ai sei 5aet? o:t /ai ta 6aet Exercise 49. Tail. [ ] Head could . Superior^ Head. Superior'- Head. High-Rising Nucleus.24 Exercise 46. i-Syll. High-Rising Nucleus. No Tail. — sou. High-Rising Nucleus. —in /mei? —^wud /ju:? — /wi:k? —du' /ju:? —^Ap/stE3Z? ^nekst Exercise 47. —daun/sts3z did —did — WAn 9V ^W3 /ju: o:t —did /Jeikspia rait 5aet? ju' sei? /ju: rait Saet leta? iz stiu:d9nts? — /evribodi ta du: 6aet so:t av W3:k? ^ In all these examples a Scandent ["^] instead of a Superior be used. Superior^ Head. i-Syll. -/ -f •/ •/ •/ i-Syll. ENGLISH INTONATION High-Rising Nucleus. Tail of 3 or more Syllables. i-Syll. Tail. 2-Syll.

ONE-SYLLABLE "HEADS" Tone-Group Exercise 50. Inferior Head. j-Syll. ai IkIu:. 3. Falling-Rising Nucleus. No Tail. 25 [%]. .

569. Am keisiz.- or or v. "ai Ixiount. 2-Syll. in %A. bai'Ulin woznt 9 sju'tabl pleis. "^/ du: T^teik WAn. i-Syll. Superior^ Exercise 56. ^if IjeniwAn dAZ. Tail. •'\.b9 rispekts it s oikait.- or or or 1>ai W3 •A/ '*. wen ^not ^if 1»ai waz ju:. "\. ^dount 'bluk is trAbl. ">/ V./ •'\. % "not "Ujet. T^jelou. ^not Falling-Rising Nucleus. Superior^ Head./ 'UeniwAn. •1* Exercise 54. ^dount T^bam eni. if 1*ai m Sea. not 'Itnau.. Superior^ Head. ~e3:1*ti:n. j-Syll./ ''\. ^Qaet kjuld wad. X. Falling-Rising Nucleus. "dount Weit. Exercise 55. No Tail. mait sju:t mi'. Exercise 57. x-Syll. z-Syll. ^mai 'Vfrend mait. Superior^ Head.26 ENGLISH INTONATION Falling-Rising Nucleus. ">/ ''^z ''\/ or or or or or in T^paeris. in 1*5 Falling-Rising Nucleus Head. is 'In [ ] all these examples the intensification '\ \_ increased by replacing the Superior by the Scandent head . ">. i-Syll. Tail. Tail oj 3 or more Syllables.

4. 27 Low-Rising Nucleus . [_-].ONE-SYLLABLE "HEADS" Tone-Group Exercise 58.

1* It is doubtful whether the low-rising nucleus (Tone-Group 4) is ever preceded by an inferior head.. or the second syllable may be pitched between the mid. = --^ [/] •%. Two-Syllable RULES. ' ' Heads ' Before the falling nucleus-tone ["V] a 2-syllable inferior head may remain on the mid-level: it s 3 dog. Should the case arise it could be marked by placing the sign [ ] before the first syllable. Before the high-rising nucleus-tone an inferior head always remains on the low-level. this difference corresponds to no significative distinction. 28 . however.and the high-levels it s 3 dog. may be ignored in tonetic transcription: [ it will be sufficient either to place the sign — ] before the it s a first syllable or to leave the or head unmarked: \dog.Section VI. A two-syllable inferior head before a rising nucleus tone sign [ ] may be marked by placing the before the ihia? [1*] first syllable: . _ it "~ \ As. a 2-syllable inferior head is on a The second syllable apparently does not (as in the case of Tone-Group sign [ ] i) tend to rise. or by leaving it unmarked: if ju' 'Uksen or simply if ju' 'Ukeen = ../ iz it = Before the falling-rising nucleus low-pitch. Inferior. Such a head may be marked by placing the immediately before the first syllable.

the first syllable of a 2-syllable superior head is on the high pitch and the second about midway between this and the initial point of the nucleus: 9ri:. [/]. when the second syllable tend to remain on the same level as the first ^wot s 5a is unstressed >taim [/] = ••-^ Before the high-rising nucleus superior head is the first syllable of a 2-syllable on the mid or the high-pitch (according to the degree of intensity) and the second about midway between this and the initial point of the nucleus: ka:nt ju: — si:? > [ This type of head may • be marked by placing the signs — ] or [ ] immediately before the first syllable: —^kamt is ju' /si:? ka:nt ju' isi:? = = it '•/ "•/ When same the second syllable unstressed. 29 Before the falling and falling-rising nucleus tones [\]. ' •. ha:f paist = = •. . [%].TWO-SYLLABLE "HEADS" Superior. 3 /vvi:k? ^wAns a iwi:k? low-rising nucleus-tone [^] is = = "/ by a mark it. wot s jo' neim? ha:f paist Such types of head may be marked by placing the before the first syllable: sign { — immediately ) ^wot s jo' >neim? 'UGri:. may ••/ tend to remain on the level as the first —wAns The superior head. rarely preceded 2-syllable When it is considered desirable to the same method may be adopted as in the case of Tone-Group 2 . it may In the case of Tone-Group i.

30 ENGLISH INTONATION Scandent. A 2 -syllable scandent head may be marked by placing the sign immediately before the first syllable: ai [ ] dount >nou. A 2-syUable scandent head consists of a continuous rise from the mid- pitch to the highest pitch (the "vertex"): ai dount nou. a: ju' 5sa? ai did a:sk. Heterogeneous. . nev3 maind. See page 69. ^neva ^maind. a: ju' ^8e9? "^ai did Viisk.

TWO-SYLLABLE "HEADS" Exercises Tone-Group 1 31 .

Tail. it '\iz. ••'\ ••'\ prseps dount '\nou. Falling .32 Exercise 66. ••'\ wDt s it "Mo^l ••> Exercise 67. No sou ai ju' "^sed. ••'\ ai prg'^test. Inferior Head. ENGLISH INTONATION Falling Nucleus (Intensified). 2-SyW.

No Tail. Tail. let ^ju: >. Sam get -^u' -vredi! it! ^wai ^wil not >tel im? 9ei >du' it? . dount >nou.TWO-SYLLABLE "HEADS' Exercise 70. Superior Head. i-Syll. hu: sed >62et? ^wen ^wil W3Z ^Qset? 6ei -*kAin? Exercise 71. ai 33 Falling Nucleus. Superior Head. ^dount ju: >gou. ^moust An-^laikli. 2-Syll. Falling Nucleus. 2-Syll.

2-Syll. kwait im'^pasabl! wel ai '\aem sspraizd! ''\. Superior Head. 2-Syll. Falling Nucleus (IrUensified)... ^ai '\ '''\ dount '\nou. ^gudnis '\greij9s! * ~Tiau di'\laitfl! hau Jad '\ai nou? "Tun d av 'VGoit it? '•'>. Superior Head. or or or or hi' "•' ^dount ju: '\lisn tu' im! ai '\aem sapraizd aet ju'! ••/ f ••' Jod '\hi: ind3oi So benifit? hi- dount '\nou hau aeggri kon or "v . or or wot la:d3 let 'Vioz i' z got! 9am 'Vfaind ^wai kamt '\]ui EXBtase'pi. ENGLISH INTONATION FaUing Nttcletts (ItUensified). Tail. ^du: Qaet '"'V ^wai not '\nau? kaen ju: '\gou? "'x "'\ Exercise 75. 2-Syll. T-SyU.34 Exercise 74. ^wDt fain "^weSa! '•'\_ "•'\_ or nv or or or '•^. Superior Head. or or or Nucleus {IrUensified). z-Syll. Tail. 2-SyU. '^faist. Tail of ^or more Syllables. wel wel ^wai ^ju: ju: 'kur in o mes! '\. No ^moust Aii'\f69. •'\_ '-x or 76. Falling Nucleus {Intensified). Tail. Falling mi' 5sa! du' it? '%. '%. Superior Head.

ai dount >nou. ^3 mi9 kwait 3 >JAg WAn. "8aet s not -^fsa. -^ai doiint >laik it. "^it s laik >SAm9. Falling Nucleus •"> 35 2-Syll. Tail. i-Syll. >traifl. Scandent Head. sou ^wot it >iz! "^nia bl3ek^hi:e. -S d ju' -vmim? Exercise 79. No Tail. -S -S -. "^wot s it >ju:zd fo"? . ' Falling Nucleus. -y. 2-Syll.TWO-SYLLABLE "HEADS' Exercise 78. Scandent Head.

Scandeni Head. 2-SyU.36 ENGLISH INTONATION Falling Tail. Nttcleus {Intensified). Exercise 82. No ^wot 3 '\Jeim! .

^wud ^it ju' /ainsar it? s kwait /klous /in 59 . Tail. _did ju" /spiik tu' im? tu' ju*. iz it /oilwiz laik 5aet? ^bat ai ^veri /didnt tel im ta kAm. Inferior Head. [/]. 2-Syll. . ]es it iiz./ .J . nou W3Z it it /wDznt. >blu:? >trai.J . Head. High-Rising Nucleus. Inferior Head. _iz ^ju' it . __wa ^a ju' ieibl ta du: eniGig si: im? ju' /laikli ta im bifo: saetadi? . No Tail. z-Syll. Inferior Head. Tail of 3 or more Syllables./ 2-Syll. Tail. iz it rum? 2-Syll. /hevi? /laik it? 2-Syll.. Inferior Exercise 89. veri /laikli. it /mait 9V bi'n. ^veri 37 2.. 2-Syll.TWO-SYLLABLE "HEADS' Tone-Gionp Exercise 86. High-Rising Nucleus. /0UV3? Exercise 88. ^jet High-Rising Nucleus.. fo'r ifAni sD:t 9v ainsa ta giv. ^nev3 /maind. jz it ^d9z i' High-Rising Nucleus./ mait Exercise 87. /wel.

— — —stedi —^mAst —a:nt 9ei ^jes ^kaen ju: /si:? it /iz! -^on! ju' /gou? /8s9? Exercise 91. ENGLISH INTONATION High-Rising Nucleus. more Syllables. — 9ei wAnz? —dount ki:p /stsarig! — — /hia mi'? —du: 8ei /plei mAtJ? ^iz Ji' /priti? ^ka:nt ju' Exercise 92. .38 Exercise 90. ••/ 2-Syll. Tail. No Tail. Superior Head. or High-Rising Nucleus. Exercise 93. ju: 2-Syll. ju: High-Rising Nucleus. i-Syll. Superior Head. Superior Head. — dount apru:v ov — /sa:tn ka:nt du: 8am? —du: wi' sig laik wen wi' liv ai ju' So:]i^ /ju: it! a: ju' hi' /riali 9is spi:k? or "Juali. Superior Head. 2-Syll. —did /poust Sa ka:d? —not Sat maind — wet? —dAZ mai /nouz luk red? —ounli /jestadi? /ai ^ka:nt ju' /si: it s mAtJ". 2-Syll. Tail. /rial 2-Syll. Tail of 3 —^wud /laik ta 8sa? — dount /0igk ni:d gou 8sa. ^wa: High-Rising Nucleus.

Scandent Head. Tail. Tail. in sau/6aeinptn?! -^wil i' ^get it? ^doxint ju' /laik 8am? tu: an /eitpans? '^haid pa/teitouz?! Exercise 96. Scandent Head. High-Rising Nucleus. Tail of 3 or more Syllables. Scandent Head. 2-Syll. Scandent Head. High-Rising Nucleus. 39 High-Rising Nucleus.TWO-SYLLABLE "HEADS" Exercise 94. 2-Syll. ^cud ju' mi wAn? ^wount 8i /A8a du'? iznt /8is 8a wAn? bsek?! 'dount ju' /wont ta gou? ounli /wAn keim Exercise 97. No Tail. 2-Syll. High-Rising Nucleus. —dount "^amt ju' /faind it sou? ju* ^waint 8ei /drest propali? Sei /gud auAf dount ofis i* Gigk? —nia ^a: 8a /poust 8ei did ju' sei? sez? Mali az bsed az . vobn/tia?! "/ •'/ •"/ "^wa* Sei ijo:z?! "^neva imaind?! kaint ju' /weit? '/ •"/ haev ju' /traid? Exercise 95. 2-Syll. /spea 2-Syll. x-Syll.

. Exercise 98. if ju" Falling-Rising Nucletis . [%]. 'Ukaen. .% 2-SyU. bat ai 'Uwoz. Inferior Head No Tail.40 ENGLISH INTONATION Tone-Group 3.

i-Syll. 1*011:. ju: '% •'\. ^not fo ^not 'Umai seik. T^poipas. ^nou ^Ssets wAn not IkIaz. ha:f pa:st '% '% Exercise 103. "Uai wail m hia. •V ^nou ^not WAn on T^sed sou. Superior Head. Superior Head. . if 41 Falling-Rising Nucleus. Tail. 2-Syll.TWO-SYLLABLE "HEADS" Exercise 102. ju: Wont WAn. if Falling-Rising Nucleus. 'Ulaik. 2-Syll. '•% ^not in 'Uhia. No Tail. '\io:l.

Scandent Head. No Tail. I'Syll. '^ai nou ^dson dAz. ENGLISH INTONATION Falling-Rising Nucleus. '\*Jd9. Exercise 107. •'\.42 Elxercise 106. dount T^nou. Falling-Rising Nucleus. m 'v not 'l>s3:tn. . 2-Syll. ''ai did 1>trai. ^"ai dount 'UGigk sou.- "^if ju' "Uksen. 2-Syll.^ '% •'% ^"ai m not "^ju' mait Viisk. ai '% •'\. ^5ei did '\>a:ns3. "^m ^ai 53 'bgaidn. Tail. Scandent Head.

Low-Rising Nucleus 2-Syll. ai m dsAst ^kAmig. 'Tii' 1 ak->sept bi' it rait anAf. . Tail of 3 or more Syllables.rait.^prezntli. hia ju' ->a:. bi: ^leit.TWO-SYLLABLE "HEADS" Tone-Group Exercise 110. Scandent Head. Scandent Head. Exercise 113. 2-Syll. 2-Syll. 2-Syll. it. "^dount "^it s o:L. Scandent Head. enibodi. meik ba ^best ov ai 1 kAm . Tail. ld:p bs ^faiar in. 43 Low-Rising Nucleus. it. [^]. wount ^tel or ^doa. ju". Scandent Head. dount "^ai ^ ^aegkjas abaut mi. 2-Syll. Low-Rising Nucleus. Exercise 112. "^meik a ^nout ov "^ai m kwait _<juis< tu' it. ""ai Joint ^hait ^maind ju' ^sli:p wel. ai dount ^wAndar set it. No Tail. "^aim Jo: _<hi: wount maind. Low-Rising Nucleus. 'pleznt _<d33:ni. ^trai 3^<nA63 wah. i-Syll. Tail. "in ]u' _<gou! Exercise 111. 4.

Section VII.


of three and



Before the faUing nucleus-tone (Tone-Group


a head of three or




remain on the mid-level:







or each successive syllable


be pitched slightly higher than the one


to a point a little below the initial point of the nucleus







As, however, this difference corresponds to no significative distinction,


be ignored in tonetic transcription,



be sufficient either to

place the sign



before the

first syllable

or to leave the head unmarked:

8aet s

d3Ast wot dsAst wot

ai ai

wontid tg "Vnou

8aet s


ta "Vnou




Before the high-rising nucleus-tone (Tone-Group

always remains on the low




head be marked by placing the




before the

first syllable:





z laikli to /lovm?



3), an inferior head is on the low-pitch and (unlike the head of Tone-Group 1) does not tend to rise. Such a head may be marked by placing the sign [ ] immediately before the first syllable, or by leaving it unmarked

Before the falling -rising nucleus (Tone-Group


kod ov




In the case of Tone-Group 3, examples of an inferior head of more than three syllables appear to be rare or of doubtful occurrence.
It is doubtful whether the low-rising nucleus (Tone-Group 4) is ever preceded by an inferior head. Should the case arise, it could be marked

by placing the




before the

first syllable.





Before the falling and falling-rising nucleus-tones (Tone-Groups i 3), the first syllable of a superior head is on the high pitch, each

successive syllable being pitched slightly lower than the one before.
last syllable is sUghtly higher


than the initial point of the nucleus. Such types of head may be marked by placing the sign [ ] imme^wot

diately before the first syllable




sou >leit?
tu: l^kro's


doimt meik im

= =



Note however that unstressed syllables may tend to remain on the same level as the syllable immediately preceding:



meik 5a


^9aet s


sed ta mi'

= *"> = '"•"']>

Before the high-rising nucleus (Tone-Group



syllable is


the mid- or the high-pitch (according to the degree of intensity), each
successive syllable being pitched sHghtly lower than the one before, the

than the initial point of the nucleus. This type of head may be marked by placing the signs [—] or immediately before the first syllable:
last syllable is slightly higher



^doimt ju: 9igk


o:t ta /rait?


to remain

Note however that unstressed syllables may tend same level as the syllable immediately preceding:
iznt it ra:6a istrein^3?

on the



It is doubtful whether the low-rising nucleus (Tone-Group 4) is ever preceded by a superior head of more than one syllable. Should occasion
arise, it

could be marked as in the case of Tone-Group


Scandent heads of three or more syllables

may be

Unbroken or Broken.

Unbroken Scandent.
In an unbroken scandent head each successive syllable tends to
continue the rise of the preceding syllable.


[ ]

An unbroken scandent head may be marked by placing the sign immediately before the first syllable:
^"ai 9oit
it W3Z wAn 9n >faiv ^"waint 5ei in Sa /wei?

"'it iznt 3 Txiog.
^ai 1

kAm bsek az su:n az ai _^kaen.

= = = =





3, examples of an unbroken scandent head of more than four syllables appear to be rare or of doubtful occurrence. It would seem that scandents of this length tend to become "broken." This however only applies to Tone-Groups 2 and 3, for very long imbroken scandents may be noticed when followed by a falling nucleus:

In the case of Tone -Groups 2 and



WAn av

8a moust impjudant rikwests ai v eva haid in



Broken Scandents. broken scandent may be described as a succession of rising syllables interrupted once or more by sudden drops:








It will

be noted that each successive drop

is slightly

lower than the

preceding one.

Broken scandent heads


be marked by placing the sign ["^

before each of the syllables initiating a

Thus the above sentence

be transcribed as
^wot 9 ri

^ma:kabli "priti Utl >haus!

Heterogeneous Heads.

See page 69.

•'.. gud du' a:ft3\nu:n. Falling Nucleus. ju' rait \. Inferior Head... •••>. or or or an "Vaitikl abaut it? \ Fatting Nucleus. > \. \. ••'. ju* ••\. or W' dAznt si:m ta bi* du: 8aet so:t av Gig. 9"\getn Sen. 8set s igzsekili wot ai \sed! wai Jad iz ai sou a>noid 8en? 8ar eni ju:s in 'Vgouig 8ea? i' bi' or • or •• dount Gigk 8a z eni \ni:d fa 'Veibl ta ju' ta rait tu' im. \. wot s 5a gud av \spi:kig tu' im? Exercise 116. [>]. iz it tel 6a WAn ju' Wontid? \aegkj9s ta gou. waz Meft! woznt at ^houm... \ or ... Inferior •••% •••"V Head. "V V got ta teik "Vtjains. Inferior Head. nA0ir) els hi' Falling Nucleus 4-SyZ/. or or or wai dount >gou 8s3. wai Judnt i' 'Vdsoin as? ai didnt weik "VAp in taim. 'V. 8aet s d:1 ai it V >got.. Inferior Head. or im it iznt "Vgud anAf... 6-Syll. or or or •\. ju' •>. ''. 1. Falling Nucleus. SAm ov 9am siimd kwait wai dount Exercise 117.. jo* 5-Syll. ••\. kaint wi: faind \aut obaut Exercise 115. it? ••\.'HEADS" OF THREE AND MORE SYLLABLES Exercises Tone-Group Exercise 114. 47 3-Syll. ••\.

Inferior Exercise 118. it o:l di'\penrfz! ai ju' ai m glaed ta 'Vhiar it! mait 3v 'Vnoun ai Jud! dount nou '\hau ta du: it! 9aet s d3Ast wot 'Vai W9z gouig ta sei 1 .48 ENGLISH INTONATION Falling Nucletis (Intensified). •••a 3-Syll. Head.

or or or m not sou ^Joir^ abaut ^nou hi: wAn S3>d3estid sAtJ a Gig. it. dount '•> let s haev ai a^nASa. ">. ju: ^-Syll.. "•>. ju* >trai? ^-Syll. '"•> or Exercise 123. Superior Head. » meiks Gigk -vQset? not gou 9e3 >nekst mAndi? ^wot s 6set got ta >du: ^wot s trai ta wi6 it? 8a gud av ^spi:kig tu' im? meik a >betawAnwailio'rabautit . "•->. Superior Head..."HEADS" OF THREE AND MORE SYLLABLES Exercise 122.. ^wot ^wai Falling Nucleus. ^wai 49 Falling Nucleus.. -^il lukt sou wen ai so: im la:st.

. Gigk wot o:l 8set '>mi:nz tu* ""'\ im! ""•'\. Superior^ Head. luk at 8set '^maen Ap 9sa! hi: or or si:md sou '\pli:zd wi8 63 buk! Exercise 127.. .. sou ai Jad '\0igk! ~wot ai a ri'\li:f! •'\ it! ka:nt dis'\kraib "'\. or 6-Syll.50 Exercise 126. or Exercise 128. Superior^ Head. •f.. ENGLISH INTONATION Falling Nucleus (Intensified). "••'\. '\ '\. '. Exercise 129. 89 maetg? si: ". or "*. ^d3Ast ^9ir)k 5-Syll. "''\. ai ^iz ^iz Falling Nucleus [Intensified). "•'\ 3-Syll.. hau strein3 8ei pi:pl dount hau "^sili it iz SAm * meik SAtJ" 9 '\fas abaut so:t 8set '\ 9v Gig! is or ^ In all these examples the intensification increased by replacing the Superior [ ] by the Scandent [^] head... ju: du: '\mo3? i- \-Syll... a:ft9 '\taim! Superior^ Head. dount Judnt ta "'"\ '\d3oin 9s? 9 '\bet9 watl! ""^. "••'\. '"•'\. Superior^ Head..v spent on it! dount 8ei let '\a99 pi:pi haev 9 tjains Falling Nucleus [Intensified). V sed sou taim i' 891 eni ju:s in '\gouig 6s9? eibl tu' 9'\rein3 or or or '..... f^. wot didnt oil 5aet ai mos to:k tu' mAst ''Vniim im '\si9ri9sli! abaut or or or ^wai ju' tel '\mi: ^WE9 z Saet nais ould a:m'\tjs9 ju' ju:si t9 hffiv ? •'\. '\. ""'\. it? "'•'\. '"'\.. ^wai ^wai ^trai Falling Nucleus [Intensified.. or or or meik ^9igk ^wai 9v oil 69 '\taim ju...

"HEADS" OF THREE AND MORE SYLLABLES Exercise 130. Falling Nucleus. 3-Syll. '> dsAst laik ould >taimz! ai ^aet • V b'st mai ^.ki:! s wot bid ^d3o:d3 sv >broukn >laikt it! i* sed! ^Tii' mait ai 9o:t kAmig hia! . 51 Unbroken Scandent Head.

Exercise 134.52 ENGLISH INTONATION Falling Nucleus {Intensified). .

"HEADS" OF THREE AND MORE SYLLABLES Exercise 138. Falling Nucleus. 3-Syll. 33 Broken Scandent Head. "^ou ^wot a >Jeim! .

Broken Scandent Head. ENGLISH INTONATION Falling Nuclem {Intensified)..... or or or ''•v. '^"'\. ^its "Ttwait a '>tjein^3! ''''\ "iznt -"aset '\fain! Gigk -^wot it '^mhnz tu..ju'! taen ai '^Gaegk ju* anAf hau "^wot Lvvli '\we5a wia haevig! Eixercise 143. hau 'naisli hi' '\spi:ks! .... ''"^. Broken Scandent Head.54 Exercise 142. '^'X ^'\. Falling Nucleus {Intensified) 4-Syll... s-Syll.

6-Syll.. Inferior Head. ju' niidnt -^sei ai ai ai ai nev3r /a:st im didnt /9ir)k it kAm. it. 4-Syll."HEADS" OF THREE AND MORE SYLLABLES Tone-Group Exercise 146.J Head. ^wel it o:l di/peiK^z ju' •' Qa z nA0ig 6a Anseta wi6 •' ••• • bat ju' didnt /oilwiz hould Saetvju: ^it iznt a /pa:fikt spesiman. Inferior . didnt 9igk i' /msetad. •' tu' /msetad veri mAtJ im . nou.. Inferior Head. ' ' hsednt eni ab/d3ekj"n tuiznt az if it it. az log az 5set it bi/heivz imself. Judnt av inoun. / iznt 9at ai aiftar oil it ai it ab/dgekt tu* woznt Marias. Exercise 148. ai High-Rising Nucleus. ai High-Rising Nucleus. it dount Gigk i' /ju: eva ni:d daz 9ii)k /hi' kad du' Exercise 147. it.•• iznt 8at ai /laik du'ig satj" Gigz ai neva nju' i' /laikt du'ig 5set so:t av 9ig • Exercise 149. wi' oilwiz hsev ^it 9am at /houm. [/] 55 High-Rising Nucleus. High-Rising Nucleus. it 5-Syll. tould ta ju'. 3-SyU. Inferior ' Head. gou Qsa enibeta? maetad mAtJ. 2. veri /o:kwad fo-r •' mAst bi' im .

Superior Head. ~ai ju: in/Joid? wDznt Anai aidia. Superior Head dount ^ju: sou imipeijnt! in ipseris la:st so: Aim get sei hi' mAn9?! ' ^did ju' mai /letar in taim? did ^ni:d i' /woznt gouig ta mi:t as? wi' riali itrAbl abaut it? Exercise 152. Superior Head. Superior Head.56 Exercise 150. bi' /^-Syll. iz it laikli ta bi' -^pa:manant? dount 8ei liv SAmwsa nia /livapul stri:t? dount ju' Gigk ju' mait im/pru:v on SAtn av 8i:z meGadz ^dount get inta sAtJ a /tempa wen pi:pl kritisaiz ju* . si: ka:nt ju: \z it riali wot ai m im/posabl ta gou Sea? ^wnd ju' laik ta luk /ouva 8a bildig? Exercise 153. ra:6a ma/natanas. High-Rising Nucleus. ^iznt it High-Rising Nucleus. "•••/ dount dount 6igk it s tu: iould? >draivig set? in SAtJ" a /hAri. ENGLISH INTONATION High-Rising Nucleus. 3-Syll. 6-Syll. High-Rising Nucleus. ju' Gigk i6is wAn mait du:? ~W9: ju: in itaim jestadi? "did ju: sei /ju: kad du: SAin ov 53m? ""6aet "dount Eixercise 151. ju' bi' 5-SyU.

Unbroken Scandent Head. High-Rising Nucleus. did it ^woznt im/paitant anAf? kudnt ju' pa/sweid im ta let ju' o:f? (Good examples of Tone-Group 2 containing a 5 or more syllable Unbroken Scandent Head appear to be of rare or doubtful occurrence. 3-SyU.) . ••'/ "wa:nt ^wudnt 'Tii' kanisent ta 5a tjeint^s? ju' sei? woznt at /houm."HEADS" OF THREE AND MORE SYLLABLES Exercise 154. 57 High-Rising Nttcleus. Unbroken Scandent Head. iznt it /rait? ^woz it in /oigast? ju' 3/reinrf3 to ju" kamt dount -^aint kAm? sitjueijn get /taiad av 6aet soit sv 6ig? ig/zsedsareitig Sa ju' ra:6a? Exercise 155. 5ei in 6a -^vei? i' ^-Syll.

4-SyU.••/ didnt ju' "^si: im t9/dei? ju' ^'wud kE9 t9 ""gou an /get wAn? i' ••. Broken Scandent Head. ••. ENGLISH INTONATION High-Rising Nucleus. ^ju s-Syll. "•. 'aint 8ei 'iz it High-Rising Nucleus.-/ 'woznt "^raiQar iod? ' ^wudnt ^"iznt it /gud wAn? "^raiSgr 9 /koman keis bi' a didnt ju' Gigk 8ei /w9:kt ha:d 9nAf? fa: 9i "^da ju: pri^ /ibstreitid idijn? Exercise 159. it it 5-Syll. High-Rising Nucleus. 6-SylL Broken Scandent Head.58 Exercise 156.•• ""haevnt ju' '''ev9 si:n ju' "dount "waint "Gigk iQouz -"mait bifo:? bi' /tould abaut it? 8ei -^ra:8a "^baedli /o:f 9t 8aet taim? . ' High-Rising Nucleus.' ^"spiik ^igglij? -^iz 6set "^jo: /dog ai so:? "Tcaint ju' aheind^ t9 kAm sAmtaimz? a:nt "^ju' ig^zaedgareitig 59 sitjueijn ra:69? Exercise 157.• ••••. ••. Broken Scandent Head.•• '••••. ^dount dAz i' ^'nou iSaet?! •V. ^raiSgr iould? get / in taim? bi' "Tcwait in /oida? 'did ju' mai AetsT it 'dount ju' ""Sigk ^ri9li >wud beta? 'niidwi' /tiAbl gbaut it? Exercise 158. Broken Scandent Head.

(Examples of Tone-Group 3 containing a 4 or more Syllable Head appear to be rare or of doubtful occurrence.. ju' 3.) Inferior . 3 kad 3V Waiad! mi:n "in I^Lrndgn"! ju" it W3Z 53 1*best bAta! SAm av 8i 'UAQaz malt nou! if ju' wa 1*S9:tn hi' d hi* 8s3. [%>]. 59 Falling-Rising Nucleus..."HEADS" OF THREE AND MORE SYLLABLES Tone-Group Exercise 160.

• dount 8aet s not wot T^saitn miin! or SAm ^if piipl lidai laik 83m! gou Sea! ai wa ov it! ^noubodi Wontid ta .. ySyll.. Superior Head. bi: tu: I^Joa^! T^ai Exercise 161. ''•% "'"'V/ '''\.• ''•'>.'''>.6o ENGLISH INTONATION Falling-Rising Nucleus.

"HEADS" OF THREE AND MORE SYLLABLES Exercise 165. . 'Umenl plipl 9d du' It. ^it '\.y s not 8 1*810111119. Unbroken Scandent Head. ^maind ju* dount Saet iznt 'UevriGig. 'Ufo:!! 3-Syll. Falling-Rising Nucleus. 6i Falling-Rising Nucleus. 4-Syll. ju' malt av 'Uritn tu' itn! "al dount Glgk Exercise 166. Unbroken Scandent Head.

. dount 'kirop ju* iznt VvriSig.. it! 'V '>. 4-Syll. % abaut ^maind ju' "^dount fg'Uget 'nau ai ' kAm ta 'UGigk ^Qaet -^woznt Sa UJiif difiklti. Exercise 168.62 ENGLISH INTONATION Falling-Rising Nticleus.. ^ai dount si: wot 'Uju:s it is gouig ta bi'.. i' didnt 1>nou.. it. if " Falling-Rising Nucleus. ... Exercise 167. Broken Scandent Head.. — ^if ju' "^maind "^Saet "^dount 'Umaind. 'ai "^dount "Sigk l^evribodi ad du' y'\. ^'^ or y */ — or it! hi: "^iz iml^peijiit abaut or or /.. Broken Scandent Head.. 3-Syll.. it! it.

"^63 z nA0ig ta ^wAri abaut. it. 4-SyW. wount hsev ta weit niAtJ" ^bgga ^ju' . houp haev gud ^weSa. Low-Rising Nucleus. sou -^du' ai niAtJ" it ^mi:. 5-Syll Continuous Scandent Head. kAm baek az sum az ^posabl. g^wei. ai ai 1 saitn ta ^poust it. 6a beta fa 6-Syll Continuous Scandent Head. az wel az ju' _ykaen. dount faget ta ^rait. ju' z-Syll Unbroken Scandent Head. 63 Low-Rising Nucleus. dount du: tu: mAtJ ^W9:k. Continuous Scandent Head. mait av bi'n mAtJ 1 hi' bi' bi' daun ju' 1 in a ^minit. 4. "^maind ju' du' it -j. Exercise 174.propali. ai 1 du: mai ^best fo' ju. "^it s a greit konsa^leijn. [_>]. 1 ai 0ii)k it 1 bi' oiL^rait. "^put it maind "^gud dount ^lu:z it. _^ "^ai J"a:nt fa-^get a:ft3_:. it Low-Rising Nucleus."HEADS" OF THREE AND MORE SYLLABLES Tone-Group Exercise 171. Low-Rising Nucleus.' Exercise 172. "^maind ju' dount target it. Exercise 173.

ENGLISH INTONATION Low-Rising Nucleus. . "^maind ju ^douiit ^fo:l.64 Exercise 175. Broken Scandent Head. 3-SyW. dount ^"kiip im _>weitig.

Section VIII Five-Syllable Exercises on the Tone- Groups. with the Nuclei in varying positions The following five-syllable exercises give one example of each of the Tone-Groups. subdivided according to the nature of the head. 65 . the intonawould have been forced or uimatural. and to have shown the 57 different tion ways of intoning it. Each example is repeated five times. the nucleus being shifted one word forward at each repetition. so I have chosen a different for and appropriate key-sentence each variety of Tone-Group. For the purpose of this demonstration it would have been interesting (and more striking) to have selected one sentence only. however. In many cases.

Exercise 184.* '>hau [•^'\]. 6. 5am \la:st wi:k. waz '\wai juwaz wai '^ju: waz wai ju' '^went went went went went 1. 5.^ [ >]. 1718. 16. >hi: waz il. [—>]. 3. i' waz il. i' waz >il. ^"ai \9o:t 20. Of rare or doubtful occurrence in such types of sentence. i. Wai did ju' kAm hia ? ^wai >did ju' kAm hia ? ^wai did ~»ju: kAm hia ? wai did ju' >kAm hia ? ^wai 23 24.66 ENGLISH INTONATION Tone-Group 1. Sam laist wi:k. i' >woz il. [-^X]. 13. 1.2 \ai 9o:t 19. 179. i' waz wai wai 7. [\]. Exercise 182. but the speaker would tend to transform it into a broken scandent. 8. 4. 14. * * ^ example of Exs. 15- >6em la:st wi:k. 21. ^ai 0o:t ''ai 6o:t ai 9o:t waz il. 6. nou 5am? hau '^Jud ai nou Sam ? hau Jad '\ai nou Sam? hau Jad ai '\nou Sam? hau Jad ai nou '\6em? 1 Exercise 180. \ai so: ai ~Vsoi ai so: ai so: ai so: '^hau Jad ai 2. i8o. 22.1 [ '>]. 6am laist wi:k. 9. Shown as a continuous scandent. Sset '^woz Sset Sset Sset 10. did ju' kAm >hia ? 25 26 wel Souz pla:nts grou !* '^wel Souz pla:nts grou ''Tiau wel 'VSouz pla:nts grou !* !' liau wel Souz '\pla:nts grou 'Tiau — ''Tiau wel Souz pla:nts '^grou !* ^ ^ Apparently indistinguishable from the Apparently indistinguishable from the Apparently indistinguishable from the first first first example of Ex. '\&set [—'\]. Exercise 181. ju' ju' Exercise 183. . example of Ex. 11 12. Exercise 179. 180 and 182. Sam la:st \wi:k. 6.





Exercise 185.
27. 28.



Exercise 188.




ai iksen teik ai ai

30. 31.

mai buk. mai buk. kgn /teik mai buk. kan teik /mai buk. kan teik mai /buk.


42. 43. 44.



kan kAm nau. kan kAm nau.

if if if

ju' 'Uksen
ju' ju'

kAm nau.

kan 'UkAm nau. kan kAm T^nau.

Exercise 186,


i] or


Exercise 189.
45. 46. 47. 48.



/did ju' get mai ka:d?
did /ju: get maika:d?
^did ju'



6ii)k 6ei plei.

32. 33. 34. 35.

ai 'kiotmt ai ai ai

/get mai ka:d?
get mai /ka:d?

did ju' get /mai ka:d?
^did ju'

Gigk 8ei plei. dount T^Sigk 8ei plei. dount Gigk 1<3ei plei. dount 0igk 6ei 'Uplei.

Exercise 187.

ai teik

Exercise 190.





38. 39.



9ouz bsek? /ai teik 5ouz bsek? ai /teik 5ouz bsek? ai teik /5ouz bsek? ai teik 5ouz /bsek?*

50. 51-


ka:nt luk


T^kamt luk



"^ju' ka:nt 1*luk set im. "^ju'



kamt luk Wt im. kamt luk at Tihim.


Apparently indistinguishable from the



of Ex. 185.


as unbroken scandent but the speaker would tend to transform

into a

broken scandent.

Apparently indistinguishable from the




Ex. 188.



Section IX.

Exercises on


Heterogeneous Head

a combination of any of the types already


They may be marked

in tonetic transcription

by an appropriate use

of the various S5anbols already illustrated.

be (and the author hopes) that further research will elucidate the problems presented by these seemingly eccentric and There is probably some connection between these and irregular forms. certain imsolved problems of stress and length. All that we can say in the present state of our knowledge is that the varying head-curves correspond more or less to the various degrees of prominence expressed


some or

all of

by each

significative element in the head.

may perhaps represent embryonic nuclei. Let ai dount example given in the following exercises: eigk ai >k3en||. By placing more emphasis on the word "dount," this But as a word may become equal in prominence to the nucleus "ksen." Tone-Group, by definition "can only contain one maximum of prominence" the word "dount" wiU become the nucleus of an independent tone-group, and the sentence wiU read
of these heads

us take the




\dount GigkH

ai \kaen||


•\..\ or •..>

Exercise 192.

Heterogeneous Heads.

Tone-Group i


^doimt Gigk ai ^ksen.

6aet s ig

v "^ost mai >ki:. ^zsekili wot ai


'^Qa point iz Icwait -vklous wai wi a
hi' Goit it

ai "Vniidnt



tu' it!

6aet s

abaut in "V8is wei. keim ^ra:99 ha:d >Ap. hi' waz ai >poustid dount Gigk ai

— —

waz wot

tu: >kould.
ai \sed.





^dount kwait >nou.

•••/ •• " igzaekli sei ai /laik wud ju' it kea ta istei? ^od ^5ei ••'} or ••"/ si: Sei 0o:t didnt eni /rats. Tone-Group 2 it.. 'Uhaebit i: m in Sa 1 V •*. •". —did get liv mai /let9? dount 6ei dount ai ^SAmws3 nia /hia? it. V or-'. •" •• f .. ••' ai m freid lia:dli ^av 1*9ii)k sou. mAtJ. sou niAtJ 8a kwestjn av 1*niAni. ^Sar a T^boSa sAmtaimz. 3 lot ov 'Unonsns. ^sed ^not s ^it wDznt a av du'ig. haednt eni abidsekjn tu' ^iznt ^ju: •" Sat ai /laik duig it. hi' it Heterogeneous Heads. ^dAznt si:m ta 'Ukea veri i* bat ai it s du: ^ra: 0igk mait av Txiei. ^wot ai Tone-Group 3 [%]. ./ /taim? ^ra:S3r in Ezeicise 194.• •'•. ••'••/ •••..••* waz bat laist /wi:k ju* wa hia? — — —iznt — ^woznt it it ^did ju: /si: ^niali im? Sa /wei? •'-. ••' tor •••'.. ' [/].. T^traid... o:l ai ka:nt weit hiar .' 1* ^mait 'kx:st mi'.// ••'. ai it ENGLISH INTONATION Heterogeneous Heads. This might also be transcribed • Sei 0o:t it it od ^Sei didnt si: eni /raets.70 Exercise 193... ai Jad ju' hi' 8igk r Wud.

^wen ai Tone-Group 4 M tel ju' v v ^finijt. ounii ^plenti ai V got ta get mai ^buits on. it s ^nou ^gud ^grAmblig. ai dount 6igk wi' Jad av ^seivd eniSig bai it. bi ^daun in 9 _<minit. oil ov Sam ^propali. gou an "^tel im ^not ta _<WAri abaut it. ^get mai _«haet.EXERCISES ON HETEROGENEOUS "HEADS" Exercise 195. — . or -^ai 1 tel ju' maind ai 1 ju' du: —^wen — ai ^finijt. "^ai 1 71 Heterogeneous Heads. Qa z av _<taim.

Tone-Group i has so many functions. we now have to take each of these in turn and endeavour to specify the meaning or meanings implied by them. but the exceptions are so numerous that it would be unwise to formulate any general rule to this effect. [>]. When used unduly or too extensively form of speech which has been described as " gushing. We shall conclude that a coherent and consistent system of semantic laws underlies all Tone-Group 1. Such intensification produces effect. in which it is intoned. and we have noted and recorded certain phenomena connected with " intensification. We have also considered the range of the fall or rise. we shall see how a given word or group of words may change its meaning according to the way these tonetic phenomena. the relative pitch and direction of the " head" tones. which means that it results [\] a particularly vivacious in that Intensification is may become ['\]. we have divided them into four classes according to the nature of the nucleus. The Semantic Functions of Tone-Groups the We have so far considered the Enghsh Tone-Groups from the pomt of view of their form. We shall therefore consider the several values of Tone-Group i according to the nature of its "heads." All word-groups with a falling nucleus are subject to intensification. and these vary so greatly according to the nature of the "head" that I have so far failed to find any comprehensive formula for its use." more characteristic of the speech of women and children speakers.Section X. 72 than of that of men . It is sometimes assumed that it necessarily expresses some sort of finality." We have however said little concerning the significative (or "semantic") value or values of the tone-groups.

[You didn't [It's green. is 73 almost The system 1.] ai etc. The implications contained "Then. the prominence entirely confined to the nucleus-word. Statements putting forward a fact-not previously mentioned.SEMANTIC FUNCTIONS OF THE TONE-GROUPS (a) With Inferior Head. when the whole of the significative prominence falls on the word marked by the nucleus.] wot did i' "Vsei? . Retorts. In a tone-group containing an inferior head. Saet s 5set s it s \blu:! 69 seim "VSig! d3Ast wot ai "Vsed! (iii) Announcements. s Answers to questions. [Where are you going to-morrow?] ai dount \nou. ai so: 8aet s ai 2. see him. In Categoric Statements having a conclusive or The implication contained is: is "What The (i) I am putting forward in this statement. \d3Dn jestgdi. in that case are: " " is "Never mind about that. N^-. [Are you pleased with it?] 9v "Vkois ai sem. 9D:t >lii: W9Z Qg wAn tg bleim. an absolute fact.] ws9 w9' \ju:? [I don't care what he wrote.f*' meid 9v \wud. [ — \] is used: final character." best examples are to be found in ^^ a pi:s 9V \f9:nitj9. (ii) Categoric Contradictions. what I want to know [Never mind where I was. it [What's a table?] [What's it made of?] it s [Is that right?] \jes || it Mz.] \did || (si: im)! \nou. In Special Questions {= questions containing an interrogative word). wot \ai ju:s< t9 6igk.

a:m"Vtj6a.] [Very well then.. and so on.] 3. in that case "Never mind about that. wea z 8i \A8a wAn? wai not \a:sk im? In Commands when the whole of the significative prominence faUs on the word marked by the nucleus.74 ENGLISH INTONATION [Then.. but] a: 8ei az \gud? [After all. ju' 8k"Vsept it? know where this one but] [In that case. konva"VseiJn. The implications contained are: "But " after all.." "Perhaps our difficulty in coming to a decision is due to the that we have not asked ourselves the following question.] dount \du: it! an faind a\nA83! In General Questions ( = questions requiring merely yes or mo as an answer) used as tentative solutions to problems.. .." fact "Here's a point which may solve the problem. [We've been talking about whether you can go." go. whether you must whether it's right for you to go. but] ^" da ju' \wDnt ta gou? [Here's a way out of the difficulty:] kudnt wi' gou dsa \leita? [The important thing to know is] wil it Wa:k? [We know they're cheaper... what [You're tired? [If " I Very well like then. eaAtim. are: The impUcations contained "Then... as one 4. in that case.] iz it joiz ta Vgiv? 5.." Now I come to think about it.] want you to do is gou an lai >daun! trai " you don't doing it.] [I wai did is. In Isolated Words. isn't enough.. when quoted or contrasted with other words.

ai ai dount >laik Qset so:t it! 9V Gig! ka:nt dis^kraib >mai aidig. the nucleus however (as by 1. The system >] is used: less Categoric In Statements of a In the same in a Nature. ^ws9 daz i' >liv? hau ksn ^witj ai >get 5e3? wAn did >ju: teik? ^wot ^wai 3. we may have one prominent or outstanding sentence Such sentences (especially when of an emotional or dramatic character) are generally intoned according to this system They are sentences which might be italicized in their entirety. in a passage. meid ju' >menjn it tu' im? dount ju* kAm an sit -vdaun? In Commands in their most normal form without any special implications. mait av >noun ai Judnt du: satj a ^ai Gigk ju: o:t ta >spiik tu' im! ^sAdnU 5ei so: 9ri: inoimas >wulvz! 5aet iznt ^ju: 0ii)! 2. definition) having the [ maximum of prominence. In Special Questions (= questions containing an interrogative word) in their most normal form. ^gou an >get 9 du: wot ai ^neva ju: -vmaind! ^ju: -vtel ju! . without any special implications.SEMANTIC FUNCTIONS OF THE TONE-GROUPS Tone-Group (6) 75 1.) With Superior Head. fju:. word way that we may have one prominent or outstanding sentence. kAm trai an sit >daun. is In a Tone-Group containing a superior head. {Continued. [\]. 69 >la:d3 wau. the prominence dis- tributed over the head and the nucleus-word.

any man.. wen ju: or so can ! it isn't.and I answer the question negatively in advance. the implication win be an affirmative answer: ^iznt 8set >gud ov im?! [Of course [I it is.r^ let s haev a-»nA5a. so can kAm.] If however the question contains a negative word." "Although negative.." I know that the answer is "The question [Glendower. Hotspur.) [-^^l.] ^wount 9aet bi ^Lvvli?! [= 1.. Scandent Head. is.76 ju: teik ENGLISH INTONATION mai 9d>vais! abaut it. (Continued.. the nucleus however (as by definition) having the maximum of prominence. In General Questions = questions requiring merely yes or «o as an an answer) with the following special implications: ".] Tone-Group (c) [\] or [->]. The significative difference between the Superior and Scandent Heads is difficult to define with precision.] ^dount ju: >0igk sou?! know you It will do. With Scandent Head a." Act III.. the prominence is distributed over the head and the nucleus-word. ( 4. Scene I... . ^doiint bi' tu: >Jo.. 2 In a Tone-Group containing The First Part of "King Henry IV. be lovely. ^ or -^Juar." I ask the question. but] [I say he hasn'tl] haez i' dAn iz >dju:ti?! [Of course ^iz it wa:0 wail peiig eni a^tenjn ta satj Gigz? can call spirits I. but] ^wil 8ei >du: ko:l fo' Qam?!^ ^a: wii gouig ta sgb^mit ta Sis steit av 6igz?! a: 8ei >gud?! [I know they're deep. As compared with a Superior Head. Why. I from the vasty deep.

kAm -^daun! General Questions. by the superior head may. ['^>] >] except (as already stated) that the scandent head expresses more animation. av Gig! Statements. ^wulvz! Compare the impressive: 'sAdnli 5ei so: 6ri: inoimas with the vivacious: 'sAdnli 6ei so: 0ri: ino:m3s >wulvz! The been! been! jBrst sentence implies: "How rather: horror-struck they must have must have What a terrible situation for them!" The second sentence imphes "How surprised they What an interesting experience for them!" Compare also the gloomy: ^it waz moust dis9>pointig with the petulant: ^. Commands. however. "^wsa daz 9n sit >liv? 3.. pain. 4. disgust. The system I.SEMANTIC FUNCTIONS OF THE TONE-GROUPS the 77 Scandent Head generally expresses more animation. the scandent Exclamations expressing displeasure.. replace wot 9 dredfl or replace the intensified '\noiz! : by the "^wot 9n non-intensified nucleus ^Agli ^kAb! by a superior head : or to be intoned on the non-intensified nucleus preceded wot 9 piti it s kAm on t9 ~»rein! . 5.. it is W9Z moust diS9>pomtig! used analogously to the system [ ^ . Special Questions. ^- . ai dount >laik Qset so:t i' 3. ^"wil 6ei kAm wen ju* -vdu: ko:l fo' 59m?! Most Exclamations prove scandent head [^'^] ^ "Tiau "^nais! : to contain an intensified nucleus with a ^wot 9 ai '\bju:ti! '\du: Sigk ^priti it s Lvvli! -^au * '^kaind ov ju! litl ^wot 9 "^haus! etc.

however not the only Tone-Group used for such questions.] doimt Sigk it veri mAtJ ^maetaz [after all].then why not. The chief use of Tone-Group 2 is for General Questions It is questions requiring merely yes or no as an answer)..." second alternative (a) With Inferior Head.I admit. a lack of finality.then why.after all.. [/]. the use of on the nature of the head. The system I....?" ." questions seem to me to be simply alternative questions in Such which the is suppressed...and so therefore. and [/] imphes As Coleman points out " Here in his Intonation and Emphasis: we find what I beUeve to be the true explanation of the rising intonation in questions capable of being answered by "yes" or "no." ju: waint Anhsepi on 53 ^la:st akeisn [then this why should you be — — unhappy on it W9Z o^lrait it occasion?] /jestadi [then why isn't it all right nowl'\ iznt 9Z if it war an /ould wAn [and so therefore. [ /] is used: In Statements with such implications as ." .. _ju' b:nt ifrentj veri iizili [then why shouldn't you learn another ai foreign language easily?] .?" .. By its nature such a question expects one of two answers. the prominence almost entirely confined to the nucleus-word...78 ENGLISH INTONATION Tone-Group 2. it is therefore an alternative question. The other uses depend more or less each will be examined in turn.. (i.. Generally speaking." ..e.. the alternative "or not" ii in such cases always present to the mind. is In a Tone-Group containing an Inferior Head..

ai dount 9igk /ju: eva ni:d gou 5e3 [but stiU.] __wel... ju' niidnt sei /ai it tould ju* [and so the objection doesn't [I iznt a /paifikt spesiman admit.] __veri >wel ai if don't mind.] — 2.e. reason it seems invariably to be inferior. In General Questions answer) ( = questions requiring merely yes or mo as an when the whole of the significative prominence falls on the word marked by the nucleus.SEMANTIC FUNCTIONS OF THE TONE-GROUPS 79 arise.. hesitation or uncompleted thought. I forget is "Excuse me if I repeat the what you answered the first time {or I didn't quite catch yom: answer). and as the interrogative word is usually the word in the question such Tone-Groups are generally without a head. i. [perhaps you may be right. The best examples are to be found in a series of guesses.... such as in the "guessing game... /wot s jo' neim? /wot did ju' sei jo' neim woz? let mi' si: nau.] In Special Questions (= questions containing an interrogative word) which have already been asked and answered." G .] didnt /nou waz 5sa it is." The implication [except perhaps that.] Q^ z nA9ir) Qs /mseta wi8 it ^it it satj" [is there?] [but. for this we place this category under the "Inferior Head" group...] iznt Sat ai /laik du'ii) Gigz [I iznt a /paifikt spesiman admit.." Note. [but I'm quite prepared to believe you you say it was.] ai hsednt eni [I abMsekJn it tu.. — ^As the nucleus of such questions always falls on the interrofirst gative word. the "repeated question. but. When however a head does occur. /jes 3.] In Statements implying doubt. /wot s jo' neim? /wsa did ju' sei i' livd? ^at /wot taim did ju' gou 6sa? 4.

(Continued. For examples see Sequences 1-I-2 2-1-1 — page — page 91.] _iz ^iz it it /rum? [No.] Etc. bles ju'! Qst ai /maind mAtJ. [/]. dount 9igk gou 5e9. is In a tone-group containing a Superior Head. But good examples daz i' are found in to concentrate all the prominence any question in which on one single word: it it is desired Gigk 5at /hi: kad du' si: eni beta? iz it /oilwiz laik 5aet? 3 ju' ilaikli ta im bifo: ssetadi? __wa 5. dount /D:fn gou 9e9! it /iz! 8aet ^not woznt /mai aidia. 92. having the maximum The system [—/] or [ /] is used: ai ^jes 1. ju' eibl ta /spi:k tu' im? In Words or Word Groups the nucleus of which modifies the nucleus- word of an adjacent tone-group. Tone-Group (b) 2. In Commands having a protesting or exclamatory character. ^dount 9igk ai du'ig it i^ mai /oun seik! m bi: /peijnt! pi:pl kritisaiz ju! dount get inta SAtJ a /tempa wen ^du: bi: /kwaiat! .) With Superior Head. the prominence distributed over the head (as and the nucleus-word. by definition).] [Yes. /ju: ni:d ai 2.] iz it ^wait? /blu:? in 8is [No. the nucleus however of prominence. In Statements having a lively protesting character.8o ENGLISH INTONATION _iz it /blaek? [No.

In a tone-group containing a Scandent Head. . ju: 9ri: V Uvd hia fo:ti:n /ja:z?! [do taimz a /dei?! [did you say?] you mean that?] nia ^not /Undan?! imei? [are you sure?] [did I hear ila:d3 anAf?! you say?] in ~~9aet /jelou wau? Tone-Group (c) 2. [i]. often exclamatory questions.. the nucleus however (as by definition) having the maximum of prominence.. These are in reality General Questions having the form of Statements. I went to London ] [Nobody came here!] hu: keim /hia? hau /mAtJ iz it? [7 don't know how much it is!] /iz it? [Surely ^we9 did ai /g ou ? ! In General Questions in their most normal form without any special implication beyond " Is it true?" " . ^wot iiz it? = dount ju* nou wot it /iz? [What is it?] ^wot [Where did you go ? ] [Who came here?] [How much 4.. is it?] you know what that is!] [Why.SEMANTIC FUNCTIONS OF THE TONE-GROUPS 3. 8i In Special Questions (= questions containing an interrogative word) which are merely echoes of somebody else's question.please answer yes or no. the prominence is distributed over the head and nucleus-word." did /ju: du: 8aet? iz /8is rait? kamt dount you mean?" or " .... {Continued.) With Scandent Head. ju: /hia mi'? sig laik 9is ju* du: wi: Mali ju' 9igk wen wi spiik? mait im/pru:v on sAm av 8i:z meGadz? In Echoed Statements. These are in reality General Questions having the form of Special Questions.

The exact semantic functions difficult to define of this tone-group are exceedingly Probably no word exists in the language which wiU aptly describe the peculiar attitude conveyed by its use. 3. the Scandent Head generally expresses more animation. 4. It is used exclusively for Statements and Commands. The system /] is apparently never used in ordinary statements nor in Commands. although perhaps the term concession expresses it better than any other. ju: /hi9 mi'? Echoed Statements of a more animated nature than those given in Tone-Group 2&. See page 81. ^wot iiz it? 2. It seems to be confined to is difficult to define with precision. (but rather severe) ka:nt ju: /hia mi"? 'K:a:nt . Its main function seems to be to express a certain kind of contrast. In the sentence [ai ^didnt sei it waz Wait. There are notable differences in meaning between the Superior and Scandent Heads of Tone -Group 2. never for Questions. . [1*]. [" 1. But so strongly does this tone imply || with precision. Tone-Group 3. ai sed it waz \bl3ek] the word white is contrasted with the word black. more animated and more exclamatory form Tone-Group 2 J. These are in reaUty General the of Questions having the form of Special Questions. Special Questions which are merely echoes of somebody else's question This is (almost invariably exclamatory). the category = "^"dount ju' nou wot it /iz? General Questions slightly more animated than those of the most normal type (Tone-Group 26.) Compare the more normal with the pleasanter 3.82 ENGLISH INTONATION The significative difference between the Superior and Scandent Heads As compared with a Superior Head. 5. In some instances this contrasting function is evident.

contrast that in


many cases the speaker leaves the second element to the imagination of the hearer, thus if I say to you: [ai ~didnt sei it W9Z Wait], you wiU say to yourself: [9en i' sed it waz sAm \a83 IcAla]. In other terms, the use of the tone [1*] implies an unexpressed com-

plementary word-group or sentence, introduced by such words as but, although, even if, because, but all the same, you mean. ~6set s not wot Im mi:n, [although it may be what \you mean.]

SAm piipl IkIu: laik Sam, [but there are others who \don't.] noubodi Wontid ta gou 8s3, [but everybody \had to.]
^5aet s


not wot ~"dount mi:n

ai 'lament ta sei,



I "vdid



ta sei hi'

d du\wel].


[but at the

same time,


don't think he'd do

^dAznt si:m T^laikli ta stop reinig,



the same



^dount odwiz



Sei Gigk,

[they sometimes con'Vceal

what they

^dount sei ai didnt


abaut im,


I "Vdid.]

Come on >Monday.]

on 'Ujuizdi [you /mean.]

The use of Tone-Group 3, then, may frequently correspond to the French use of " tout de meme." = il fait tout de meme froid. Ex. it ^iz 1*kould

To my friend, Mr. M. Kinoshita, due the discovery that the use of [1*]
of the particle [wa] in Japanese.

of University College,



in English corresponds to the use


has noticed that

Qa ~Vdokta keim 5a 'kiokta keim

= =

go kimajta.




Notes on the "Heads" of Tone-Group 3. With an inferior head, the prominence is confined to the nucleus-word. With superior or scandent heads some of the prominence is shared
difference between the superior and scandent heads Tone-Group 3 is exceedingly difficult to define with precision. The superior head tends to make the sentence impressive; it throws the whole Tone-Group into prominence in relation to adjacent Tone-Groups.

by the head. The significative


The scandent head tends Compare



the sentence (or word-group)


^maind ju: dount


(A somewhat severe or even minatory command.)





(A friendly warning expressing a sort of mock severity.)

The scandent head is frequently used (especially by amiable and nonaggressive speakers) when it is not certain whether the statement or command will be welcomed or resented.



significative value of this tone-group is peculiar,

and appears to

bear no analogy whatever to the
are there apparently

High-Rising Tone-Group


any intermediate or

transitional forms between

the two.

This, I think, justifies its right to be considered as

an inde-

pendent tone-group, and not a variety of [/]. It is used to convey the idea that aU is

well, that there is perfect

agreement between speaker and hearer; it is a reassuring intonation. It is intended to have a calming or soothing effect on the hearer but, when injudiciously used, may be irritating to adults. Like Tone-Group 3 [%], its use is confined to Statement^ and Commands,
cannot be used in Questions. It is largely used when talking to very yoimg children; indeed, in many cases any other tone would be so alarming to a sensitive child that

tearful consequences


might be anticipated. used for the last words said at the moment parting from anyone, consequently most farewell greetings are intoned



it is



this system.

The head
to note the


almost invariably Scandent (we have already had occasion

animated nature of

type of head).
which are neither commands nor

The term

statement here covers all sentences




"^gud ->bai. gud _<mo:nig. "^gud aifta^nuin.

ju' _<su:n.

"^dount fa^'get ta "Tjaiii baek dount ^wAri abaut it.
^rait 3z '^su:n sz ju' ^kaen. "^663 z a gud ^boi. rAn abi) an _<plei.

"^dount meik "^tu: mAtJ


. 'f 3. Statements having reassuring character. Most normal when intensified [ ^]. 3. Animated. 4. Isolated. Commands. / Most normal form. 4. etc. Tone -Group 3 f I. 5. Parting Greetings. Statements with implication I. Special Questions when repeated. with prominence distributed overhead. implpng " the answer is in the Exclamations. \ 2. -\ { 3. chiefly for contrast. I ' Statements 2. 4.. Echoed Statements. 1." I.. Special Questions. 5. ( Animated. Commands. implying concession. 1. Commands /Used Tone-Group 4 [-'] -tf i.." General Questions.. Words Tone-Group 2 I. General Questions with prominence confined to nucleus-word. 4. Special Questions. 1. Special Questions echoed (in animated manner). 2. [contrary. Words when quoted or contrasted. Statements "> Animated. Echoed Statements. 2. hesitation. "Then why. ' 2. o j f o —} Special Questions echoed. I 2. . with prominence almost entirely confined to nucleus-word. General Questions. normal form. 5.. General Questions implying "The answer Commands. normal form. General Questions. 3. Statements.?" Statements implying doubt. is in the contrary. Animated. Most normal form.. Animated. ">. Most normal form. Special Questions. mavmg lively protestmg character. 2. ^ Commands .. General Questions.SYNOPTIC SUMMARY OF THE SEMANTIC FUNCTIONS OF THE TONE-GROUPS. Tone-Group I Statements with prominence distributed over head. or word groups modifying nucleus -word of adjacent [Tone-Groups. Categoric Statements. Animated. 3.

^ underlining and suchlike written devices. he has formed certain much that is helpful and suggestive. Collins was calm. in his Intonation the fimctions of tonetic phenomena. we unconsciously observe these unwritten laws of English intonation. tone-sequence. subordination. waz ^kaim. The association of tone-groups in sequences has certainly a great bearing on problems of semantic expression. Without commas the sentence might be "One intoned : ^mista maikl 'Ukolinz 69 trsevbz sez With the comma.Section XL "Sequences" of Tone-Groups ( A sentence may contain one. It will be found that tone-sequences may express various forms of co-ordination. contrast. almost indifferent. and other ^I have just noted in a news paragraph describing a collision in the Irish sea: of the travellers says Mr. the sentence might be intoned sez mista maikl /kolinz. etc. ColMns said that the traveller was calm. In the present state of our knowledge (or rather ignorance) little we can do conclusions and has written and Emphasis has already broken the ground. W9Z \ka:m. this sentence means that Mr. etc. etc. maxima of promi- and consequently as many tone-groups. Coleman. By inserting commas after " says " and " ColUns " we should understand that Mr. reciprocal prominence." As it stands. Any pair or more of tone-groups in any one sentence (simple or compound) constitutes a concerning but collect t5rpical examples of the various sorts of sequences. endeavour to specify their more obvious semantic functions and trust that these collections will serve as a starting-point for further research. The intonation sequences are the spoken equivalents of what is expressed in writing by punctuation. two or more nuclei = nence). : WAn 3V . 87 . WAn 3v 63 'Utraevbz. and in so doing ensure the right connection or balance between the different parts of the sentence. throughout. Michael Collins was calm.

pourtant. and the right use of words. / \ T* (T-G. T-G.88 ENGLISH INTONATION of unnamed phenomena spoken language. used with a rapidity and spontaneity which precludes such recourse to meticulous phraseology. 2 2. for The English tone -sequences may be grouped want of better terms we may respectively The co-ordinating sequences are those in into call two classes. More especially perhaps is this the case in modern English. T-G. 3 (T-G. the appropriate use of connective words. 2 (T-G. and of the numerous significative ' ' Oriental languages. \ followed by \ „ / 1* (T-G. T-G. T-G. d'ailleurs. separated ||. 2 (T-G. cependant. dock. of the German particles of the dber. T-G. i) 2) 3) The subordinating sequences Groups are dissimilar. the stylistic peculiarity of which is a comparative rareness of the equivalents of the French du reste. [^] is apparently of rare or of doubtful occurrence in The two (or more) members of a tone-sequence may conveniently be by means of the sign which does not imply any break or pause. 2. . viz. i / '^ „ (T-G. 345- / ^ '^ „ „ „ ^ + + + + + 2) I) 3) I) ^ „ ^ 3) Tone-Group 4 sequences. except when preceded by a comma or other sign of punctuation. I (T-G. which the successive Tone- Groups are identical. mats d'un autre c6t&. T-G. tout de mime. are those in which the successive ToneT-G. 3 3- „ „ + + + T-G. In the spoken language of everyday conversation. viz. we tend to express the sequence of our ideas by means of tones. \ followed by „ „ „ . i (T-G. co-ordinating which and subordinating. nianmoins. the sequence of ideas expressed by the careful use of word order.. sondern. 1. In the polished periods of is painstaking and scholarly writers. 1.

|| ~"in -vkent ai Gigk. im abaut it. 11 . \ai \ai waz 9Ea >tu:. 1| 9a kaepitl av \fra:ns. Apposition. z ablaidsd ta gou ta \Lvndan. ai hi' V d3Ast sim "Vbraun. + Tone-Group 1. (3) Tone-Group 1 1. oir i."SEQUENCES" OF TONE GROUPS 89 THE CO-ORDINATING SEQUENCES. 1| || ai m spi:kig || av o' \paeris. 3. ai Jal bi glsed ta get ^aut || || an stretj mai Megz a htl. || |1 ai laik -^is. hi: prifaid >hiz. 9a \koman Other cases hi' "Vga:dn varaiati. ai >rout tu' ai || || 'Vjestadi. Equally prominent alternatives or it || contrasts. nia \L\ndan hi' Uvz at blsekMii:0.mei bi' \ded. o: ~V6aet wau. waz Mntristid in it. 2. "Vveri. 9a ^kaet. (2) In cases of Apposition. o: \blu:. ai prifaid || bat ai || ^dount laik ^Saet. [| || on \biznis. k9n teik "V8is wau. These are used: (i) In Sentences (simple or compound) containing equally prominent alternatives. 5a ~Vb:ja. hi' mait av bi'n aWei. waz pleiig wi6 >pi:ta. difficult to define. || ai >main an ^dount >nou an ai || an ^ju: prifaid -vjoiz. [\ || \]. ju' mei bi* \grim. In other cases difficult to define. ^dount -vksa. woznt 9ea»' \ai9a.

bat ai Jad neva ko:l ju' ^ai did. i' ai ksn teik T^aet wAn. %\m didnt. av 'kisaenjuari. da ju' mi:n /braun || —8a idokta? || hav a ai eva tould ju' abaut /d3sek ^ju: gouig on 9a fa:st av /dssenjuari —mai /dog? — || nju: jaiz /dei? Other cases difficult to define. 'Uleizi. it mei bi igri:n || 1| ^d* /blu:. || m ^not gouig ta du' it on 8a fa:st nju: ja:z IxieL. || ai hi' kamt teik I^Sis || wAn. . 1| ai ai ^woznt to:kig abaut Ijdsaek mai "Mog. — /wa:kig! |1 on /sAndi? |1 ^wa iju: 8sa itu: ? || —dount da ^ju: /ju: laik it /aiSa? /la:f |1 imsedsn ai d || —on an akei3n av / 11 /8aet so:t? Note the sequence / /ten II / || / || in enumerations: /fa:ti:n 11 _i/levn 11 itwelv 11 /ea:ti:n /fifti:n Tone-Group 3 1. 2. + Tone-Group 3. didnt T>kAm ^mei bi' |1 bat || did 'Wait. Equally prominent alternatives or contrasts. Apposition. [1* 1| 1*]. Apposition. ju' Wou. || ai dount /nou an ai doimt /ksa. |1 o: 1»blu:. it mei bi' 'l>grim. [/ || /]. bat ai dount laik /Saet. Equally prominent alternatives or contrasts. ^not 1>braun || 9a 'Udokta. ai laik /5is.go ENGLISH INTONATION Tone-Group 2 + Tone-Group 2.

im mo: Qan ha:f || a 'Ukraun || || or ^Bri: 'UJiligz.^ The following seems to me to be a possible formula to explain sub- ordinating sequences: " The speaker wishes to call the attention of the hearer to the fact that a given element in the sentence is to be related to. The one expressing the more important has the falUng. 91 Other cases 1>ju: difficult to define. sketches six general rules for the have called co-ordinating and subordinating sequences.."SEQUENCES" OF TONE-GROUPS 3... in his Intonation more general cases of what I . modified by. |1 ta \lAndan || lijestadi [but. ai went went ta || ^Lmdan went went || /jestadi. THE SUBORDINATING SEQUENCES. the one expressing the more important.." Example..] 'Ujestadi ai ta \lAndan [but. 6set s 8a av Uvig in /taun. London. ni:dnt ai ^Judnt giv gou 9s9 l^tu:. and the other the less important fact. [^ || ^'l- isAmtaimz. or connected in the hearer's mind with another element in the same sentence. and Emphasis. II hi' 'VUvz ju' ^^p/stsaz. and to assume that on other Tone-Group 1 hi' 'Vpleiz "Vai || + Tone-Group 2. /jestadi ai ai ta ^Lvndan. and the one expressing the less important has the rising or the falUngrising nucleus. These sequences are used in sentences containing two prominent elements. sei || /9set.] In all four cases the speaker invites the hearer to note the connection to between yesterday and his going days he did not go to London. ^Coleman. kan \ki:p wah |1 if ju' /laik.. ^dount 'Uspiik tu' im abaut it l^jet. ai so: jo: >brA8a ~Vbest || || la:st iwi:k.

^ hi Woz II in iLuidan^. (a) /sAmtaimz if ju' || hi' II 'Vpleiz. sAmb9di laik 8aet. SAmbgdi laik 5set -^vAns. semantically equal to [\ . protesting or angry contradiction /tju:zdi! || _not ^it II Wait! ||_not it s /blaek! ~V6s9! "Vai iznt /hia! it ! ai sed Jad du' || ai didnt sei /hi: d du[/ it Tone-Group 8 This sequence is is + Tone-Group 1. 59 trein 'VSis o:t tu' II 9v \sta:tid || b9 /6is taim. C/. it || 1| mAst bi' ai /Gigk. || except that the order reversed. /dgenraU /wAns dount \du' it. ai II ai \nju: || || II 8ei ju:si t9 ko:l /kseridsiz hi' 1 || \koutJiz. |1 ^]. la:st /wi:k || || ai so: jo: ~VbrA59. i:vn if ju' 'Ma: pei ekstra |1 ai \nju: || || \\ || >5s3 z \9is II ^53 /si:. ju' dount si: eni /mo:. This sequence "VmAndi! is also used in cases of sharp. /Sset s wot >ai sei. /laik ju' k9n "Vki:p wAn. in /Luid9n. 25. ju' dount si: eni /mo: i:vn if ju' "Vdu: pei ekstra. . |1 z 9 msen u' ko:lz 9 /speid 9 \speid. ai \toiild ju' /sou. in /lAnd9n 5ei dount pra^nauns it laik ai ENGLISH INTONATION \dount du' it idsenrali. . 5ei dount pr9\nauns it laik Qset \noub3di si:mz veri fond av ^Saet sort av Gig. ai ra:6a ~Vlaik II /5is. p. wAn /iz. /].

on "VmAndi. it. \sAm0ig z beta 8n '\>nA0ig.. II 'Uhia. || 93 ai ju:z s || \pen. (6) Note in the following examples that the tone sequence obviates the use of a word equivalent to the not /tjuizdi! || German sondern. Tone-Group 1 This sequence + Tone-Group 3. [\ || 1*]. || \ha:f a louf s beta San nou Inbred. dount >nou an ai dount \ks3. || ^not 'Utjuizdi! \mAndi! Wait! ||~not 'Ublaek! it ~iznt 'Uhia! it s ^8sa! II ai sed \ai Jad du' it! || ai didnt sei T^hii d du' it! .. ai "Vdu: || not tal^morou."SEQUENCES" OF TONE-GROUPS wen ai ai /rait. it s \569. \mAndi! it s _not _it ai /blaek! ||\wait! || iznt ihia! \8s3! it! || didnt sei /hi: d du* ai sed \ai Jad du' it! Note the use of this sequence 11 when concluding an enumeration: ieitim 11 ./siksti:n /sevntiin 11 /naintim || >twenti. may ^not be used in contradiction having a polite or "concessive" character. This sequence is the present case the contrast II used for similar purposes as [\ /] except that in is expressed less aggressively. it implied between the two words waz 9o \hi:t II || raiQa 89n 89 Waik witj" Apset im. || nou ai dount mioh ItSigk is ai nou it. In the following examples contrast constituting the respective nuclei.

av 8a misteiks \mei bi* a misprint. || Wau Ijhi: V got l^tu: in wau "Vsentans. Wau ju' II wi' hsevnt 'Vtaim. \pen. wot II gud anAf 1>ju: || Jad bi- gud euAf fa \mi:. kaint 'Vpru:v ba taim || || ai ~Vko:s hi' ju' oil it. ai m 'Vsori || abaut Wset. ai ba'Uliiv haed ta lai in \bed far a dei a tu:. [% \\ \]. s tu: "Vleit || || 'l^nau. 'l>pru:v it || kamt II af >ko:s. wen ai 1*rait.94 ENGLISH INTONATION Miscellaneous Examples. || bat 8i V8a s || \ka:nt fa bi'. ha:f 9 'Ulouf s || beta 59n nou 1>bred. neva II Wud || admit it. \nju: Ai' d T^sed it. 'UsAm ov as hsed \fa:6a ta gou. . liSaet s wot meid im sou ai ju:z a "Vkro's. except that the order reversed. Tone-Group 3 This sequence is is + Tone-Group 1. ai W9Z "Vounli seiig wot1*A69 piipl ad sei. semantically equal to [^ || %]. Wahs ai went t9 69 rorj "Vsteijn. II WAn ju' JAi) || felou i' waz kam pliitli nokt >Ap. ai l^ai kad du' it. \dount gou Ssa veri %oiin 'Vdidnt sei || wi' ai || || wi' hsevnt \taim it || 'Vnau. d o'Uredi wo:kt niali Wsiti mailz. s9l>pouz i' ment it az a kaind av ai II || prsektikl \d30uk.

[woznt]). /Judnt av || . T^ai wot II fad av sed. 1*9o:t sou. is 95 + Tone-Group 3. Heterogeneous See. embryonic nuclei. Page 69. remarks concerning Miscellaneous Examples. Heads. ai /dount || jj 'USipk ai du:.] 3 with a scandent head probably nothing other than the simple Tone-Group ["^1*] in which one of the head-syllables is felt to warrant become prominent enough an independent nucleus- '^it it woznt Wait (with unemphatic /woznt Wait (with emphatic II [woznt]). __wi' /oifn Mu'. under heading."SEQUENCES" OF TONE-GROUPS Tone-Group 2 This sequence to have tone. _it Anait >nouwAn /58et s ai _hv% II II IjdAz spiik laik Qaet. [/ 1| %[. hia.

or or it s getig T^leit. in ten >minits. \9is niAst bi' it ai /9igk.Section XII. Phonetic Texts in Tonetic Transcription. "Vdsa z wi a kwait 'Vklous tu' or wi a kwait it! -*klous tu' it! 96 . oidad ibrekfast? ju' hsM \jes. || ai 1 bi' _wen ai-m a or ^a wi' v hsed /brekfast. si:. V or ^ounli gat ta get mai ^bu:ts on. "Vounli got iz || || ai V ta get mai _<bu:ts on. bi' it ai mAst 8a >8sa z or 8a /si:. ^si:. ju' /redi? or ai Jl bi' ai a ju' iredi? ^redi in a ^minit. 'Uleit. ai 1 bi' ^daun in ten ^minits. I. ai m afreid 8is Aoutel al bi' ra:9ar ik^spensiv. ai 1 bi' or or ^daun daun in ten ^minits. hsednt ju' beta get /Ap nau? or it s hsednt ju' ' beta get /Ap nau? getig Meit. ^freid 8is Aoulitel Hal bi' ra:8ar ik\spensiv. ai ^wAnda witj or \8is II 9a wei ta 8a Gigk. wi' 1 gou aut an luk fa "Vlodsigz. it s ^ju: getig hsw or -yjes. ^aidgd /brekfast? or "V6set s oil rait.

or it s tu: "Vkould fo: mi'.PHONETIC TEXTS IN TONETIC TRANSCRIPTION bear 3 ^wot \seilig let s 97 sam "Vbouts. ^wot da ju' du: wi6 ju' jaself on >SAndiz? o:l or ju' ^wot da it >du: wi5 jaself on SAndiz? mAst faind or or ^ju: ra:5a /dAl livig hiar it ba jaself. wel ""ai 1 luk or -^hia: || ^bei5 an ^ju' Jl etc. sei tu' a || da ju' bouts >rou? Mu:-} gou wi' wi' far a >seil! || wi' haevnt "Vtaim or /nau || haevnt ^taim 'Unau: or wi' haevnt taim T^nau: V got ta faind Mo:d3igz. O' twelv mailz aut av ilAudan. II. ju' \faind mi' or ju' 1 || /hia wen kAm ju' "Vfaind mi' hia wen kAm _jbaek. niAst faind it || ra:6a MaI livig hiar o:l o:l ba jaself." . II ^wen /fain it s ai or ou. || ai teik 6a trein abaut ten || o' or ^ ai teik 8a /trein abaut ten twelv mailz aut av /Lvndan. ju' mAst faind it s ra:6a ~VdAl livig hiar ba jaself. ai 1 ibeiS |1 "Vju: Andastaend 6aet 1 so:t || || beta Qan iai du:^ \baek. wi' "l^Saet ^mei az wel haev a %heib 5ou: teik log. || \ou. wount tu: T^ai it s Ja:nt beiS: '^kould 1| fa 'Umi:. gou an luk av Gig ju' || fa -^lodsigz. " "Vseilig bouts tu: " would mean nothing except " Those rowing boats are also sailing boats. Adapted from Sweet's Primer of Spoken English. ai dsenrali gou aut av "Vtaun on SAndi. wen ifain dsenraU gou aut av \taim on AAndi.

or "Venihau. or it s ra:99r /o:kw9d || SAmtaimz on /sAndiz. 9n 99 W9Z wi' it W9z 99 la:st Itrein. an wo:k aut ta SAm pleis wear ai kg get a trein or ^SAmtaimz it s rai53r \o:kw3d or it s raidar >3:kw9d sAmtaimz liSAmtaimz or it s raiSar \o:kw9d 1| || -vbsek. 9n sou haed t9 gou tg 9i \a99 wau. or ai ra:99 'Veigk wi' went t9 99 \rog steijn. it or "Venihau. dsAst 9z wi' keim Ap t9 99 /steijn. or ai ra:99 T^Gigk wi' went t9 99 rog \steijn. mait or "Vi:zli 9v let 9S |1 /in. nou -«help fo:r it: or an 99 waz ^nou 'Vhelp foT it: or an 99 waz nou /help fo'r it: or an 99 W9z ^nou -^help fo'r it: haed ta wo:k -»houm. 99 || trein didnt sta:t tu: minits -\a:ft9. || || || || || || || rimenib9 wAns || 99 hi' ^po:t9 jAt 99 do:r in auo >feisiz. || bikoz 99r 9 sou fju: \treinz or ai bikoz bar a sou ai fju: >treinz on isAndiz. "Venihau.98 ENGLISH INTONATION 9n wo:k aut tg SAm pleis wear ai kg get 9 trein >b8ek. t9 99 \rog steijn. . fa 9a trein didnt fa 'Vsta:t til tu: minits til || /a:fta. it waz 99 || la:st >trein. W9Z aut f9 69 dei wi9 9 lot 9V /felouz or ai ri ^membg waus ai W9z aut f9 99 dei wi9 9 lot 9v /felouz WAns ai W9z aut f9 99 dei wi9 9 lot 9V felouz or ai ri\memb9 ^mist auo >wei sAmau getig t9 99 steijn. ai |1 s9pouz ment 9z a kaind av praektikl "Vdsouk. or wi haed ta >wo:k hoxmi. ai 1*10:99 9igk wi' went or ai 1*ra:99 6igk wi' went t9 99 rog \steijn. 9n wi getig t9 99 >steijn. ai sg'Upouz i' ment i' it 9z a kaind av praektikl >d3ouk. or 9n wi ^mist au9 -dwei SAmau or 9n wi mist au9 >wei SAmau getig t9 99 ^steijn.

/buk mai ^met mi' at 6a >steij"n. \wAn. II \wel. 1| or \nou ai ai II bat wi' d o'lVedi woikt til niali /Saiti mailz. >5set or or or or woznt mAtJ. || Vnou II bot wi' d o'lVedi wo:kt niali "VGaiti mailz. Adapted from Sweet's Primer of Spoken English. fo:ti:n -^mailz. an 1*SAm ov as haed \fa:6a ta gou. ^wot ai da ju" -»9igk? V hsed a ~^kworal or or ai ai wi8 pra fesa ^smi9. /wAn JAg felou waz km pliitU nokt or Wah || || -^Ap. || 1| -^smiG. "Vwel. \\etc. ai ba/liiv \\etc. wel ^aset woznt mAtJ. haed a >kworal wi5 pra fesa V V haed a kworal wi9 prafesa "Vsmie. kAmz in ba 6a seim \trein. ^wel i5set woznt mAtJ. waz nAn 6a wa:s fo:r it. an /sAm ov as haed \fa:8a ta gou. keim aut.PHONETIC TEXTS IN TONETIC TRANSCRIPTION hau or -^fa: 99 woz it? fo:ti:n -^mailz. III. ai didnt get houm nia "VwAn. . ai ~d3Ast veri dei tel ju' aa hi' hi' hau it >hsepnd. or or didnt get didnt get || houm || til til nio nio /houm |1 >wAn. 1<5aet woznt mAtJ. it ^woznt 1*mai 1 fo'lt. or JAg felou waz km pli:tli nokt >Ap. ai baliiv i' haed ta lai in || \bed far a dei a tu:. II /wel. lai in or or '\»ai ai bal^Uiv i' haed ta \bed far a dei a tu:.

" 931 3: mis^teiks in ^sou ai sed* "/ri3li? II 98et s /intristig. jes. veri msen ai wontid ta >si:. dount wont or ai t3 h3:t jo' 1>fi:ligz.31. or ai sed:^ || luk >hi3 ..^ || "wel.. baut 9aet >buk 3v II \]u: /nou. jo' 93 joiz..3:.. ^didnt s3pouz ai let Ssm pAbliJ eni9ig wi9 it mai neim tu' it wiSaut nouig we93 8ei d TjdAn or or prDp3li. .. o' k3 loukwisl >igglij or SAinGig.. ju: or /nou..3:." sou 9en "wel.. it. || k3loukwi3l || "ViggliJ o* /sAmSig ai f3~Vget ^did ju: 9i igzaekt /neim." dAii it 'UprDp3li..2 — wel.. ^dount II — b3t." it tu' or dAn i' /prDp3li. 1>fi:ligz.2 wont t3 li3:t jo' _t3 put it iblAutli II or t3 \put it lot av liblAntli. 3 II "Vkoulman. . II or "Visli? \98et s || /intristig. ^ Neutral tone. luk \hi3 .loo ENGLISH INTONATION sou i' bi gaen bs konvg/seijn || bai ^seiig or or sou sou i' bi1>gaen 9a konvaseijn bai seiig: i' bigsen bs konvaseijn bai seiig || i^ "\ou.." ju' it didnt sapouz ai let 93m pAbliJ eni9ig wi9 mai neim wi9aut nouig we93 9ei d idAn it prop3li... 1 A low level tone-group without a nucleus. si: 93 /pru:fs?" sed: sou 3f \ko:s ai sed: or sou 3f \ko:s or || 'Uai sou 3f ko:s ai sed:^ " ju' ^gud >b:d.

. ai pritendid ta ai II Gigk i- waz rifa:rig ta sam inis->prints || etc. '9a II WAn or or av misteiks 'Umei bi- || "Vmei bi' a misprint. || or m abaut -^Qset." || or or ai \gest "wel ju' ju' "wel got T^tu: V V got ~Vtu: || || etc. || or or or 1 >wAii av 9a misteiks >mei ''Umei bi' a mis\print. 6igk i' waz rifairig si:. ju' or or ju' /si:. wot waz ai \gest l^kAmig az 9 msetar 9 or || wot waz /kAmig ta |1 9z a maetar a /fsekt.. or went " on:^ wel.. II '^mei bi* a misprint. || went or ai ai i' 9ru: 6a pru:fs veri /ksafali in\di:d. ." || or went went 6ru: 8a 'l*pru:fs veri ksafali 0ru: 9a /pru:fs veri ksafali in\di:d. bat ai ai pri ^tendid ta kept /kwaiat abaut it. a mis^print. in\di:d... || sou "\wel. sam mis^prints || ai hsednt >noutist. ^in /wAn sentans.. level tone-group without a nucleus... || ." fsekt. —WAn Low II || av 9a misteiks -vmei bi' a misprint. . bi' a misprint.PHONETIC TEXTS IN TONETIC TRANSCRIPTION loi — ^kan ju' or ^sou i' menjn WAn oifihsend?" kan ju: /menJn wAn oifihaend?" || sed^ "wel ju' V got T^tu: || in waii \sent9ns.. . sou "'\m! or or ai dsAst sed^ 6aet s ra:5a \siari9s! ha\ II 6aet s ra:5a isiarias! || \9aet s ra:5a || isiarias! m ai \sori ai abaut "Vsori T^Sset.

1 3en 8ei "\<8aet s sei^ a fain pa:sn ta la:n igglij from! '"V8aet s or a fain pa:sn ta la:n igglij from! it wai. or . bat 9i 'UaSs ka:nt a prepa>zijn || at 5i || end av at 8i a >sentans. etc.. "ant^ ju' or ju' and! ju' ' V put Shu:' v put hu: z II "^fa Shuim. evriwAn 1 \si: it || drekli 8ei pik 3a "Vbuk Ap.' 'on V put or or it >bai?' || 8a >kAva. or f II ko:s ai sed:* if eniwAn sez if 8set ta 'Vmi:. Heterogeneous Tone-Group without a nucleus.102 bat 6i or ^ju' ENGLISH INTONATION V53 V put ju' || \ka:nt bi'.. it wai. || II on 8a >kAva /tu:. M kan i' ka:nt to:k ka:nt to:k propali im-\self.. or V ^put a prepa-\zij"n || end av a >sentans. tu:^ . * * ^tu: would mean "also on the cover.. on 8a McAva /tu:. . ^eniwAU.. "^u: or ^eva av liu:eva kan got ta ^pAbliJ it?' i' " av got ta >pAbliJ' it?' sou "\wel. wel. evriwAn 1 si: it drekli 8ei pik 8a -vbuk Ap." Ix)w level Tone-group without a nucleus. or evriwAn 1 %sii it ^drekli 8ei pik 3a -^buk Ap.buk \Ap. \evriwAn 1 si: it ^drekli 8ei pik 8a -vbuk Ap...... bi'. or || || or or . ^wai. hi ka:nt to:k or or propali im"Vself.buk >Ap.. hi it /propali ||im"Vself.' || '\hu:' || fa '"Vhu:m. . ai Jl d3Ast sei:^ or or ai Jl T^ai Jl —d3Ast dsAst sei: || sei:^ on 8a -vkAva..

. II 103 || ~wot 'wel. a prepa>zijn at 8i end av 8a 'Vsentans. wot s gud anAf.Mitsritja z gud anAf || fa Ani:. sou f ko:s i fel inta 8a traep at \wAns... s gud anAf " ^wot s far s prafesar av igglij T^litaritja z gud anAf fa Wi:. ju' V or meid 8a veri misteiks ju' akju:z -vmi: ov. etc.. 1*ju: v dsAst meid 8a veri misteiks ju' akju:z '\mi: ov. ju: V d3Ast meid 8a veri misteiks ju* akju:z ->mi: ov. end dv 8a \sentans. fa:st ju' sed:^ "\*8aet s a fain pa:sn ta la:n igglij from! ' '^ or ^8aEt s a fain pa:sn ta la:n igglij -vfrom! || '* '* or ' 8aet s a fain pa:sn ta la:n •^igglij /from! 8set s a prepazijn at 6i or 8aet s a prepazijn at 3i 8aet s ju' || or end av a /sentans..' .' sou af or "Vkois II hi fel inta 6a traep at Waus..' " " .' or or 'wel. gud anAf far a prafesar av igglij /litaritja || z or or gud anAf fa \mi:. 8en or * * ' went on bai seiig:^ ^8en ju' went 'Von bai seiig: Low-level Tone-Group without a nucleus Quoting the intonation used by the other speaker.. . ..3a or veri mis/teiks || ju* akju:z 'Vmi: ov..z gud anAf fa /mi:. or or V djAst meid 8a veri misteiks ju' akju:z \mi: ov. The speaker wishes to emphasize the preposition. hi sed:^ "pra or ^fesar av igglij /litsritja? hu: da ju' >mi:n? " —hu: ^dsAst ju: ds ju' \mi:n? " ^sou f ko:s ai sed:^ "\ju:.PHONETIC TEXTS IN TONETIC TRANSCRIPTION '"Vwel.

... \kos hi' diltnaid >sed pi:pl laik 6set neva \du: admit 9ei to:k laik T^aet || 5aet wei. or or ^pi:pl .. and ju' v ^dsAst finijt o:f bai " a\nA9a 'hu:' insted av 'hu:in. it.' i' " ' ^ ' || |1 or or >5aet s || 'hu:' 'u:' insted av '>hu:m. to emphasize the element " ^ * Quoting the intonation used by the other speaker.. an af \ko:s or ^anles 6ei || ka:nt 1*pru:v || an af \ko:s ju' ka:nt /pru:v v bi-n to:kig intu a /graemafoun... or ^sou i' hi' nju: o:l 8a \taim hi' d -^sed it. hi' "Vnju: o:l 9a taitn || hi' d lised || it." . The speaker wishes who. .Shu: da ju' nii:n? ^ ' .. it. or \stil. ^ Low level Tone-Group without a nucleus.' or 58et s 7hu:' insted av '>hu:m... etc.'Ugraemafoun.. neva \du: ju' ad'\*niit 5ei to:k 5aet wei. || \ko:s hi' di'Unaid i' i' \sed it. or or or or 6aet s f and ju v d3Ast finijt tef. II || neva \du: admit. or " >ou II \wel..' insted av '\hu:m..' finijt ^o:f T^aet s || and ju' V ^dsAst bai seiig: 'hu: da ju' >mi:n? etc. .104 ENGLISH INTONATION ''^nv^eva kan ' 5set '^ av ^got t9 >pAbliJ it? or huieva kan i' av got ta >pAbliJ it? or 'hu:eva kan i' av got ta VpAbliJ it? or '\hu:eva kan i' av got ta pAblij" it? * s '\hu:' insted av '"Vhu:m..' hu: da ju' >mi:n? '* seiig...' II >ko:s or or hi' i f dinaid || i' \sed it. it. bigaen ta sei:^ " ^ou >wel... etc.

at 8i end av 8a sentans a>gen! an bigsen ka~Vrektig imself. ." nou wot jo: >to:kig abaut. wot a63 T^piipl ad wot etc.^ jo: " ju' dount nou wot " ju' dount or or or ^ju' >to:kig abaut. ju so: hi i' 8en i' or wot ben i' d put a prepazijn d \dAn. sei." or nou paifikli wel wel ju: an nainti nain aut av a hAndrid edsukeitid igglijman io:lwiz to:k laik 8set.." a prepa\zijn at 5i /si:? || hi' d put or or end av 8a || "Vsentans agen! hi' d si: ^put a prepa^zijn etc. or f \ko:s an T*8set put im intu a baed \tenipa." " ^ju' dount nou wot jo: ^to:kig abaut. From Coleman's The Kind 1 of English I use in Ordinary Conversation. veri laikli 8ei "Vwudnt spi:k paifikli karekli." or ju nou sou pa:fikli i' >o:lwiz to:k laik 9aet. or an /8aet put im intu a bsed \tempa. ai kudnt help Ma:fig. ai kudnt help /la:fig. Ix)w level Tone-Group without a nucleus.. II || || || || || or II 'Unau. i '\ko:s or i ko:s T^ai kudnt help 'Vla:fig.PHONETIC TEXTS IN TONETIC TRANSCRIPTION ai 105 W3Z or or or ^ounli seiig wot "UaSs piipl ai ai W3Z woz ounli seiig "Vounli seiig || ad sei.. "Vso: wot i' d dAn. wi' a not on 'Vspi:kig ta:mz /nau." ^sou ai sed:^ "ju nou or /ju: II ^paifikli >wel ju' nou "Vpo:fikli wel igglijinan sa nainti nain aut av a hAndrid edsukeitid " ju VDilwiz to:k laik 8aet." sed." " ju' doimt nou wot jo: >to:kig abaut. .\pi:pl od sei.


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