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TRAINER & ASSESSOR GUIDE

A GUIDE FOR THE TRAINER/ASSESSOR COVERING MODULES 1-4:
01. STORING, HANDLING & TRANSPORTING EXPLOSIVES 02. CHARGING BLASTHOLES 03. FIRING SHOTS 04. BLAST PLANNING & REPORTING

Name: Address:

Phone: Mobile:

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COPYRIGHT All rights reserved. This work is copyright and available only from the SkillsOnline website under license to NSW DET. Permission is given to trainers and teachers to make copies by photocopying or other duplicating processes for use within their own training organisations, or in a workplace where training is being conducted. The onus rests on you as user to ensure compliance with licensing arrangements. The Licensing Agreement stipulates the extent to which you can copy this material. If you use any portion of the material, you must acknowledge NSW DET as the copyright owner. If you develop enhancements of the material, you must ensure that NSW DET is appropriately acknowledged as the original copyright owner. You may not make it available for hire or re-sale with financial gain other than at a cost recovery fee for distribution and within the extent allowed by your Licensing Agreement. Outside these guidelines, all material is subject to copyright under the Copyright Act 1968 (Commonwealth) and permission must be obtained in writing from the NSW DET. Acknowledgement This work has been produced initially with the assistance of funding provided by the NSW Department of Education and Training, Industry Programs, through the Industry and Enterprise Skills Program with advice from the Project Steering Committee. These resources have been developed by SkillsDMC in conjunction with industry stakeholders. SkillsDMC wish to thank Graham Terrey and TAFE NSW for their work on this project. Disclaimer The views expressed in this work do not necessarily represent the views of the NSW Department of Education and Training. The NSW Department of Education and Training do not give warranty or accept any liability in relation to the content of this work.

PROJECT TEAM NSW DET would like to acknowledge the valuable contribution of the many people who generously gave of their time and ideas and contributed to the development of these resources by providing information, an industry perspective and review of the project materials. Name Allan Shoesmith Bill Brooks Bruce McGeachie Cherie Chen Claire Cappe Craig Parker David Barker Graham Cowan Graham Hogg Lawrence Buswell Leanne Parker Lorenzo Laguna Mihai Leonte Michael Creese Developed By: Graham Terrey Developer Team: Danny Duke David Chapman Dorothy Rao Giselle Mawer Robin Bishop Organisation Centennial Coal WorkCover NSW Xstrata Coal DET NSW DET NSW Pybar WorkCover NSW DPI Downer EDI Barrick Gold Hanson Rio Tinto, Northparkes NSW DPI Newcrest, Cadia Valley Operations Mine Resilience Australia Duke Consulting 2nd Project Coordinator TAFE NSW SkillsDMC Giselle Mawer & Associates Robin Bishop & Associates 1st Project Coordinator

Further copies of this resource are available from Website: www.skillsonline.net.au For further information contact: Email: skillsonline@det.nsw.edu.au Or visit SkillsDMC on: http://www.skillsdmc.com.au/

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V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.skillsonline.net.au

Contents
ABOUT THIS TRAINER & ASSESSOR GUIDE
TRAINER & ASSESSOR GUIDE SHOTFIRING LICENCE COURSE OVERVIEW Topics covered in each of the modules Course Materials Additional Resources Using the Learner Resource and Learner Workbook

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CONTEXTUALISING THE MATERIAL ADULT LEARNING PRINCIPLES, PREPARATION & PLAN
RESPONSIBLE LEARNING EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING COOPERATIVE LEARNING REFLECTIVE LEARNING LEARNER PREPARATION TRAINING AND ASSESSMENT PLAN ASSESSMENT RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING (RPL) ASSESSMENT PROCESS 1. Preparing for assessment 2. Carrying out the assessment 3. Completing the assessment ASSESSOR QUALIFICATIONS

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ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS CONFIDENTIALITY

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Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide

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net.MODULE 1 MODULE 1 SUPPORTS LEARNING AGAINST COMPETENCY STANDARDS CONTEXTUALISATION .MODULE 1 TRAINING PLAN – MODULE 1 TRAINERS NOTES ASSESSMENT – MODULE 1 STORING.skillsonline.au . HANDLING AND TRANSPORTING EXPLOSIVES OVERVIEW – MODULE 1 On completion of this module the learner should be able to: RESOURCES FOR TRAINING & ASSESSMENT . HANDLING & TRANSPORTING EXPLOSIVES 24 24 26 26 26 27 30 30 57 02 CHARGING BLASTHOLES OVERVIEW – MODULE 2 On completion of this module the learner should be able to: RESOURCES FOR TRAINING – MODULE 2 MODULE 2 SUPPORTS LEARNING AGAINST COMPETENCY STANDARDS CONTEXTUALISATION – MODULE 2 TRAINING PLAN – MODULE 2 TRAINER’S NOTES ASSESSMENT – MODULE 2 CHARGING SHOTS 64 64 65 66 66 66 69 69 71 03 FIRING SHOTS OVERVIEW – MODULE 3 On completion of this Module the learner should be able to: RESOURCES FOR TRAINING – MODULE 3 MODULE 3 SUPPORTS LEARNING AGAINST COMPETENCY STANDARDS CONTEXTUALISATION – MODULE 3 TRAINING PLAN – MODULE 3 TRAINERS NOTES THIRD PARTY PRACTICAL VERIFICATION REPORT – MODULE 3 FIRING SHOTS 79 79 80 81 81 81 82 83 83 4 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.01 STORING.

04 BLAST PLANNING & REPORTING OVERVIEW – MODULE 4 On completion of this Module the learner should be able to: RESOURCES FOR TRAINING – MODULE 4 MODULE 4 SUPPORTS LEARNING AGAINST COMPETENCY STANDARDS CONTEXTUALISATION – MODULE 4 TRAINING PLAN – MODULE 4 TRAINERS NOTES THIRD PARTY PRACTICAL VERIFICATION REPORT – MODULE 4 BLAST PLANNING & REPORTING 91 91 93 93 93 94 95 96 92 GLOSSARY OF TERMS 107 Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 5 .

Assessment questions and tasks. A Trainer and/or Assessor must be knowledgeable and experienced in shotfiring or. which explains the structure of the course. This Guide assumes that the Trainer is well qualified in shotfiring.net. It is not designed for someone who is always going to be under direct and immediate supervision of a qualified shotfirer. The Learner Workbook also contains a Learning Record. Mapping of the self assessment activities against shotfiring units of competency covered by each module 5.ABOUT THIS TRAINER & ASSESSOR GUIDE TRAINER & ASSESSOR GUIDE This Trainer & Assessor Guide has been developed to assist trainers and assessors to make effective use of the resources developed for the Shotfiring Course. It contains an overview of the course. have the direct support of someone who is. This Trainer & Assessor Guide provides you with: 1. Assessment methods and tasks 6.skillsonline.au . and the relationship to the shotfiring units of competency and relevant qualifications in the Training Packages. Ways to use the module Learner Resources and Learner Workbooks in training delivery 4. 6 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. with all that is implied by such responsibility. to record the course participant’s experience. An overview of the resource materials provided for each course module 3. An overview of the shotfiring course 2. The shotfirers’ course assumes that the learner is going to have unsupervised access to explosives and is likely to go on progressively to have responsibility for charging and firing shots. in the case of the Assessor. relating to respective Learner Workbooks. and suggested answers to assessment knowledge questions and assessment tasks An overview of the Learner Resources and Learner Workbooks for each module in the course has been developed to help you support learners to develop their knowledge and skills required to attain the endorsed units of competency.

The course is not designed for the casual user under supervision. who are normally team leaders and in some cases supervisors. it was a Shotfirers’ Certificate of Competency. designed so that a learner can stop their development at any stage. Different licences might apply so the course is divided into four stages. or the full application of explosives. up until 2008. SHOTFIRING LICENCE This course is designed to take the learner beyond a UHL by providing knowledge and skills that are necessary as part of the requirements to obtain a shotfirer’s licence. More and more organisations are demonstrating their duty of care by training all people who are involved with explosives. Other States/Territories may have similar requirements. a learner will need to obtain an Unsupervised Handling Licence (UHL) before starting this course. Even if it were not an explicit statutory requirement. because they supervise others. how to check that there are no associated hazards getting out of control. In NSW this will be a Blasting Explosives Users’ Licence (BEUL). Firing of shots (Module 3) is done by experienced. Handling. Sometimes this progresses to playing an active role in the preparation for and actual job of firing. and to those with overall control. which might be a statutory requirement. Security of explosives is a very serious issue and anyone who has unsupervised access to explosives may well (as is the case in NSW) require a statutory ticket (an Unsupervised Handling Licence (UHL) in the case of NSW). most of whom are licensed (‘certificated’. including their storage. handling and transport – the possession . which is catered for in Module 2. Some people will only ever fetch and carry under direct supervision. responsibilities and requirements of personnel involved in shotfiring. A statutory ‘ticket’ is commonly required for the person whose task it is to initiate the shot. mostly qualified and licensed people. For the person in charge of the use of explosives – meaning the charging and firing. The duty of care is demonstrated by making sure that anyone who handles explosives in any capacity Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide COURSE OVERVIEW The Shotfiring Course has been structured as a series of four modules: 1. and Transporting Explosives 2. Explosives have a mass impact or serious explosion risk. and potentially the site manager of explosives usage – a ‘users’ or shotfirers’ ticket is the norm. understands the risks they face. TAG | 7 .end of the competency journey. Storing. they may well have to undergo a security check. what to do if something looks like going wrong. however. This often applies to people who fetch and carry. and. or ‘ticketed’). as it is in NSW. Module 1 is for people who ‘fetch and carry’ explosives without direct supervision. It is. Others will find themselves being asked occasionally to help a small team load a shot and this might become more regular. as well as to those who charge and fire shots. with clear accountabilities for using explosives given their high chemical energy hazard. it might be implied in the general duty of care to have someone trained and experienced. this will be an operator’s task and may not require a statutory licence or other authorisation. handling and transport. covered in Module 4. There may be different levels of ‘tickets’ that are involved.Whilst the Learner Resources and Learner Workbooks are designed to cover the relevant units of competency you should still make sure that you are thoroughly familiar with the actual units and the evidence requirements prior to commencing training. Charging Blast Holes 3. At the storage. It is important that you check the licence requirements in your state/territory as requirements may differ in each state/territory and for the type of shotfiring. Shotfirers’ licences or ‘ticketing’ recognises that shotfirers have the lives of others in their hands. a significant component of which is a security check. Blast Planning & Reporting This structure allows flexibility in the delivery of the training to accommodate differing roles. In NSW at least. the ticket might be a UHL. It is designed for the person who takes the journey to become responsible for part of. Firing Shots 4. In some cases this is part of a Security Plan. Blast planning and reporting is the work of ‘authorised’ personnel.

and checking of equipment 3.au .net. Identify the Maximum Instantaneous Charge 4. Report These modules follow a common learning sequence for the learner progressively to gain the knowledge and skills necessary to be a shotfirer. Return surplus explosives 7. Access & maintain storage and security of explosives 3. Clear/isolate the area affected by the blast 3. As the learner completes each Module. Prepare for charging. Dispose of explosives 7. There is likely to be a further rationalisation in the next few years that might reflect the modules more closely. Prime blastholes 4. these units of competency were still being consolidated. 8 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. At the time of printing. Identify explosives & associated hazards and comply with Acts. Monitor environmental impacts 5. Reduce blast impacts 6.skillsonline. Hook up and test 2. Mix / manufacture explosives. they might seek assessment for the units of competency listed in the following table. Conduct post-blast checks 5. Transport explosives including defective explosives & emergency plans & response Module 2 Charging Blast Holes 1. Calculate quantities of explosives required 3. Load explosives 5. Standards and Codes by implementing risk management & procedures 2. Handle misfires Module 4 Blast Planning & Reporting 1. Design / survey blasts 2. Clean-up & Report Module 3 Firing Shots 1. Report 6. so they might fulfil only part of some units at the end of some of the modules. Fire the shot 4. Handling. including safety requirements and checking blast area and blastholes 2. & Transporting Explosives 1.Topics covered in each of the modules Module 1 Storing. Regulations.

handle & transport explosives Support surface shotfiring operations Support underground shotfiring operations Conduct mobile mixing of explosives Conduct surface shotfiring operations Conduct shotfiring operations in underground coal mines Conduct underground development shotfiring Conduct underground production shotfiring Conduct secondary blasting Conduct accretion firing Manage blasting operations Design surface blasts 3 3 3 (not u/g coal) 3 (most) 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 For underground coal mines RIIBLA200 RIIBLA201 RIIBLA202 RIIBLA203 RIIBLA301 RIIBLA302 RIIBLA303 RIIBLA304 RIIBLA305 RIIBLA306 RIIBLA401 RIIBLA601 Store.2008 Proposed Units of Competency Module 1 Store. and Transport Explosives Module 2 Charging Blast Holes Module 3 Firing Shots Module 4 Blast Planning & Reporting RIIBLA200 RIIBLA201 RIIBLA202 RIIBLA203 RIIBLA301 RIIBLA302 RIIBLA303 RIIBLA304 RIIBLA305 RIIBLA306 RIIBLA401 RIIBLA601 Store. Handle. handle & transport explosives Support surface shotfiring operations Support underground shotfiring operations Conduct mobile mixing of explosives Conduct surface shotfiring operations Conduct shotfiring operations in underground coal mines Conduct underground development shotfiring Conduct underground production shotfiring Conduct secondary blasting Conduct accretion firing Manage blasting operations Design surface blasts 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 9 .

2 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 4 MNMG205A Maintain magazine RIIBLA200 Store. handle and transport explosives Handle and transport explosives Maintain magazine Store.RIIBLA Units in red are recently revised units.2 Blasting .skillsonline. Current Units AQF Code Title 2. handle and transport explosives 2008 Proposed New Units Code Title MNMUGC108A Maintain magazine MNMG210A MNQOPS313A MNMG205A MNMG210A MNQOPS313A MNCO1041B MNCU1049B Store.net.This might be mapped against existing and previous units of competency for those who are already well down the path to gaining their ticket. handle and transport explosives Handle and transport explosives Support shotfiring operations (red) Support shotfiring operations (red) RIIBLA202 Support underground shotfiring operations RIIBLA201 Support surface shotfiring operations MNMUGC118A Charge underground blasts MNMG241A MNMG313A MNMG353A MNCO1040B MNQOPS413A MNMG322A MNMG412A MNQOPS311A MNMG352A MNMG414A Conduct mobile mixing of explosives Charge blast holes Fire surface blasts Conduct shotfiring operations (red) Conduct shotfiring operations Initiate blasts by remote control Initiate blast Conduct blast survey (blue) Apply blasting activities Monitor and control the effects of blasting on the environment (blue) Conduct shotfiring operations RIIBLA302 Conduct shotfiring operations in underground coal mines Conduct underground development shotfiring RIIBLA203 RIIBLA301 Conduct mobile mixing of explosives Conduct surface shotfiring operations 3 MNCU1048A 3 3 4 3 MNMG323A MNMG352A MNMG412A MNMG322B Charge development blast holes Apply blasting activities Initiate blast Initiate blasts by remote control (red) RIIBLA303 10 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. Units in blue may be kept as stand alone units.au .

Information. Each Learner Resource and Learner Workbook links to relevant units of competency. stringent requirements for the risks faced in underground coal mines. so the material is kept parallel.2 Blasting . Each Learner Workbook also provides a summary of experience (or Learning Record) against the shotfiring units of competency. There is also a checklist at the end of each Workbook for others to provide some verification of their acquired or applied knowledge and/or skill. The parallel Learner Resources (Learner Resource 1A for example) and Workbooks (LW1A for example) are deliberately kept close to the Modules for all other sectors .Current Units AQF Code Title 2. reflecting the special hazards for blasting in that sector. and there are some additional. each of the four Modules has been modified especially for the underground coal mine sector. Of importance. Many people are likely to commence their knowledge in other mines/ operations and progress to or from underground coal mines and the other sectors. Learner Workbook (incorporating a Learner Record) – each Learner Workbook contains a self-assessment checklist.mainly for career progression reasons. which the learner will complete as part of the learning and assessment process. Learner Resource – there are four Learner Resource manuals that provide an overview of the knowledge and skills required to demonstrate competency. Units in blue may be kept as stand alone units. because they contain valuable reference material. can be a useful reference for the learner after the course. but otherwise the principles are very much the same.RIIBLA Units in red are recently revised units. 2. These Statements of Attainment can be used to contribute to the relevant qualifications in an industry Training Package. These manuals. On successful completion of the requirements for a unit of competency they will receive a Statement of Attainment. One of the most important aspects of vocational training is having ample opportunities to TAG | 11 Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide . such as the use of the term shothole rather than blasthole. After completing a Module the learner should use the self-assessment checklist to see if they have gained the required knowledge and skill to be assessed for a unit of competency. 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 5 5 MNMG321A MNMG352A MNMG412A MNMG322A MNMG311A MNMG349A MNMG406A MNQOPS513A MNQOPS511A Charge production blast holes Apply blasting activities Initiate blast Initiate blasts by remote control Conduct secondary blasting Conduct accretion firing Manage blasting activities Manage blasting activities Design surface blasts 2008 Proposed New Units Code Title RIIBLA304 Conduct underground production shotfiring RIIBLA305 RIIBLA306 RIIBLA401 Conduct secondary blasting Conduct accretion firing Manage blasting operations RIIBLA601 Design surface blasts Course Materials For each module there is a: 1. There are some subtle differences in underground coal shotfiring. review questions and learning & assessment activities. and the principles involved with explosives are very similar. readings and examples are provided.

they should complete the activities using their workplace as an example.net. You might like to use the checklist to review a learner’s knowledge and skill in the module topics before they begin the training. 1. For some learners. articles and websites to provide additional information. the Resource manuals and Workbooks are framed with that in mind. 2 covering the terminology. Review questions and learning & assessment activities in each Learner Workbook are designed to: 1.au .practice and apply new skills and knowledge to real workplace situations. or a resource for participants to take away and work through at their own pace in liaison with a trainer. They may support an existing program or learning strategy. However. They can be aids to facilitate group leaning. This might be the case for supervisors and trainee managers. relate new information to a shotfiring situation or the workplace 3. You can also use the checklist to see if the learner: 1. A Glossary of Terms is provided at the end of each Learner Resource. these may include textbooks. the application of skills will be. The manner in which they use the Learner Resources and Workbooks will depend on the role you are taking. Using the Learner Resource and Learner Workbook The Learner Resource and Learner Workbook for each module may be used in a range of ways. You should help learners test their knowledge and experience beyond their own regular workplace so they develop an understanding that goes beyond merely following procedures. As such. you should help them obtain a copy of Australian/New Zealand Standard 2187. provide experience and exposure to relevant shotfiring activities so each learner can customise the information to their individual needs. Parts 0. shotfiring will not be their primary function. If the learner is employed permanently in the area of shotfiring. Otherwise. For example. If the learner expects to complete all modules within twelve months from starting.skillsonline. who may find it difficult to use their normal workplace as the learning environment. is ready for assessment at completion of the module. check a learner’s understanding of new information 2. the support needs of your learners and the delivery method you are using. Additional Resources In the Learner Guide and in each Learner Workbook. Other activities may not seem directly relevant to the workplace. There is a Self-Assessment Checklist at the beginning of each Learner Workbook. storage and use of explosives. the completed activities can be kept by the learners for inclusion in their portfolio of evidence for assessment. because the Standard is updated at regular intervals and they wouldn’t want an outdated copy when they reach later modules. Those learning & assessment activities in the Workbooks generally require learners to document or provide evidence related to shotfiring activities. so they still provide valuable review and personal development exercises. learners may be asked about equipment for an underground situation when they are employed in a surface situation. has the knowledge and skills to apply for recognition of prior learning (RPL) 2. 12 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. additional resources are listed. Whilst the equipment may not be the same. make sure they can access this Standard as they progress. Encourage and support them gaining experience in a range of explosive applications. A log is included in the Workbooks to assist the learner to record their activities as well as contributing to their portfolio of evidence for assessment. It is also included at the back of this Guide for your convenience.

The size of the site (small or large site) and relevant shotfiring requirements 5. sulphide ore or coal dust. mainly for career progression reasons. Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 13 . The contextualisation required may cover: 1. or civil construction 3. case studies or critical incidents to make the learning interesting. Whatever way you contextualise the material.CONTEXTUALISING THE MATERIAL You should spend time reading through the Learner Resource and accompanying Learner Workbook and adapt them to suit the needs of your learners. and any special hazards faced. such as reactive ground. There are four separate but parallel Modules for underground coal mining. The parallel Learner Resources and Workbooks are deliberately kept close to the Modules for all other sectors. extractive industries. etc 7. Any sector requirements such as for coal mining. etc. methane. Of importance. Your own examples. each of the four Modules has been modified especially for the underground coal mine sector. Type of the shotfiring activities including differences for surface or underground. The requirements of the enterprise and/or learner group including checking the Range of Variables in units to ensure relevant information is covered 8. Types of explosives used at a site. processes and forms 6. procedures. or activities.. and related shotfiring requirements 4. Site specific policies. metalliferous mining. the assessment evidence requirements must meet the evidence requirements for the selected units of competency. reflecting the special hazards for blasting in that sector. Each of the later chapters that relate to the four Modules has a section on contextualisation more specifically targeting the Module. You may choose only to use certain sections. Specific State/Territory legislation for shotfiring 2. type of mineral. and you are strongly encouraged to contextualise them and add information that you feel will enhance the learning experience.

The following are some approaches to address adult learning principles. They also: 1. are able to ensure that your training is suitable to each of your learners and they see the learning as relevant. EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING This emphasises ‘learning to do’ and ‘learning from doing’. Learning occurs when learners have an opportunity to apply their skills and knowledge in authentic work environments or in contexts that attempt to simulate the real situation.skillsonline. Preparation & Plan Adult learning principles are commonly used to describe the ways in which you. It can be particularly useful to create opportunities in which problem solving and planning and organising skills are applied to real time.au .net. address equity in a fundamental way as they allow for different learning opportunities to suit different learners while broadening experiences and abilities as an individual learner. 14 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.ADULT LEARNING PRINCIPLES. distilling principles which will aid transference to new contexts and practicing skills and mastering processes. RESPONSIBLE LEARNING This encourages learners to take ownership of the learning process through direct and active participation in the learning process and includes the following: making meaning out of new knowledge. Responsible learning emphasises self-management and initiative and enterprise as learners work independently to develop new knowledge and activities in the interest of furthering their skills. provide you with a set of concepts to emphasise an ongoing commitment to learning 2. as a trainer.

Employability Skill Communication Learning and Assessment Strategies and Activities • • • • • • • • • • • • • preparing and presenting verbal reports role plays simulations demonstrations working in groups team or group projects role plays group discussion interactive activities case studies simulations investigative projects decision making activities Teamwork Problem solving REFLECTIVE LEARNING This is about consciously and systematically appraising experience to turn it into lessons for the future. An Introductory Guide for Trainers and Assessors provides examples of delivery strategies and activities which support adult learning principles and the development of employability skills. It addresses: developing critical thinking skills. mentors. intranets • industry relevant software. share learning tasks and learn from a range of people including colleagues. Learners must be provided with an opportunity to reflect on the ways the skills contribute to job effectiveness as well as their own abilities in relation to each skill area. technology and equipment One of the most important aspects of providing vocational training is providing your learners with ample opportunities to practice and apply their new skills and knowledge to real workplace situations. coaches. Cooperative learning based activities can be particularly useful in a training room situation to provide opportunities to work with teamwork and communication skills. The following table adapted from Employability Skills: From Framework to Practice. Initiative and enterprise Planning and organising • brainstorming activities • designing innovative activities • simulation activities • • • • • research and data collection developing action plans planning and organising activities scheduling tasks collecting and analysing information Self-management Learning Technology • work plans • log books to record activities • reflective journals and log books • self evaluation tools • use internet. They must record their activities. supervisors. where learners are encouraged to examine changes in their own perceptions. This can be introspective. confidences and motivations. goals. trainers and others. learning to learn and developing attitudes that promote lifelong learning.COOPERATIVE LEARNING This encourages learners to learn from each other. Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 15 .

the learner is given this illustration: Work through Module 1 Commence work involving explosives “Supporting Shotfiring – Storing. For example. handling & transporting Work through Module 2 “Charging Blastholes” Be assessed for your relevant competencies Continue to support the shot crew and charge blastholes properly Be assessed for ‘prior learning’ with charging blastholes Work through Module 3 “Firing Shots” Be assessed for your relevant competencies Continue to connect sequences of blastholes and fire shots safely & well Be assessed for ‘prior learning’ with firing shots Work through Module 4 “Blast Planning & Reporting” Be assessed for your relevant competencies Continue as a shotfirer who supervises blasting 16 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.net. handling & transporting explosives” Be assessed for your relevant competencies Continue to store.Learner Preparation Each of the four Learners’ Workbooks contains the following illustrations that seek to guide the learner.skillsonline.au . at the beginning of Module 2. handle and transport explosives safely & well Be assessed for ‘prior learning’ with explosives storing.

Stemming And finally: 5. Mixing / Manufacturing explosives including ANFO as required c. begin to: 3. specifically to: 1 Prepare for charging a Checking plans and procedures b Checking weather & blast site for geology etc c Isolating the area from unauthorised people & traffic and from stray currents d Checking blastholes e Storing explosives on-the-job properly f Preventing premature initiation. Clean up & report a. Dipping & tamping holes while loading to check the amount of explosives c. and who now want to charge blastholes. Making up primers c. Checking vehicles. Treating water in blastholes d. Then go on to: 4.The learner is then given another illustration to help them get started. Then. Understanding priming options b. Maintaining statutory documentation d. Placing primers into blastholes. being prepared. Cleaning up and getting ready to return unused explosives b. Keeping various records c. Checking & maintaining charging & blasting equipment. to: 2. Prime blastholes a. equipment & delivery b. as follows: This publication is for people who are able to store. And. Recording blasthole drilling Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 17 . Deck-loading as required b. fostering adult learning principles. Load explosives into blastholes a. Conduct or oversight mixing or manufacturing of explosives a. handle & transport explosives.

3. For example. Identify explosives and associated hazards – to be able to handle them properly a. Identifying hazards. and. Responding appropriately in an emergency e. These are developed in the common phases of learning about explosives – from a person whose first job with explosives is to fetch and carry (but not use) explosives.skillsonline. to 2. then taking part in the connection and firing of a shot. Segregating & protecting explosives en route d. In other words. Maintaining records. The four modules follow the progress of a learner from: 1. using these materials. Understanding shift requirements for blasting. Transporting explosives by vehicle c. This will provide sufficient information for trainers to ensure learners receive training and assessment that meets their need and current industry requirements. Passing on required information regarding explosives stock & storage f. to: 2. Each of the four Modules has such a structure. Handling & Transporting Explosives contains a sub-set of tasks that progressively develop the understanding and practice of storing. and you need to know what you’re fetching. firing shots. Selecting explosives based on blast plans e. Understanding explosives and how they work b. assessing risks and implementing controls to manage the risks associated with explosives storage. to: 3. handling and transporting explosives as follows: 1. Implementing procedures based on those controls d. The information provided in this Trainer & Assessor Guide will assist you in developing the required training and assessment strategy. storing. 18 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. each Module’s Learner Resource further expands on the tasks involved in the four broad topics of each Module. The needs of learners vary and their working/learning contexts vary. Understanding transport routes & rules b. recording and refining of blasting. These headings and sub-headings follow the steps involved in the use of explosives. handling & transport c. and finally to the design. blast planning & reporting. 4.au . Transport explosives properly a. Accessing & Maintaining magazines & SSAN storage c. Access explosives magazines to obtain explosives for a blast a. Understanding explosives storage requirements & ‘magazine rules’ b. Recording explosive stock. may vary. with an understanding of explosives and associated hazards. At the beginning of each Module there is a list of general and specific objectives for the phase of learning to guide a training plan. in relation to respective Modules. Some additional guidance is provided in this Guide. legislative obligations for explosives e. And. Returning explosives to magazines f. so the training and assessment strategies for each shotfiring course. handling & transport of explosives. Storing explosives on-the-job properly. Complying with statutory. Maintaining Security and Reporting d. having obtained explosives from a magazine.TRAINING AND ASSESSMENT PLAN It is the responsibility of the RTO and their trainer(s) to have a plan that outlines the learning and assessment strategies that will be used to achieve the unit of competency outcomes. through using explosives by helping to charge a shot. In helping to develop training plans. Module 1 Storing. before transporting explosives you must gain access to magazines so you should know what are the important features of magazines.net. charging blastholes. Then.

In helping a Learner develop a Training Plan. Evidence will be required in most of these ways for most competencies. Demonstration of the required level of competence in the workplace or simulated environment 4. However.tasks that may involve analysis of case studies and critical incidents. Develop a suitable Training Plan with each Learner. Preparing a portfolio of evidence in accordance with agreed guidelines. Broad guidance on items of evidence is given by the chapter and section headings in each Module. you might focus a Learner on progressing through the four modules and progressively through each Module – which reflects the order of common practice in shotfiring. The registered training organisation (RTO) responsible for assessing peoples’ competencies should devise a suitable training and assessment plan for each student.because of operational constraints. most evidence should ideally be gathered as the student performs work duties. and to address any gaps if the learner has not been able to get experience of a particular aspect of explosives work . whether in the workplace or in a simulated work environment. A suggested log is included in each Workbook. Evidence used in assessment depends on the requirements of the particular units of competency and the preferences or needs of the person being assessed. ASSESSMENT The purpose of an assessment is to check that the person’s required knowledge and skill meet the requirements of the shotfiring units of competency. teachers and trainers can utilise holistic assessment methods to assess a number of units simultaneously. reports and/or projects that relate to the underpinning knowledge required in the unit of competency 3. Each case is unique. Assessment under the national vocational education and training system is quite different from the formal examinations and tests most people remember from their school days. Specific evidence. required to demonstrate competency in any Unit of competency. The learner can provide evidence of competence in a number of ways: 1. where appropriate. Providing answers to written or oral questions or activities . is detailed in respective competencies. Assessment can take place on-the-job or off-the-job. Providing a third party evidence report by a workplace supervisor/manager to support the making of a judgement of the learner’s competence. 6. apprentice or trainee. Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 19 . for example. A Training Plan outline for each Module is included later in this Guide with respective chapters. as applying skills in the workplace is a key facet of vocational education and training. Learners and. Because work activities draw on the skills described in a number of units of competency. Learners who have previously demonstrated their knowledge and skills in some aspects of this shotfiring will only need to provide new evidence of their competence in those units of competency elements and performance criteria not previously assessed as competent 2. the site should be involved in the development of these plans. Assessment for the shotfiring course consists of formative and summative assessment. This involves the gathering of a range of evidence to show that the learner has met the requirements for a unit of competency. The plan(s) should incorporate recognition of prior learning and any reasonable adjustment that may be required. Assessment methods and sources of evidence It is the RTO’s and Trainer’s responsibility to ensure valid. A journal/diary/log of experience verified by a supervisor and supported by questioning by an assessor 5. sufficient evidence has been provided before signing off against any assessment. Evidence is gathered to demonstrate competence in the skills and knowledge required by the competency standards. A self-assessment checklist that is provided in the front of each Learner Workbook 7.

by computer. based on the content of the evidence guide and the range statement of each unit of competency. You can use the Self-Assessment Checklist at the beginning of each Learner Workbook to assess their knowledge and skill in the various aspects of shotfiring covered in the units of competency. such as assisting students to identify their learning needs or offering a wide variety of course options and delivery modes. If necessary. as noted in the unit(s) of competency. The assessor will need to fully analyse the competency standard(s) being assessed and make a judgment regarding the adequacy of a simulated work environment. 7. Preparing for assessment 1. Engaging in reasonable adjustment activities. This is to engage third parties such as shotfirers. In most situations an individual with a disability will be able to tell trainers and assessors what adjustments he or she needs to be able to study or be assessed. which cover aspects of shotfiring or completed previous shotfiring courses. exemplifies good teaching practice. such as assessing a person for underground coal mine shotfiring.A mapping of the self-assessment checklist and third party verification/assessment checklist and tasks against the unit(s) of competency is provided for each module in each Learner Workbook. In some cases. or where an assessment involves an interview of others for reviewing work performance of the person being assessed. Site. for example a student with a disability. Use of simulated environments Assessments conducted in a simulated work environment replicate the conditions and outcomes encountered in a workplace. A RTO will have a formal process for RPL and this should be explained to any learner requesting RPL. Reasonable adjustment activities could involve: • modifying or providing equipment • changing assessment procedures • changing course delivery • modifying premises.au . such as assessing a person’s ability to mix / manufacture explosives when their site engages the services of an explosives supplier. this may refer to the actual physical resources. employee. you should also seek advice from government agencies or support organisations to determine what needs to be done to accommodate an individual’s needs. pen-and-paper or verbally 3. In order to grant RPL you must be confident that they are currently competent against the endorsed competency standards. place. so the learning and experience arrangements do not create undue hardship for some students. time. ASSESSMENT PROCESS There are a number of stages in the assessment process. eg. 8. equipment and resources are arranged 2. Safety issues 6. Advise the employee of performance requirements for “Satisfactory” performance 5. It may refer to a combination of both. RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING (RPL) Some learners may have undertaken workplace tasks and developed skills. Explain what is required of employee. All Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) appropriate to the work area of the assessment is being worn at all times. area and statutory safety requirements must be observed at all times. Ensure all personnel have completed an area-specific induction prior to this assessment commencing. 20 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. 1.net. supervisors. numeracy or language difficulties. Reasonable adjustment Reasonable adjustments might be required. and may be eligible for recognition of competencies they currently hold. In other cases this may refer to the interpersonal dynamics of the workplace. Ensure the environment is adequate for delivery of assessment. Both employee and assessor must confirm employee’s readiness for assessment 4.skillsonline. assessment instrument and any tools. trainers and others who are qualified to make a considered comment. or literacy. Ensure date.

Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 21 . Feedback should be provided to the learner on their performance. to ensure that assessments are valid. 3.skillsdmc. 5.com. the SkillsDMC Training Package assessor requirements for the conduct of assessment include: 1. the assessor should explain the reasons and outline what steps are available for the learner to be reassessed or appeal the decision if they wish. If the learner is not yet competent. 2. All questions must be answered correctly. Registered training organisations are required to ensure that assessments are valid and reliable regardless of the delivery or assessment pathway used.au for more detail. Moderation is the process of comparing standards of assessment across different courses. Where a learner is working dangerously or without necessary care or confidence the assessor must direct the learner to cease work and terminate the assessment. see www. 2. and it is not a flawless process. A partnership arrangement between a qualified assessor and a technical expert who is currently competent against the endorsed shotfiring units of competency 3. but moderation works to ensure that the margins of variation are minimal. Questions may be asked of the assessor during the assessment on any concerns relating to the assessment process and/or to clarify questions. Assessors must refer to the relevant unit of competency for the full evidence requirements. The information entered should be signed and dated by the learner and assessor. Moderation is a method used to validate assessment strategies. 4. Where appropriate ‘What if…’ questions may be asked to assess knowledge relating to an emergency and/or operating situation. Gather evidence in relation to the employee’s learning using the assessment questions. Completing the assessment 1. Carrying out the assessment 1. unit of competency information in the Learning Record Book should be completed. both the knowledge and practical assessment criteria must be met.2. There may be variation in assessors’ judgments. unless otherwise stated in the assessment instrument. 7. It also provides the opportunity for professional development of assessors and the improvement of assessment products and services. the range of evidence table completed and any comments added. 6. As a minimum they must be qualified assessors. The competent (C) and not yet competency (NYC) columns in the unit of competency summary table should be dated. There is no single model for moderation. An individual who has assessor qualifications and is currently competent against the shotfiring endorsed units of competency 2. Do not interrupt while the learner is performing a task. reliable and fair. 4. A team or panel where the members between them possess assessor qualifications and the endorsed shotfiring units of competency. The evidence gathered during the assessment process should meet the requirements for the units of competency. To gain overall competency in the unit. institutions or organisations. In summary. ASSESSOR QUALIFICATIONS Assessors for the shotfiring course must comply with the Assessment Guidelines of the relevant SkillsDMC Training Packages. 3. On acceptance of the evidence by the assessor. 3.

net. 1. Waste Disposal – make sure site waste disposal procedures are followed.au . Fumes – keep fumes to a minimum 4.skillsonline.ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS The resources and infrastructure industry is committed to protecting the environment and all Learners must observe the following requirements when carrying out activities related to this course. Dust – keep dust to a minimum 3. Noise – keep noise to a minimum 2. and any waste disposed of in appropriate containers. 22 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. Contaminated air – keep to a minimum 5.

Some companies do not allow documentation to be released off site and if your learners use information from company documentation they may be in breach of company regulations. The procedure for dealing with this situation will vary from one site to another and you should obtain advice from your RTO if you have any concerns about confidentiality.CONFIDENTIALITY Your learner employers may require them to observe confidentiality with regard to company documents and intellectual property. Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 23 . You may be able to get permission to use company documentation in your delivery of the course if you or your RTO signs a confidentiality agreement with the learner’s employer. They may even have been required to sign a confidentiality agreement. This may affect the provision of information for activities in the Learner Workbooks and for assessment purposes. This situation would exist if they were studying the course under an external training provider and providing information to them from company documentation.

having obtained explosives from a magazine.net. Returning explosives to magazines f. Understanding transport routes & rules b. with an understanding of explosives and associated hazards. HANDLING AND TRANSPORTING EXPLOSIVES 24 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. specifically to: 1. Segregating & protecting explosives en route d. Selecting explosives based on blast plans e. Maintaining records. legislative obligations for explosives e. Understanding explosives and how they work b. Identifying hazards. Storing explosives on-the-job properly. to: 3. STORING. Passing on required information regarding explosives stock & storage a. Complying with statutory.au . Accessing & Maintaining magazines & SSAN storage c. Maintaining Security and Reporting d. And. Implementing procedures based on those controls d. Transporting explosives by vehicle c. Identify explosives and associated hazards – to be able to handle them properly a. Understanding explosives storage requirements & ‘magazine rules’ b. handling & transport c. to: 2.01 OVERVIEW – MODULE 1 This module is for people who want to store. Access explosives magazines to obtain explosives for a blast a. Transport explosives properly a.skillsonline. Responding appropriately in an emergency e. handle & transport explosives. Recording explosive stock. assessing risks and implementing controls to manage the risks associated with explosives storage. Then. Understanding shift requirements for blasting.

Some terms need to be clarified in describing explosives and how they work – or how not to mistreat them. Other units of competency are required to complete the requirements for a shotfirer’s licence. Part 1 deals with ‘Storage’. Everyone involved in their use must follow the same procedures every time. The reaction proceeds very rapidly. store or transport them . It is important that you check the requirements in your state/territory as requirements may differ for types of shotfiring and in each state/territory. As a consequence the learner should not be afraid to handle. which when initiated. standards and codes and they may need to access these from time to time so the Resource covers the important ‘rules’. the Resource discusses emergency planning and responses should the risk arise. handling and transport explosives is necessary as part of the requirements to obtain a shotfirer’s licence. This resource deals only with commercially available explosives that have been approved by the Competent Regulatory Authority. while Part 2 deals with actual usage or explosives practice). To select the best explosives for a particular job they also need to understand what explosives are and how these work. procedures and local rules are framed to ensure their safety as well as for the most efficient use of explosives. special precautions they must take for a safe journey. before finally discussing the support of shotfiring operations. AS2187 comprises three parts of particular interest to shotfirers. There are particular hazards associated with explosives. and well-tried precautions that they need to understand fully. The Resource discusses risks with explosives then follows that with some specific discussion about storage. some of which are created by Hollywood. Explosives are stored in secure places called magazines. These are reflected in legislation. including emergency preparedness. There are key features in storing explosives to keep them at their best until the time comes to use them. undergoes a rapid chemical change with the development of heat and high pressure (see Australian Standard AS 2187. Part 0 is a glossary of terms or definitions. Explosives contain large and powerful chemical energies. this reaction produces other more stable and largely gaseous substances. There are some myths and legends surrounding explosives. so their journey through this module has to go back to basics before going forward. In particular. again. and is selfsustained. The learner must stay disciplined when supporting shotfiring. handled or transported. handling and transport right the first time. Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 25 . as it follows and consumes its own available fuel. Glossary. These precautions might seem simple enough but the learner can’t get complacent. With the development of heat and high pressure. there are.0 Use of Explosives. Once they have a feel for explosives it makes sense to refresh themself on managing risks associated with explosives. quarrying and civil construction industry. If the learner sees a need to change the way explosives are stored. Reference An explosive is any material or mixture of materials. The learner must treat explosives with respect. When the learner loads them into a vehicle to take them to a job.The Learner Resource follows that progression. This module is designed to help them think about how they treat explosives – for their own sake and for those around them. Site risk assessments. so the learner understands what an explosive is before they start to handle it and take it to a job. so it is vital to get their storage. until they all agree to the next improvement. Being able to demonstrate competency in the storage. They can be very unforgiving if mistreated but they are manufactured to deliver their energies in special ways in the robust environment of the mining. everyone involved must discuss that need and all agree to make the change – then follow it all the time. handling and transport.providing they treat them with respect.

apply and maintain the correct and secure storage requirements for explosives 5.1 Storage. RIIBLA200 Store. Access to websites for statutory authorities such as in NSW for WorkCover and DPI/Minerals/Safety 6. Examples of various explosives and/or access to magazines. and a Licence to Manufacture Explosives 7. handling. support the use and risk management of explosives. as well as examples of. Handle & Transport Explosives (previously 1. and other support for shotfiring. identify. blast monitoring. stock records. RESOURCES FOR TRAINING & ASSESSMENT .On completion of this module the learner should be able to: 1. concisely and on time 7. explain what an explosive is and handle explosives safely 2. MNQOPS313A Handle & Transport Explosives) 26 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. blasting machines and initiators 8. Examples of Material Safety Data Sheets and images of a range of explosives and accessories 4. transport explosives safely 6. access. and be ready for emergencies associated with explosives storage. storage. a Licence to Store SSAN. a Blasting Explosives Users Licence. MNMG205A Maintain Magazine 2. handling and transport of explosives 3.MODULE 1 1. A copy of Australian Standards AS2187. transport. firing. transport.au . MNMG210A Firing Shots 3. and recording / reporting. Copies of applications for various topics especially for an Unsupervised Handling Licence.skillsonline. AS2187. handling and transporting explosives. blast plans and reports 5. A copy of the Learner Resource manual and Learner Workbook 2. a Licence to Store. identify different types of explosive and associated risks 4.0 Glossary. complete required documentation clearly. charging. and AS2187. or access to blasting accessories such as circuit testers. Ready access to the practical application of explosives handling. a Licence to Transport.2 Use of Explosives 3. MODULE 1 SUPPORTS LEARNING AGAINST COMPETENCY STANDARDS 1. explain the legislative requirements for the storage. Examples of site procedures for storing.net.

unlike most underground metalliferous mines. including the type of explosives used. The career may or may not progress all the way to being a key shotfirer on site. Want to store.CONTEXTUALISATION . handling and transport. and even to load the shot with limited involvement of site personnel. the need will arise to use explosives in different ways. Some might even help charge the odd shot. 2. However. or to the direction of the blast and weather conditions in relation to potential complainants. Fewer sites are now mixing their own ANFO. people who have used explosives in underground mines / quarries / tunnels still need special attention when transferring their competencies to surface operations. Change their workplace or task to involve explosives more regularly. Some people will have been spasmodically or even closely associated with explosives storage. handling and transport of explosives for surface operations can involve a more limited range of explosives than for underground explosives for much of the time. This has historically been more the case with metalliferous mines and civil construction. for example. and this might be so infrequent that their learning experience is very limited. handling and transport of explosives. However. Some organisations sometimes have a need to move people from site to site. for example. to ‘maximum instantaneous charge’ weights that have an impact on airblast overpressure and ground vibration. site personnel who are closely involved with explosive use must have a good understanding of the range of explosives and their storage. TAG | 27 Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide .MODULE 1 The nature of each site has a great influence on the storage. Explosives knowledge and experience differs widely for each individual and site so their learning is dependent on the needs of site and learners. Some surface operations do not store explosives on site. Much of the learning about explosives is traditionally based on-the-job and this reduces the time for reflecting on different results arising from the deployment of differing principles with explosives applications. Most of the principles involved in storing. or to geological conditions that might create flyrock risks. and so on. Most sites employ people with a range of experience and knowledge. Even so. so learners should be given an opportunity to reflect and broaden their perspective. Storage. but it is common enough in the other sectors that the needs of individuals must be examined and taken into account. quarrying and civil construction industry is characterised by people relocating to other sites on a regular basis. or 3. The mining. Indeed some surface operations engage suppliers to store and transport explosives to site. They need to appreciate the differences that blasting on the surface makes. whether they are stored overnight or transported by an explosives supplier. or even from the surface to underground and so on. Want to go back to basics for a better understanding of explosives so they can pursue a career where explosives play a central role. handle and transport explosives properly. so their competency has not been fostered properly. handling and transport of explosives on the surface are in common with underground operations. Module 1 is for people who: 1. let alone follow a career in shotfiring. handling and transport without ever intending to help charge a shot. Some mining/quarrying people have used explosives for many years without any real understanding of how explosives work and why different explosives are used in different circumstances – fully understanding or consciously thinking about the type or amount of explosives used in secondary breaking techniques. or whether they are bulk or packaged. yet this process still needs to be known as part of the broader understanding of a key explosive. so all of the principles involved with explosive use need to be understood. Some have wondered about such differences. other than what their grandfather might have told them. quarrying and construction Surface operations Surface operations tend to use explosives in ways where the rock generally moves at right angles to the blasthole. Specific information to be considered for types of mining. and many of these people have not had an opportunity to have their questions answered to their satisfaction. more frequently including people from surrounding rural industries with limited exposure to explosives.

flyrock and certain environmental impacts need to be given special attention on the surface. that the knowledge is directly transferable to or from the surface. but those that do require two actions that are not common for some underground applications – namely stemming of blastholes and wetting down the area surrounding the blastholes – so the background of people using explosives in metalliferous mines might need to be explored. while others utilise a remote firing signal. while other rock is required for dimension stone or building blocks or even sea-wall/ breakwater building. Some people. they may have to go against gravity – more so than for surface operations. 28 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. because they are likely to utilise this understanding when stripping-out a drive or constructing for example an electrical cuddy. and its use is so controlled that anyone transferring to a surface coal mine may need to extend their knowledge and experience in many areas. and this frequently minimises the numbers of people with exposure to explosives. see first-hand the results of their blasting. there is still a very real risk of igniting dust or methane. firing and for secondary breaking. Coal underground Coal dust and methane gas are common hazards in underground coal mines. is so similar to surface operations in the principles of explosive use. have subtly different needs for blast initiation arising from flyrock risks. may not get experience in the other side of explosive use. on the other hand. explosives are seldom used for production of coal. Many underground metalliferous miners do not. for reasons of shiftwork. The use of explosives in underground coal mines is understandably very tightly controlled. so they are not in a position to fine-tune their work with explosives. In underground coal mines across Australia. charging.net. Underground metalliferous mines can take advantage of gravity when using explosives – or. such as long-holeopen-stoping. Relatively few metalliferous mines have a serious sulphide ore dust explosion risk. Many people from underground metalliferous mines do not have experience in secondary blasting – and should gain an appreciation of this activity to appreciate the consequences of flyrock and the risk of damage to plant and services.The range of options for drilling. and this will have to be remembered or factored into activity tasks. tunnelling or driving generally involves rock moving when blasted in a direction parallel to the blastholes. Metalliferous underground Some underground explosive use. There may also be some ‘myths’ surrounding the use of explosives to the extent that these ‘myths’ need careful attention if the individual is not to be overly risk-averse. so site differences are many and varied.skillsonline. Some large operations still use safety fuse and a plain detonator to initiate a signal tube that is connected to a shot. Some of these sites will only fire from the surface when everyone is out of the mine. and some parts of some mines are riskier than other parts. Larger operations generally. Some rock has to be turned into very fine particles to release the valuable mineral. Some mines are riskier than others. with contractors used in any and all of these activities – hence the breadth of experience and knowledge in most people having exposure to explosives. and the differences are subtle but significant for a learner to comprehend. Even where explosives are used in sedimentary stone such as in sandstone or shale to break ground between coal seams. compared with smaller surface operations. is often much larger for surface operations than it is for underground mines. On the other hand.au . even with a wealth of experience in either production or development use of explosives. as well as to the degree of wall control that must be exercised – beyond that normally experienced in surface shots. and this makes a significant difference to the quantity of explosives used per cubic metre of rock broken.

This often results in subtle changes such as more use of emulsion explosives than might be the case if the site had its own stores of Security Sensitive Ammonium Nitrate (SSAN). necessitating more energy. charging and firing aspects of explosive use. by providing stemming material at the blast site ready for use by the contractor. 4. Other sites contract external providers to do the drilling. while in underground mines the rock frequently moves parallel to drillholes. priming. Reactive ground that takes the oxidising properties of some explosives to create dangerous situations for the unwary. even for people with strong competencies in explosives. and many of these do not have a close interaction between drillers and those charging the blastholes. at a disadvantage. Learners at sites with no magazines are. Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 29 . because sites are generally still accountable for (and take a more active role in) environmental impacts and their reduction and community exchanges.Other site-specific situations might involve: 1. and there are sufficiently different principles involved with these applications to warrant individual attention. 5. while many do the drilling themselves. Any site where drillers and shotfirers are ‘at a distance’ from each other may need extra effort in meeting the needs of both parts of the drilling and blasting activity. The same additional fostering effort is needed in situations where a contracted supplier performs all or part of the transporting. More sites are shutting down explosive magazines as security controls tighten or as concerns heighten in relation to risks and accountabilities. For example. and to perform (especially) informal risk assessments (because the change in site represents a significant change to their normal risk exposure and risk control arrangements). 7. some sites contract a shotfirer to provide a ‘rock-on-ground’ service but still need some help or interaction at the very least with site-based personnel – for example. appreciate the difference that ground in surface shots normally breaks perpendicular to blastholes. Site-specific contracts are many and varied so the impact on a learner is wide-ranging. 3. 8. have standard blast plans that do not make for people understanding the finer points of blast design. as a consequence. for example. They may not. 6. People who change sites are in a wonderful position to review ‘safe/standard working/operating procedures’. 2. Underground mines to a greater extent than surface mines and quarries. so the Trainer needs to foster more interaction with mobile mixing unit operators than might otherwise be the case. Pre-split explosive usage or cushion-blasting is not universally applied in mines and quarries. or indeed by other site personnel.

An outline of a Training Plan expands on items in the following table.7 Review emergency procedures for your site or as suggested in your Resource Learning & Assessment Tasks Perform actual tasks that help consolidate knowledge gained See note below on Learner Record What is required for a shot or shots prior to transportation. Types of explosives and segregation. in some case for years before embarking on a shotfirers’ course.net. handling and transport of explosives 1.what makes them work and .3 Understand the processes for managing risks associated with explosives storage.4 Inspect a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS).and offthe-job learning.6 Access legislative requirements. segregation of explosives during transport. responding in an emergency. Licences for storage. Learner Resource Topics This is the material covered in the Learners Resource Review Questions Questions will be asked covering critical points that reinforce your learning from the Learner’s Resource.5 Review storage / magazine rules / good housekeeping requirements for your site or as suggested in your Resource 1. Key accountabilities of shotfirers. site procedures. returning stock to magazines.au . A record. Deterioration of explosives. and obtain additional / useful information about requirements for storage. and selecting explosives. Learning Record As they go. and discuss these with explosive users or managers on site 1. handling and transport. which may involve other activities such as training. or log of their experience is included in the Learner Workbook. for its information about hazards and emergency responses. government agencies and their information. Once they get into the subject they will often realise how much there is to know about the effective and efficient use of explosives. handling & transport. as well as suggesting examples of work that you might record in a journal. and shotfirer ‘tickets’.what are their properties. storage records. product information.2 List explosives used on site. TRAINERS NOTES: Many learners have been exposed to explosives. Identifying things that can go wrong (hazards) with explosives. The Record of Learning contained in your Workbook comprises evidence of both on. Transport rules and practices. 1.2 Store explosives Gain awareness and experience in storing requirements and magazine rules. 1. accessing and analysing safety policies. Golden rules. assessing risks and risk management. Learn to select explosives based on blast plans and learn to pass on vital information about stock and usage. This also covers on-the-job storage of explosives.1 Identify explosives & associated hazards This involves understanding explosives and how they work.skillsonline. It then involves implementing procedures that are based on those controls. 1. and their classifications. magazine rules and storage requirements 1. learners should note their progress and activities. and actual experience across a range of explosive usage situations. and is tailored to their needs. Conducting a pre-start check on the vehicle and preparing to transport. assessing risks and implementing controls for those risks. identifying hazards. Storage of explosives and SSAN. maintaining and reporting stock. Check your knowledge of: 1.1 Access Australian Standard 2187.3 Transport explosives Become more conscious of transporting rules and routes. The majority of these will have a wealth of practical experience but not an understanding of what makes explosives work or why they work differently under different conditions.TRAINING PLAN – MODULE 1 Discuss a suitable Training Plan with the learner. access to storage facilities. Codes & guidelines as outlined in the Workbook and look for useful information in addition to your Learner Resource 1. accessing and recording. They should record those too. and reporting. Key features of explosives . 30 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each 1. including compliance with statutory and legislative obligations.

If a Learner needs help to answer any of the questions. Go to selection of articles . Minerals Industry Safety Handbook www. NSW WorkCover Website www.mirmgate. From the NSW DPI / Minerals / safety / publications / workbooks / safety handbook . such as ‘Blasting Explosives Users Licence . and Queensland Safety Alerts. they are illustrative of explosives information across Australia. Select range of Licencing topics.Answers to questions in Workbook 1 are virtually a straight lift from Learner Resource 1. find the relevant part in LR1.dpi. Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 31 . It is more theoretical than practical so your help for Learners is with their access to information.asp Go to ‘hazardous substances’. Many will want to discuss the myths and legends they have heard about over the years.nsw.16. then to ‘explosives’. Understand that Modules 2 and 4 will take them further into crucial aspects of shotfiring. Module 1 is characterized by going back to basics with explosives.com/browse_hazard.to get application and guideline to help apply. While the Learner Resource uses NSW legislation and references to government agencies.au/publications See WorkCover / publications / licensing / etc. At the front of each Learner Workbook is a list of people who can help – the Trainer is only one of a few.see especially WMC standard.gov.gov.go to Part 4 and then to section 4. so don’t let them get bogged down too early.workcover. Learner Resource 1 provides a list of jurisdictional contacts across Australia.au MIRMgate website www.nsw. The following material is intended to help you find additional resources to help a Learner go deeper into any aspect. Be able to support the Learner in accessing a range of additional information beyond the Resource.

Select info of use to your site. Search for the product. then to ‘Explosives etc’. now Dept Mines & Energy (DME) 32 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.au Orica Mining Services www.gov.oricaminingservices.au .com Then go to ‘publications’.gov. country.. then ‘go’. market & product type. Note guidance info available via workcover website. especially ‘terminology’ and ‘Storage etc specifications’.workcover. Who holds this info on your site? Select region. Note range of info available. then to ‘Dangerous Goods. TDS to get required information Then go to ‘Mining & Safety’.qld. Fireworks and Pyrotechnics’.Access range of guidance info www. Formerly Natural Resources & Mines.net. then to ‘Licensing. Note dates of publications. Explosives.au Then select SDS/MSDS..nsw.skillsonline. registration and notification’. & Queensland DME website www.dme.

Search for TDS. accessible via their websites Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 33 . Maxam (formerly UEE) www. MSDS etc. then ‘Australia’ and ‘Technical Information’ to see the information listed.au Then go to ‘Safety’ and ‘MSDS’. for particular product.Dyno Nobel’s website www.com Then go to ‘Products & Services’.com. Search for ‘product’ info.maxam-int. See also the Technical Data Sheets (TDS) as supplied by the manufacturer.dynonobel.

ZBar Lifter is not closely coupled in the hole.1D 0027 Black Powder (Gunpowder).2 Description of the explosive Low explosives These include for example any explosives containing black / blasting powder that might be used for secondary blasting High explosives These are the more commonly used explosives such as packaged or mobilemixed emulsions that might be used in production or development blasts Name / description Penetrating Cone Fracture (PCF).skillsonline.4S UN Classification Number 0349 Articles.Example of information to be provided by the learner in Learning & Assessment Activity 1. 136 per case Priming ANFO. 1.1D 0082 Powergel Magnum (Orica) 32mm diameter. Secondary blasting Dimension stone 1. detonating cords etc Riotech MS (Nonelectric Detonator MS). ZBar Lifter is a packaged. supplied as RocKracker by Johnex Black (blasting) Powder Used for … Mass explosion risk Classification Number 1. but without stray electricity risks.O.au . 200. so it suited for perimeterblasting effects. primers / boosters.1D Z-Bar Lifter from Dyno Nobel For use in floor holes. high strength.1D 0241 Initiating explosives These are detonators.net. High strength.4B going to 1. but Affected by water Low shock or shattering impact. because it shatters the country rock too much Easy to connect. Bulk explosives use. Main advantages / disadvantages Low shock or shattering impact. Also.1B when taken out of original shopping packages 0361 34 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. granular 0082 Amex. used with nonel delay dets 1.S. N. water resistant explosive. 200mm length 185g per cartridge. Explosive. delay periods 175. detonatorsensitive. with delays. ANFO is not to be used in reactive ground. 475 & 500 milliseconds Used to initiate primers 1. water resistant. but Affected by water ANFO is cheap and easy to use but it dissolves in water. primer to impart high VOD to ANFO – not for use in back holes where perimeterblasting effect is wanted. wet or dry 1. supplied by Orica as mixed ANFO.

A typical MSDS is one for ANFO Page 1 of 7 Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 35 .

skillsonline.net.A typical MSDS is one for ANFO Page 2 of 7 36 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.au .

A typical MSDS is one for ANFO Page 3 of 7 Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 37 .

A typical MSDS is one for ANFO Page 4 of 7 38 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.au .skillsonline.net.

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net.A typical MSDS is one for ANFO Page 6 of 7 40 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.au .skillsonline.

A typical MSDS is one for ANFO Page 7 of 7 Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 41 .

An extract from AS2187 in relation to ‘magazine rules’ follows. and consider how these rules apply.skillsonline.au . get the Learner to use this example of magazine rules to look at ‘day boxes’ used at times of charging. Note that it is an ‘informative’ Appendix. 42 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.net. it is not mandatory. Where there is no magazine on site.

necessary to ensure that when used effectively. workplace inspections and accident investigations. which might influence the Learner’s answers to questions. Internal and external communication plans 8. equipment.through the identification. This discussion will focus on all incidents that are classified as emergency situations. Developing the plan begins with risk assessment. Planning for emergencies All potential emergency situations need to be identified and emergency procedures documented for preventing and lessening injury and illness. Other discussion is contained within the Learner’s Resource manual.who does what when an emergency occurs (including evacuation) 3. 2. such as bushfire or flooding. Risk assessment Identifying potential emergency situations is the key to having effective emergency response plans. Purpose The purpose of the emergency response plan is to: 1. At the planning stage it is important to include employees who may have had experience in emergency work. The results of risk assessment will show: 1. An emergency plan covers incidents that could be assessed as unlikely to occur but with potential high consequences. An emergency event will have major impacts at the mine and will require actions because of these impacts. the following: 1. Emergency rescue equipment available on site 5. but not be limited to.people. it needs to be recognised that unplanned incidents (emergency events) can occur. Training plans 9. What means are available to stop or prevent the event and 3. minimise the level of risk to life. You may use the high-risk areas identified from completing hazard identification and risk assessment. information and knowledge . What is necessary for the given event. Information requirements of emergency services 7. Other emergency events may be known from previous experience or local knowledge. Emergency procedures . property and the environment as a result of an emergency situation. minimise that risk. such as volunteer fire fighters. The risk assessment may result in a list that may include: • Fire • Explosion • Flood • Significant collapse of workings of the mine • Major trauma (injuries) • Medical emergency (general and specific such as heart attack) • Hazardous material or chemical spill • Mobile plant or vehicle collision • Illegal acts such as bomb threat or unauthorised entry Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 43 .By way of general discussion. Also look at other risk assessments that you have done such as safe work procedures. Drills and simulation exercises. All these various sources of information can help you determine what will be an emergency event. provide guidance for all employees .what to do in emergency situations. A set of plans (known as the emergency response plan) and procedures for how to deal with these events must be developed and regularly tested to ensure that the affects of these unplanned events are minimised. They can help identify emergencies and the response procedures needed. List of key emergency personnel 4. but represents a basic emergency plan. Warning and alarm systems – installation. availability and testing requirements 2. volunteer rescue service or first aiders. Emergency response plans may include. assessment and control of the risk of those hazards. Each site needs to plan for these incidents. an emergency plan is essential for prevention of accidents happening . identify the resources . and 3. The emergency response plan for the majority of small operations will be the same but the size and detail should fit with your particular site. How likely an event is to happen 2. Details of emergency services available 6.

prolonged heavy rainfall may cause flooding of the local river that runs near the mine/ quarry/extractive industry/ civil construction site. if a dump truck goes over a highwall there may be explosion. fire. injury and hazardous material spill.skillsonline. early warning and protection measures (such as sandbagging) and evacuation if continued flooding becomes a threat to life. responsibilities and authorities.net. collapse of the highwall. Response may include flood level monitoring.au . The emergency response plan should have specific duties. Normal communication and decision-making may not work. In another example.Any of the above can be related. such as: Emergency equipment medical supplies (first aid kits) Location • main office • weighbridge / workshop • mobile plant • office and plant. Emergency response is about making rapid decisions due to time and the circumstances. Some of these are: • who reports the emergency • who starts the emergency response plan • who has overall control • who establishes communication • who alerts emergency personnel • who orders evacuation • who alerts external emergency services • who provides first aid • who advises relatives of casualties • who sounds the all-clear Emergency resources The final consideration is a list and the location of what emergency equipment is needed . mobile plant • workshop and main office • workshop store and main gate offsite ambulance service No 1 feed bin • all employees senior first-aid trained • two persons trained in heights rescue and confined space rescue Emergency response facility clearly identified fire fighting equipment: • extinguishers • fire hose reel • bush fire kit ambulance emergency chemical spill kit trained personnel 44 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. A 1 in 100-year flood may occur causing the site to be cutoff from road access and communications. Some possible major impacts and required actions based on these events: Possible major impacts • sequential events (for example fire after explosion) • evacuation • casualties • damage to equipment and machinery • loss of records/documents • disruption to work Required actions • declare emergency • sound the alert • evacuate persons from the danger area • close down main power supply • call for external help (such as ambulance) • start-up rescue operations • attend to casualties • fight fire Preparing an emergency procedure The emergency response plan will be made up of procedures for the identified emergencies. For example.including some possible emergency equipment and locations.

All employees should be trained and educated so they know what to do for their role and responsibilities in the event of an emergency. tyre fire. Emergency drills should be conducted at least every 12 months to make people aware of their immediate actions. VRS) and how to contact them. emergency phones and evacuation assembly areas • identify the local emergency services (fire. Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 45 . The emergency response plan should be reviewed (and where necessary revised) after an incident or emergency event. Emergency training Employees need to be trained to deal with emergency events. SES. the position of fire fighting equipment and the location of emergency assembly areas. medical. how to raise the alarm. including exits. ambulance. you should: • develop an evacuation procedure • develop procedures for emergency response for your specific major emergency events (flood.To ensure good emergency response. explosion. There should be a schedule developed for training and refresher training for all employees for all emergency events identified. location of fire fighting and emergency equipment. safe evacuation paths. etc) • install and maintain all necessary fire fighting and emergency equipment • train all emergency personnel as required • appoint first aid officers • provide a site plan of the operation. fire. police.

au . These people will renew their training as required. which forms part of a safety system: AIM: The aim of this program is to develop emergency response plans and procedures to prevent further injury to persons. After consultation with the employees. Completed procedures will be communicated to everyone through our safety meetings. (FORM yy) informing local emergency services of the operations existence will be distributed by the ___________________________. the procedure and plan has been developed. and where possible emergency services and using FORM xx. so that it is near communication and available to Site Plan Our site plan is a diagram showing the items below. with the names of the first aid officers. A copy of the site procedure and plan will be sent with this letter. WHO: The emergency response plan and procedure has been developed after consultation with the workforce and local emergency services.net. WHAT: Our emergency response plan will consist of: Procedure Our procedure (FORM xx. A letter. Page 1 of 2 46 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. buildings. see attached) has been developed to help in the control of emergencies and it includes the following incidents. and The Institute of Quarrying Australia). A list (FORM zz) will be posted beside all first aid equipment. First Aid Personnel There are sufficient people trained to carry out first aid on site during each shift (First Aid Officers). in the event of an unplanned incident. damage to property or the work environment.skillsonline. • work and storage areas • first aid equipment locations • emergency muster points • high wall.Example of a basic emergency plan (acknowledgment NSW DPI /Minerals/ Mine Safety Operations. HOW: Our site has identified our potential emergencies by way of the risk management program. roads • power isolation points • fuel and chemical storage areas • fire fighting equipment • access and egress points • fixed plant • emergency phones It has been displayed at _____________________. . Fire / Medical (injury) It has been posted everyone on site.

EMERGENCY PROCEDURE In the event an emergency . Originals are to remain part of this Safety Management System / Plan. with a copy of the site plan. ACTION: Emergency procedures will be set-up and employees trained in the use of these procedures and their roles during an emergency. Letters. per year. will be sent to all local emergency services. complete DRABC (if trained) and give assistance Contact the Department of Primary Industries inspector Investigate incident OTHER REMEMBER . Contact Management ____________ NOTE: Once area is safe. of persons injured Type of emergency Type of injuries Ensure the area is made safe before attempting to render assistance. DOCUMENT CONTROL: Emergency procedures and the site plan will be recorded on the “Document Control Master List” (FORM oo). Attachment: Form xx – Emergency Procedure FORM xx . If possible send a person to the front gate to direct Ambulance or Emergency Services.WHEN: The procedure will be tested by way of an emergency drill. Address: Nearest Cross Road: Contact Name: Contact Number: Further Information: FIRE Type of Fire Size of Fire Ensure all persons are accounted for If safe to do so remove all plant from the area Contact Management ___________ NOTE: Only attempt to extinguish the fire if safe to do so Contact the Department of Primary Industries inspector Investigate fire MEDICAL No.QUICK RESPONSE CAN SAVE LIVES Page 2 of 2 TAG | 47 Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide .KEEP CALM DIAL 000 or 112(mobile) Tell the operator which service you require and provide them with the site’s details.

Note legislation update section. metalliferous (includes extractive industries).nsw.workcover.gov.gov..edu.net.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/ Note: this site contains general information. NSW DPI ‘Legislation’ website www. Choose from coal.austlii. www.au and this is another way. 48 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www..NSW Workcover explosives information website www.nsw. Choose ‘E’ to get Explosives Act 2003.dpi. or OHS Act & Explosives Act. Note also ‘search’ facility.au . in addition to the ‘Licensing’ webpage.skillsonline.au/minerals/safety/legislation Then scroll to ‘Explosives Act’.

workcover.gov. OHS / dangerous goods / fact sheets..au At least 4 Licenses.nsw. eg ANFO.Remember WorkCover’s website contains much information www. Note also ‘search’ facility. to transport explosives. See typical licenses: & general Licensing Conditions advice. Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 49 . to store Explosives. BEUL also with NPA. Examples of important information Note: the importance of information will vary on the circumstances. to manufacture explosives. UHL with NPA..

a typical safety policy is: Example of a basic site safety policy and risk management program (acknowledgment NSW DPI /Minerals/ Mine Safety Operations. OH&S Policy Goals for Year xx/xx Management Employee Representative Date Date WHO: This policy has been developed and reviewed jointly by management and employees. The policy is to be reviewed by (eg a joint committee of management and employees). and The Institute of Quarrying Australia). WHEN: Each year. We will review this quarterly and at the end of each year to see if we have achieved our target. Both management and employees have signed off on this policy document displaying commitment and ownership. WHAT: This policy is the basis of the SMP and looks at what we believe are our main health and safety goals for the coming year.net. if you don’t have one or can’t access one.au . so use that system wherever possible. HOW: At our regular site safety meetings everyone will be involved in developing and improving the goals of the policy. at an annual site safety review meeting we intend to use FORM vv to record our safety targets for the year. which forms part of a safety system site safety policy and risk management program AIM: The aim of this program is to develop a health and safety policy that will guide everyone on site in the planning. Page 1 of 2 50 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.Your site is almost certain to have a documented system or Safety Management Plan. We will modify our following year’s targets to account for any shortcomings. development and implementation of their safety management plan (SMP).skillsonline. However.

It is the responsibility of to explain to the employees and contractors the importance of using our risk management program. WHAT: The risk management process will consistently identify hazards at our site by way of applying the process to all of our activities. This consists of systematically assessing the hazards against our risk matrix.ACTION: The yearly safety plan (FORM aa) is to be completed by goals for the year. When a hazard is identified the risk associated with it is determined by looking at the likelihood of a hazard to result in injury and the potential consequence or severity of the injury. to assess the risks of these hazards and to implement controls to remove or reduce the risk to the lowest practicable level as well as monitor the effectiveness of these controls. Once we have identified our potential hazards we intend to apply our risk assessment program to these hazards. Page 2 of 2 Similarly a basic risk management program might state: risk management AIM: The aim of this program is to develop a process that will continually allow us to identify work hazards. which determines the appropriate response required protecting the health and safety of everyone on and off site. listing all safety with the DOCUMENT CONTROL: A copy of this policy is to be displayed in the master remaining in the SMP. Page 1 of 4 Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 51 . This is done by way of the following: Regular Workplace Inspections Reporting hazards immediately as found Agenda item at safety meeting (FORM bb) (Hazard Reports) (Daily Diary) (FORM cc) (FORM tt) (FORM mm) Reviewing hazards with contractors during inductions Safe Work Procedures WHO: The risk management program will be used by all people who work at our site. HOW: We intend to use our “Workplace Inspection Form” (FORM jj) as the centre-piece of our risk management program. The and will conduct a whole of site hazard identification process as the first step in developing our safety management plan.

net.RISK ASSESSMENT RATING (Note: we conduct our risk assessment with the current controls in place) Page 2 of 4 52 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.skillsonline.au .

Elimination Substitution Engineering Administrative PPE Is it possible to eliminate the hazard altogether? Is it possible to replace the substance or equipment with something less hazardous? Is it possible to create a “barrier” between the hazard and the person e. level of hazard and has it been selected correctly? Page 3 of 4 Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 53 . hand rail. high risk permits? Last resort .CONTROLS Once the hazard has been identified and risk rated. HIGH RISK Stop work Barricade area or take short term action Select highest possible control within your capabilities Immediately notify supervisor Record in daily diary Fix within Discuss at next safety meeting Other MEDIUM RISK Take short term action Select highest possible control within your capabilities Notify supervisor at end of shift Record in daily diary Fix within Discuss at next safety meeting Other LOW RISK Select highest possible control within your capabilities Fix within Review during next workplace inspection to ensure still low Other HIERACHY OF CONTROLS When we select a control for an identified hazard. distance? Is it possible to lessen the exposure of people through changing the way the job is done. It is essential that we place the highest possible control once we have identified the hazard. rotating people through the job.is PPE appropriate to the type. we will always choose the highest measure of control possible. guarding. administrative controls such as training. the following action must be taken.g.

For further information about ammonium nitrate products. These are also referred to as explosive precursors.skillsonline. suspensions or gels containing greater than 45 per cent ammonium nitrate 3. Contractor & Visitor Induction (FORM uu). The following extract from the WorkCover publication addresses a number of issues central to responsibilities for storage. SSAN is any of the following: 1.au . and it is suggested that a number of dot points be drawn from the Leaner’s Resource or from such information as this extract: ABOUT THE LICENSE TO STORE The licence to store authorises individuals and companies to possess and store specified explosives and or dangerous substances such as certain formulations of ammonium nitrate. all documentation will be filed as per the document control section of each program. ammonium nitrate emulsions. then that person will apply our sites risk management strategy and will take the necessary actions to reduce the hazard to the lowest practicable level. All people on site will apply these categories when formally assessing hazards or during their normal work practice. any person is made aware of a hazard. ammonium nitrate that is not a dangerous good of class 1 (ie an explosive) 2. Currently only security sensitive ammonium nitrate is prescribed as a security sensitive dangerous substance. Therefore. Security sensitive dangerous substances refers to any goods prescribed by the regulation as security sensitive dangerous substances. Many of our documents include our risk rating categories eg.WHEN: This process of identifying hazards. ammonium nitrate mixtures containing greater than 45 per cent ammonium nitrate. DOCUMENT CONTROL: The concept of risk management has been included in the majority of our documentation. Page 1 of 3 54 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. Workplace Inspection (FORM bb). the main responsibilities will vary from case to case.net. contact WorkCover on 13 10 50. Page 4 of 4 There is further discussion on systems in Module 4. ACTION: If during the course of any normal activity on site. assessing risk and implementing controls underpins all of our programs and will be applied to all of our work.

have a legitimate reason for storing explosives and/or security sensitive dangerous substances 5. You must satisfy WorkCover that you. NOMINATED PERSONS There must be at least one person nominated for the licence who: 1. have the qualifications. You must not allow people to have unsupervised access to security sensitive dangerous substances unless they hold a valid unsupervised handling licence. If you are granted a licence you must comply with the conditions of the licence. holds a valid unsupervised access licence 4. is the applicant or a person involved in the management of the company 3. or a nominated person on behalf of a company: 1. experience and knowledge necessary to hold the licence 4. is 18 years of age or older 2. You will only be issued a licence if you meet certain eligibility requirements. For more information see the Guide to obtaining an unsupervised handling licence (GE01). experience and knowledge necessary to hold the licence. has the qualifications. YOUR OBLIGATIONS You must comply with the conditions of the Explosives Act 2003. WorkCover may suspend or cancel licences or impose penalties on licence holders who do not comply with the conditions of licence or the requirements of the legislation.GENERAL REQUIREMENTS A licence to store explosives and/or security sensitive dangerous goods authorises you to possess and store only the explosives and/or security sensitive dangerous substances specified in the licence. are 18 years of age or over 2. Page 2 of 3 Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 55 . have made adequate arrangements to ensure only persons who have an unsupervised handling licence have unsupervised access to explosives or security sensitive dangerous substances. have an unsupervised handling licence 3. have made adequate arrangements for the safe and secure handling and storage of the explosives and/or security sensitive dangerous substances 6. the Explosives Regulation 2005 and the Occupational Health and Safety Regulation 2001. An unsupervised handling licence is granted to persons who have successfully undergone security checking.

household domestic use 2. To obtain this licence you must satisfy WorkCover that you will store the explosives or security sensitive dangerous substances for one of the following reasons: 1. use in commercial production processes 3. SAFETY AND SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS You will need to satisfy WorkCover that you have in place adequate arrangements for the safety and security of the explosives and/or security sensitive dangerous substances. supply or transport for one of the reasons above Licences will not be approved to use security sensitive dangerous substances for: 1. …” Page 3 of 3 56 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.au .LEGITIMATE REASON Access to explosives and security sensitive dangerous substances is restricted. blasting users such as agricultural blasting. You will only be issued with a licence to store these goods if you have a legitimate reason under the Explosives Regulation 2005. the purpose of education or research 6. commercial agricultural use by a primary producer 2. mining or quarrying 5.skillsonline. You do this by submitting a security plan with your application and providing information about your site and the types of substances you will store. commercial manufacture of fertilizer or explosives 4.net. use as a fertiliser on outdoor recreation facilities.

ASSESSMENT – MODULE 1 STORING, HANDLING & TRANSPORTING EXPLOSIVES
An assessor cannot always observe a learner for a long period of time and some competency standards are difficult to observe. Therefore third party evidence can be an essential piece of evidence in the assessment process. While this report is not a formal assessment, it has been structured to contribute to a competency assessment in relation to the subject. The following checklist is included in Module 1 Learner Workbook. Please place a tick ( 3 ) or cross ( 5 ) in the boxes as applicable to verify Learner’s competence in the areas listed below.

Name of person being assessed The following are notes made in assessing against a compilation of elements & performance criteria from the following competencies: 1. RIIBLA200 Store, handle & transport explosives Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being assessed can: Comp Unit Ref Note: these Units replace Competency Units: 1. MNMG205A Maintain magazine 2. MNMG210A Store, handle and transport explosives 3. MNQOPS313A Handle. Transport and store explosives Yes / No Comments – include here your views about the person’s knowledge, skills and experience – how often have you seen the person doing these things, what breadth of practical work have you seen the person doing, how reliably (or consistently, or efficiently, or cost-effectively, or timely) does the person work, and how does any or all of this impact on others Also make use of the ‘Comments’ section at the end of this Assessment table 1 Identify and handle explosives a. Conduct explosives storage, handling and transport in a safe and efficient manner according to: i. site procedures, ii. legislative requirements and iii. manufacturers’ specifications b. Identify, address and report potential hazards and assess risks according to site procedures with i. explosives storage, ii. handling and iii. transport c. Receive, interpret and clarify shift or blast plan explosives and accessories requirements 1 1.1

1.2

1.3, 3.1

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Name of person being assessed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being assessed can: d. Identify the explosives and associated materials used for i. different blast plans ii. different applications Comp Unit Ref Yes / No Comments

1.4

e. Classify explosives according to statutory criteria

1.5

f. Apply safe handling procedures and precautions according to i. statutory requirements and ii. site procedures

1.6

2 Access and manage explosives storage a. Gain access as authorised person to: i. Magazine ii. SSAN store iii. Accessories store

2 2.1

b. Receive and despatch explosives, and i. record transfers indicating type and quantity together with identity of recipient

2.4

c. Segregate blasting agents and explosives according to type in: i. Main magazines ii. Portable magazines and iii. On-the-job storage

2.5

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Name of person being assessed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being assessed can: d. Store explosives to prevent deterioration, spoilage and spillage Comp Unit Ref Yes / No Comments

2.6

e. Ensure rotation of explosives in magazine

2.7

f. Restrict access to storage area to authorised persons and i. Maintain security of explosives

2.8

g. Maintain and i. stock-take records and report discrepancies • clearly • concisely • on time h. Conduct housekeeping of explosive storage, including SSAN store or portable magazines / day-boxes according to: i. statutory requirements and ii. site magazine rules or procedures

2.8, 2.10

2.2, 2.3, 2.9

i. Pass on end of shift information to oncoming shift regarding explosives: i. Storage ii. Handling and iii. Transport

2.11

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iv.2 b. other persons including • other drivers on or intersecting the same route • others working nearby or affected • emergency personnel • control rooms using communication methods at • pre-start meetings and • in vehicles according to site procedures to advise of explosive movements 2. Load vehicle in accordance with separation and segregation requirements 3. Conduct and record result of pre-start check on: i. associated materials according to firing or blast design/ plan for safe transport Comp Unit Ref Yes / No Comments 3 3.2 60 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.1.au .Name of person being assessed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being assessed can: 3 Prepare to transport explosives a.skillsonline. Select: i.3. Transport explosives and associated materials to designated location using designated route 4 4.5 3.net. Communicate with: i. explosives vehicle and ii.8 4. site procedures / OHS. 3.6 4 Transport explosives 1. manufacturers’ specifications. 3. v. sufficient quantities of explosives and ii. regulations c. other equipment operators and ii. equipment according to iii.

Store damaged.8 4. Without tools in accordance with site procedures 4. deteriorated explosives separately 4.5 7. Return surplus explosives to magazine and: i. Complete required i.7 8.4 6. Transport explosives separately in secured containers i. site and ii. Drive vehicle at all times in a safe manner in accordance with: i. Prepare for and i.3 5. respond appropriately in emergency situations Comp Unit Ref Yes / No Comments 3. site procedures and ii. stock record documentation and ii. safe driving conventions 4. legislative requirements 4. reports promptly 4.Name of person being assessed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being assessed can: 3. Check that delivery site is suited to explosives storage according to i.8 Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 61 .

au .skillsonline. You might also consider commenting on specific site or task conditions. teamwork. learning. planning and organising. and application of technology. or ‘ticket’ number: Signarture: Learner Name: Signarture: Assessor/Instructor Name: Signarture: Supervisor Name: Signarture: Comments: (write your general comments here and/or expand on any comment you may have made in the ‘Comments’ column above.Signatures: Third Party Name: Role: Licence. You could also comment on applicable facets of the person’s employability skills outlined earlier such as communications.net. initiative and enterprise. problem solving. Date: Date: Date: Date: 62 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. self-management.

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02
CHARGING BLASTHOLES

OVERVIEW – MODULE 2
Module 2 Charging Blastholes is for people who are already familiar with storing, handling & transporting explosives, and who are becoming involved with charging blastholes. They are now part of the shot crew and want specifically to: 1. Prepare for charging a. Checking plan and procedures b. Checking weather & blast site for geology etc c. Isolating the area from unauthorised people & traffic and from stray currents d. Checking blastholes e. Storing explosives on-the-job properly f. Preventing premature initiation; 2. Conduct or oversight mixing or manufacturing of explosives a. Checking vehicles, equipment & delivery b. Mixing / Manufacturing explosives including ANFO as required c. Checking and maintaining charging & blasting equipment; 3. Prime blastholes a. Understanding priming options b. Making up primers c. Placing primers in blastholes; 4. Load explosives into blastholes a. Deck-loading as required b. Dipping & tamping holes while loading to check the amount of explosives c. Dealing with water in blastholes d. Stemming 5. Clean up and report a. Cleaning up & getting ready to return unused explosives b. Keeping records c. Maintaining statutory documentation d. Keeping site records

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Module 2 follows that progression, so that the learner prepares for charging blastholes before they start to prime, load and finish the process of charging then start the clean-up. In Module 1, the learner developed a respect for explosives. They learned that explosives contain large and powerful chemical energies, so it is vital to get their storage, handling and transport right the first time. They can be very unforgiving if mistreated but they are manufactured to deliver their energies in special ways in the robust environment of the mining, quarrying and civil construction industry. The learner is now ready to begin charging blastholes. Once a shot is charged it is very hard, and can be very dangerous to make changes. While there are many variations, from site to site in charging blastholes, it is vital that everyone in the shot crew does the same thing in the same way every time. Then, if something doesn’t go according to plan, it is easier to spot the difference and make adjustments. There will normally be several people involved in charging and the crew must work well as a team. There is little room for error, so the person who is responsible for the shot will want to be very certain that everyone follows the charging procedure, which is outlined in this Module. The learner must check the blast plan and follow safe and efficient procedures, starting with certain checks of the site itself to see that the plan remains valid or make adjustments before the work gets underway. Some sites mix ANFO, while others have manufacturing equipment in the form of mobile plant for carrying explosive ingredients to site and manufacturing it at the blasthole. Other sites, or at other times the site will engage an explosive supplier to manufacture and deliver emulsion explosives. The learner then primes and loads blastholes in accordance with procedures that everyone in the shot crew understands. These procedures might seem simple enough but the learner mustn’t get complacent; they must stay disciplined when supporting shotfiring. If a learner sees a need to change the way blastholes are charged, everyone involved must discuss that need and all agree to make the change – then everyone must follow it all the time - until they all agree to the next improvement.

Finally, the job of charging isn’t finished until the site is cleared for hook-up (which is the subject of Module 3). The shotfirer will supervise the hook-up. At this stage, the learner might have to check again and report against the blast plan. Explosives might have to be returned to the magazine or at least be made ready to take back. If procedures need up-dating due to any experience on the shot, they need to be discussed. On completion of this module the learner should be able to: 1. prepare for charging by mixing explosives for the job, or identifying how they are mixed 2. supporting the mixing process, in the case of a mobile mixing or processing unit 3. check the area where the charging is to take place 4. check the blastholes to make sure they are still clear for charging 5. identify and apply the correct on-the-job storage requirements for explosives 6. set primers and/or boosters prior to the main charge 7. load the main charge of explosives 8. implement site and regulatory requirements for charging blastholes, and 9. maintain necessary records relating to charging blastholes.

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MODULE 2 SUPPORTS LEARNING AGAINST COMPETENCY STANDARDS 1. AS2187. MNQOPS413A Conduct Shotfiring 7. of course the standard needs to be improved. MNCU1049A Support shotfiring operations 9. MNCO1040A Conduct Shotfiring Operations 6. to cleaning up and reporting. MNCU1048A Conduct Shotfiring 8. Differences can cause tensions that may lead to the wrong thing being done.2 Use of Explosives 3. It is important to find out what these standards are. Specific information to be considered for types of mining. RIIBLA303 Conduct Underground Development Shotfiring 4.RESOURCES FOR TRAINING – MODULE 2 1. Access to people/suppliers who mix/ manufacture explosives 5. as part of the charge team. and AS2187. so charging practices can differ for new or for experienced people. Whatever standard is used. RIIBLA301 Conduct Surface Shotfiring Operations 3. RIIBLA201 Support Surface Shotfiring Operations 2.net.1 Storage. and to reinforce them – unless. loading the main charge. Access to websites of statutory authorities such as in NSW for WorkCover and DPI/Minerals/Safety 6. Examples of site procedures for mixing/ manufacturing explosives and charging blastholes.skillsonline. but these differences can’t be ignored . MNMG353A Fire Surface Shots 5. Most sites have standard operating procedures and standard blast plans. with some shrouded in history (like the use of detonators to initiate ANFO in blastholes in some underground mines arising from times when miners had to pay for their own explosives).0 Glossary. blast plans and reports 4. (Previously covering 1. and being hard to undo. A copy of the Learner Resource manual and Learner Workbook 2. Ready access to the practical application of all key steps involved in charging blastholes with explosives from checking locations of. A copy of Australian Standards AS2187. with the Learner understanding why the difference occurs and what site experience is important.au . MNCO1041A Support Shotfiring Operations 2. MNMG313A Charge Blastholes 3. quarrying and construction. every time. it is vital that everyone in a charging crew works in the same way. MNMG323A Charge Development Blastholes 10. RIIBLA304 Conduct Underground Production Shotfiring 66 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. and clearing blastholes. MNMG352A Apply Blasting Activities 4. Some differences are seemingly small.they need to be understood. through priming. MNMG321A Charge Production Blastholes) CONTEXTUALISATION – MODULE 2 The practice of charging blastholes differs widely across the industry so learning is dependent on the needs of site and learners.

but those that do require two actions that are not common for some underground applications – namely stemming of blastholes and wetting down the area surrounding the blastholes – so the background of people using explosives in metalliferous mines might need to be explored. flyrock and certain environmental impacts on the surface need to be given special attention. Some of these sites will only fire from the surface when everyone is out of the mine. and this frequently minimises the numbers of people with exposure to explosives. may not experience in the other side of explosive use. and some parts of some mines are riskier than other parts. have standard blast plans that do not make for people understanding the finer points of blast design. However. The length of blastholes can vary widely according to the stage that the operation has reached. Stemming is absolutely essential in mines with sulphide ore dust explosion risk. so the impact of this on powder factors and other rules of thumb needs to be appreciated. and this will have to be remembered or factored into activity tasks. because they are likely to utilise this understanding when stripping-out a drive or constructing for example an electrical cuddy. Coal underground Stemming and location of primers are critical in underground coal mines – more so than in underground metalliferous mines or civil construction tunnels. Underground mines to a greater extent than surface mines and quarries. and this can change priming practices. such as long-holeopen-stoping. There may also be some ‘myths’ surrounding the use of explosives to the extent that these ‘myths’ need careful attention if the individual is not to be overly risk-averse. Metalliferous underground Some underground explosive use. there is still a very real risk of igniting dust or methane. whereas in the majority of underground shots the rock moves largely in a direction somewhat parallel to the blasthole. for reasons of shiftwork. Information about site-specific situations differs widely from site to site and needs to be taken into account. so they are not in a position to fine-tune their work with explosives. so stemming is not as vital as it is in stope firings where you want the rock to move at right angles to the blasthole. In underground coal mines across Australia. Few metalliferous mines have a sulphide ore dust explosion risk. appreciate Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 67 . Wet holes may be rare or commonplace or anywhere in between. while stemming would make a significant difference. Even where explosives are used in sedimentary stone such as in sandstone or shale to break ground between coal seams. see first-hand the results of their blasting. even with a wealth of experience in either production or development (tunnelling) use of explosives. the rock is going to move in the direction of the face to a large degree. explosives are seldom used for production of coal. One particular difference is that blastholes are not commonly stemmed in development (or tunnelling). The use of explosives in underground coal mines is understandably very tightly controlled. the rock moves to a free face in a direction perpendicular to the blasthole. They may not. Pre-split holes are charged quite differently to the more common production blastholes. This results in differing decisions being made on the type of explosive used. and the differences are subtle but significant for a learner to comprehend. Many metalliferous miners do not. Some people.Surface operations In the majority of blastholes on the surface. and its use is so controlled that anyone transferring to a surface coal mine may need to extend their knowledge and experience in many areas. for example. is so similar to surface operations in the principles of explosive use. Many people from underground metalliferous mines do not have experience in secondary blasting – and should gain an appreciation of this activity to appreciate the consequences of flyrock and the risk of damage to plant and services. that the knowledge is directly transferable to the surface. so any person who crosses sectors needs to be fully aware of the hazards faced. Coal dust and methane gas are common hazards in underground coal mines. and. Some mines are riskier than others. This understanding helps the shotfirer to perform well when the odd requirement for a drop shot or sump occurs.

Reactive ground that takes the oxidising properties of some explosives to create dangerous situations for the unwary. The same additional fostering effort is needed in situations where a contracted supplier performs all or part of the transporting. charging and firing aspects of explosive use. while many do the drilling themselves. because sites are generally still accountable for (and take a more active role in) environmental impacts and their reduction and community exchanges. as a consequence. so the Trainer needs to foster more interaction with mobile mixing unit operators than might otherwise be the case. Site-specific contracts are many and varied so the impact on a learner is wide-ranging. This often results in subtle changes such as more use of emulsion explosives than might be the case if the site had its own stores of Security Sensitive Ammonium Nitrate (SSAN). even for people with strong competencies in explosives. necessitating more energy. Pre-split explosive usage or cushion-blasting is not universally applied in mines and quarries. priming. Learners at sites with no magazines are. More sites are shutting down explosive magazines as security controls tighten or as concerns heighten in relation to risks and accountabilities. For example.net. 68 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. and many of these do not have a close interaction between drillers and those charging the blastholes. at a disadvantage. and to perform (especially) informal risk assessments (because the change in site represents a significant change to their normal risk exposure and risk control arrangements).skillsonline. Any site where drillers and shotfirers are ‘at a distance’ from each other may need extra effort in meeting the needs of both parts of the drilling and blasting activity. People who change sites are in a wonderful position to review ‘safe/standard working/operating procedures’. and there are sufficiently different principles involved with these applications to warrant individual attention.au .the difference that ground in surface shots normally breaks perpendicular to blastholes. Other sites contract external providers to do the drilling. some sites contract a shotfirer to provide a ‘rock-on-ground’ service but still need some help or interaction at the very least with site-based personnel by providing stemming material at the blast site ready for use by the contractor – or indeed by other site personnel. while in underground mines the rock frequently moves parallel to drillholes.

2A Mix ANFO (as appropriate) 2. Shotfiring record types. as well as suggesting examples of work they might record in a journal. equipment / materials. Licences kept by shotfirers. involving dipping / tamping of explosives as appropriate 2. and initiation options for primers 2. then go on to do checks for geology. making up primers and placing them into blastholes.4 Load. developing/reviewing a structured inspection checklist. mixing of ANFO. Mixing ANFO. and provide structured feedback. 2. keeping records. Learner Resource Topics This is the material covered in the Learners Resource Review Questions Questions will be asked covering critical points that reinforce your learning from the Learner’s Resource.1B Conduct a workplace inspection of a blast area. which may involve other activities such as training. Check actions for cleaning up. maintaining statutory documentation and keeping site records. Premature initiation conditions and its prevention. dip and stem blastholes. weather and so on.5Keep / maintain records and reports. Check your knowledge of: 2. and comprises evidence of both on.1 Prepare for charging Start with checking plans and procedures. and maintaining vehicles and equipment. as well as dealing with water in blastholes. and conducting a workplace inspection.4 Load the main charge Deck loading may be practised. 2. 2. they should record their progress and activities. Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 69 . Preparing to leave the area after charging blastholes.2B Check equipment. and stemming. Learning & Assessment Tasks Perform actual tasks that help consolidate knowledge gained See note below on Learner Record Selecting a priming option. Stemming and stemming materials / practice. 2. TRAINER’S NOTES: You may need to obtain a copy of the relevant Safe Work Procedures (SWP) or a selection of typical SWPs for the site and see how the draft version in Learning & Assessment Task 2.3 Prime blastholes – describe and review priming arrangements on site.1A Review a charging procedure and/ or analyse the sample charging procedure included in the Learner Workbook.5 Clean-up and report After loading the shot and before firing.and off-the-job learning. Learning Record As the learner goes. Review procedures for clearing / deck-loading blastholes. Hazards in each of the working environment. load & stem blastholes. Precautions when storing explosives on-the-job. A record. people and procedures. Treating water and cavities in blastholes.TRAINING PLAN – MODULE 2 The following table will assist you in developing a training plan. check vital actions to ensure safety and prevent harm to property. or log of experience is included in their Learner Workbook. 2. Evaluate the comments made by the learner in their Review Questions and Learning & Assessment Tasks. manufacturing of explosives at a site level. Checks of the blast area. Steps in charging and emergency conditions. Dipping and tamping of blastholes are also covered.1A compares. manufacturing bulk emulsions – advantages and checks. and actual experience across a range of explosive usage situations.3 Prime blastholes Understand priming options. conduct checks and report non-conformances and hazards 2.2 Mix / manufacture explosives Checking vehicles and equipment. Locating priming charges in a blasthole. 2. 2.

b A number of steps in charging blastholes are outlined in LR2.5 “What happens if the amount of explosive being poured down a blasthole doesn’t come up to the expected height in the blasthole?” .1. whether there is a delay in any second primer due to a risk of cut-off of the blasthole and the second primer is added insurance for the hole to fire 4.1.4 questions 2.no more explosive is placed in the hole as soon as it’s realised there is a cavity. after which the shotfirer will direct a certain amount more to come up to the required level. either a standard amount or an amount for each hole – the latter being especially the case where the surface is uneven and holes are of varying depths. while hole checks prior to charging should show hole depths even if there has been a bit of fall-back in the hole since drilling.1. though a standard figure should be shown 2. so it might not be shown for every blasthole.f Steps in coordinating charging activities are described in LR2.a Key hazards faced when charging blastholes are listed in LR2. In answering question 2.1.1. It is common for a mixing unit operator to number the ‘counts’ of the mixing pump.1.5 2.4 “Does the shotfirer or the person responsible for charging the blasthole have anything to help measure the explosive rising in the blasthole?” . The length of stemming is generally equal to the burden of blastholes. what other variations might be described and what reasons are given for the variation 5. Evaluate the learner’s comments and provide structured feedback.au .3 2.1.1.1. 2. bottom-primed holes in general 2. What you’re looking for is: 1.1.c Basic items included in a blast plan are shown in LR2.skillsonline. and the second primer is used to keep the velocity of detonation sufficiently high 3. and each ‘count’ will represent a certain number of kilograms of explosive.Obtain a copy of site requirements for Workplace Inspections or a selection of typical checklists for the site and see how the draft version in Learning & Assessment Task 2.1.1.d Safety Considerations when mixing explosives are outlined in LR2.the blast plan should also show how much explosive is expected to go into each hole.1.2 Mixing / Manufacturing explosives including information for L&A Tasks 2.1.1.e At least ten things that might give rise to an emergency are listed in LR2. 2. 2.net.1 2. Most of these strings or poles have a mark at the required stemming depth so the shotfirer can stop the pouring. only top-primed as well as bottom primed if the holes exceed about 100 times the blasthole diameter.4.i Preventing premature initiation with signal tune detonators include those listed in LR2.4.4.shotfirers on major shots will have either a weight on a string or a pole (with a rope to prevent it disappearing down the hole) to keep a feel for how the explosive is coming up the hole.6 2.1.1. “Does the blast plan show.2A. “Does the blast plan show.2 2.1. Some mobile mixing units are set to stop at a pre-set number of kilograms of explosive. or does the shotfirer know how much explosive is expected to fill the blasthole to the required stemming height?” . for every blasthole?” .1-3 2.2 2.1.4.1B compares. features of priming practices are included in the Learners Resource. and this can be done early so that an amount 2.4.1. or does the shotfirer know what length of stemming is planned. If the cavity is known an airbag or stemming can be placed in the hole. The Learners Resource contains information on primer location.h At least four key precautions to take when storing explosives on-the-job are described in LR2.1. B is described in LR2 Chapter 2 Priming blastholes is addressed in LR2 Chapter 3 Loading the main charge is described in LR2 Chapter 4 L&A Task 2.either the mixing unit will monitor the amount pouring into a blasthole or the number of bags will indicate how much is going into a hole.1.g Actions in checking the blast area and blastholes are listed in LR2.3 “Do the people who are pouring the explosive down the blasthole monitor the amount going down?” .3 2.4 70 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.blast plans should show drilling results.2.3 2.2-4 2.

Typical blast plans for surface blasts are included in the Learner Resource. or timely) does the person work. RIIBLA301 Conduct Surface Shotfiring Operations 3. RIIBLA303 Conduct Underground Development Shotfiring 4. or cost-effectively. or flyrock from over-charged blasts.5 Clean-up. reporting and legislative requirements are addressed in LR2 Chapter 5. Name of person being observed The following are the views of third parties in assessing against a compilation of elements & performance criteria from the following competencies: 1. While this report is not a formal assessment. like complaints.of explosive can still be placed further up the hole to fragment the rock nearer the collar. what breadth of practical work have you seen the person doing. it has been structured to contribute to a competency assessment in relation to the subject. Therefore third party evidence can be an essential piece of evidence in the assessment process. how reliably (or consistently. Site management need to know about any problems so they can take corrective action and prevent any further ramifications. ASSESSMENT – MODULE 2 CHARGING SHOTS An assessor cannot always observe a learner for a long period of time and some competency standards are difficult to observe. The shotfirer has a professional and personal interest in making sure any problems are fixed. so it might be possible to see a trend of where these cavities are likely to turn up next time. skills and experience – how often have you seen the person doing these things. 2. because they are the ones who fire the shots. or efficiently. RIIBLA304 Conduct Underground Production Shotfiring Note: these Units replace Competency Units: MNCO1041A Support Shotfiring Operations MNMG313A Charge Blastholes MNMG352A Apply Blasting Activities MNMG353A Fire Surface Shots MNCO1040A Conduct Shotfiring Operations MNQOPS413A Conduct Shotfiring MNCU1048A Conduct Shotfiring MNCU1049A Support shotfiring operations MNMG323A Charge Development Blastholes MNMG321A Charge Production Blastholes Yes / No Comments – include here your views about the person’s knowledge. Any problems like cavities are recorded on the blast plan. Please place a tick ( 3 ) or cross ( 5 ) in the boxes as applicable to verify Learner’s competence in the areas listed below. and how does any or all of this impact on others Also make use of the ‘Comments’ section at the end of this Assessment table 1 Prepare for charging 1(1) 2(1) 3(1) 4(1) Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being observed can: Comp Unit Ref Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 71 . so they’re the ones an investigator comes looking for if a problem arises. The following checklist is included in Module 2 Learner Workbook. RIIBLA201 Support Surface Shotfiring Operations 2.

3) 1(1. Identify potential hazards relating to • the charging plan • charging procedures • the working environment • charging equipment & materials • people c.3) 2(1. Access. Work in accordance with site procedures and ii. blasthole survey and weather information and i.1) 1(1.1) 2(1.3) 1(1. Recognise hazardous situations and i.skillsonline.2) 4(1. interpret.3) 4(1.1) 2(1. Recognise key issues of • geological structures • blasthole and blast area measurements • weather conditions that might cause a problem while charging 1(1.au . and i. Follow manufacturers instructions f. interpret and apply safety information ii.1) 3(1.3) 2(1.Name of person being assessed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being assessed can: a. Conduct a preliminary site inspection as necessary iv.2) 2(1. Receive blasthole charging briefings.5) 3(3.4) d.1) 2(1.net.5) 1(1. Access and apply procedures iii. Obtain.2) 2(1. Conduct a risk assessment of those hazards 1(1.2) 1(1.2) 3(1.2) b. Prepare to respond to emergency situations 2(3. Access geological.6) 1(1. clarify and confirm charging requirements from the shotfirer for the charging work Comp Unit Ref Yes / No The person needs further development and / or experience in 1(1.1) 4(1.5) 3(1.1) e. Interpret these in relation to charging ii.4) 72 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. Access charging procedures and i.

6) 1(1. 3.Name of person being assessed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being assessed can: g. 3.6) 4(3. Mix or manufacture explosives as required i. Comply with legal obligations v.3.2) 2(3. Erect signs / barricades as appropriate ii. Check mixing / manufacturing vehicles or equipment iv.4) 2(3.4.1 – 2. 3. Establish a suitable exclusion zone k.4) 3(3.3.6) 1(2.4. Check blastholes iii. Identify quantities and types of explosives and associated materials / equipment for different blasthole charging applications Comp Unit Ref Yes / No The person needs further development and / or experience in 2(1.8) 3(1. Collect and transport explosives and accessories to the blast site in accordance with • Site procedures and • Legal obligations j.7) 2(1. Check people involved. Identify hazards and assessing risks in the mixing / manufacturing area iii. 1.2) 3(1.5) 4(1. Mix / manufacture explosive supplies • and equipment checks ii.5) h.1. 3. Site notification iii. affected or at risk from the mixing / manufacturing Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 73 .5) 1(2. Complete the check of the blast site i.2) 4(3.1) 2(3.6) 3(1.4) 2 (2.7. Establish the blast area and i.3) 1(2. Coordinate blasthole charging support requirements including i. Coordinate with others working in areas that might be affected by charging iv. 1. Implement procedures for mixing / manufacturing • for the range of products required ii. Check the survey and measurements ii.1. Clear blastholes 1(1.2) 2 Mix & manufacture explosives a. Resolve issues with coordination of activities affected by charging i.5) 4(1. 3.

au .Name of person being assessed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being assessed can: b. Make up primers in accordance with procedures 3(4. Place primers correctly into blastholes • for single primed blastholes • for double or multiple primed blastholes • secure the primer while loading the main charge 2(4. Identify priming options and i. Prepare the necessary reports of the mixed / manufactured products 3 Prime blastholes a.1) 4(4. Maintain the mixing / manufacturing equipment e. Calibrate the mixed or manufactured product d.3) c. Deliver or have delivered the explosives to the blast area and blastholes Comp Unit Ref Yes / No The person needs further development and / or experience in 1(2.skillsonline. Select the best option • for a range of blasthole charging situations b.net.1) c.2) 74 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.

Check that signs such as ‘charging in progress’ had been erected / installed in accordance with procedures iii.5) Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 75 . Select correct stemming materials iv. Stem the blastholes as required by procedures i.2) 4(4. • Secure the site from unauthorised entry • Implement safety procedures such as safety harnesses etc when working in places where falls could occur iv. After checks of the charging area. After conducting pre-start checks on equipment and materials • Determine the equipment / material serviceability for the task.4) 4(4.3) 2(3. or • Report the equipment for repairs by an authorised repair person b.2) 2(4. Establish stemming material stockpiles iii.2) 3(4.4) 2(4.3) 3(3. Stem whenever necessary ii. Be a part of the shot team ii.5) a.5) 4(3. Stem properly vi. Secure the line to the primer 2(4. Wait until the explosive column has settled v. Charge blastholes safely i.Name of person being assessed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being assessed can: 4 Load the main charge of explosives Comp Unit Ref Yes / No The person needs further development and / or experience in 1(2.

skillsonline.7) 4(4. Charging equipment and accessories ii.6) e. Notify relevant people that the shot is ready for connection 5 Clean up & report site and legislative requirements 1(2. Prepare reports as required by • site procedures • legislative requirements 2(4. Prepare shot for initiation b.Name of person being assessed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being assessed can: c. Detonators iii.5) 3(4.7) 76 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.net.6) 3(4. Carry out blast area clean-up c. Carry out required maintenance of charging equipment and accessories Comp Unit Ref Yes / No The person needs further development and / or experience in 2(4.au . Firing lines d.6) 4(4. Test i.6) a.

You might also consider commenting on specific site or task conditions. Date: Date: Date: Date: Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 77 . You could also comment on applicable facets of the person’s employability skills outlined earlier such as communications. and application of technology. initiative and enterprise. problem solving.Signatures: Third Party Name: Role: Licence. planning and organising. learning. teamwork. or ‘ticket’ number: Signarture: Learner Name: Signarture: Assessor/Instructor Name: Signarture: Supervisor Name: Signarture: Comments: (write your general comments here and/or expand on any comment you may have made in the ‘Comments’ column above. self-management.

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Identifying a misfire b. Checking for risks b. Testing the circuit to make sure it is ready to fire c. Firing the shot is done by the shotfirer and the final stages before this happens is done by experienced members of the shot crew. Taking up safe firing positions b. Clear or isolate the area affected by the blast a. Hook up or connect the blastholes and test the circuit a. They learned that explosives contain large Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 79 . Fire the shot a. Report against the blast plan a. and d. Preventing misfires c. Selecting the type of circuit and connection system b. Firing. and charging blastholes. Making the last minute checks c. while Module 2 covered charging blastholes. handling & transporting explosives. Determining any requirement for secondary blasting 5. Checking prior to re-entry to underground mines & tunnels b.03 FIRING SHOTS OVERVIEW – MODULE 3 This Module is for people who are already familiar with storing. Updating magazine records 7. Collecting the blast monitoring results 6. Return surplus explosives to the magazine a. handling and transport of explosives. Stopping any independent firing in the meantime 2. Clearing the site 3. Completing the data required by the blast plan b. Setting environmental monitors to record d. In Module 1. specifically to: 1. Handle misfires a. Examining the blast site and the muckpile c. Waiting the required time 4. the learner gained respect for explosives. Conduct post-blast checks a. Treating misfires The first Module covered storage.

quarrying and civil construction industry. To avoid any confusion it would be wise to halt any independent firing until after the all-clear is given. Immediate re-firing may not be possible due to restrictions on times of firing. and the crew must work well as a team.au . Of course. Every blast crew must follow a regular discipline in connecting primers from different holes. and charging and firing practices. experienced shot crew team members then connect the individual shots into a firing sequence. There is little room for error. The importance of this will become very obvious when the shotfirer goes to do the final check of all connections and make the connection to the firing line. In Module 2 they learned that once a shot is charged it is very hard. This is the time to send away mobile mixing/ manufacturing trucks and return surplus explosives to magazines. it is vital that everyone in the shot crew does the same thing in the same way every time. They are also very useful in dealing with any complaint or legal challenge. is now going on to next stage of their development with explosives use – connecting the shot and firing it. handling and transport right the first time. explosives may be required for re-priming and re-firing. 80 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. While there are many variations from site to site in charging blastholes. and 10. After checking the connections. There are some key steps to take before the shot is fired and before anyone re-enters the area. maintain stock records 9. maintain blasting records for on-going improvement and for handling complaints 8. and can be very dangerous to make changes. if something doesn’t go according to plan. work may return to normal. Make some final checks before firing. If a misfire has occurred. They can be very unforgiving if mistreated but they are manufactured to deliver their energies in special ways in the robust environment of the mining. there are a few more checks. Fragmentation is an important post-blast check but it is not the only check after a blast. Then. The site will need to be secured from entry until after the blast is cleared. in Module 3. There will normally be several people involved in charging. On completion of this Module the learner should be able to: 1.skillsonline. flyrock or misfire risk. examine the results of a blast to finetune their explosives use 6.net. handle misfires. record blasts and report issues/concerns. These are essential for fine-tuning of explosives use. The blast site must be kept secure until the blast has been checked and before normal work resumes. including amongst other things choosing the best firing position.and powerful chemical energies. In doing this they must take care to avoid any cut-off. test the circuit before proceeding to fire 4. so the person who is responsible for the shot will want to be confident that everyone is following the right charging procedure. it is easier to spot the difference and make adjustments. and a competent shotfirer will look at many things – from the throw of the blast to back-break and so on. At this stage some of the blast plan details can be recorded. Once the all-clear has been given. avoid problems with electric detonators 3. Firing shots must be done carefully and in accordance with legal obligations. For underground blasts. for example ventilation and dust explosions. The learner. Each member of the blast crew must connect the lines or leads the same way every time. so some basic checks are required. This is a difficult time and there are many variables to be considered. weather conditions and so on. Having charged blastholes with explosives. Blasts must be recorded. conduct secondary blasting 7. select the best type of initiation circuit 2. so it is vital to get their storage. make sure the area is clear and warn people before firing 5. it is time to clear everyone and all the gear from the charging area and the area that will be affected by the blast. such as the number of primers and detonators used. for example. the crew must also make sure no person or property is damaged.

RESOURCES FOR TRAINING – MODULE 3 1. postblast checking. they will have to hook-up and test. A copy of Australian Standards AS2187. MNCO1040A Conduct Shotfiring Operations 3. clear and isolate the shot and so on.0 Glossary. While the last minute checks will vary. Confidentiality must. where underground firing has a real risk with post-blast gases and a need for ventilation as well as delaying the return to the blast area after firing. Examples of site procedures for firing shots (including. MNCU1048A Conduct Shotfiring 5. RIIBLA301 Conduct Surface Shotfiring Operations 2. secondary blasting and handling misfires) 6. RIIBLA401 Manage Blasting Operations (Previously covering 1. CONTEXTUALISATION – MODULE 3 The practice of firing shots differs widely across the industry so learning is dependent on the needs of site and learners. Clearing and isolating the area can take place at different stages in the charging and firing sequence. to information and procedures. Ready access to the practical application of firing shots. the vital issue is to conduct deliberate and mostly physical checks – a drive-around for surface shots and tag-boards for underground shots. all of the crew will take part in connecting all of the blastholes into a circuit. of course be preserved.1 Storage. Some sites will engage an explosive supplier to load and fire shots. checks prior to firing. and AS2187. post-blast checking. Variations occur mainly between surface and underground shots. securing of blast areas. site blast records. securing of blast areas. RIIBLA304 Conduct Underground Production Shotfiring 4. RIIBLA303 Conduct Underground Development Shotfiring 3.2 Use of Explosives 3. A copy of the Learner Resource and Learner Workbook 2. so the site will have limited procedures for shotfiring. especially underground mines. MODULE 3 SUPPORTS LEARNING AGAINST COMPETENCY STANDARDS 1. There are significant differences with types of circuits. blast plans and reports 4. checks prior to firing. MNMG322A Initiate blasts by remote control 6. Access to people involved in firing shots (including. In some applications. MNMG412A Initiate blast 7. In most shotfiring. Each site will have procedures for last-minute checking. Access to websites of statutory authorities such as in NSW for WorkCover and DPI/Minerals/Safety 5. AS2187. let alone have easy access to explosives magazines. secondary blasting and handling misfires). for example. again differing mainly between surface and underground shotfiring. selection of firing sequences. There are going to be some Learners who will be interested only in secondary blasting so some of the Resource may have little relevance – even so. providing both the Learner and the Trainer with some challenges. At all times a Learner should be encouraged to discuss explosives use with the supplier. even where this is off-site. so each site may have different requirements. Post-blast checks will also be documented in procedures – though possibly as part of general procedures – varying again mainly for surface and underground shots. MNMG353A Fire Surface Shots 2. depending on the size of the shot and the people who may affected by the blast. the connection of the initiating detonator might be done by someone else or at a later stage – rather than having a connected shot for some time prior to firing at the end of a shift. but the key issue is to prevent premature initiation and then test the circuit after connection. MNMG 414A Monitor and control the effects of blasting on the environment) Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 81 . and to gain access. MNQOPS413A Conduct Shotfiring 4.

3 Obtain or develop a procedure for firing. Reasons for returning and recording returned stock.4 Conduct post-blast checks Following firing. TRAINING PLAN – MODULE 3 Learner Resource Topics This is the material covered in the Learners Resource Review Questions Questions will be asked covering critical points that reinforce your learning from the Learner’s Resource. and reporting. Discuss the key issues or concerns. Secondary blasting may also be required. Prevention of misfires. Check your knowledge of: 3. and powder factors. what information. Understand causes of misfires with different circuits. If your site does not have magazines.6 Return surplus explosives Maintenance of stock is vital. Make sure it includes what misfire to report. and to whom you make the report. Decribe your checks for declaring a blast site safe for re-entry. including making sure no-one enters the blast area before firing. Discuss these with a blast supervisor first.1 Illustrate a connected shot and describe checks of the hook-up. 3.net.5 Obtain or develop organisational records for stock and for blast planning. as well as treatment of the range of misfires.risks and consequences. where nonelectric includes safety fuse. (Note: dealing with misfires is covered later – see 3.Underground coal mines will have stricter and narrower rules for shotfiring given the risks faced with this use of explosives. including safe firing positions and last minute checks.7 Handle misfires Being prepared for misfires helps avoid mistakes in a time of pressure. 3. Discuss any precautions to be taken before people are allowed to return to a blast site. Think also about the testing of these circuits prior to firing. Components of an initiation system. Learning & Assessment Tasks Perform actual tasks that help consolidate knowledge gained See note below on Learner Record Means of warning the unwary and checks before firing. 3. checks and processes involved in hooking-up explosives.6 Obtain or develop requirements for returning surplus stock to magazines / storage. Types of misfires and associated hazards. examine the muckpile and clear the site. 3. Responsibilities for misfires. Temporary keeping and disposal of small quantities of damaged stock. so recording returned explosives to stock helps keep track of stock. Discuss these with a blast supervisor first.au . 3. electric & electronic. Checks before people can reenter the blast area. Compare sample blast plans that are contained in your Workbook and desccribe any differences Discuss these with a blast supervisor first.5 Report against the blast plan Blast plans are required: they will help improve blasting efficiency. Methods of treating oversize rocks from a blast.7 Obtain or develop a procedure for treatment of misfires. examine or develop your site procedure for recording the amount of explosive used in a blast. 3. Muckpile inspection to detect blast problems.skillsonline. Safety precautions for initiation systems. Make sure it includes provisions for independent firing. Flyrock prevention by selecting initiation systems.2 Obtain or develop a procedure for clearances and isolation prior to firing.7) 3. when. with warnings and checks. also discuss advantages / disadvantages.4 Obtain or develop a procedure for post-blast checks and for secondary blasting. 3. 3. detonating cord and signal tube circuits.1 Hook-up & Test Consider the range of circuit types including non-electric. 82 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. Blast plans. 3.2 Clear & Isolate Having tested the circuit undertake some checks before firing. Conduct a post-blast check. 3. 3. and advantages / disadvantages of each. Initiation system checks. and help in times of complaints. Procedures for clearing / isolating the blast area prior to firing . 3.3 Fire the shot Last minute checks and warning procedures.

Suppliers – especially those of the products used on site .are able to provide answers. you might feel a need to direct a Learner to an experienced shotfirer on site. or indeed underground coal mine shotfiring.and off-the-job learning. underground production or underground development. peers and others to support the making of a judgement. Resource should have sufficient precautions for these and both the Learner and the site will benefit. If this is the case. An example of a procedure is given in Learner Workbook 2 Charging Blastholes. the Learner will have to have some detailed discussions with the supplier. or to access an expert because the reasons for site variations might not be apparent. as well as suggesting examples of work they might record in a journal. this might have more to do with the engagement of an explosives supplier. TRAINERS NOTES: Each site will have procedures covering the seven steps of work listed above so you might like to obtain a copy or be able to support the learner gaining access to these. You are encouraged to do so. Discussions in detail will prove very valuable for the Learner. develop further with Module 4. the work becomes more practical and detailed. The Learner THIRD PARTY PRACTICAL VERIFICATION REPORT – MODULE 3 FIRING SHOTS Who should complete this document and why? Third party evidence is evidence gathered from workplace supervisors. On the contrary. or log of experience is included in their Learner Workbook. A Learner might follow a specialisation such as surface shotfiring. they should record their progress and activities. and comprises evidence of both on. they encourage an understanding of the principles involved. There are also fundamental or common points in the Learner Resource covering critical issues for these procedures. it is likely to be an excellent opportunity for some to be developed. If your site does not have procedures for the work described above. Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 83 . Answers to Review Questions will be found in the Learner Resource under topics that closely parallel the order of the topic and questions. so you might refer the Learner to them. which may involve other activities such as training. At this stage of a Learner’s development. so it is important to maintain their wider interest rather than fostering a narrower view.Learning Record As the learner goes. This should help a shotfirer when confronted by different conditions. In some instances. Encourage a Learner to understand why they are following a procedure – not simply to follow a procedure without having a depth of understanding. and actual experience across a range of explosive usage situations. An assessor cannot always observe a learner for a long period of time and some competency standards are difficult to observe. It should also support career development and enhancement. Some procedures will cover more than one of those. of course. That understanding will. Your site may have a separate procedure for secondary blasting. Learner Resource 3 (and indeed other Resources) does not follow specialised fields. Therefore third party evidence can be essential piece of evidence in the assessment process. so drafting up a set of procedures could focus those discussions. Please place a tick ( 3 ) or cross ( 5 ) in the boxes as applicable to verify Learner’s competence in the areas listed below. Alternatively. A record. The vital issue for a Trainer is to explain the reasons for any additional site requirements or variations.

or efficiently. 4.skillsonline. RIIBLA301 Conduct Surface Shotfiring Operations RIIBLA303 Conduct Underground Development Shotfiring RIIBLA304 Conduct Underground Production Shotfiring RIIBLA401 Manage Blasting Operations Note: these Units replace Competency Units: MNMG353A Fire Surface Shots MNCO1040A Conduct Shotfiring Operations MNQOPS413A Conduct Shotfiring MNCU1048A Conduct Shotfiring MNMG322A Initiate blasts by remote control MNMG412A Initiate blast MNMG 414A Monitor and control the effects of blasting on the environment Yes / No Comments – include here your views about the person’s knowledge. Complete the tie-in and conduct a check of the blast site v.net. or cost-effectively.2) 3(4. checking equipment for firing c. or timely) does the person work.au .6) 4(4) 1(5. Supervise shot crew personnel during the connecting & testing processes b.Name of person being observed The following are the views of third parties in assessing against a compilation of elements & performance criteria from the following competencies: 1. and iv. Conduct a pre-blasting procedure in preparation for connecting blastholes. what breadth of practical work have you seen the person doing.4) 2(5.1) 3(5. 3. checking the completeness of the circuit vi. 2.1) 84 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.3) 1(5. Set environmental monitors to start recording 1(1. how reliably (or consistently. Access and apply procedures for connecting blastholes and firing iii.1) 1(5. and how does any or all of this impact on others Also make use of the ‘Comments’ section at the end of this Assessment table 1 Connect & Test circuits Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being assessed can: Comp Unit Ref a. and i. checking firing lines vii. Select an appropriate circuit for connecting blastholes. skills and experience – how often have you seen the person doing these things. Access and apply safety information relating to firing sequences ii.

Name of person being assessed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being assessed can: d.2) b. Check for risks prior to blasting 3(5. in accordance with site procedures Comp Unit Ref Yes / No The person needs further development and / or experience in 2 Clear / Isolate the area affected 3(4. Barricade the blast area and 4(3. Clear the area before initiating the shot 3 Fire the shot 1(5. Take up a safe firing position Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 85 .2) 3(5.7) c.4) 2(5.5) a.3) a. Stop any independent firing for the time being.

Coordinate re-entry ii.9) 4 Conduct post-blast checks a.skillsonline. Carry out post-blast checks in accordance with site procedures i. Examine the blast site and muckpile 6. Coordinate inspection of firing 3(6. After securing blasting machine and shorting out firing lines ii. Determine any requirement for secondary blasting 86 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. Fire the shot and d.net.1) 3(6. Wait the required time before re-entry and i. Identify misfires and • Report as required b.au .3) 4(3.4) c.Name of person being assessed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being assessed can: b. Make last minute checks Comp Unit Ref Yes / No The person needs further development and / or experience in c.3) 2(6) 3(6.

8) e. Completing data required by the blast plan b.3) 3(4.6) 2(5. 5. Prepare reports as required by i. site procedures ii.Name of person being assessed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being assessed can: d. Identify damaged or deteriorated explosives and i. legislative requirements 3(6.8) 4(3.2. set aside for later destruction 3(6. 6. Recognising non-conforming results c. Collecting and entering blast monitoring results i.10) Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 87 .7.4) a. and site & legislative requirements 1(5. Conduct secondary blasting as required and in accordance with site procedures Comp Unit Ref Yes / No The person needs further development and / or experience in 4(3.5) 5 Report against the blast plan.

5) a. site procedures ii. Completing data required by i. blast environmental monitoring 1(7) 4(7) 88 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. legislative requirements 7 Handle misfires a.net. carry out inspection and maintenance of equipment for i.5) 4(5) b.au . Deal with misfires in accordance with i. legislative requirements 1(5. site procedures ii. firing shots ii.Name of person being assessed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being assessed can: 6 Return surplus explosives Comp Unit Ref Yes / No The person needs further development and / or experience in 2(4.skillsonline.

learning. You might also consider commenting on specific site or task conditions. problem solving. You could also comment on applicable facets of the person’s employability skills outlined earlier such as communications. or ‘ticket’ number: Signarture: Learner Name: Signarture: Assessor/Instructor Name: Signarture: Supervisor Name: Signarture: Comments: (write your general comments here and/or expand on any comment you may have made in the ‘Comments’ column above. and application of technology. initiative and enterprise. Date: Date: Date: Date: Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 89 . self-management. teamwork. planning and organising.Signatures: Third Party Name: Role: Licence.

skillsonline.au .90 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.net.

Identifying causes of disturbance. who is accountable for conducting safe and efficient blasts and maintaining records. e. and specifically to: 1. Knowing whether you are restricted in the amount of explosives fired on one delay. c. charging blastholes. c.04 BLAST PLANNING & REPORTING OVERVIEW – MODULE 4 This Module is for people who are already familiar with storing. and firing shots. Underground blasting. f. Calculate quantities of explosives required in: a. Thinking about the tightness of the shot & environmental consequences. b. b. Smooth-wall blasting. 2. Calculating the burden & spacing of blastholes. Designing & surveying a blast. Remembering public safety too. handling & transporting explosives. d. i. c. 4. g. Being aware of environmental disturbances. Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 91 . b. Planning the blast delay. Understanding what happens during a blast. Agricultural & miscellaneous blasting. Thinking about the basic factors involved in a blast design. Selecting a suitable powder factor. d. Improving community awareness. Trenching. f. Blast planning and reporting is a necessary part of being a shotfirer. Sinking a shaft or well. Design / survey blasts: a. Calculating explosives requirements. Stope & rise blasting. Identifying problems & possible solutions. d. Selecting the blasthole pattern. b. Identify the Maximum Instantaneous Charge & delays: a. h. Knowing where and how you’re going to blast. c. Adjusting your rule of thumb for site experience e. Heading blasting. g. 3. Monitor environmental impacts: a. e.

They are also very useful in dealing with any complaint or legal challenge. Being accountable & responsible for records. These activities were performed as a member of a shot crew. and there are no frustrations. b. e. d. They must think about the impact of the blast on the local community. Complying with.skillsonline. k. production. Occasionally a misfire will happen so this was discussed in Module 3. Reduce blast impacts: a. handling and transport of explosives. g. so that everyone does the job the right way the first time. Reducing dust. so some basic checks are required. Maintaining site security. A shotfirer makes sure everyone in the shot crew knows what to do and how to do it. c.net. Part of this involves continually monitoring the rise of explosive column in a blasthole. c. d. Of course. while Module 2 covered charging blastholes. They must always check the blast plan and the quality and accuracy of blastholes as one of the key steps in preparing to use explosives. Each member of the blast crew must connect the lines or leads the same way every time. Firing shots must be done carefully and in accordance with legal obligations. they must always calculate the amount of explosive to be loaded into each hole.5. The driller should have reported on any cavities in rock and any drilling irregularities. Complying with legal obligations. Reducing ‘noise’ or airblast overpressure. Supervising & maintaining shift records. Taking a systematic approach to the management of explosives usage & risks. Collecting and removing explosives. or enforcing rules & standards. They must always check the blast for misfires before people are allowed to return to their work. the learner is going to consolidate the knowledge and skills they’ve acquired – to improve their efficiency and effectiveness in using explosives – by fulfilling blast management plan issues. in Module 4. 6. and always check the blast for potential improvements as V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. Destroying explosives and detonators. Also. they must also make sure no person or property is damaged. flyrock or misfire risk. Explosives use is a team effort and everyone must do the same job the same way every time so anything out of the ordinary is easier to spot. work may return to normal.to their later regret. and 92 | TAG charging and firing practices. Shotfirers prepare for the worst so it doesn’t happen. Fragmentation is an important post-blast check but it is not the only check and a competent shotfirer will look at many things – from the throw of the blast to back-break and so on. Reducing flyrock risk. Every blast crew must follow a regular discipline in connecting primers from different holes. They must do this well before the charging and they’ll have the opportunity to refine their blasting or to take account of factors such as geology and wall control that are easily forgotten . e. including reporting in relation to blasting. Blasts must be recorded. b. Preparation involves putting things down on paper as part of thinking about key blast design issues. Keeping risk management records. h. Giving commitment to your safety policy. Controlling variables. they must be adequately trained in explosive-handling procedures and the blasting plan. following the charging of blastholes with explosives. then learned to connect the individual shots into a firing sequence. In Module 3. The learner must remember that explosives contain large amounts of energy that sometimes don’t give you a second chance. Now. All blast design commences with ensuring personal and public safety and meeting environmental restrictions.au . 7. Maintain documentation & Report: a. Documenting procedures. j. Training & records. the learner. If a change is required the team should discuss the change and all agree that it’s best to make and then follow the change. There are some key steps to take before the shot is fired and before anyone re-enters the area. f. Dispose of explosives: a. Maintaining equipment & facilities. i. Minimising ground vibration. This helps refine a blast so that people not involved in the blasting can be protected. too. Monitoring safety & health. Once the all-clear has been given. environment & community relations performance. c. induction & access. Preparation for blasting and thinking about blast survey and design requirements is the key to blasting efficiency and safety at work. In doing this they must take care to avoid any cut-off. The first Module covered storage. b. These are essential for fine-tuning of explosives use.

Monitor the environmental impacts from blasting to avoid undesirable disturbance for the site’s neighbours or to help fine-tune their blasting method. They will also be able to calculate the powder factor by knowing the burden and spacing. They keep records to make these improvements. 5. blasting machines and initiators 8. RIIBLA401 Manage Blasting Operations (formerly 1. Examples of site processes for blast surveys and plans. as well as examples of. or access to blasting accessories such as circuit testers. monitoring and improvement. MNMG322A Initiate blasts by remote control 6. MNQOPS413A Conduct shotfiring 4. RIIBLA303 Conduct Underground Development Operations 2. Access to websites of statutory authorities such as in NSW for WorkCover and DPI/Minerals/Safety 7. 2. site rules of thumb for blast designs. and recording / reporting MODULE 4 SUPPORTS LEARNING AGAINST COMPETENCY STANDARDS 1. Alternatively they will be able to work back from a powder factor to work out the hole separation distances. MNMG412A Initiate blast 7. and with site safety systems 6.2 Use of Explosives 3. AS2187. MNQOPS311A Conduct blast survey 9. On completion of this Module the learner should be able to: 1. Restrict the amount of explosive going off on any one delay during the shot in order to comply with statutory limits or to improve the efficiency of their blasts. too. Blast planning and reporting must be done carefully and in accordance with legal obligations. 5. Maintain records so that risks associated with explosive use are well managed.well as to refine the blast planning. MNMG414A Monitor and control the effects of blasting on the environment 8. disposal of explosives. and AS2187.1 Storage. MNQOPS511A Design surface blasts) RESOURCES FOR TRAINING – MODULE 4 1. environmental impact records. MNCU1048A Conduct shotfiring operations 5. Blast records are important in the event of a complaint. RIIBLA304 Conduct Underground Production Shotfiring 3. Examples of a range of blast designs. Access to people involved with blast design. and any site tests of blast impacts that help with blast designs 4. Estimate hole separation distances (the burden and spacing) for different blasts and work out how much explosive they will need for the shot and for each blasthole. Examples of various explosives and/or access to magazines. A copy of Australian Standards AS2187.0 Glossary. 6. A copy of the Learner Resource and Learner Workbook 2. 4. Select the most appropriate powder factor. MNMG353 Fire surface blasts 2. blast plans and statutory reports Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 93 . Ready access to the practical application of blast design and monitoring. 7. 3. Dispose of unwanted explosives safely and legally with a view also to sharing information with other shotfirers/explosive users. MNCO1040A Conduct shotfiring operations 3. Control environmental impacts in different situations. which is the amount of explosive needed to break every cubic metre of rock under different situations.

while surface shots are mostly sequenced for environmental reasons. The disposal of unwanted explosives is relatively common across all sectors. 94 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. All shotfirers need to consolidate this appreciation in light of the common requirement for having ‘safe systems of work’. A range of applications is used as examples of blasting situations to illustrate blast design factors. it is important that a shotfirer gets to appreciate the difference and the range of typical separation distances. At the level of Module 4. If noise is not a problem such as may be the case for many underground shots.skillsonline. an experienced shotfirer is needed for such disposal. Delaying shots can have other outcomes. while an underground tunnelling shotfirer mostly moves rock parallel to blastholes. Blasthole spacings vary according to many factors. Even underground there may be situations where flyrock is not wanted – where it could damage infrastructure. This leads a shotfirer to appreciate the shattering and heave impacts from an explosion. face options for delaying shots. and this is common for most blasts. each will need to fire occasionally parallel and at right angles respectively. Nevertheless. blasts can be sequenced by detonating cord. Even so.CONTEXTUALISATION – MODULE 4 The practice of charging blastholes differs widely across the industry so learning is dependent on the needs of site and learners. which is often critical on the surface.au . so they should have an appreciation of a range of delaying methods. may not be able to be used. delaying shots may be critical for fragmentation. such as reducing flyrock potential. A shotfirer in surface blasting will mostly move rock at right angles to blastholes. so they both need to understand these applications. especially with the direction in which the rock will move in relation to the blasthole (at right angles versus parallel to the blasthole). however. However. during their career. Most blasting situations need delayed shots. Detonating cord.net. It is important to expose learners to a range of blasting applications so they understand key principles of explosives and their use when confronted with an odd set of circumstances. even where these are not required by express provision at law. However. all shotfirers will. This also varies significantly with the type of rock – underground coal mines have different separation distances in country rock than in surface coal and these vary from the separation distances in hard rock underground. The MIC for a blast is mostly of interest to surface shotfirers – unless an underground stope shotfirer is blasting in some proximity to residences. such as at Broken Hill. Experienced shotfirers also appreciate the importance of systematically managing risk. there is less specialisation than might be possible for the other three levels. In all cases. because of its noise. Most (but by no means all) underground shots are sequenced for optimising the depth of round.

so this section outlines firing sequences and patterns to achieve a lower MIC (or ‘effective charge per delay’). Stemming. 4. Loading densities. Potential problems and solutions with quantities of explosives. with typical values 4. 4. both generally and for your site. and the hole spacings for at least two different blast designs. Short and long period delays. Two key environmental constraints. Restrictions might be for environmental reasons or for wall control and muckpile shapes and so on.5 Consider ways of reducing blast impacts – including flyrock as well as ground vibration and airblast overpressure.4 Review / examine environmental monitoring practices and obligations – notably the allowable ground vibration and airblast overpressure and means of measuring these. Look at site approaches and instruments or arrangements for ground vibration and airblast overpressure estimation. Preventing flyrock. Calculate the largest number of blastholes and the total maximum quantity of explosives to fire on one delay.TRAINING PLAN – MODULE 4 Learner Resource Topics This is the material covered in the Learners Resource Review Questions Questions will be asked covering critical points that reinforce your learning from the Learner’s Resource. Other environmental impacts. as well as the factors that lead to increased or decreased values. Draw blast plans and show the firing sequences involved. which one is used in pre-splitting. 4. Find out the location of your nearest residence or distances to residences that might create a problem for your blasting.1A Calculate hole spacings and powder factors. 4. understand the various factors that might control blasts. Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 95 . Requirements / reasons for attending pre-start meetings. Powder factors.3 Calculate MIC and delays in a sequence of blastholes. Firing sequences in a blast.2 Quantities of explosives required Selection of an appropriate powder factor for different blasting situations and calculating the total amount of explosives for a shot and for each blasthole. Calibration and maintenance of instruments. This might be a strict requirement imposed by government agencies for community reasons or it might be for site reasons to improve the efficiency of blasting. 4. consider geology and wall control and why the rules of thumb may vary under different conditions.3 Maximum Instantaneous Charge (MIC) Almost every blast is likely to have some restrictions on the amount of explosive that can be fired on any one delay. Stemming length in proportion to burden & spacing. Enquire of others on site about their experience with environmental impacts and their reduction 4. Explain the difference or similarity. and compare your sites relationship between hole diameters and spacing. Find out what hole diameters are drilled. Monitoring ground vibration and airblast overpressure. Check your knowledge of: 4. The meaning of MIC. and any typical constraints applied by sites 4.1B Describe /review a typical procedure for secondary blasting – your site’s procedure or the sample included in the Learner Resource Learning & Assessment Tasks Perform actual tasks that help consolidate knowledge gained See note below on Learner Record 4.5 Blast impact reduction If blast monitoring detects a need for reducing the environmental impacts of blasting. Controllable and uncontrollable variables for blast impacts. 4. Two ways in which explosives work. Ways of reducing flyrock.1 Blast survey & design Think about where you’re going to blast and site/typical rules of thumb to design different shots. Typical powder factors for a range of blasting situations.4 Environmental monitoring Understand how to monitor environmental impacts from blasting. In particular. and where you use either/both. Vital blast design factors. as a powder factor in kg/cubic metre of rock. Weather conditions. examine blast plans. Compare your result with typical powder factors as described in your Learner Resource. Special conditions such as reactive ground. Blasthole diameter to hole spacing ratios. Environmental factors connected with MIC.2 Calculate quantities of explosives for two types of blast.

This might even mean helping them gain access to other sites. relationships between blasthole diameter. purchasing.au . and obtain a copy of various records. The shotfirer at the level of Module 4 has. to an understanding of the discipline of shotfiring. and. but you may need to help them get started with the maths. Investigate your site’s procedure or recommended procedures for disposing of unwanted explosives. powder factors. the shotfirer’s role for each. for example. with site shotfirers. TRAINERS NOTES: Module 4 makes it almost necessary for a Learner to have a copy of AS2187 – Storage & Use of Explosives. Learners will need to discuss shotfiring practices. as well as suggesting examples of work they might record in a journal.skillsonline.and off-the-job learning. What you are really trying to get them to understand is: 1. in the case of underground work.net. 96 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. so you might need to help a Learner with this. 2. Now they are going to be involved in the planning and management of shotfiring. and the on-going licence for the site to operate very much in their mind. Maintain suitable records that help to keep improving explosive usage and help in the event of a problem. Methods of destroying defective. Outline your role in relation to each of these and compile a portfolio for your assessment as a shotfirer Systematic management of explosives risks. which may involve other activities such as training. pre-start briefings. supervision. Even where the shotfirer may be engaged in a limited capacity such as in underground development shotfiring. in relation to blast designs. Examine the successive elements in your site’s system for managing the risks associated with explosives.6 Examine / review / conduct disposal of deteriorated explosives – consider site or typical methods & procedures.4. This Module requires some mathematical capability. or log of experience is included in their Learner Workbook. It should not require anything more than basic calculator work. your support will be pitched at helping a team leader. 4.7 Comply with record keeping requirements – typical records. Have a good feel for explosives to be safe when handling and getting rid of these unwanted explosives. getting a development shotfirer to work in production situations. they will need to be able to question the blast design they are given and appreciate the ramifications of the blast outside the site. you might have to obtain one. and comprises evidence of both on. They have progressed from understanding the explosives themselves through the actual practice of loading shots. they should record their progress and activities. the lives of others in their hands. Assumptions in destroying explosives. It will certainly mean helping them to experience other shotfiring situations on the same site – such as secondary blasting. Review Questions and Learning & Assessment Tasks involve sitespecific calculations and gaining an appreciation of the significance of variations from those. Your site might have a hard copy or have intranet access. taking into account a range of factors as detailed in your Workbook 4. risk management protocol. it will help them to understand why they do what they do with explosives under different situations. Learning Record As the learner goes. A record. Examine these records as detailed in your Workbook. liaison with regulators. Try to help the Learner gain wider experience – especially with a wider range of applications. supervisor or trainee manager.6 Disposal of explosives The safe collection. removal and destruction of explosives that are defective. deteriorated or abandoned explosives. monitoring. and actual experience across a range of explosive usage situations. special conditions. or. 4. If your site does not have a copy or access to a copy. accessing important records for storage. At this stage of a Learner’s development. obsolete or abandoned. policy. procedures. Requirements for reporting destruction/ disposal of explosives. At the risk of going over old ground.7 Reporting Take a systematic approach to the management of explosives usage and risks. without being too dramatic.

Name of person being observed The following are my views of my knowledge and experience against a compilation of elements & performance criteria from the following competencies: 1. RIIBLA401 Manage Blasting Operations Note: these Units replace Competency Units: MNMG353 Fire surface blasts MNCO1040A Conduct shotfiring operations MNQOPS413A Conduct shotfiring MNCU1048A Conduct shotfiring operations MNMG322A Initiate blasts by remote control MNMG412A Initiate blast MNMG414A Monitor and control the effects of blasting on the environment MNQOPS311A Conduct blast survey (part) MNQOPS511A Design surface blasts Yes / No Comments – include here your views about the person’s knowledge. by v. manage blast plans. You might need to help the Learner to see how these are measured. An assessor cannot always observe a learner for a long period of time and some competency standards are difficult to observe. Please place a tick ( 3 ) or cross ( 5 ) in the boxes as aplicable to verify Learner’s competence in the areas listed below. and help with Learning & Assessment Tasks are given in respective parts of the Learner Resource.1. ii. or timely) does the person work. peers and others to support the making of a judgement. and how does any or all of this impact on others Also make use of the ‘Comments’ section at the end of this Assessment table 1 Design / survey blasts 1 Design / survey blasts a. or efficiently. confirm and iv.You will need to guide the Learner in relation to specific legislative and site approvals provisions as well as site reporting requirements. what breadth of practical work have you seen the person doing. Therefore third party evidence can be essential piece of evidence in the assessment process.1) Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being observed can: Comp Unit Ref Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 97 . RIIBLA303 Conduct Underground Development Operations 2. interpret. i.1) 3(1. and then to discuss this with site management for an appreciation of how they are important.1) 2(1. Receive. 3. Site approvals might involve any limitations on ground vibration and airblast overpressure. THIRD PARTY PRACTICAL VERIFICATION REPORT – MODULE 4 BLAST PLANNING & REPORTING Who should complete this document and why? Third party evidence is evidence gathered from workplace supervisors. skills and experience – how often have you seen the person doing these things. or cost-effectively. Module 4 is structured in parallel to the Workbook. so answers to the Review Questions. clarify and iii. preliminary site inspection if necessary 1(1. RIIBLA304 Conduct Underground Production Shotfiring 3. how reliably (or consistently. associated reporting and related shotfiring management work requirements.

procedures specifically carry out pre-blasting procedures and v.2.au . 3. handling and transport of explosives.skillsonline. for the range of shots on site d.5) 98 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. and • report to appropriate personnel e. charging blastholes. establish exclusion zone vi. Access. i. interpret and ii.Name of person being observed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being observed can: b. • locate position of blast holes and • prepare survey reports. Access. Arrange / ensure Survey of blast area to blast plan and i. interpret and ii.5) 1(1. manage risks including • managing risks associated with the storage. site requirements • is complete. 2) 3(4) 3(5) 3(1. 3.4. site requirements and iv. the secure and safe systems of shotfiring-related work c.4) 3(1.4) 2(1.3) 2(1.3. clarify legislative and iii. Identify potential hazards/risks associated with blast planning and related shotfiring management work. i. and • risks associated with disposal of explosives and • misfires • managing on behalf of the organization. 3.net. apply • geological survey data and • weather conditions required to complete the shot Comp Unit Ref Yes / No Needs further development and / or experience in 1(1.2. and connecting and testing circuits. and i.

public and iii.4) 2(1. legislative requirements and v. ii. site notification and iv. 3. Carry out calculations to enable i.5) 1(1. site procedures vi. Store explosives and accessories in facilities at the shot to comply with i.5) 3(1. vehicles.5) 2(1.6.4) 1(3. loading and iii.8) h. site procedures 3(3.6) j. including i. tying in shots within iv. stemming stockpile and ii. ii. Identify.6) Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 99 .6) 2(3. the i. Establish as relevant for all shots. accessories on shot site 1(1.3) 3(3. other equipment i. and i. confirm and adjust the explosives and accessories required for a blast. legislative requirements and ii.Name of person being observed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being observed can: f. Coordinate and manage support requirements for all shots. pattern design. Arrange for purchase and restocking as required ii. for the range of shots on site including • underground development • underground production • surface shotfiring • secondary blasting g. Conduct regular stock-takes Comp Unit Ref Yes / No Needs further development and / or experience in 1(1.5) 2(1.5) 3(3.

3) 2(3.Name of person being observed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being observed can: k. initiation operations 1(4. 5. Identify hole locations and i. Establish and communicate access routes to all shot areas for i. Ensure blast holes are primed.skillsonline.net. charged.3) p. identify non-conforming conditions 1(3.au . authorised persons and ii. segregate explosives on-the-job m. Supervise blast personnel during i. vehicles Comp Unit Ref Yes / No Needs further development and / or experience in l.2) 2(4) 100 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. tie-in and iii. any problems with blastholes or other non-conforming conditions in preparation for charging o. ii. loading. Transport and manage the transport of explosives and accessories to blast area and i. stemmed and tied-in in accordance with loading plan and i. Ensure that explosives are not left unattended n.

6) 2(4.7. Carry out pre-blasting procedures and i.6) 3(7) 3(3.7) Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 101 .2) 3(3. manage maintenance of blasting equipment r.2) 3(3.2) c. Manage the implementation of the site’s blast management plan including i. loading and tying in shots within legislative requirements and site procedures) b.Name of person being observed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being observed can: q. establish exclusion zone 1(1. required maintenance after shotfiring operations iii. Test equipment and accessories and i. manage site procedures for securing shot area 2(3. Carry out calculations of the quantities of explosives required (to enable pattern design. Verifying the implementation of the site’s blast management plan Comp Unit Ref Yes / No Needs further development and / or experience in 1(4. Secure including i. 3. carry out inspection and ii.4) 2 Calculate quantities of explosives required a.

Carry out calculations of the quantities of explosives required (to enable pattern design. 4) b. Carry out post blast coordination and i. Conduct blast monitoring and i. Declare area safe for re-entry c.3) 2(5.1. loading and tying in shots within legislative requirements and site procedures) 3(3. Carry out calculations of environmental impacts (to enable pattern design. Initiate the blast 4 Monitor environmental impacts a.au . Apply the site’s blast monitoring system 1(5.4) 3(3.Name of person being observed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being observed can: 3 Identify the Maximum Instantaneous Charge a. 5.skillsonline. Post-blast inspection d.1. 5.4) 102 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.net. loading and tying in shots within legislative requirements and site procedures) Comp Unit Ref Yes / No Needs further development and / or experience in b.1.

Name of person being observed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being observed can: 5 Reduce blast impacts a. deteriorated and iii.7) d. surplus explosives iv. notifying relevant emergency personnel c.6) 2(6.7) 2(6. reduce blast impacts) within • legislative requirements and • site procedures 6 Dispose of explosives a.8) Comp Unit Ref Yes / No Needs further development and / or experience in b. identify problems (or nonconforming conditions) to iii. Dispose of i. Manage the disposal of misfires 3(6) Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 103 . Maintain inventory control systems in accordance with i. damaged. ii. site procedures 1(6.6) 1(6. Deal with misfires 3(3. Based on blast monitoring and blast records ensure future blast holes are charged in accordance with i. loading plan including for • secondary blasting and ii. legislative requirements and ii.

Name of person being observed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being observed can: 7 Report a. licences or authorities Comp Unit Ref Yes / No Needs further development and / or experience in 1(6.8) 3(1.7) 104 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. permits. Complete reports 3(1. Report.10) b.2. any unexplained loss or theft of explosives immediately 3(1. Relevant ‘tickets’.skillsonline.au . and manage the reporting of. 3.8) 2(6.6) c. Maintain records including i.net.

Date: Date: Date: Date: Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 105 . learning. problem solving. self-management. You could also comment on applicable facets of the person’s employability skills outlined earlier such as communications. initiative and enterprise. and application of technology. planning and organising. You might also consider commenting on specific site or task conditions. teamwork. or ‘ticket’ number: Signarture: Learner Name: Signarture: Assessor/Instructor Name: Signarture: Supervisor Name: Signarture: Comments: (write your general comments here and/or expand on any comment you may have made in the ‘Comments’ column above.Signatures: Third Party Name: Role: Licence.

skillsonline.net.au .106 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.

These terms are used to avoid confusion with ‘noise’. standards. which is a high explosive mixture of Ammonium Nitrate and Fuel Oil (diesel). Acoustic warning Acts Afterdamp Airblast. passed by Parliament and become law of the land Atmospheric pollution following fire or explosion (usually lethal) Airborne shock or pressure waves from an explosion. current word usage. which are sound pressure waves at frequencies that our ears detect Uncharged length of blasthole by using airbags A common bulk explosive.0 Explosives: Glossary of Terms contains terms commonly used by blasting practitioners who follow codes. but not including aluminium Approved by the appropriate government agency or authority Used in conjunction with air ducting to direct a portion of the main ventilating current to the working face Ground broken back past its designed shape Side section of the coal face remaining after the centre section has been shot out by explosive When the priming charge of a shot is placed at the back or bottom of the blasthole or shothole To lever loose material from the roof or backs to make it safe The volume of rock before it is blasted A hole which is charged with explosives for blasting purposes Air deck Anfo Approved Auxiliary fan Back break Back end Back (or bottom-) primed Bar down BCM or Bank Cubic Metres Blasthole or Shothole Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 107 .GLOSSARY OF TERMS Reference books on explosives often contain technical terms to help communication. literature and manufacturers’ information. which are mostly at low frequencies that are below the frequencies that we ‘hear’. airblast overpressure A distinctive audible warning used to indicate the progress of a blasting operation Developed by statutory authorities. Terms may also be derived from legislation. Legislation contains specific definitions that may differ from generally accepted definitions. These terms are also used in official documents. AS 2187. with or without approved additives. courts of law and technical papers. codes and other sources.

a section of a blasthole in order to obtain a greater quantity of explosives at the point depending on the charge and generally results from a greater “burden” on the shot than would allow it to pull properly The distance between the charge and the free face. the thickness or quantity of rock/coal that a single shot or number of shots is expected to move A number of more or less parallel holes drilled into a face. the movement of rock forward. where the blasthole is or may be shattered to a greater or lesser degree A procedure intended to enlarge.skillsonline.Blasting agent A descriptive term used to denote certain high explosives such as those consisting predominantly of ammonium nitrate and in which none of the ingredients is classed as an explosive. or an enlarged blasthole resulting from a blown out shot. Similar term to ‘drop cut’ A crack or cavity in the strata encountered when boring a blasthole A specially shaped tool used to detect breaks in blastholes The ability of an explosive to break (or shatter) by shock or impact as distinct from gas pressure Bulk strength Bulled hole Energy/unit volume of explosive. such as detonators and cables/wires Parallel cleavage planes or partings crossing the bedding and along which the coal breaks more easily than in any other direction Specify in detail the procedures that must be adopted to complete a particular activity. a hole with a chamber at the bottom to accommodate a larger quantity of explosive. polyethylene tube or other similar material..or detonator –sensitivity Capped fuse Capping station Blown out shot Booster Borehole pressure Box cut Cast Charge weight Circuit tester Break Break detector Brisance Cleat Codes 108 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. quarrying and excavations generally. not at right angles. often comprising a holder for a roll of safety fuse and a mark that indicates the desired length of fuse (generally being more than the minimum of 2m) The same as ‘throw’. 8 strength detonator. some of which are charged and fired to form the “cut” into which subsequent holes fire That portion or remainder of a blasthole found in the face after a shot has been fired A common term. Used for detonating explosives – as opposed to a ‘cap’. mud or clay. generally to conform with legislation Blasting area Blasting cap Bulling Blasting circuit Blasting explosive Burden Blasting mat Burn cut Blister shooting Butt Cap. by compression from an explosion. placed over a blasting area to prevent debris from being scattered The breaking of rocks by firing charges placed against them and may be confined by sand-bags. room or building used expressly for preparing capped fuses. A shot that has failed to do its work. and is most commonly used in surface mining The weight in kilograms of the explosive charge An approved electrical instrument for testing firing circuits or the components thereof. bench. or the distance apart in the direction of ‘heave’. commonly as compared to the strength of ANFO A blasthole which has been enlarged (chambered) by exploding a light charge of high explosive in the bottom. rubber strips. commonly being the same as a priming charge. which is a piece of timber placed on top of legs for strata support Electric circuits used to fire electric detonators or to ignite an igniter cord by means of an electric starter An explosive used in mining. The area near blasting operations in which concussion or flying material can reasonably be expected to cause injury A detonator containing a charge of detonating compound. and includes cartridges and bulk explosives. primers and detonating cord) A mat made of rope. Also known as plastering. to blastholes. used generally in small quantities to maintain a high velocity of detonation through the main charge The pressure in a blasthole caused by the high temperature gases from the explosion A blast pattern where the rock has no initial free face and movement will be roughly parallel. Needing higher ‘powder factors’ than when rock moves at right angles to blastholes. as opposed to ‘spacing’. the energy of the explosives has blown out of either the front or the back of the shothole An explosive. referring to the explosive’s ability to be reliably detonated by a No. which is ignited by electric current or the spark of a fuse. A length of safety fuse with a plain detonator crimped on to one end A special place.au . and their means of detonation (eg detonators.net.

Detonating cord is consumed when initiated The pressure from the explosion The line of detonating cord by which a primer is lowered into a blasthole.Collar The top of a drill hole. and detonating at very high speed (7. caused by dead-pressing or by shock that fails to initiate the explosive Detonating cord A cord with a solid core of (usually) PETN.0) The appearance of oily globules of nitro-glycerine on the inside or outside of a cartridge wrapper A wall of rock usually nearly vertical. responsibility and authority of a deputy are set down in the relevant mining regulations Lack of sensitivity in an explosive. caused by flyrock or disconnection through people or vehicles travelling over the shot. which have a lower velocity of detonation than 2000m/s Usually achieved by delay elements or micro-chips in detonators/electronic detonators. or virtually instantaneously. as opposed to a ‘trunkline’. unlike signal tube. of a volume. A container used at the work site for holding daily requirements of explosive Compressing a charge beyond its critical density.2(2006). including amount of hole left uncharged at the top of the hole or the beginning of a blasthole A continuous charge of explosives in a blasthole Describes the contact between the explosive and the wall of the blast hole The diameter of an explosive composition (sometimes called minimum diameter) below which detonation fails to occur or to continue indefinitely A break in a connection line for multiple blastholes. drift. causing it not to detonate Breaking the continuity of an explosive column in a blasthole to reduce the amount of charge in the blasthole or less commonly to reduce the amount firing on separate delays in the one blasthole As opposed to ‘coupling’. usually the working place for coal extraction Column charge Coupling Critical diameter Detonation pressure Down line Drift Cut-off Drifter Drilling line Drive Drop cut Day box Dead press Deck charges Elevated temperature Decoupling Deflagrating explosives Delay. advancing place or face A pattern commonly used when commencing the descent of a haul road in an open cut. or by detonating connectors for detonating cord or signal tube connections The weight. Also refers to a misfire situation where the charge fails to detonate when a firing line or column charge is disconnected down the hole. generally in grams. similar to ‘box cuts’ Material that is above 55oC and includes both hot ground and high temperature ground conditions as defined in AS2187. and all employees working therein. to which other ingredients are added for sensitising and thickening the product. generally in cubic centimetres. which can be initiated by flame or spark. The statutory duties. either naturally formed or developed by blasting. decoupled charges are smaller in diameter than the diameter of the blasthole (Low) Explosives. of rock or explosive or any other substance. which when initiated. g. May be a bulk explosive or in cartridges A specially designed portable source of electrical/spark energy used to fire charges. cc.000m/s). undergoes a rapid chemical change with the development of heat and high pressure (see Australian Standard AS 2187. delay detonators. Is any material or mixture of materials. A mixture of Ammonium Nitrate in an oily emulsified liquid. delay blasting Density Emulsion Exploder Explosive Deputy Exudation Desensitisation Face Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 109 . and may refer to the general area. the inbye end of the mine roadway. which is the surface connecting detonating cord outside the blasthole An inclined access from the surface to the coal seam or from coal seam to another coal seam or to the same seam that has been faulted-off A hand-held boring machine mounted on an air leg used to bore holes when driving drifts or drives A line of drill holes some or all of which are not charged A heading. where the density of water is 1g/cc Supervisor in charge of a section or district of a coal mine. Elevated temperature products – are explosive products that have been formulated and/or packaged and tested to withstand a nominated temperature for a recommended period of time before they will deteriorate or become unstable and possibly decompose violently or explode.

property or the environment (1) roadways forming the openings in the direction of development of the panel. which includes gases. Start the chemical reaction that is the detonation wave Explosives which are used commercially to detonate other explosive charges A detonator designed to have virtually no delay between initiation and explosion of the detonating charge The next row of holes above the lifters in a round of shots The bottom row of holes in a round of shots designed to bring the floor of the excavation to the desired level A method of smooth blasting. Main headings. This is different to pre-splitting The weight of explosive required to load 1 metre of a blasthole – varies according to the blasthole diameter A store which is exclusively appropriated to the keeping of explosives The fuse head of an electric detonator The weight of explosive that detonates at the same time. The same as ‘Effective Charge per Delay’ A gaseous compound of carbon and hydrogen naturally emitted from coal that can be explosive when mixed with air or oxygen between certain limits. mostly used in connection with the explosives ability as a ‘permitted explosives’ to be used for blasting in gassy or dusty situations Explosive products that chemically suppress the reaction between nitrates and sulphides. heading direction parallel to cleavage direction. having a velocity of detonation greater than 2000m/s High temperature blasting is defined as the blasting of material at 100oC or greater [AS 2187. Some or all of these holes will not be charged. or perimeter drilling used to protect walls of an excavation from blasting. mic Methane (CH4) Heading Heave 110 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. At one time firedamp used to be removed by deliberately lighting it. etc Movement of the blasted ground caused by gas pressure forcing the ground to move forward High explosives Explosives which are initiated by shock from another explosive. Heading.2-2006 – Section 12. resulting from the explosion The movement of the ground as a result of the shock wave from the explosion. (2) a roadway driven in the solid.net. water vapour and finely divided solids.w. It is usually measured as the maximum speed of ground movement in millimetres per second “peak particle velocity” Blasting the coal out of the solid seam without previous undercutting Any plant or procedure at a place of work that has the potential to cause injury or damage to persons. 2 s. good fragmentation means that the rock has broken to a size that doesn’t need any secondary breaking/blasting The face of rock that is nearest to the explosive charge The ability of an explosive to withstand low temperatures. primer or booster. which is normally defined as within an 8 millisecond period. See also ‘hot ground’ Ground or material is defined as ‘hot’ if its temperature is 55oC or more but less than 100oC [AS 2187. Lighter than air.6.g.if above 15% the mixture will burn and hence the name firedamp.au . sometimes with the person being covered by a wet cloth when lighting or touching the methane. For example. such as by the addition of nitrogylocol to nitroglycerine explosives to reduce the freezing temperature to –20°C Or match head . (see also methane) A measure of the ease with which an explosive can be ignited Rock thrown far beyond the amount of ‘heave’ or ‘throw’ expected in a blast Sometimes an old miners’ term for explosives A description of the degree to which.the fuse head of an electric detonator The products.1] The direction along a roadway towards the face thus going away from the surface entry Refers to the flame resulting from an explosion.7].Firedamp Any mixture of methane and air is firedamp: if mixed in the range 5 to 15% (methane in air) the mixture will explode and has been the source of many explosions in coal mines . (3) a roadway driven in the direction of advance of a district. or the size range when rock is broken. This may involve the addition of chemicals to reduce the temperature at which the explosive freezes. it comes out of the coal or surrounding strata High temperature ground Hot ground Flammability Flyrock Fracture Fragmentation Inbye Incendivity Inhibited product Initiate Initiating explosives Instantaneous detonator Knee holes Lifters Free face Freezing resistance Fusehead Fume characteristics Ground vibration Line drilling Grunching Hazard Loading density Magazine Match head Maximum instantaneous charge. e.2-2006 – Section 12.skillsonline. such as a detonator.

In order for such substances not to be categorised as a precursor. reservoir. factory. Firing a number of shots in a single round incorporating delay detonators Includes a range of oxides of nitrogen resulting from an explosion.is an information sheet that meets the Worksafe Australia Code of Practice for the preparation of Material Safety Data Sheets. wharf. public recreation and sports ground or other open place where the public are accustomed to assemble. Such evidence may include physical and/ or chemical testing/modelling. other than for immediate use. open place of work in another occupancy.A building licensed by the appropriate regulatory authority for the manufacture or handling of explosives. end use profiles. chapel. seawall. (b) Class B: A dwelling house. a private road which is a principal means of access to a church. school. theatre. includes the very toxic nitrogen dioxide NO2. in which a precursor is normally manufactured. hospital. often associated with areas of weakness in the coal (1) the direction along a roadway away from the face. NOx A material resulting from a chemical or physical change when two or more substances consisting of fuels and oxidisers are mixed and where the material is intended to be used exclusively in the production of an explosive. also ‘laughing gas’ nitrous oxide N2O. often being the same charge as a booster. warehouse. pier or jetty. a depot for the keeping of flammable or dangerous goods.Misfire MSDS A charge or part of a charge that has failed to explode Material safety data sheet (MSDS) . and utilising the shock or shattering effect of the blast.A building. Nonel Oxygen balance Pre-splitting Overbreak Outburst A shot fired prior to the main blast designed to create a crack in the rock. railway. especially on the final wall of the excavation. which gives the reddish-orange tinge to some blasting fumes and has a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 5ppm. package or unit used to initiate the main charge. navigable waterway. penetrating cone fracture Permitted explosive Protected works Pillar Pop (pop shooting) Powder factor Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 111 . evidence shall be produced demonstrating that the substance cannot cook-off leading to a mass violent reaction. hospital or factory. above ground water main. (2) locations between the face and surface Granular nitro-cellulose propellent powder that is a low explosive Type of explosive approved under the mining regulations for use in coal mines/seams because its ignition temperature is below that required to ignite methane or coal dust A block of coal left to hold up the roof and formed by driving a connected series of headings/bords and cut-throughs Breaking of large rocks by firing a charge within holes drilled into them The amount of explosive in kilograms required to break a cubic metre (or tonne) of rock in a particular situation Precursor Multiple shotfiring Nitrous oxides. being fired with decoupled charges An explosive cartridge. stored and transferred and where no additional processing of the material into an explosive occurs. college. market place. major dam. store or building in which any person is employed in any trade or business. A MSDS is supplied for each hazardous material offered for sale or transport by the manufacturer or supplier of the material.A facility where precursors are manufactured.The two classes of protected works are as follows: (a) Class A: Public street. Precursor facility . radio or television transmitter or main electrical substation. and other oxides depending on the combustion See ‘signal tube’ The amount of oxygen required for the explosive reaction to give optimum performance and fume characteristics Breaking of rock beyond the planned limit A violent displacement of broken coal at the face caused by excessive gas or earth pressure. college. Precursor building . and generally fired by a detonator (a rare exception being safety fuse to fire a priming charge of black powder) Protected works are places that can be accessed by the public . also including nitric oxide NO with a PEL of 25ppm. chapel. not intending to utilise any heave. cinema or other building or structure where the public are accustomed to assemble. public building church. river-wall. Primer Outbye PCF. dock. handled or stored. a shop. road or thoroughfare. school. Process building . detailed risk analysis or by analogy.

Consist of specifications. In its very fine form. The reaction of concern involves the chemical oxidation of sulphides (usually of iron or copper. especially following a gas explosion or combustion due to the flame of explosive detonations Stone dusting is the operation of spraying finely ground limestone or other non. This term is useful in comparing the effect of an explosive in a blasthole that has a different density to ANFO A comparison of the strength of an explosive with the same weight of ANFO. approval mechanisms. generally in cubic crystals. (2) the selected pattern of holes drilled for multiple shotfiring Blasting of oversize rock that came from the primary blast A measure of the ease with which an explosive can be initiated by an external stimuli such as heat. and others with specialist skills. heavy. The most likely material to be involved in ‘reactive ground’ Rock that undergoes a spontaneous exothermic reaction after it comes into contact with nitrates.Pyrite A hard.. which is an iron sulphide) by nitrates and the liberation of potentially large amounts of heat. fool’s gold. It detonates with a flash that travels at around 1900m/s The period of time an explosive may stay in a blast hole (say 30 days) and still be initiated reliably Method of drill hole placement when an excavation is to be made to close tolerances when shotfiring See “butt” The distance apart of adjacent. sulphur balls. or in the same row. which is rated at a strength of 100%. which is rated at a strength of 100% The name given to the coal walls of the roadway: these are the sides of the pillars The chance that someone or something could be harmed See stone dust (1) a series of shots connected and fired at the one time. which is to reduce its potential to explode. tin pyrites.combustible and non-siliceous dust onto coal. transport. and throughout the mine to render exposed coal dust inert. it is likely to oxidise or combust at a rapid rate. side-by-side blastholes. shiny. which is the ‘burden’ Security sensitive ammonium nitrate. storage and handling of dangerous goods within a particular State or Territory. as opposed to the distance they are apart in the direction of heave or rock movement. that sit beside each other. FeS2 or iron disulphide. Also called iron pyrites. especially pyrite. The process is unpredictable and can be so violent that it results in mass explosions. developed and agreed to by consensus of statutory authorities. A comparison of the strength of an explosive with the same volume of ANFO. acceptable practices.net. so that you can leave a length of blasthole uncharged and filled with stemming material – as opposed to a tamping stick or rod Limestone (calcium carbonate) dust sprayed over roof.au . persons with industry experience. and may be adopted by reference under legislation Inert material used in the collar area to confine the explosive gases in the blasthole A pole for dipping blastholes to tell how the explosive is rising in a blasthole. but iron pyrites is the most common sulphide found in coal mines or metalliferous mines that causes a problem. and is not consumed in a blast. rib and face. friction impact or shock Person whose duty it is to place the explosive in a hole drilled in the face of the coal and then fire the explosive Shothole or Blasthole Signal tube A hole which is charged with explosives for blasting purposes A generic term for Nonel or shock tube. yellow mineral. etc. and general detail to comply with the Act The government agency or authority having jurisdiction for administering legislation covering the manufacture. containing more than 45% ammonium nitrate The chemical stability of explosives Document acceptable practices.skillsonline. The limestone particles mix with the coal dust and reduce the possibility of a coal dust explosion Sleep time Reactive ground Smooth blasting Socket Spacing Regulations SSAN Stability Standards Regulatory authority Relative bulk strength Stemming Stemming stick Relative weight strength Rib Risk Rock dust Round Stone dust Secondary blasting or breakage Sensitivity Strength Shotfirer The energy generated by the detonation of an explosive and the work the explosive is capable of doing – see ‘relative weight’ and ‘relative bulk’ strength 112 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www. prohibited practices. which is a hollow tube containing HMX and aluminium on the inside wall. May be applied also to copper pyrites. and especially fine-grained pyrite.

Swell factor The ratio between the volumes of rock before and after blasting. An undermanager is usually the person in charge of underground mining operations on a shift and is next in authority under a manager or deputy manager .requiring a 2nd class certificate of competency The speed of an explosive reaction in converting an explosive from a solid to a gas The ability of an explosive charge to resist desensitisation from.creates an open area for the coal to expand to when the explosives are detonated – generally bringing down a lot of coal with a relatively small amount of explosive A position holding responsibilities defined by the coal safety legislation. or the effects of water when submerged at a given depth fro a period of time Tamping rod Throw Toe Undercut Undermanager Velocity of detonation. (2) as for (1) above but part of the mining cycle when using explosives to remove the coal . while ‘throw’ might be in any direction. Rock often ‘swells’ by 50% after the explosion but this can depend on the fragmentation A wooden rod used for tamping or pressing explosives in blastholes Like ‘heave’ the movement of rock forward in a blast. for example behind a shot where front holes do not move sufficiently Bottom of a blasthole. commonly referring to a lump in the floor remaining after a blast where the explosive was insufficient to break all of the rock as planned (1) to cut below or undermine the coal face by chipping away the coal by mining machine. VOD Water resistance Shotfiring Course | Trainer & Assessor Guide TAG | 113 .

Notes 114 | TAG V1 2009 © Department of Education and Training | www.au .net.skillsonline.

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