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(b) y 00 + 4y 0 + 5y = 0 with y(0) = 2 and y 0 (0) = 1.

(c) y 4 (t) 16y = 0 with y(0) = 1, y 0 (0) = 0, y 00 (0) = 1 and

y 000 (0) = 1.

Solution:

(a) Taking the Laplaces transform of the differential

equation y 00 + 4y 0 + 3y = 0,

we have L(y 00 + 4y 0 + 3y) = L(0) = 0.

Using L(y 00 ) = s2 L(y)sy(0)y 0 (0) and L(y 0 ) = sL(y)y(0),

we have

s2 L(y) sy(0) y 0 (0) + 4(sL(y) y(0)) + 3L(y) = 0 and

(s2 + 4s + 3)L(y) sy(0) y 0 (0) 4y(0) = 0.

Substituting y(0) = 2 and y 0 (0) = 1, we have

(s2 + 4s + 3)L(y) s 2 (1) 4 2 = 0 and

(s2 + 4s + 3)L(y) = 2s + 7. So we have L(y) = s22s+7

.

+4s+3

2

Note that s + 4s + 3 = (s + 1)(s + 3). We can use partial

2s+7

a

b

fraction to get s22s+3

= (s+1)(s+3)

= s+1

+ s+3

. To find a

+4s+3

and b, we multiply the equation by (s + 1)(s + 3) to get

2s + 7 = a(s + 3) + b(s + 1) = as + 3a + bs + b = (a + b)s + 3a + b.

Comparing the coefficient, we have a + b = 2 and 3a + b =

7. Solving a + b = 2 and 3a + b = 7, we get a = 52 and

1

1

= 25 s+1

12 s+3

.

b = 12 . This implies that s22s+7

+4s+3

2s+7

5 1

1 1

From L(y) = s2 +4s+3 = 2 s+1 2 s+3 , we get

1

1

1

1

y(t) = L1 ( 52 s+1

12 s+3

) = 25 L1 ( s+1

) 21 L1 ( s+3

)

5 t

1 3t

= 2e 2e .

(b) Taking the Laplaces transform of the differential

equation y 00 + 4y 0 + 5y = 0,

we have L(y 00 + 4y 0 + 5y) = L(0) = 0.

Using L(y 00 ) = s2 L(y)sy(0)y 0 (0) and L(y 0 ) = sL(y)y(0),

we have

s2 L(y) sy(0) y 0 (0) + 4(sL(y) y(0)) + 5L(y) = 0 and

(s2 + 4s + 5)L(y) sy(0) y 0 (0) 4y(0) = 0.

Substituting y(0) = 2 and y 0 (0) = 1, we have

(s2 +4s+5)L(y)s2(1)42 = 0 and (s2 +4s+5)L(y) =

.

2s + 3. So we have L(y) = s22s+7

+4s+5

2

Note that s + 4s + 5 = (s + 2)2 + 1. We can use the

substitution u = s + 2 and s = u 2 to get s22s+7

=

+4s+3

2(u2)+7

(s+2)

2s+7

2u+3

u

3

3

= u2 +1 = u2 +1 = 2 u2 +1 + u2 +1 = 2 (s+2)2 +1 + (s+2)2 +1 .

(s+2)2 +1

1

2

(s+2)

2s+3

3

= 2 (s+2)

2 +1 + (s+2)2 +1 , we get

s2 +4s+5

(s+2)

(s+2)

3

1

1

L1 (2 (s+2)

( (s+2)

( (s+2)1 2 +1 )

2 +1 + (s+2)2 +1 ) = 2L

2 +1 )+3L

2t

From L(y) =

y(t) =

=

2t

2e cos(t) + 3e sin(t). Note that we have used the

(s+2)

2t

cos(t) and L1 ( (s+2)1 2 +1 ) =

fact that L1 ( (s+2)

2 +1 ) = e

e2t sin(t).

(c) Taking the Laplaces transform of the differential

equation y (4) 16y = 0, we have L(y (4) 16y) = 0.

Using L(y 0000 ) = s4 L(y) s3 y(0) s2 y 0 (0) sy 00 (0) y 000 (0) ,

we have

s4 L(y) s3 y(0) s2 y 0 (0) sy 00 (0) y 000 (0) 16L(y) = 0 and

(s4 16)L(y) s3 y(0) s2 y 0 (0) sy 00 (0) y 000 (0) = 0. Substituting y(0) = 1, y 0 (0) = 0, y 00 (0) = 1, y 000 (0) = 1 we have

(s4 16)L(y) s3 s 1 = 0, (s4 16)L(y) = s3 + s +1. So we

3

have L(y) = ss4+s+1

. Note that s4 16 = (s2 4)(s2 + 4). We

16

3

3 +s+1

3

as+b

cs+d

as ss4+s+1

= (s2s4)(s

can rewrite ss4+s+1

2 +4) = (s2 4) + (s2 +4) .

16

16

Multiply (s2 4)(s2 + 4), we get

s3 + s + 1 = (as + b)(s2 + 4) + (cs + d)(s2 4)

= as3 + bs2 + 4as + 4b + cs3 + ds2 4cs 4d

= (a + c)s3 + (b + d)s2 + (4a 4c)s + 4b 4d. Comparing

the coefficient, we have a + c = 1, b + d = 0, 4a 4c = 1

and 4b 4d = 1. Solving a + c = 1 and 4a 4c = 1, we

get a = 85 and c = 38 Solving b + d = 0 and 4b 4d = 1,

3

3 +s+1

we get b = 81 and d = 18 . Hence ss4+s+1

= (s2s4)(s

2 +4) =

16

5

s+ 18

8

2

(s 4)

3

s 81

8

2

(s +4)

L1 ( (s2s4) ) = cosh(2t), L1 ( (s214) ) = 12 sinh(2t), L1 ( (s2s+4) ) =

cos(2t), L1 ( (s21+4) ) = 12 sin(2t), we have y(t) = 85 L1 ( (s2s4) )+

1 1

L ( (s214) ) + 38 L1 ( (s2s+4) ) 81 L1 ( (s21+4) ) = 81 cosh(2t) + 38

8

1

3

sinh(2t) 83 cos(t) 81 12 sin(t) = 18 cosh(2t) + 16

sinh(2t)

2

3

1

cos(t)

sin(t).

8

16

+

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