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GE Energy

HRSG 101
TPSE Dave Rogers, Wulang Chriswindarto

Date

What, Where, Why?

What is an HRSG?
Heat Recovery Steam Generator
Wikipedia energy recovery heat exchanger that recovers heat from a hot gas stream. It produces steam that can be used in a process (cogeneration plant) or used to drive a steam turbine (combined cycle power plant)

Its A Boiler!!!
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HRSG More Than Just A Box of Tubes


Overview
Converts exhaust energy from gas turbine into steam

Operational Challenges on Installed Based


BOP trips driven by HRSG accessories

Enables plant efficiency from 38% to 58%

25% of forced outage hrs

Drum level issues cause trips preventing fast starts

$20-$25MM Parts $8-$9 MM Ship $10 MM Field Assembly

Tube cracks and failures are costly critical path during outages

Modular assembly

Upgrades to GT often require HRSG analysis potential showstopper


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Differences: HRSG vs Fossil Boiler


HRSG uses exhaust gas (e.g. gas turbine) as a heat source and typically does not required a dedicated firing system HRSG do not use fans (draft is from gas turbine exhaust) HRSG generates steam at multiple pressure levels to improve heat recovery efficiency Heat transfer is typically by convection rather than radiation HRSG do not use membrane water walls HRSG uses finned tubes to maximize heat transfer HRSG typically has lower height profile & smaller footprint

Fossil Boiler
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Basic Components
Water/ Steam Side:
- Economizer/ Pre-heater (gas to heated water) - Evaporator & Drum (gas to boiling water to steam) - Superheater (gas to dry steam)

Gas out

Gas Side:
Inlet Duct, Baffles, Structural Steel, Casing, Insulation & Liner, Stack

Accessories:
- Silencers (gas & steam side) - Stack Damper & Bypass Stack Damper - Supplemental Fire/ Duct Burner - Feedwater Pump - CO Catalyst & SCR System - Valves & Instruments

Gas in

Evaporator Superheater Economizer

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LP Steam Out 540 F

Gas Out 180 F

In and Out
HP & RH Steam Out 1050 F
HP Drum

NOx & CO reduced 80%

Stack Height ~ 150 200

Integral Deaerator IP Drum

Height ~ 85

3 Pressure Level Reheater HRSG

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Gas in - 1100 F NOx CO Feedwater 100 F


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HP Superheater Reheater Duct Burner

HP Evaporator

SCR / CO Catalyst

IP Economizer IP Evaporator IP Superheater

LP Economizer LP Evaporator LP Economizer

Length- ~ 100
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Why HRSG is important?


3. Steam Turbine (ST): Converts Steam to Electricity 1. Gas Turbine (GT): Converts Fuel to Electricity and Waste Heat

*Combined Cycle: A combination of thermodynamic Gas (GT) Cycle and Steam (HRSG & ST) Cycle in an Electrical Generating Power Plant to gain higher power output and efficiency

2. HRSG: Converts Waste Heat to Steam


HRSG is the critical link between gas turbine and steam turbine in a combined cycle power plant
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Combined Cycle T-S Diagram


Combined Brayton and Rankin Cycle
T
Heat Source

COMBUSTION
N EXPANSIO

TEMPERATURE

GAS TURBINE TOPPING CYCLE


N EXPANSIO

ON

HRSG

COMPRESSI

STACK

BOTTOMING CYCLE
CONDENSER Heat Sink

ENTROPY

S
5/

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Typical Energy Utilization Chart


GT POWER (35.8%) FUEL (100%) to Gas Turbine EXHAUST HEAT (62.4%) to HRSG STEAM TURBINE (54.8%) ST POWER (20.9%) HRSG CASING LOSSES (0.5%) ST LOSSES (1% ACCESORIES)

GT LOSSES (1.8% ACCESORIES)

STACK LOSS (7.1%)

CONDENSER (32.9%)

Combined Cycles Systems (with HRSG & ST) Utilize More Fuel Energy to Produce Useful Work Than GT Alone
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Design Philosophy

HRSG Design Philosophy


Pinch Approach

Temperature

Tur
Super Heater

bin

e Ex

hau st

HRSG design is a precise balance of the utilization of exhaust energy to produce steam energy in an economic way

Gas

Evaporator Economizer

Heat Duty
Pinch Point The Difference Between Gas Temperature and Saturation Temperature at the Outlet of the Generating Bank Approach Temperature The Difference Between Economizer Discharge Temperature and Saturation Temperature
SH EVAP ECON

The smaller the pinch and approach temperatures, the more efficient the HRSG, but also the more expensive the design
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HRSG Pinch Point Plot


Steam and Water
HP

1200
Temperature F Temperature F

IP LP

/ Reheat

800 400 0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80%


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Percent Exhaust Energy Used Percent Exhaust Energy Used


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HRSG Types

HRSG Types
Horizontal
Horizontal gas flow direction Vertical tubes arrangement Majority installed

Vertical
Vertical gas flow direction Horizontal tubes arrangement Smaller footprint (historically common in Europe or outside US)

Once Through
Either horizontal or vertical gas flow direction & tubes arrangement Once Through eliminates the need of drum Phase change from water to steam is free to move throughout the bundle Theoretically more agile

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Product Features

Product Features
Internal insulation & Liner
Prevent heat losses, Provide outside casing temp of ~80 F

Finned Tubes Drum & Internals


Steam & water mixture Is separated to produce dry steam Act as heat transfer/ exchanger medium Fins increase surface areas

Gas Baffles
To Prevent Gas bypassing the heat exchanger

Duct Burner
Supplemental firing to increase heat input for peak load Gas dP 0.25 w.c expected Burner Skid & Elements/ Runners BMS-Burner Management System Flame Scanner Ignitor

SCR Systems
NOx reduction by ~ 86% Gas dP 2-3 wc expected Skid, Ammonia Based, Injection Grid, Catalyst

CO catalyst
CO reduction by ~ 80% Gas dP ~ 1 wc expected

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Manufacturing

Manufacturing Heat Transfer Section


Headers

Bare Tubes

Bare TuinSlit Fin Coil Coil Slit

ERW

Finned Tubes

Harps Assembly

Finned Tubes to header weld

Finned Tubes to header fit up

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Manufacturing Casing, Insulation & Liner

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Manufacturing - Drums

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Field Assembly

HRSG Typical Field Assembly

PLACE PO 1 - 2 Months

OBTAIN MATERIALS 2 - 3 Months

MANUFACTURE 7 - 9 Months SHIP COMPONENTS 3 - 4 Months ASSEMBLY 7 - 9 Months Total Cycle Duration: 21 - 29 M onths

COMMISSION 1 - 2 Months

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HRSG- Degree of Shop Modularization

1. Harps

3. C-Frame

2. Modular

4. Full Assembly
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HRSG Life Cycle Issues & Opportunities

HRSG issues
Considerations for Cycling Operation
Component fatigue damage Chemistry control Attemperation Drum level control Sulfur dew point corrosion
GT Exhaust Non Uniform Flow

Light and Heavy Ammonium Bisulfate Deposits

Critical Components affected by Cycling


HP Drum HP Superheaters RH Superheaters

Factors that impact fatigue damage


GT Ramp Rates Pressure Management Heat retention during offline periods HRSG design & construction
Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC)
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GE technologies applicable to HRSG

Metallurgy & coatings Creep, oxidation Thermal barrier Anticorrosion

Aeromechanics/CFD Bent fin tube CFD modeling

Life models Physics based & empirical lifing models

Sensing and inspection Pulse eddy current, bore scope, high temp ultrasound, digital radiography etc.

Performance improvement Gatecycle, eMap Acoustic cleaning

M&D Technology Water chemistry Remote M&D Monitoring, chemicals, 24/7 monitoring chemistry models, laboratory failure analysis etc.
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Thank you.

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