Petroleum reservoir - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Petroleum reservoir
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A petroleum reservoir, or oil and gas reservoir, is a subsurface pool of hydrocarbons contained in porous or fractured rock formations. The naturally occurring hydrocarbons, such as crude oil or natural gas, are trapped by overlying rock formations with lower permeability. Reservoirs are found using hydrocarbon exploration methods.

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1 Formation „ 1.1 Traps „ 1.1.1 Structural traps „ 1.1.2 Stratigraphic traps „ 1.1.3 Hydrodynamic traps „ 1.1.4 Seals 2 Estimating reserves 3 Production 4 Drive mechanisms „ 4.1 Solution gas drive „ 4.2 Gas cap drive „ 4.3 Aquifer (water) drive „ 4.4 Water and gas injection „ 4.5 Gravity Drainage „ 4.6 Gas & Gas Condensate Reservoirs 5 See also 6 Notes and references

Formation
Crude oil found in all oil reservoirs formed in the Earth's crust from the remains of once-living things. Crude oil is properly known as petroleum, and is used as fossil fuel. Evidence indicates that millions of years of heat and pressure changed the remains of microscopic plant and animal into oil and natural gas. Roy Nurmi, an interpretation adviser for Schlumberger, described the process as follows: "Plankton and algae, proteins and the life that's floating in the sea, as it dies, falls to the bottom, and these organisms are going to be the source of our oil and gas. When they're buried with the accumulating sediment and reach an adequate temperature, something above 50 to 70 °C they start to cook. This transformation, changes them into the liquid hydrocarbons that move and migrate, will become our oil and gas reservoir."[1]

Screenshot of a structure map generated by Contour map software for an 8500ft deep gas & oil reservoir in the Erath field, Vermilion Parish, Erath, Louisiana. The left-to-right gap, near the top of the contour map indicates a Fault line. This fault line is between the blue/green contour lines and the purple/red/yellow contour lines. The thin red circular contour line in the middle of the map indicates the top of the oil reservoir. Because gas floats above oil, the thin red contour line marks the gas/oil contact zone.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum_reservoir

7/17/2013

Oil drilling to this petroleum reservoir could use Directional drilling to accurately target the 28 ft thick space. various environmental factors lead to the creation of a wide variety of reservoirs. coral reef or algal mat.[6] The trapping mechanisms for many petroleum reservoirs have characteristics from several categories and can be known as a combination trap. which is usually a sea.[8] a fault trap and a salt dome trap. but might also be a river.wikipedia. (see salt dome) They are more easily delineated and more prospective than their stratigraphic counterparts. of the reservoir. Vermilion Parish. porosity or lithology of the reservoir rock. sizes and ages. Because gas floats above oil.Petroleum reservoir . 8.[3] Although the process is generally the same.500 ft underground. hydrocarbon migration from the source to the reservoir rock. Reservoirs exist anywhere from the land surface to 30. and folds. the thin red contour line marks the gas/oil contact zone.org/wiki/Petroleum_reservoir 7/17/2013 . Structural traps Structural traps are formed as a result of changes in the structure of the subsurface due to processes such as folding and faulting. Inside the dark blue color is a thin red contour line which indicates the top of the oil reservoir. Petroleum geologists broadly classify traps into three categories that are based on their geological characteristics: the structural trap.[5] Screenshot of an Isopach map generated by reservoir modeling software for an 8500 ft deep oil reservoir 28 ft thick located in the Erath field.Wikipedia. on the other hand.[2] The North Sea.[7] Examples of this kind of trap are an anti-cline trap.[4] Traps A trap forms when the buoyancy forces driving the upward migration of hydrocarbons through a permeable rock cannot overcome the capillary forces of a sealing medium. the stratigraphic trap and the far less common hydrodynamic trap. which is at the bottom of the Petroleum reservoir. or oil/gas zone.000 ft (9. pressure cooking. the outer red color indicates the elevation of the water/oil contact zone. 22 feet above the water/oil zone. with the majority of the world's petroleum reserves being found in structural traps. The five smallest circles inside the image indicate slight depressions along the roof. Louisiana. endured millions of years of sea level changes that successfully resulted in the formation of more than 150 oilfields. the formation of an oil or gas reservoir also requires a sedimentary basin that passes through four steps: deep burial under sand and mud. Timing is also an important consideration. the free encyclopedia Page 2 of 6 In addition to the aquatic environment. Examples of this type Fault Fold (structural) trap https://en. and trapping by impermeable rock. it is suggested that the Ohio River Valley could have had as much oil as the Middle East at one time. The contour interval is 2 ft between successive contour lines.000 m) below the surface and are a variety of shapes. but that it escaped due to a lack of traps. Because oil floats above water. Stratigraphic traps Stratigraphic traps are formed as a result of lateral and vertical variations in the thickness. Erath. texture. The timing of trap formation relative to that of petroleum generation and migration is crucial to ensuring a reservoir can form. leading to the formation of domes. anticlines. lake.

https://en. it is possible to estimate the recovery factor. The porosity.Petroleum reservoir . There are two types of capillary seal [11] whose classifications are based on the preferential mechanism of leaking: the hydraulic seal and the membrane seal. A capillary seal is formed when the capillary pressure across the pore throats is greater than or equal to the buoyancy pressure of the migrating hydrocarbons.Wikipedia. a lens trap and a reef trap. Seals The seal is a fundamental part of the trap that prevents hydrocarbons from further upward migration. or the percentage of the total volume that contains fluids rather than solid rock. is 20-35% or less.[10] They are caused by the differences in water pressure.[12] The hydraulic seal occurs in rocks that have a significantly higher displacement pressure such that the pressure required for tension fracturing is actually lower than the pressure required for fluid displacement – for example. a petroleum engineer will seek to build a better picture of the accumulation. Often coupled with seismic data. the height of the oil bearing sands. As a result of studying things such as the permeability of the rock (how easily fluids can flow through the rock) and possible drive mechanisms. Estimating reserves After the discovery of a reservoir. allowing fluids to migrate through the pore spaces in the seal. giving a value for the recoverable reserves. or how much the oil expands when brought from high pressure. The rock will fracture when the pore pressure is greater than both its minimum stress and its tensile strength then reseal when the pressure reduces and the fractures close. high temperature of the reservoir to "stock tank" at the surface. that are associated with water flow. the first stage is to conduct a seismic survey to determine the possible size of the trap. It can give information on the actual capacity. The next step is to use information from appraisal wells to estimate the porosity of the rock. in evaporites or very tight shales. The recovery factor is commonly 30-35%. Laboratory testing can determine the characteristics of the reservoir fluids. causing them to leak.org/wiki/Petroleum_reservoir 7/17/2013 . creating a tilt of the hydrocarbon-water contact.[9] Hydrodynamic traps (structural) trap Hydrodynamic traps are a far less common type of trap. The membrane seal will leak whenever the pressure differential across the seal exceeds the threshold displacement pressure. Appraisal wells can be used to determine the location of oil-water contact and with it. or what proportion of oil in place can be reasonably expected to be produced. it is possible to estimate how many "stock tank" barrels of oil are located in the reservoir. They do not allow fluids to migrate across them until their integrity is disrupted. With such information. particularly the expansion factor of the oil. It will leak just enough to bring the pressure differential below that of the displacement pressure and will reseal. it is possible to estimate the volume of oil bearing reservoir. the free encyclopedia Page 3 of 6 of trap are an unconformity trap.wikipedia. Such oil is called the stock tank oil initially in place (STOIIP). In a simple textbook example of a uniform reservoir.

and production will falter. By properly managing the production rates greater benefits can be had from solution gas drives. More free gas is produced and eventually the energy source is depleted. the reservoir pressure has been reduced and the reservoir energy exhausted. although surface oil seeps exist in some parts of the world. Beyond this point and below this pressure the gas phase flows out more rapidly than the oil because of its lowered viscosity. Some energy may be supplied by water. Geologists. As the pressure is reduced it reaches bubble point and subsequently the gas bubbles drive the oil to the surface. For this reason. This gas cap pushes down on the liquid helping to maintain pressure.Petroleum reservoir . The reservoir may respond to the withdrawal of fluid in a way that tends to maintain the pressure. the free encyclopedia Page 4 of 6 The difficulty is that reservoirs are not uniform. Solution gas drive This mechanism (also known as depletion drive) depends on the associated gas of the oil. As the fluids are produced. Drive mechanisms A virgin reservoir may be under sufficient pressure to push hydrocarbons to surface. leading to an improved estimate of reserves. The virgin reservoir may be entirely liquid. the pressure falls below the bubble point.Wikipedia. The gas oil ratio and the oil production rate are stable until the reservoir pressure drops below the bubble point when critical gas saturation is reached. As the reservoir depletes. computer modeling of economically viable reservoirs is often carried out. with fractures and faults breaking them up and complicating fluid flow. gas in water or compressed rock. Gas cap drive https://en. This occurs when the natural gas is in a cap below the oil. Production To obtain the contents of the oil reservoir. and the gas comes out of solution to form a gas cap at the top. the pressure will often decline. it is usually necessary to drill into the Earth's crust. When the well is drilled the lowered pressure above means that the oil expands. but will be expected to have gaseous hydrocarbons in solution due to the pressure. such as the La Brea tar pits in California. and numerous seeps in Trinidad. Artificial drive methods may be necessary.wikipedia. The bubbles then reach critical saturation and flow together as a single gas phase. geophysicists and reservoir engineers work together to build a model which allows simulation of the flow of fluids in the reservoir. In some cases depending on the geology the gas may migrate to the top of the oil and form a secondary gas cap. They have variable porosities and permeabilities and may be compartmentalised. When the gas is exhausted the GOR and the oil rate drops. Secondary recovery involves the injection of gas or water to maintain reservoir pressure. These are usually minor contributions with respect to hydrocarbon expansion.org/wiki/Petroleum_reservoir 7/17/2013 .

If vertical permeability exists then recovery rates may be even better. the free encyclopedia Page 5 of 6 In reservoirs already having a gas cap (the virgin pressure is already below bubble point). As with other drive mechanisms water or gas injection can be used to maintain reservoir pressure. The water may be present in an aquifer (but rarely one replenshed with surface water). that is. is compressible to a small degree. pushing down on the liquid sections applying extra pressure. placing the oil wells such that the gas cap will not reach them until the maximum amount of oil is produced. This water gradually replaces the volume of oil and gas that is produced out of the well. Water and gas injection Main article: Water injection (oil production) If the natural drives are insufficient. The gas will often migrate to the crest of the structure. In this case over time the reservoir pressure depletion is not as steep as in the case of solution based gas drive. Aquifer (water) drive Water (usually salty) may be present below the hydrocarbons. as with all liquids. If the water begins to be produced along with the oil. In this case the oil rate will not decline as steeply but will depend also on the placement of the well with respect to the gas cap. the recovery rate may become uneconomical owing to the higher lifting and water disposal costs. Water. the aquifer is being replenished from some natural water influx. The GOR also remains stable. Although this unit expansion is minute.wikipedia. It is compressed on top of the oil reserve. This is present in the reservoir if there is more gas than can be dissolved in the reservoir. Also a high production rate may cause the gas to migrate downward into the production interval. in some cases the reservoir pressure may remain unchanged. When a gas cap is coupled with water influx the recovery mechanism can be highly efficient. Gravity Drainage The force of gravity will cause the oil to move downward of the gas and upward of the water. as they very often are.Petroleum reservoir . which will push up on the hydrocarbons. With a water-drive reservoir the decline in reservoir pressure is very slight.org/wiki/Petroleum_reservoir 7/17/2013 . if the aquifer is large enough this will translate into a large increase in volume. In time. The oil rate will remain fairly stable until the water reaches the well. given that the production rate is equivalent to the aquifer activity. That is. maintaining pressure. Gas & Gas Condensate Reservoirs https://en. the reduction in pressure in the reservoir allows the water to expand slightly. the water cut will increase and the well will be watered out. It is best to manage the gas cap effectively.Wikipedia. the gas cap expands with the depletion of the reservoir. then the pressure can be artificially maintained by injecting water into the aquifer or gas into the gas cap. As the hydrocarbons are depleted. as the oil is produced the cap helps to push the oil out. Over time the gas cap moves down and infiltrates the oil and eventually the well will begin to produce more and more gas until it produces only gas.

Retrieved January 30. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. Gas Cycling is the process where dry gas is injected and produced along with condensed liquid. Retrieved 15 March 2012. 2005.php?title=Petroleum_reservoir&oldid=549513886" Categories: Petroleum production Reservoirs „ „ This page was last modified on 9 April 2013 at 14:09. Schlumberger Excellence in Educational Development.L. Swarbrick. Blackwell Publishing. 2006. ^ The Oil Trap 10. (2005).Wikipedia. Publ. J. Archived from the original on April 27. & Allen. 148.R.. Retrieved January 30. 6. Schlumberger Excellence in Educational Development. Blackwell Publishing 7. 2006. Retrieved January 30. 5. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Recovery from a closed reservoir (i. ^ "The Making of Oil: Birth of a Reservoir". N. with a gravity higher than 45 API.org/wiki/Petroleum_reservoir 7/17/2013 . R (2004). R (2004).. ^ Peter J. Retrieved from "http://en. a non-profit organization.Petroleum reservoir . Any produced liquids are light coloured to colourless. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. ^ Basin Analysis: Principles and Applications. 12. ^ "Rise and Fall of the North Sea". Second Edition. 4. Marine and Petroleum Geology. 4. Schlumberger Excellence in Educational Development. 274-307. J. Inc. ^ "What is a Reservoir?". 3.wikipedia. p. https://en.What are some characteristics?". ^ "What is a Reservoir? . Schlumberger Excellence in Educational Development. the free encyclopedia Page 6 of 6 These occur if the reservoir conditions allow the hydrocarbons to exist as a gas.org/w/index. Archived from the original on November 22. Retrieval is a matter of gas expansion. By using this site. 2005. ISBN 978-0-63203767-4. ISBN 978-0-632-03767-4. ^ Structural traps 8. especially if bottom hole pressure is reduced to a minimum (usually done with compressors at the well head). P. additional terms may apply. Retrieved January 30. Blackwell Publishing. 2006. no water drive) is very good. Petroleum Geoscience. AAPG Memoir (AAPG) 61: 34.wikipedia. Archived from the original on November 20.and two-phase hydrocarbon columns. 11. "Basin compartments and seals". Swarbrick. ^ Gluyas. Petroleum Geoscience. ^ Schlumberger . 1987.e.. Ortoleva (1994). J.A. 2. Theoretical aspects of cap-rock and fault seals for single. 2006. ^ Watts.Search Results 9. 2006. See also „ „ „ Drilling Oilfield Well stimulation Notes and references 1. Allen. ^ Gluyas.

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