1. 2. Intrapersonal conflict - occurs when an employee in confronted with conflicting expectations, competing roles.

Interpersonal conflict - occurs when individuals are faced with emotionally charged situations which require the person to protect his/her self-image and self-esteem.


When the self-concept is threatened, serious upsets occur and relationships deteriorate. Incompatibility of temperaments can cause personality clashes. Sometimes failures in communication and differences hi perception can also result in conflicts. 3. Inter^roj:rrj_conflict — occurs when groups set out to undermine other groups to gain power or to improve their image. Different viewpoints, group loyalties, and competition can become the causes for conflict at this level.


Conflict can be seen as constructive or functional when it contributes to create a motivating force encouraging groups to strengthen relationships. Intergroup conflict is sometimes intensified in organizations because of the constructive consequences. Conflict can also be considered destructive or dysfunctional when it hinders productivity and affects relationships between groups. There are two ways to classify conflict. One method of classifying is to determine if it is constructive or destructive. A second method is by the people involved. 1. 2. 3. Conflict within the individual. Interpersonal conflict. Conflict between an individual and a group.

Conflict Definition Conflict is defined as any situation in which two or more parties are in disagreement with issues on hand. Conflict in organizations is an interpersonal process that arises from 1. 2. disagreements over the goals to attain or the methods to be used to accomplish those goals.

Conflicts can arise in relation to the following: • • • • • • • • • Goals or methods Task interdependence Role ambiguity (What were you supposed to do?) Policies and rules (Policies can change, and sometimes are respected, sometimes not) Personality differences (different people) Ineffective communications Competition S carcity of resources Attitudes, beliefs, experiences

In view of those factors in relation to which conflicts can arise, knowledge and understanding of conflict and the methods for resolving it are very important to managers. Conflicts can occur at any level in organizations as individuals interact in relation to their status, roles, and functions. The three levels at which conflict can appear are:

4. 5.

Intragroup conflict. (Conflict within the group) Conflict between organizations.

Interpersonal conflict The sources of interpersonal conflict can be found in the following 1. Organizational change - conflict can arise in relation to goals and methods; available resources; political, technological, social impact of change; market and global economy. 2. Different set of values - people hold different beliefs and adhere to different value systems. 3. Threats to status - threats to status can bring people to adopt face-saving as a powerful device to maintain a desired selfimage. 4. Perceptions - the prior experiences and expectations can influence the real perceptions of people and result in conflict. 5. Trust - lack of trust, (trust is the capacity to depend on each other's words and actions) can be a potential cause of conflict. 6. Personality - individual differences and the way people feel, think, and act are important factors which can contribute to desirable organizational behaviour. The acceptance of individual differences, respect for each other, and learning to use the differences can prevent conflict.

The acceptance of individual differences, respect for each oilier, and to use the differences can prevent conflict

ADVANTAGES OF CONFLICT The advantages of conflict: o Stimulate employees 1 to search for improved approaches d i a l I'-iul »« results. Energizes them to be more creative and to experiment new ideas, Hidden problems are brought to surface, confronted, and solved, Create better understanding a m o n g members of the organization. Resolved conflict can bring more commitment and more i n v o l v r m r u ! .

o o o o



The disadvantages of conflict- unresolved or long lasting conflicts can:
At interpersonal level

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Cooperation and teamwork can deteriorate Distrust may grow and prevent coordination of efforts.

At the individual level o People may feel defeated o o o Self-image may decline Personal stress may rise Motivation level may decrease