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# Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/02/12

## Module 1: Descriptive Statistics

Other ways a scientist can conduct their research without experimentation ** slide 27 not tested on; but look over Statistics summarize, interpret, present collected data Descriptive Statistics: condense data into form that is easier to communicate o ex. Mean, median & mode o Pie charts, bar graphs Descriptive Statistics

Raw Data

Using Histograms Histogram: Graph used to report # of times group values appear in data set Horizontal axis divided into groups called bins; each bin spans 5 digits Vertical axis # of times value in data set falls into given bin (aka frequency) Frequency Distribution: Graph illustrating distribution of how frequent values appear in data set

Histogram used as a base to create frequency distribution Normal Distribution: distribution with smooth bell and symmetrical-shaped curve around a single peak

Measures of Central Tendency Mean: average value of data set Outliers: extreme points distant from others in data set o Very influential to mean 1 of 5

Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/02/12 Median: centre value in data set when arranged numerically (not affected by outlier) Mode: value that appears most frequently in set

Measures of Variability Measures of central tendency begin to describe data set o Cannot tell us how other values fall around that point Measures of variability review the spread and distribution of a data set Standard Deviation: average distance of each data point from the mean o Data with larger standard deviation = more spread out Erics Data Experimental groups average slightly higher Spread of scores in experimental group is slightly greater Distribution of grades from experimental group shifted slightly to the right

## Module 2: Inferential Statistics

There will always be some random variability in the results by chance even if both control and experimental groups took the same placebo drink or not How big must the observed difference between groups be to be considered an important finding? Inferential Statistics: statistics that allow us to use results from samples to make inferences about overall populations

Hypothesis Testing Control group: General Population Experimental group: energy drinkenhanced performance population If Erics hypothesis is correct, data being sampled is from 2 different distributions

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Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/02/12 Must compare entire data set from control and experimental groups to determine if theyre from the same or different population Slight shift to the right in performance of experimental group o Unsure if its due to use of energy drink or some random variation in test performance T-test: inferential statistics technique comparing difference between data from control and experimental group o Considers each data point from both groups to calculate probability of getting results by chance if there is one distribution to both groups in the experiment P-Value: expresses probability calculated by t-test For Eric, this test will state the probability of getting the group difference he found even if his hypothesis is incorrect Hes basically asking if the difference between control and experimental group is large enough to say energy drinks improve test scores Statistically significant if P-Value is less than 5% (0.05) o Difference between 2 groups is due to some true difference between the properties of the 2 groups and not due to random variation Erics P-value= 0.44 change in scores may have been due to variable changes

## Module 3: Reviewing Experimental Design

Theory Test performance can be affected by external factors during study prior to test writing o Independent variable Mega Study energy drink usage o Dependent variable test score Hypothesis Students taking energy drinks will show improved test performance Research Method Between-subjects experimental design o Experimental subjects drank energy drinks & control subjects drank colored water Double-blind Eric, nor subjects knew which subjects belonged to which group o Avoids experimenter/subject bias Collect Data Randomly selected sample to reflect global population to write same test Analyze Data Used descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, histogram) 3 of 5

Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/02/12 o Measures central tendency (mean, median, mode) and variability (how the data is spread around the center) o Graphical representation of data Used inferential statistics (t-test: if distribution of 2 groups are overlapping o T-test form of hypothesis testing o Small group representing population as a whole o Determines probability that he would find his results by chance if his hypothesis was incorrect and all participants were from same population o P-value = 0.44 (44%) chance that the difference in test scores he found between both groups could be found even if energy drinks have no effect on test scores No conclusive evidence to support hypothesis Report Findings P-value = 0.44 (44%) chance that the difference in test scores he found between both groups could be found even if energy drinks have no effect on test scores o No conclusive evidence to support hypothesis Revise Theory Must report findings to world and revise original theory

## Module 4: Observational Research

Observational Studies: scientists observe effect of interested variable without manipulating it May be due to ethical or practical concerns: Ex. Link between smoking and lung cancer Introduction to Observational Research Might collect data on cancer rates in existing smokers and non smokers o Look for significant difference between 2 groups o Consider how long person has smoked, how many cigs in a day, how it relates to caner rates Experimental design principles also apply to observational research o Hypotheses tested what is strength and direction of relationship between X&Y? analyzed using descriptive/inferential statistics Correlation A measure of strength of relationship between 2 variables Correlation coefficient (r): degree which 2 variables are correlated o Tells us strength and direction of correlation o weaker correlation = coefficient approaching 0 o 0 coefficient = no correlation

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## Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/02/12

Correlation does not equal causation confounding variable Conclusion Must carefully research design to produce reliable, meaningful results Failing to include critical control group in experiment may produce meaningless results that fail to test research question

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