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Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/16/12

Module 1: Categorization
Introduction On the bus Phone, should you get up for elderly, different scents Attention helps focus on finite mental resources on key parts of scene Memory helps recall specific behaviours appropriate to current needs Attention & Memory = part of story cognitive ability to put objects/ideas into categories/concepts o Young man (dont get up), major assignment (check email), harmless odour (partners perfume) Without cognitive ability to categorize, every experience would be unique o Lost in ocean of experiences no connections from past to make different decisions in present Ex. Wake up in middle of night with throbbing head o Penicillin, aspirin, gravol? categorization hangover therefore aspirin

Module 2: Functions of Categorization

Why Categorize? 4 basic functions categorization 1) Classification allows you to treat objects that appear differently as belonging together o Green apples, red apples, yellow apples apples o Collect like objects 2) Understanding o Understand when people are fighting, and know not to get involved 3) Predicting o Categorize current experience, compare to similar experiences in memory = predictions about current situation (dog = wag tail when happy; frog will leap away) 4) Communication o Many words refer to category/concept allows efficient communication o Dont have to fully describe meaning of everything Illusion of the Expert Feeling that something must be simple because you are so good at it

Module 3: Rules
Introduction Categorization = simple as applying set of rules o Ex. Think all turtles have shells see shell, categorize as turtle Is this rule sufficient? Any exceptions? o Ex. Teach android to categorize table, bottle, dog, tree, fruit, furniture

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Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/16/12

Lee Brooks 3 sets of features to identify new member of given category

simple categories = illusion of expert

When rules arent enough Bachelor categorized as unmarried male Pope and 6 month old baby boy meet same criteria but dont fit typical image of bachelor Define rules = difficult to properly include and exclude items for categories Given test stimulus = effortlessly decide membership o Humans have internal representation of categories independent of rules we try to define

Module 4: Prototype Theory

Prototype Prototype theory: we categorize objects by comparing them to internal representation of prototype Prototype = best or average member of category o Ex. Fruit apple/orange come to mind Depends on where you live Canada = robin may be common prototype other countries = tropical birds may be common prototype Prototypes change over time Categorization using Prototypes Robin is a bird has quicker response compared to Penguin is a bird Typical category members which are closer to prototype categorized faster and easier than atypical category members Problems with Prototype Theory If asked prototype of bird, chair, house, pet, book and asked same question a week later good chance different prototypes o If experiences compared to internal prototype we should expect stability over time 2 of 6

Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/16/12

Module 5: Exemplar Theory

Exemplars Prototype theory suggests we store 1 internal average of category which is compared to new experience to determine category membership Exemplar theory suggests instead of one prototype, you store your lifetime worth of experiences o Instead of remembering 1 prototype, you remember every other dog you met o Search through library of exemplars to compare current object o Robin example with exemplar have more robin exemplars in memory than you do for more atypical exemplars like a penguin (easier to retrieve robin exemplar) Evidence for Exemplar Theory Comes from research on medical diagnosis o Note symptoms & observations to categorize disease to determine proper treatment McMaster study expert categorization influence by factors relating to prototype and exemplar theory o Dermatologists asked to diagnose patients by observing many slides of skin disorders Some disorders repeated in 2nd session but with different slides o Question: would inclusion of single exemplar 2 weeks earlier improve their accuracy Prototype theory would suggest No Exemplar theory suggests that increase to # of relevant exemplars = improve categorization performance 20% more accurate on disorders they had previously seen 2 weeks before

Module 6: The Development of Categorization

Children & Categories Evidence suggests children as young as 3 can understand general categories o New fact about a childs dog, they can generalise it to different dogs that may not look similar (dog likes treats) Children have deeper understanding of categories o Toaster, glugged up holes, container in it with spout on side teapot? Theyll think youre being ridiculous but will generally agree Paint racoon black with white stripe down back, & has spray bottle with smelly liquid skunk? o Understand innate properties of category can change nature of machine but not nature of anima 3 of 6

Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/16/12 The difference between exemplar theory and prototype theory is: o Exemplar theory compares an item to all examples in a category where as prototype theory compares an item to the best representative member of a category

Module 7: Animal Categorization

Baboon Categorization Instrumental conditioning experiment with Baboons taught to classify objects as either food or non food (eventually could categorize new objects into these categories 90% accuracy Baboons good basic categorization task, then moved on to same or different categories (more difficult) o 2 food items = same; 1 food item & 1 non food item = different categories Reached 90% accuracy using new test objects

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Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/16/12

Tutorial 6 Language, Categories & Concepts

Costs of Categorization Stereotyping assumption that every member of given group shares characteristic traits and/or behaviors MIDTERM Wed May 23rd 9:30-10:30AM 25 Multiple Choice Questions 1 bonus mark for correctly filling out your scantron Bring Mac Student ID card Levels of analysis Research methods 1&2 Classical conditioning 1&2 Instrumental conditioning 1&2 Language Problem Solving & Intelligence Categories and concepts

Past Midterm Questions Dr.Baur performed a conditioning experiment where participants learned to associate a song by David Bowie called Space Oddity with scenes of violence. After some time after hearing the song the participants became unsettled and squeamish. Such feelings extended to other songs by David Bowie, although not as intensely. If Dr.Baur wished to perform discrimination training to limit the response to the original song, what would her CS+ and CS- be? A) CS+, Space Oddity; CS-, scenes of violence B) CS+, other Bowie songs; CS-, scenes of happiness C) CS+, Space Oddity; CS-, other Bowie Songs D) CS+, scenes of violence; CS-, Scenes of happiness Which of the following regarding graphing responses of instrumental conditioning is most accurate? A) The # of responses per trial is recorded separately for each trial rather than in a cumulative fashion 5 of 6

Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/16/12 Cumulative every trial B) The steep slope of a VI response graph is indicative of an infrequent reinforcement schedule C) A FR-3 schedule will have a linear, consistent slope Fixed ratio schedule = plateau after reinforcement D) A VI-3 and a VR-5 schedule will both have linear shaped response functions Tend to respond more consistently because they dont know when the next reward will happen

3 Levels of questions 1) Facts and Data names of terms, theories, and phenomena 2) Concepts and theories relationships, differences, and similarities between ideas 3) Methodologies or Modes of Analysis predictive, hypothetical or application questions Levels require different strategies memorization is only sufficient for level 1! Be Elaborative Organize Interpret Summarize Quiz yourself Use flash cards with a question on one side and the answer on the back This method works for definitions, graphs and concepts Use/Create Visual Aids Organize information in charts, diagrams, and graphs They help construct mental concept maps o Ex. Draw out the CS, Us, Cr & UR flow chart This will help you fluently solve classical conditioning scenarios Be interactive Explain concepts to your friends o This is a great way to identify the information you dont fully understand o As a listener, you can gain new information and perspective from your peers Make sure to use Study aids on avenue Courseware questions Avenue quizzes 6 of 6

Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/16/12

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