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Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/30/12

What is Personality Hard to define as it is an abstract concept ; not real like brain Abstract concepts = hypothetical constructs o Ex. Memory short term/long term memory are hypothetical constructs Hypothetical constructs branch out to {personality, memory, gravity & energy) Personality: individuals unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits The stability in a persons behaviour over time and across situations (consistency) The behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situation (distinctiveness)

Module 1: Introduction to Personality

Module 2: Approaches to Personality Approaches to Personality Type approach: assumes theres a small # of distinct personality types One of the oldest approaches; dominant in West (16-17 Century) Originally propose by the Greek physician Hippocrates Hippocrates human body made of 4 Humours o Blood, Phlegm, Yellow bile, Black bile Personality determined by balance of the 4 humors o Ex. Melan (black) & cholic (bile)
Many other approaches Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Trait, Behaviorist, Cognitive

Module 3: Psychodynamic Approach to Personality

Freud Influential & controversial made 1st modern personality theory o Influence of his ideas went beyond psych to other streams of education Psychodynamic approach: personality generated by internal psychic structures/processes o Characteristics of internal structures in mind determines how we feel & behave o Argued that many are unconscious unaware of important aspects of personality

Module 4: Freuds Tripartite Model

Introduction 3 structures ID, the Ego & the Superego o Levels represent struggle between conscious and unconscious influences The Id Source of basic instincts, & motivational energy (libido) Seeks out water, food, air, sex Pleasure Principle: find & experience pleasure, avoid pain o Selfish, impatient, wants pleasure now regardless of how behaviour affects others Going to pub with friends vs. meeting group for group work 1 of 6

Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/30/12 o Id motivates you to seek pleasure associated with going out with friends

Superego Works against Id focused on upholding moral principles Comes to play around ages 5-6 o Before it was up to parents (parental control) to teach values/rules to obey self-control established to form superego Conscious stems form superego Ego Id is primitive self, motivates you to want pleasure relentless to achieve Superego wants to be morally perfect relentless to achieve Ego = mediator between these two extremes o Aware of what is going in the world outside of individual o Find balances between desires of If and demands of Superego Ego solving debate between pub or group work o First go to group meeting, do some work, then meet friends at pub o OR relocate group meeting to restaurant/pub (work while enjoying drink) Both satisfy Id and superego

The Conscious and Unconscious Id unconscious Superego mainly unconscious, party preconscious Just beneath surface of awareness & conscious of which we are aware Ego equally split in all 3 stages

Module 5: Defense Mechanisms

Development Personality dynamics behaviour results from id, superego, ego Ego tries satisfying id impulses safely and consistent with superego values o Not always possible Id impulse immoral satisfying it = conscious ego feeling moral anxiety If impulse might = punishment thinking about it causes conscious ego to feel neurotic anxiety Defense mechanism, created by unconscious ego, protects conscious ego against anxiety 2 of 6

Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/30/12 o Defense mechanism does this by keeping unacceptable id impulses out of conscious or disguising id impulses

Repression Repression: ego blocks id impulse from reaching consciousness o Repressed impulse press for entry, a lot of egos energy keeps them out o Info sometimes slips through (slip of tongue/dreams) If id impulses too strong & makes its way to conscious ego, new defense mechanism needed so conscious ego doesnt understand what its thinking/feeling avoids anxious feeling Denial Denial: conscious ego engages in activity, but unconscious ego prevents memory of event getting back to consciousness o Repression: impulse starts in unconscious id before behaviour has occurred, doesnt become conscious o Denial: impulse starts in conscious after behaviour has occurred & is blocked out Conscious does something dangerous/immoral feels no anxiety because no memory Rationalization Rationalization: Unconscious ego justifies some conscious action o o If impulse cannot be repressed/denied rationalization can be used Conscious ego did something dangerous/immoral unconscious ego floods conscious with reasonable reasons for behaviour No anxiety because conscious believes it was okay Ex. Car accident, became physical rationalize that it was self defense & others wouldve done the same

Projection Projection: anxiety producing thoughts are attributed to someone else o They might be original target of impulse Ex. Dont like co-worker & unsure of why feel guilty. Therefore convince self co-worker really doesnt like you

Reaction Formation Reaction Formation: conscious ego filled with opposite ideas/feelings to impulse Ex.Strong attraction to someone, feelings not mutual consciously deal with it by feeling disapproval of person (in rom-coms) Displacement Displacement: forbidden impulses redirected away from original target to acceptable targets o Ex. Argue with friend instead of supervisor o 3 of 6

Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/30/12 Sublimation: sexual/aggressive impulse displaced to objects/activities that are acceptable o type of displacement o Freud higher activities due to sublimated libido Ultimately derived from sexual and aggressive impulses

Conclusion Defense mechanisms arent to deceive others, but to fool yourself about own behaviour o One party of mind (unconscious part of ego) fools another part (conscious part of ego) about own behaviours Everyone uses it What we want vs. what physical & social reality will allow us to do

Module 6: Freuds Personality Development

Psychodynamic approach personality = part genetic & part experiences 5 stages psychosexual stage distinguished by erogenous zone where child gets most sexual/aggressive gratification o In each stage, child pleasured primarily from single erogenous zone

Oral: Birth to 1 year Pleasures from, sucking/swallowing, then biting/chewing First object associated with it is the bottle, mothers breast, ones thumb Anal: 1-3 years Primary focus of pleasure of anal area (Continues to get pleasured form oral activities) Pleasure from giving up feces through bowel movements o Later parents teach toilet training postpone gratification Discovers pleasures of holding onto feces Phallic: 3-6 years superego develops **most important stage** Discovers pleasures of stimulating phallic area Oedipus Complex: ego invests sexual libido to his mother (wants mother to himself) o Dads time with mom takes time away from boy, wants to get rid of dad Thinks dad will retaliate if he tries to get rid of him Sees girls dont have penises thinks dad will castrate him = anxiety o Identification: becoming psychologically like father fathers beliefs/values form superego Dilemma resolved boy identifying with father (allows boy to enjoy mom through dad; no danger) Not imitation becomes like father & fathers beliefs form boys superego Electra Complex o Wants mother to herself 4 of 6

Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/30/12 Discovers some people have penises, she doesnt She wants one, convinced mother had something to do with the loss Penis envy = sexual libido directed to dad, wants to get rid of mom Moms too big, will retaliate identifying with mom Superego formed with mothers beliefs/values Electra & Oedipus complex generates intense anxiety conscious blocks the memories through repression Sexual/aggressive libido attached to parents withdrawn when the complex was resolved returns to the Id Libido redirected to other objects resembling parent in some way o Appearance, personality, or role in childs life through displacement o o o o

Latency: 6 years to puberty low sexual stage No focus on sexuality like earlier stages Libido appears to be channeled into behaviours not yet overtly sexual (piano/games) Genital: Puberty Surge of hormones sexual interest/urges directed to proper targets o Direction depends on where libido was directed as we passed through other stages Also depends on what we did with libido that was withdrawn from parents during resolution of the complexes Fixations Fixation: Libido attached to specific erogenous zone at each stage o Excess libido may be left at a specific stage Enter one stage, still have pleasures for the previous one o Extent to which they dominate pleasure seeking is reduced Ex. Fixating at oral stage = excess libido directed to eating, smoking, nail biting, insulting others, biting, chewing Ex. Fixating at anal stage = 2 activities o Giving up feces messy, disorganized pleasure from giving to others (Anal expulsive) o Holding feces overly neat/orderly stingy, stubborn (anal retentive)

Module 6: After Freud

Freuds Influence o 1st psychodynamic theory of personality still best known for type of theory o Views of humans as irrational, pleasure-seeking, conflicted creatures o Ideas generated controversy Theories of his dont have much support in modern science Still influential to both pop culture and personality theorists Describing people as anal/rationalizing = termsfrom Freud Conscious and un conscious influences on behaviour = cognitive psuch

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Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/30/12 Many personality theorists (colleagues of Freud) extended theory or made theories of their own

Anna Freud Youngest daughter of Freud Developed idea of ego in more detail and extended the defense mechanisms o Ego has larger role that originally proposed energy of its own o Defense mechanisms partially developed by Anna Interested in how children developed overall experience in childhood effects personality o Applied Freuds work to children outside normal settings (war, parentless) o Diagnosis allowed therapists to distinguish between serious and less serious child hood problems that would be outgrown/lead to fixation at stage and jeopardize personality growth Erik Erikson expanded ideas of ego, focused on trust vs. mistrust Emphasized egos positive/adaptive effects on development, rather than just defense Ego strengths gained by ego when each development stage is resolved o Re-termed stages psychosocial stages as opposed to psychosexual stages Ex of Stages Trust Vs. Mistrust stage o Emphasizes conflict children face when dependent but have limited communication skills easily frustrated/scared o Ego strength emerges from resolution of conflict is hope Stages span through life, whereas Freuds stopped with genital stage @ puberty

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