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Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/30/12

Overview This lecture will finish Psychodynamic approach We will then move on to Humanistic, Trait, Behavioural, & Cognitive approaches

Module 1: Carl Jungs Psychoanalytic Approach


Introduction Theories branched from early work with Freud Primary motivation provided by libido (both Freud & Jung believed this) Unlike Freud, Jung believed Libido = general life force, not purely sexual/aggressive o Life enhancing energy directed towards meeting different needs @ different times Jung proposed different psychic structures o Ego = central to conscious mind o Unconscious psyche divided into personal unconscious & collective unconscious Collective unconscious & Archetypes Collective unconscious = ancient part of human mind forming biological basis of human nature o Contains libido in form of basic human instincts called archetypes shared by all humans Some archetypes let us interpret & organize experiences in certain ways Collective conscious is held in unconscious part of minds archetypes only accessed indirectly (projected onto almost everything we do) o Ex. Think youre writing new stories/ themes all activities bear imprint of archetypes Identifying archetypes literature, myths, religion, many cultures (searched for commonalities) o Assumed that they reflected projection of universal archetypes (hero, social conformity) Collective unconscious = same in all people Personal unconscious = different in everyone o Storage of thoughts/memories/emotions that were once conscious repressed o Unlike collective unconscious can be brought back into conscious and into ego Happens when we recall events from past o Personal unconscious uses libido when thinking about complexes (images, memories, feelings connected to theme) Ex. Jung had mother complex - lots of psychological energy on ideas/feelings related to mother Ex. Collection of complexes that individual holds helps to make up personality Personality Development Complexes are individual but there are some special complexes that everyone has 1 of 7

Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/30/12

o Persona, Animus & Anima, the Shadow & the Self o Theme of each complex = underlying archetype Collective unconscious contains archetypes Personal unconscious contains complexes Archetype: the persona is our instinct for social conformity; our instinctual need to be with others and to please them o Instinctive drive/energy for theme Complex: the persona is our public self; those feelings, thoughts & impulses that we present to others because we think they will be approved o Personal experiences gathered on same theme as archetype o Persona related to Freuds superego represents social values As an archetype, animus = every womans instinctive image of maleness & anima = every mans instinctive image of femalesness o Tend to project animus/anima onto members of opposite sex o Instinctive expectations about men/womennot usually met by particular man/woman One of the reasons why men/women experience friction in relationships As complexes, animus/anima = opposite parts of personalities o Mans anima complex = feelings/thoughts rejected from consciousness because seen as feminine o Womans animus complex = feelings/thoughts rejected from consciousness because masculine *Anima = male & Animus = female Shadow Archetype is filled with energy most basic/primitive instincts (for sexuality /aggression among other things) o Wary of instincts project Shadow into dreams/myth/literature(demons/devils) Shadow complex, shadow = all things about ourselves (emotions/impulses) we reject totally as not ourselves other o Has positive side too can be source of energy/vitality/creativity/intuition o This complex = last part of ourselves to be discovered, if discovered at all Self Archetype most important archetype o Drives personality development instinctive desire for unity/balance o Projected through likeness for circles/symmetrical shapes Selfs role integrate conflicting/opposing complexes into unified whole (formed by self actualization middle age, if at all) o Ex. Animus/anima = opposites & 1 usually rejected from consciousness If we can contact rejected anima/animus can tap into real creative potential inherent in archetypes o Ex. If we discover our Shadow (rejected other) Shadow = frightening/difficult to discover, if reunited 2 of 7

Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/30/12

with Persona = powerful source of energy When rejected complexes rediscovered & allowed to function with other complexes theyre integrated into unified Self wholeness in personality (highest goal in personality development) o Process called self actualization rare Doesnt happen until middle age when other aspects of personality more developed

Ego Ego conscious mind o Selects perceptions/thoughts/feelings from personal unconscious & allows entry to consciousness Conscious helps establish sense of stability in perceptions of self and world Jung doesnt believe personality lies in rational/conscious ego lies in self (the complex) which is between consciousness and unconsciousness Only the ego is in conscious mind, the complexes are contained in the personal unconscious and the archetypes are contained in the collective unconscious Jungs Influence Like Freud ideas were popular in western culture Archetypes made way into literature, complexes = part of daily language Personality involves whole person/personality developed in spans of life paved way for new theorists using humanistic approach to personality

Module 2: Maslow & the Humanistic Approach


Introduction Humanistic approach considered to be most optimistic Theorists focused on human interest, values, strengths, virtues instead of emotionally disturbed aspects of personality Humanist theorists state theres an ideal development goal to achieve, must experience advancements & setbacks in journey Humanist theorists believe that personality development is not affects by problems in childhood Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Proposed hierarchy of steps that must be satisfied to develop healthy ideal personality 5 steps & needs Physiological, Safety, Love & belongingness, Esteem, & Self-actualization Physiological needs: food, water, air Safety: safe place to live, stability, security, income o Neurotic/insecure adults stuck here trouble moving up hierarchy

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Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/30/12

Love & Belonging: needs for social relationship/feeling of connection to people (friends/family/significant other) unable to satisfy level = emotionally maladjusted Esteem: need for respect/recognition from self and others o Self Esteem feelings of self-worth/respect for ones self o Esteem of others expressed through social status/recognition Self-actualization: need to maximize personal abilities & strengths (many dont reach this)

Module 3: Personality Traits & Personality Factors


Introduction Trait Approach of Personality by Gordon Allport & Raymond Cattell Focuses on a set of characteristics that define individuals personality Set of predispositions to behave in certain way in various situations Everyone possess many personality traits which are predisposition to behave/react in similar ways in response to many stimuli o Personality trait= defining characteristics Ex. Stingy/Cheap one specific personality trait consistency behaviour = spend as little money as possible Personality Traits Cattell used factor analysis creating broad personality factors 16 general personality factors Personality traits and factors on continuum o Expressed at different levels by different people Stingy man not be at the high end of continuum If hes generous with time, he would be located in middle If not generous with time and money low end of continuum

Module 4: Trait Approach: 5 Factor Model


Introduction Catnells 16 personality factors criticised o Too many factors Hans Eysenck propers 3 factor model (Extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism) criticised o Too few factors 5 Factor Model (aka Big Five) Robert McCrae & Paul Costa o Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism 4 of 7

Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/30/12

Factors replicated in many different samples/cultures/languages

OCEAN Openness: desire for new/exiting/adventurous experiences variety is the spice of life Intellectually curious, inquisitive, imaginative, unconventional reading, nature, art Conscientiousness: well ordered life Create plans, set goals, keep surroundings neat/organized Early for class/appointments/assignments on time/early Hard workers spending hours focusing on work strong moral obligations/ethical behaviour Extraversion: desire and ease to engage in social interactions (Especially in large groups or people) Entertaining others, life of party, new friends, leader Energetic, talkative, cheerful, sociable Introverts are the opposite quiet/shy/small social gathers/not center of attention Agreeableness: warm, compassionate, polite, caring cooperation instead of confrontation/hostility Trusting/helpful well liked; role of caregiver Neuroticism: unlike other factors this is not socially desirable Psychological distress related to fears/depression need emotional support; hypersensitive Prone to anxiety, self-consciousness, insecurities Low scorers = relaxed, self assured, stable

Module 5: Cognitive & Behavioural Approaches


Cognitive and Behavioural Approaches Behaviourists believe that overt behaviour is personality in its entirety not interested in underlying traits/thoughts mind=black box Cognitive psychologists believe that thought patterns are central to personality and the cause of overt behaviour Cognitive Behaviour therapy treats psychological disorders by focusing on both disordered thoughts & disordered behaviour

Conclusion
All the theories learned are equally good at explaining behaviour after it has occurred, but equally bad at predicting behaviour before it occurs They are all different interpretations of complex literary work

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Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/30/12

Tutorial 8 Personality
The Mind ID: now oriented, seeks pleasure, avoids pain pleasure principle o unconscious Superego: uphold moral principles arises @ ages 5-6 (initially from parents) o Ego: balancing the desires of the ID and the demands of the superego o Unconscious, conscious, preconscious Defense Mechanisms Helps us deal with or eliminate anxiety o Repression mechanism ego blocks id impulse from reaching consciousness o Denial mechanism memory of immoral behaviour prevented by unconscious ego o Rationalization mechanism unconscious ego justifies some conscious action o Projection mechanism anxious thoughts attributed to others o Reaction Formation mechanism conscious ego filled with opposite ideas/feelings o Displacement mechanism forbidden impulses redirected to acceptable targets EXAMPLES 1) Clare complains about her job duties at work, rarely completes assigned tasks, and is regularly late for work. When she s fired she claims it was due to her co-workers badmouthing. Which defense mechanism explains Clares reaction? Rationalization: shifts burden of responsibility onto someone else to protect herself against the anxiety that it is due to her own performance 2) A man really enjoys drinking alcoholic. He sacrifices many of the positives in his life, including family relationships, by traveling around country to prohibit rallies. This view may be an obsession where he does nothing but rally. Reaction formation Carl Jung Freud extended to theorists who agreed and disagreed with him to develop theories Initially followed Freuds footsteps, eventually disagreed, then proposed his own theory Archetypes Images and thoughts forms with universal meaning Basic instincts Same across culture Personal Unconscious Complexes: images, memories, and feelings related to common theme Stressed relationship between conscious and unconscious How crises/dilemmas are resolved during development defines personality Humanistic approach: A theoretical orientation that emphasized the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth Emerged in response to psychodynamic theories witch tend to focus on crises Exclusive focus on human behaviour and is very optimistic o Be the best person we could be 6 of 7

Psych 1X03 C01 Professor Kim & Professor Cheal 05/30/12

Optimistic approach people can rise above primitive animal heritage and control their biological urges People are largely conscious and rational beings

Abraham Maslow 1) Physiological basic needs for survival (food, water, air) 2) Safety safe place to live, stability, security, income 3) Love/Belonging social relationships, friendships, connection 4) Esteem self-worth, recognition from others 5) Self-actualization Maximize personal abilities Gordon Allport Personality Trait: predisposition to behave n a certain way 5 factor model: OCEAN o Openness: to new experiences, intellectually curious Enjoy reading, art, nature o Conscientiousness: goals, well-ordered Highly moral, organized o Extraversion: highly social, a leader Lots of energy in group o Agreeableness: warm and compassionate Cooperate more, caring o Neuroticism: dependent, overly sensitive Distressed easily, depended on others Depending on amounts of these traits = specific personality Psychopathology o Cognitive behavioral approaches o Cognitive approach thought patterns are central to personality o Behavioral approach Both = cognitive behavior therapy

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