Contradictory Modernities: Conceptions of Nature in the Art of Joseph Beuys and Gerhard Richter Author(s): Matthew Gandy Source

: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 87, No. 4 (Dec., 1997), pp. 636-659 Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on behalf of the Association of American Geographers Stable URL: . Accessed: 14/05/2013 04:21
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Contradictory Modernities: Conceptionsof Nature in the Art ofJosephBeuys and GerhardRichter
Matthew Gandy
Department ofGeography, University CollegeLondon In thispaper, I explore thetension between different intellectual traditions concerning the relationship between nature andmodernity as they aremanifested inthe work of postwar German artists andGerhard I show Joseph Beuys Richter. that they represent intellectual and contrasting aesthetic For traditions. Beuys, nature holds innate meanings capable ofguiding human thought andaction, whereas for Richter, nature issimply a screen weproject our own cultural onto which I conclude imprints. that these differing perspectives help toelucidate contemporary intellectual concerns overtherelationship between nature-based ideologies andtheecological of critique our modernity. By extending "social cultural wecandiscern understanding of nature" tothe arena, new ways ofexploring relations between society andnature. Key Words: nature, landscape, aesthetics, modernity, Joseph Gerhard Beuys, Richter German artistJosephBeuys at the New School forSocial Researchin Manhattan, New York City.1 Speaker after speaker conveyed a sense ofcertainty andoptimism his surrounding transformative "social sculpture," and the few voices ofdissent a mixofsuspicion were met with anddisdain. Somefifteen blocks northwest ofthe NewSchoolsitstheDia Centre for theArts in a gentrified corner ofChelseajusta few yards from theHudsonRiver. In it was an exhibition ofan on-going installation byanother German artist, Gerhard Richter, entitled Atlas.2 This collageof many hundreds ofphotographs provided a stark contrast withthe ideas and imagesassociated with In theplaceofBeuys's Joseph Beuys. emphasis on natural order laya senseofisolation and disorientation; instead oftimeless quasi-religious certainties there wasa chronological of sequence a myriad hard-edged images ofthemes spanning including Nazism,terrorism, and the massimofconsumer agery capitalism. This paperhas emerged from to myresponse two these different andintellectual very aesthetic I have developed experiences. the contrast between theseartists' work in order to explore the recurring tension between nature andmodernity inWestern on nature, thought.3 Byfocusing I am concerned herewith thecultural representation of nonhuman in thisinstance nature, primarily through painting, photography, performance art,

1 attended In April 1995, a symposium onthe

have andsculpture. Though a number ofscholars inthe misleadingly placed both Beuys andRichter of German romantic tradition, simply byvirtue ofnature and landscape to their theimportance herethatthere area series artand ideas,I argue between their of important differences work.4 I reintendto stress thewayin whichaesthetic sponses tonature inform contrasting conceptions oftheinterrelation between nature and culture, which in turn permeate political discourse discursive for various ideologithrough strategies cal legitimation. The ideaofnature isinherently On ambiguous. is routinely used to entheone hand,theterm a descriptive ofphysical compass categorization from our bodiesto the most reality extending This is theknowable stars and galaxies. distant theworld thathas beenutterly realm ofobjects, theadvanceofscienceand transformed through theimpact ofhuman On theother hand, activity. benature is persistently perceived as something ofscientific a deeper yond thedisclosures inquiry, levelofreality co-present with themodern world. This is metaphysical the unknown, the nature, essence ofsomething yet beyond comprehension ofworldly belief. This invoked for thejustification is thenature thatis calleduponto guideus, to and to resistthe historicity of impress order, senseofcontemporary To make enviknowledge. ronmental we need to workthrough thought, andcontradictions inherent someofthetensions

Annals ofthe Association ofAmerican Geographers, 87(4), 1997,pp.636-659 3 1997byAssociation ofAmerican Geographers Published byBlackwell Publishers, 350 MainStreet, Malden, MA 02148,and 108Cowley Road,Oxford, OX4 1JWF UK.

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Modernity ofCultural Production The worsening scaleofenvironmental degraoverthetwentieth hasprovided a dation century critical to find a focus for geographers struggling in thepostcolonial rationale fortheir discipline era.Beuys for interesting figure ofthepolitical ofcultural anyexploration import representations of naturebecause of his close in the emergence involvement of the German Greensin the 1970s and his centrality to the inpostwar ofromanticism reemergence European culture. andtheField Nature. ofGerhard Richter. In this paper. and scape in therecovery ofhistorical memory. separate from wider and therelevance society. and thebelief thatartshould play a didactic and socially transformative rolein sois a particularly ciety. I suggest thatRichter's work isbestconceived as stemming an anthropofrom centric intellectual wherein tradition. ForRichter. 637 examine his ongoinginstallation piece Atlas (1964 to date) to explore a series ofthemes developedin his artand writings: theproblematic searchforaesthetic autonomy within consumer thesymbolic roleofnature and landcapitalism.It is reproduction thewidening between environmental knowlgulf This content downloaded from 202. I contend that thediscourses of naturecannotbe neatlydemarcated into a seriesof specialist arenaswhichrestrict us to separate spheres of knowledgeand understanding. in I focus energies detailon a performance I pieceentitled Coyote: Like America andAmerica Me (1974). Examining the workofJoseph I Beuys.10. implications of environmental discourse. thendescribe howecological concerns emerged as a central element in Beuys's forthe project releaseofcreative in society.A similar panding horizon observation is made by Margaret FitzSimmons (1989:106)wholaments thevery limited applicationofradical to what geographical scholarship she terms "socialNature.30 on Tue. reconciliation and communication with nature as a prerequisite for and personal socialhealing. I outline how the extension of geographical analysis intothe fieldof cultural an enproduction necessitates withdialectical gagement to underapproaches relations between standing changing and society nature. give particular emphasis theideological ofessentialist power conceptions in whatPierre Bourdieu of natureas reflected the "field ofcultural (1996) terms production. cultural forms existin a dynamic relation to natureand are rootedin their I social and historical context. I havefocused on thecultural in order representation ofnature to exposetheinterrelationship between theidea ofan autonomous aesthetic sphere. ofthisdistinctionto theideological in envipower ofnature ronmental thought. 14 May 2013 04:21:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." based aroundan exof "thegeographical and hisplicitrecognition toricaldialectic betweensocietiesand their material A dialectical environments. I shall In this to paper. The paperbegins byexploring theambiguous role of nature-based ideologiesin relationto broader ofmodernity and theexhauscritiques tionofEnlightenment rationality." discourses aredistant echEssentialist ofnature these strands oesofa premodern era. yet mythical ofmeaning because oftheinnate persist complexofrelations andnature under ity between society late modernity." leavingin its wake an ever-exofsocialspace.41. the reworking of traditional aestheticidioms withinthe contextof radical epistemological doubt.Contradictory Modernities intheideaofnature." concepcan transcend theempty tionofnature polarity between various socialconstructivist conceptions of purely bioof natureand the predominance and essentialist of nature physical conceptions inwider that discourse permeate political society. "cultural becauseofitsrolein the unconscious" material ofhumansocieties. epistemological and practical weaknesses.which Likes a point ofconvergence for several ofhis provided central as an artist: thesearch for preoccupations and interdisciplinary holistic forms ofuniversaltheneedfor ity.Yetmuchofthisenvironmental scholarship ina variety remains and trapped ofnondialectical ahistorical research thatare at variparadigms thesocialproduction Henri ancewith ofnature. I contrast thestance ofBeuys that with Finally. Natureis notmerely a physical butalsoforms backcloth tohuman of history part in perpetual a psychological metastructure tensionwiththecritical and reflexive discourses of in this Natureis deeplyingrained modernity. Lefebvre us that what (1991:30)reminds we can meaningfully term"(physical) naturalspace is disappearing. To fully thescopeand comappreciate of the changing plexity relationships between and nature society undermodernity is to draw thesedisparate threads in order together to expose the discursive strategies. traditional motifs drawn from nature bearan ironic rather thana literal relation to contemporary cultural andpolitical discourse.

anydegree In this theartofRichter uswith respect. however. aesthetic features in a autonomy prominently seriesof on-going debatesconcerning various kinds oftruth inphilosophy. he served 1921. 14 May 2013 04:21:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .I shallusethis meaning of ideology to explorethe extentto which "social reinforces rather Beuys's sculpture" than thedominant structures ofpower challenges in Western societies us withan by presenting imaginary resolution to thesocialand ecological malaise oflatemodernity.41. revealaspects ofreality thatwouldotherwise be overlooked is a call (Bowie1990). edge and actionthatfeedsthemystification of in envisocialnature and thepower ofideology ronmental discourse. ifthemethodological distinctiveness ofartis alliedwitha recognition ofthe innateindeterminacy as of aesthetic meaning. At a methodological I wanttoexplore which arenourlevel. discourses yetthevery concept ofideology is lacedwith ambiguity rangingfrom thedistinction between "ideasof true andfalse toa more cognition" dynamic emphasis on the general "function of ideas within social life"(Eagleton1991:3). A principal theme here is thecapacityof art not to disclose"truth" the through mimesis of "higher" of truth revealed orders by thephysical and mathematical but to sciences. the underlies ideologicalimplications of nature-based art. The principal I wantto exideological theme hereis theromantic plore attachment to various forms ofaesthetic as a meansto proautonomy moteuniversalist conceptions ofnature thatobscurethe historicity of environmental change. thenatural sciences. Geographical scholarship onrelations between society andnature hasbegun tomakesignificant inroads intothecultural field. I useleading odological challenge oflatetwentieth-century artinorder to examples inthe investigate theproblematic placeofnature The subject crisis ofcultural modernism. This involves a sensitivity to the richness and heterogeneity ofthefield ofcultural production and entails an abandonment ofexofthekinds thatreducesocialreality to the flatplanation tened landscapes of pure description. Nature-based ideologies have consistently played a powerful rolewithin thecultural ofmodernity. butthestrangest can often be themost revealofcultural artifacts ing in promoting new interpretations of social change (Darnton1984).This.10.In 1947.thentruth never tobe resolved with ofcertainty. appointedto a professorship he developed muchof thisperiod. his Through art and ideas in relative isolation from wider Thiswas to and cultural political developments. andthearts.Beuyspursued indebetween scientific studies pendent (therelation artand science wasto be a recurring preoccupain theNietzsche Archive tion)and also visited Rudolf Steiner's anwherehe studied Weimar. which sources oftruth. This content downloaded from 202. Thompson's byJohn understanding of ideology as thewayin which "meaning (orsignification) servesto sustain relations of domination"(quoted inEagleton 1991:5). presents a very different ofaesthetic conception autonomy andtheSolace Joseph Beuys ofNature in inKrefeld.5 The idea ofaesthetic autonomy is crucial to our understanding of the ideological import of the romantic forcontemporary tradition environThe notionof some kindof mentaldiscourse. ideas.638 Gandy thatleads to recognition oftheprovisional and intersubjective dimensions of meaning derived notfrom higher levels oftruth butfrom an exploration ofmaterial themes rooted in intersubjectiveunderstandings ofethics andrationality. "theories ished less by purely theoretical confrontation withothertheories thanbyconfrontation with fresh empirical objects" (Bourdieu1996:178).The roforms has consistently mantic tradition afforded arta privileged as a meansto accessprimordial status and universalist sources thatshape of meaning This dimension humanexistence. We are perhaps better served B. and structural enumeration. as a German andwasshotdownand fighter pilot in theCrimea-an experience thatwas injured to provecentral to thepostwar of development his art.Duringthe 1940s. in theearly 1960s change dramatically.6 My concernin this paper is nottoexplore thenormative ofart(though is precisely effect this therationale for "socialsculpture") butrather to emBeuys's phasize theunique insights provided bythemethofartcriticism. wasborn Joseph Beuys Germany.During theSecondWorld War. enabling a range of new dialogues withotherdisciplines. determinism.30 on Tue.Beuys enrolled at throposophical andwaseventually theDusseldorf ArtAcademy therein effect." In contrast. matter ofthispaperis undoubtedly somewhat unorthodox for a geographical journal. is something suggested by Adorno. as laysclaimto invariant we shallsee in thecase ofBeuys's "socialsculpture. for from methodological autonomy purely cognitiveand instrumental of reason.

Madrid. felt. yetthesignificance ofhis legacy and the source ofhisaesthetic power remain enigmatic. At the timeof his death in 1986. followed bya series of major shows inBerlin. highin the Crimea his war-time lighted experience he claimed in these where tohavebeenwrapped human is an artist . and masculine and feminine (thesedualistic metaphors runningthrough his work have been remarked literascarcely upon in the scholarly ture).41. 14 May 2013 04:21:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . influence ordialogue with other contemporaries in a By the early1970s. blood. andtheFreeInterfor Organisation Non-Voters.10. and second. In 1979 he had his first major international retrospective at theGuggenheimMuseum." In the late in thefuture" sculptural creativity (Beuys1986: of the German 1970s.9 haveinterpreted hiswork Scholars as integral to thedissolution ofcultural modernism its through radicalreinterpretation of the relationship between artand society: 639 EuropeanParliament. The publicity demonstrations surand especially "hearintuition through through his dismissal servedto enhance the rounding that ing. Theessence Every of being materials byTartar nomadsin orderto aid his man inthe iscaptured 'artist'. lard.. Mennekes 1995.I will during paper Greensand also stood unsuccessfully forthe this towards "aesthetic tendency exceptionalism" This content downloaded from 202. Stachelhaus 1989).Germer 1988). order to emulate biophysical processes in nature (see Beuys 1980.Contradictory Modernities after Beuys's involvement with Fluxus.honey.whichsought an anarchic extension to the idea of the art object to encompass everyday materials and situations(Blume 1994." andhiscallsfor concerns thecreation of tivedimensions new theory political of"a completely of an art-based "Fifth International. Wolf Vostell.Thoughhe deniedanyclear connection betweenhis war-time experiences and his approachto sculpture. political In keeping withthe mystification that nently. thereby dispensing with claims for theaesthetic ofhighmodautonomy ernism (see Bonnett 1992.10 Manystudies oftheartist definitions ofthis term 'art'endupbysaying that havetended ownassesstogo along with Beuys's there areartists andthere arenon-artists-people his ment of the innate of workand originality whocan do something. andParis.Burger 1986.Beuyswas engaged such as Carl Andre. desiccation.he becamea cofounder show thecourse ofthis that 60). on personal and socialhealing and his publicly the rehabilitation of adoptedrole in assisting German culture postwar (Kuspit 1991). and decay. Beuyswas themostinfluential probably postwar European artist.7The riseof Fluxusand Pop Art more in the1960swastohavecrucial generally signifiintworespects: cancefor Beuys theopening first. up of aesthetic discourse to mass culture gave impetus to hisinsistence on artand creativity as forces dispersed throughout rather than society residing ina cultural eliteanditsinstitutions. Paik. he was dismissed from hispostat the activities. His extensiveuse of feltand fat. his workdoes and appear to be both personally therapeutic with itsemphasis symbolically autobiographical. Of the fewartistic tion for Direct the Democracy through Plebiscite.30 on Tue.birth organic andinorganic. Thesematerials wereused to emphasize innatetensions between heat and anddeath.Kuspit 1995). WilhelmLehmbruck features sculptor prominational As a result ofthese University.GeorgeMaciunas.. provoking in visualterms not be comprehended but only inhissupport.theshattering ofthenotional aesthetic autonomy of highmodernism was to introduce newpossibilities forgreater artistic engagement with themes. Zurich. and installations madeexBeuys's sculptures use of a relatively tensive smallrangeof basic materials suchas stone. andothers. NewYork. His workhas featured prominently in debatesoverpostmodern wherehis aesthetics. interdisciplinarity and crossing of boundaries havebeenwidely readas indicative ofpostmodernpluralism (see Duncan 1995.Yves ofpolitical suchas theOrganisavariety projects Klein. surrounded anyinterpretation in 1972. Crow 1996).and HenryDunant. andpeople whocan't do have down the consequently played degreeof inNairne anything (Beuys quoted 1987:93). an international avant-garde movement led byGeorge NamJune Maciunas."sincetheworkcontained "categories and radicalimport of his perceived immediacy in themeditaneverpreviously rooted existed. cold.8 explicitly political Beuysplaced himself unambiguously at the forefront ofthesenewdevelopments byhispromotion ofall creative activity as a form ofrevolutionary political action. influences thatBeuys has himself the conceded.forexample.For Beuys. Allother description recovery from injury.the use of organic materials revealedthedynamic nature ofhis artthrough processes of fermentation. and wood (Figure 1). This led to Dusseldorf Art Academy could thatLehmbruck's Beuys argued sculptures mass widespread public consternation.

14 May 2013 04:21:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ....41.. .30 on Tue. | ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~I .10....... . . a i 194...:. exeiec obet an maeil....' . Joehus a Chir[etuh ... .Tis i okwsabiu is on of B uoigrpia etkonsultrsuigeeya ... _ |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ __~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~....... . .....Teetnieueo i h Crma _|SoreTh Fgr 1.. . .Dmta. ..640 ..._ . ... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~...a theColcinHesshsLnems . Beuys-Wurmb~~~~~~~~~~~~~Ach.. . .. ... ... e.....CutsyfEv eeec ohswrtm This content downloaded from 202.0 ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~..Gandy . .... _m .. .......

andinstitutional intellectual foundations. hisperformance "actions"[Aktionen]. Wecan alsofind and nature. planting 7. hislarge and even living tures usingorganic. 641 be termed His closeassociation with whatmight is derived from two the"ecological avant-garde" art orcreative main sources: first. to presenceof the artist theRomantic Tradition Reworking and authorial enhancethe personal poignancy oftheperformance. mythology).Hisart further. Much of his workhas involveda experience. the physical himself. pieces. of up thetransformation thereleaseofinnatecreauniversalism through whole andofthe system (Beuys society.tuality thelate-eighteenthin a state ofintense contemplation rooted century writings ofGoethe.his concerns with nature mirror of a column. materials. while hisinterdisciplinary concerns with building The growth of ecologicalpoliticssince the the artsand thesciences between have bridges an idealopporwith early 1970sprovided Beuys beenlikened totheRenaissance ideals ofda Vinci much to develophis "social sculpture" tunity andDiirer andideasbear (Schuster 1986).41. examination ofhiswork thanhas hitherto been thecasebyfocusing on thecentrality ofnature to hisdiscursive power andrhetorical appeal.where recurring characteristic of romantic innature transcendent meanings finds resonance spirinature forms thefocalpoint ofpantheistic with and early-nineteenth. Furthermore. ForWalter Renaissance and early European modernity. 14 May 2013 04:21:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 3). German forests. crystalline. between humankind hiswork a degree ofaesthetic with the continuity Benjamin. we see the artist during from his Aktion. and myth-based in 1982 (Figure tionin Kassel. hisecological concerns into Beuys integrated This masssculpture drewwidespread publicinhisartprincipally hischoiceofmaterials through andwasinstalled at a time terest ofintense conin combination hisown andiconicsymbols. proved expositions This content downloaded from 202. The culmination of his ecological conwith thecounter-discourses ofEnlightsimilarity cernswas to be theproject 7000 Eichen[7. and existence. the1960s. this hebegan throughpiece.000trees to theostensible ofpostwar challenge rationality was planted next out is surprising that hiswork has notbeen subjected to muchin the way ofsustained critical orscholarly attention. I suggest that hisrevival ofnature -based is a signifigenres in the broader cant element dissolution of culturalmodernism withfar-reaching implications for environmental discourse. The work hugely popular. In his numerous performance weretransfixed hisso-called Aktionen. andNovalis. andsecond.Considering within the development ofpostwar art. The central theme authority Beuyshas been one of the leadingpostwar ofa running through Eurasia wasa reconciliation exponents of themes drawnfrom the northern series and spiritual ofdivisions between material in European romantic tradition.10.Beuys's and ecological conaesthetic consciousness: wasto raiseecological cerns becamefused hispreoctogether through with nature as a basisto transcend the cupation The planting ofseven thousand is thus oaktrees Andsucha symbolic a symbolic only beginning. between Europe andAsia. thought. purpose the 1960s. Schiller. Familiar symbols were here:a dead hare(a work brought together to the problems of childhood imagepertaining ofanilanguage. instance beginning requires his Beuys.In combined together the courseof Figure 2. Each ofthetrees industrial a questioning of its society through to a small basalt column aboutfour feet For high.Contradictory Modernities has beenfundamental to Beuys's attempt to deflect theopportunities for critical appraisal ofhis his status artand ideas. andtheconsciousness to the mals). laws. ecological tive ina series natural rooted ofinvariant energies inStUIttgen. thought at theDocumenta7 exhibiOaks] inaugurated elementsto human tional. strictures of Enlightenment For rationality. Eurasia(1966). with cern withthe effects of acid precipitation on extensive on themeaning ofhiswork. of whichhe carriedout hisenrollment morethan70 after at theDiissel-scalesculpdorf Academy. 1982: quoted 1). inthis a basalt a marker. In I intendto set up a morerigorous thispaper. His thisresolution between a series oftensions is a repeated emphasis on thesearch for mystical and art. During ofthis masssculpture theprimary Beuys.30 on Tue. For Germany. hasbeenpredicated on an ecologically based anti-rationalism. The intention such event tree-planting broader of an aesthetic interdisciplinary project is to point ofall oflife.I argue thathisaesthetic as ithas evolved since project. audiences witha theatrical display ofobjectsand symbols in a didacticspectacle. (see Roberts 1982).000 irraenment whichstress themystical.the crossing of sticks(an allusion Celtic cross andpagan andaboveall.

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Beuys had himself lockedin a cage witha coyotefor three at theReneBlockGallery inNewYork days (Figure 4). One ofthemost extraordinary confrontations between nature in andmodernity artis undoubtedly well-known postwar Beuys's action entitled I Like America andAmerica Coyote: Likes Me (1974)."all kinds ofremarkable confrontations whereas resulted. and more recentattempts to revivethe organic Gemeinof Ferdinand Tbnnies (Schama 1995). lightand rhythm" inKuoni1990:14). He presented himself shepherd. Beuyssought not in relations merely to highlight the breakdown between peopleand animals butalso to draw on native -American cultural heritage. healer. extended art outside theinstitutional spaceofthe museum. Beuys hadwith a cane. Forthiscreative action. martyr struck atthe characteristics ancient chords roots of ourunderstanding. placing position. His ecological sculpturesremained comfortably within theappropriative scopeofmainstream art realthreat and posedlittle to thoseinstitutions that andinterests benefited from thepollution of theGerman countryside. hidden beneath hisfelt blanket. critics intheir were unconstrained Many similarly assessment ofthesignificance ofBeuys's performance. schaft Since Beuys's had a normative project political cannot be satisfactorily aim. andmiracle-worker. Historians have suggested thatonly sincethesixteenth has thesymbolic century perin reflection ception offorests altered ofa newly emerging national thatsought identity to differa specifically entiate German and cullandscape ture from thatofsouthern Europe(Wood1993).Beuyswas surrounding to thegallery on a stretcher transported byam- This content downloaded from 202. To add to the air of mystery and excitement thisaction. ForWilfried Wiegand(1986:7). and themoney oftheartworld. andideological ofBeuys's implications ecological discourse.11 withNature:Beuysand theCoyote Talking a conwork we find Running through Beuys's stant tension between nature andreason: nature is usedtimeand againas a bulwark Enagainst His fusionof radical lightenment rationality. and postmodern ecologism aesthetics is notonly predicated on theblurring ofboundaries between culture highartand popular but also lacksany distinction between humankind and meaningful therest ofnature. thecritical significance ofhisperformance involved itsfocus on thecoyote inNorth as a sacred animal American mythology.30 on Tue. so deepandso universal that bound with inrecognition the artist audience of they ina vulnerable while theartist continuum. ForBeuys. These teacher. was to be a historical beCoyote reconciliation tweenboth western and nonwestern cultures. skillfully tapping intotheecological concerns of theGerman public andconfounding thewariness Yet even if Beuyshad successfully of sceptics. maywell a wider serve an ultimate roleinprovoking assessmentofBeuys's workand his relationship with in Europeanthought. Formostofthe he remained time. andbetween human and nonhuman nature: I believe I madecontact with thepsychological trauma ofthe United States's constelpoint energy lation: the whole trauma with the American Indian. andonly then can the trauma belifted inKuoni (Beuys quoted 1990:142). Centralto this wasBeuys's claimtohavecomperformance municated with theanimal world in order to tap intoinnateand primordial sources ofmeaning. 14 May 2013 04:21:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . antirationalist and thehistorical roots ontology.using thecane as a kindofantenna orlimb toprovide movement. In reviving a forest theme." Caroline Tisdallfound theperformance infused with "a magic of timing.Marylin Smith (quoted (1995: 180) goesevenfurther: LikeSt Francis with thewolf of Gubbio. hiswork wasstill fully backed bygalleries. Beuys with befriended andconferred hiscoyote brother. addition hima felt to thecoyote. ofhayandfifty copiesoftheWallStreet Journal. a stack blanket.a triangle.12 In thisinstance. Few other performances byBeuyshave elicited such uncritical Yet Coyote adoration. With 7.Beuysreworked a intheGermalong-standing tradition articulated nia ofCeltis.Beuys had notonly addressed contemporary ecological anxieties buthad also tappedintonationalistic of Germanheritage conceptions as a wooded landscape.10.hiswork interpreted without the way in whichnature considering aesthetics has been repeatedly combined with nationalistsentiment in European environmental discourse.dealers. I broader developments shall ofCoyote on develop my critique byfocusing threeissues:the problematic notionof nature based aesthetic his relianceon an autonomy.thefolk and sylvan vertraditions nacularofJohann Gottfried Herder.Kennedy In directly from John Airport. RedMan.41.000Oaks.644 Gandy bulance F. as fisherman. the You could that a reckoning hadto say be made with thecoyote.

...: . l| i .: ...e _ i . L * ?oP * ::. .. _ e .. | i..i l ll -EF r a | | II I s I | l I I l - i i x 6' i I I r . s9.. 'li ...' .! ' :. L.5.... e H_?? 3 il S . ._ i w hi .- .... | i i ^ _ ::: IF ..Contradictory Modernities 645 ..e .... | * . j _ t :: __ _ _.}ir . .. I i S . For three days Beuys was locked ina cage with a coyote atthe Rene Block Gallery inNewYork.2 i _ . S.... '.: 'l :. I Like America antl America Likes Me(1974). i . :: .SE mfMF _ Figure 4.jj. _L4: . se ...41. 14 May 2013 04:21:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .R 6 : .....10..... .S . This content downloaded from 202.... .s .. Beuys claimed tohave achieved a historic reconciliation between humankind andnature. . 3Bi l | R .._ .. | . ' . '. | I 1!....: : :: i :: .. _.._ | _ I ^ L .... Joseph Beuys. ' . ::.:ii i f *..30 on Tue.. Courtesy ofCaroline Tisdall..

30 on Tue. BeyondBeuys's Beuys's resistance tothecritical scrutiny ofhis ideasstemmed inlarge part from theromanticist auraofmystery that surrounded hiswork. the enthusiastically in New Age spirituality. and theGerman romantics.Kockel1995). 14 May 2013 04:21:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." "Shaman earth he adopted belied model divinity" in a real fearof rational intellectual traditions and the possibility Western that his thought. Groning man1987). were combined in a reactionarysynthesis and Wolschke-Buhl(Dominick 1991. Yetthisis not to saythatsuch Enlightenment. Indeed.argued thatthedifferences between if in the"great chainofbeing" would be lessened we knewtheir"motives" (Soper 1995:24). he consistently soughtto subvert the possibility of critical appraisal forhis workby linking it to a philosophical totality beyond hisandpolitical torical discourse. rationality. sentiments of form part of a broadercritique arthasbeen society: justas Beuys's performance backedby the art market. the rootsto Beuys'svisionare rarely philosophical in anydetail inthearthistorical examined literature. ofthepostwar alienating public housing projects erabecame oftheexhaustion ofcultural symbolic art canbeintermodernism. sovereign whereby art a kind of"permanently liverecording becomes of the artist permanently.646 Gandy species pie. radical inversion Beuys's of the political of the modernist import avantnot a further of garderepresents radicalization butitsprecise a reclothing of modernity opposite: traditional inthekaleidoscopic genres garb ofthe culture Just as the draband postwar industry. ina contemreworked a historical tradition Beuys context thesocialandhisporary bysuppressing torical basisofhiswork. for radical as a form Beuys's sympathy ecologism and of cultural is bothdisquieting redemption unsurprising (Michaud 1988). Bellman1995. Centralto discursive was hisprivileging of Beuys's strategy overother ofcommunispeechandaction forms cation. and to highlight mythand transcendencein his theatre of esoterica.41. this allowed Beuysto present his own testimony as in matters of interpretation. Beuys's performance coda to the modernist pretedas a rhetorical avant-garde. ofinterest perupsurge backed andbioconsumerism isfully sonalhealing. Farfrom "reaching outtothetranscendental instinct that is timeless and universal"as Tisdall (1995:112) claims. in parallel with boththepolitical right in the thinkers involved many"green" political environmentalism since ofwestern development diverse the1970s.He presented theessence ofGerman cultureas an oral. modernity.13 The yearning to understand and communicate withnatureis a element inWestern disenvironmental persistent course: both Addison andBolingbroke. Beuys a pre-Cartesian invoked and antirationalist onin hisoccultist embodied claimto be able tology to communicate profound philosophical andhistoricaltruths withanimals.His political contained project elements: tracesof nineteenth-century utopian the symbols and beliefs of Celtish anarchism. Bramwell ecological 1989. andecologism courses drawn from bioregionalism (Adams1992.For Terry Atkinson (1995a:6). one might thattheprebycapital.14 The recent upsurge of interest cultismand its interrelationship withvarious strands ofenvironmental iswidely docuthought mented and forms dispartofthecontemporary and solutionof faithin science.Beuys's German visionhas also drawn on a specifically twentiethvariant ofearly environmental century andantirationalism where antiurbanism thought. as wellas various disRudolf ecological Steiner. He presented hisworld view as transcending and left. possibility theunderlying causes toshift attention from away and socioecoof environmental degradation a realmof nomicpolarization. be placedinthe context ofrationalist objections thatwe cannot knowwhatit is like to be a coyote(Atkinson in oc1995a). Yet ofothBeuys's claims to know theconsciousness evennonhuman must ers. A recurring discursive strategy employed by washisambivalence towards iconic Beuys clarity inorder andtheuseofdeliberate to mystification The allowthe"courting ofincomprehensibility. presently speaking.In seeking dividebetweenhumankind and nature. invariant essencedisturbed of bythe intrusions an industrialized Consequently. His rolewastobe a messenger orinterpreter: a humble of purveyor totherapture anddelight "truth" ofhisaudience and the international art market.10. of the earth-based anthroposophy mythology. "theatre ofhubris" be exposedto critical might tounify the scrutiny (Atkinson 1995a). Novalis. argue cise import the of Beuys'slegacyis to subvert forrational environmental discourse. others." Thisemphasis on theartistic voiceas thecentral ofcultural source authenticity placesBeuys firmly thehistorical within tradition ofSchiller. examfor This content downloaded from 202. Alexander1990. Just as himself a felt in Beuys concealed behind blanket Coyote. nature-based an tradition. on Despiterepeated publicpronouncements the relationship betweenart and politics.

10. a purpose". Thishasitscounterpart chantment with concerned discourses environmental global thecontrol of thebiosphere backunder bringing so imagery. Paris. becauseit knows against of ourselves. Early influences of Richter's include the Fluxus Movement (with which Beuyswas closelyassociated).whereas in is directly othercases.or powerful spatial depth or whator magnificent linearity itoff andwe can switch at ever-is ourprojection.WhenBeuys (Atkinson disguise to an ecologically demanda return hisfollowers set arecalling upona specific they basedsociety.Modernities Contradictory lieshisholistic ecologism andregional vernacular interconnectedness ofquasi-spiritual conception disento the modernist as a radicalalternative in ofnature. Madrid. (evenifI butaboveall "untruthful" lostParadises..whichin all its forms and is absonothing us. irony. In the early 1960s. of suggestion orclassical a Romantic with nostalgic. In some instances. and Berlin. ofany vadedbya senseofdoubt. subtlety questions Central to Richter'sartistic than simplicity. he had enjoyed major international retrospectivesof his work in London. "theidea thatartcopies natureis a fatalmisArt has alwaysoperatedagainst conception. thetraces towards free nordirected arethus within hiswork symbolism ofromantic and ofnostalgia. a moment's notice. ortrancolour enchanting landscape-every gentle every atmosphere.This "whole-earth" "natural" is in Western thought. shifting of subjectsand styles.The ecologicalsupremacy in ofcultural is really a form supremacy byBeuys and 1995b: 171). naturedoes not have any innate For Richter. gencyand diversity artareexpressed ofpostwar tiesand limitations and contradictions. and Chicago and is now one ofEurope's leading both in termsof his criticalacclaim and artists.15 From 1961. 14 May 2013 04:21:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Every we see in inhuman beauty that absolutely effect. Most of the scholarly attention devoted to the art of Gerhard Richter has focused on his extensive use of imagery drawn frommass culture. laws. cultural discourses? uneasewith theromantic notedhisintellectual inofcultural for nature -basedsources affinity in hisdiary In 1962.30 on Tue. witha bewildering we are presented Richter. Toronto.. borneout ofa mixture for beauty: predilection an aesthetic beautiful or arenotonly mylandscapes Of course. the presence of nature is merely hinted at. commodification 647 good nor evil. and by finda wayof showing did not always I meanglorifying thewaywe look at "untruthful" is always Nature-Nature. Comparativelylittle attentionhas been given to his repeated use of traditional motifsdrawn fromnature: mountains. This content downloaded from 202. forests. he had his first Munich. as in his abstractpictures. By the mid-1990s. other fragments solo exhibitionsin In 1964-65. he studied at the Dusseldorf Art Academy with Karl Otto Gotz and began to incorporate photographs and of mass culture into his work. posing in all their fullness rather rather thananswers. andlanddilemma has beentheplaceofnature art:how are we to reconcile scape in postwar in nature withthehistorical aesthetic pleasure of nature-based and metaphysical trappings Richter As a youngartist.41. From1952 to 1957. and other fragmentsof nature are ubiquitous in his work. environmental pervasive withitsown history discourse a totalizing itself in imbedded ironically) deeply(and somewhat tradition(Cosgrove the European modernist espoused 1994:290). in environand political traditions ofhistorical of socialreality mental a conception discourse: withinthe dominant which sits comfortably the current patthatstructure powerrelations use and theaccelerated terns ofglobalresource ofnature. Dusseldorf. at the Duisselhe had been appointed professor dorfArt Academy.clouds. ofcultural representations spectrum a quite different aestheticand we encounter In the artof Gerhard intellectual experience. he studiedfineartand mural painting at the Dresden Art Academy. classic figurative imagery reproduced in the formof photographs. then emigratedto West Germanyin revealonlythe appalling 1995:124).he recorded how spiration. quil scene. it). and by 1971. commercial success. mindless: the total antithesis lutely . natureand forreason" (in Richter1995:11). along with the abstract paintings of Jackson Pollock and Lucio Fontana. andtheEmpty Richter Gerhard SpacesofModernity in the point different Ifwe moveto a radically ofnature. (Richter and ugliness horror GerhardRichterwas bornin Dresden in 1932. routinely array bebetween photorealismand eschewing that conceals the continideologicalsystem The possibiliofmeaning. yetalwayspertweensculpture and painting. neither it is "neither meaning. just before the completion of the Berlin Wall. he founded a German variantofPop Art along with Sigmar Polke.

andincomnonvisual something ofan analogy for itwithin andbringing itform giving prehensible: 1995:100). Wecan discern (Figure inwith preoccupation theromantic ity between and the powerof the thatevoke and crutches be devoid"oftheprops both sublime images.childhood sites). drawnfrom the early1960s and are predomidepictures of miscellaneous composed nantly imagery (mass-produced magazines rivedfrom interspersed throughout). The first few panelsare tailsfrom hisownwork. for hispaintings isbest known Richter Gerhard Yethe expressionism. late 1960s.41.16 ments useschancein abstract paintthatRichter argue fornatureand as an ing both as an analogy of change emulation of the randomprocesses nowith ordered contrasts spontaneously (which ofnature and evolution).10. a mixture of prurience provoking fearsthe mindLike Adorno.and philosophy: of the earlier our incomprehension underlying on emphasis Thereis also an increasing images.In Forest modernism and ofform a complex layering (1992). The IronicLandscape the for at theDia Center In itsrecent showing Artsin New YorkCity.Atlas has growninto phothousand somefive 600 panelswith almost and dea variety ofsketches including tographs. In (Porter elements teracting has developed Richter paintings. ofanynatural ortranscendent jectedthenotion from nature isderived thecomparison with order.30 on Tue. 14 May 2013 04:21:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . outmoded with associations 1948. Whereas Beuys's tions This content downloaded from 202. we find somecontinutexture 5). It is thisthemeof reach" (Richter repreto aesthetic and the limits uncertainty artistic sentation thatleads us to his definitive intheon-going installation. knowledge iconicbasisto representation." "morphology ofinkaleidoscope andmultilayered an evolving and Gleick1990).Richterclearly effects ofmassculandpropagandizing numbing ture:one mustbe ever alertto art as a mere In thenextsecpower. gledwithadvertisements conof the postwar and otherblandishments bya juxtaposition sumer weareconfronted boom. for jewelry. minoccurs: Then something quiteunexpected swimwear.A chaoticnatureis theories of James laws but is a to a fewNewtonian irreducible from emanating oftheamorphous. inganysimplistic is "themaking painting hisabstract ForRichter.quotedin Harri(Newman andbeautiful" aesson and Wood 1992:10). and chanceelehis conception of the random We can in thecreative act ofpainting. theidiom ofabstract within artin an eraradically hisabstract has developed by epitomized heyday itspost-war from different Pollock. his abstract to ofthelimits a recognition waysofexpressing eschewthereby and understanding. Richter's that had "devalorthecircumstances toconfront artunderthe demiseof cultural ized" abstract [Wald] (Buchloh1993:50).648 and Abstraction Indeterminacy Gandy tothenatural vision owedmuch scientific holistic oftheeightspirituality theology andpantheistic ofecological conception Richter's eenth century.thereare severalhundred drawn from theworld primarily historical figures theirpresence of art.Hints phy ofa phototheenlarged that resemble fragments The eye is drawnrepeatedly negative. denceassociated with age"ofabstract the"golden however.The autonomous sought abstract expressionism thetic ofpostwar in disofsocialtranscendence to createa form oftranscen-basedforms tinction to thenature Bythe theromantic legacy. graphic thecanvasinsearch ofmeaning orpattern across yet theoverall senseoftheimage inorder tomake andcalming. andJackson Newman theartofBarnett artwas to ofabstract thecreation ForNewman. from Nazi concentration camps drawn ofimages confronts and hardcore pornography-Richter of imagesby our apathyas passiveconsumers and unease. trospection detached from anyfigurabuttheseareradically -basediconogrativeresemblance to thenature arediscernible offiguration ofthepast. and historic viewsofmountains holidays. chaos sciencelies closerto the contemporary Gleick. haddisappeared through a combiexpressionism withinart itself(the nationof developments aesthetic implosion of the putative theoretical and changes modernism) of cultural autonomy of the within widersociety(the appropriation and the culture by the artmarket avant-garde industry). features prominently andholiday (we photographs with various family beach see dour and laughing faces. in themid-sixformulation From their initial sought abstract paintings tiesonward. statement contained Atlas. rehas explicitly Richter his abstract paintings. The illusion effect remains tranquil of figurative landscapeis of deep space typical space andheterogeneous bytheinfinite replaced about When talking ofthehumanimagination. instrument ofideological of photographs tion.

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The extensive useofphotomontage andphotorealism addresses theambiguous placeofmass-prointheformulation ducedimagery ofouraesthetic and intellectual sensibilities.landscapesof the New somecases. A whole landscapes. yet He oflandscape motifs. a larger or idea. Nuremberg. Atlas challengesany lingering presence of the universal or disinterested concerns viewerand speaksforcontemporary and withthedissolution ofwestern humanism the struggle to findan adequate epistemologiof cal and ethicalbasis forthe establishment anysharedmeaning. forests. as in the nineteenth-century Caspar David Friedrich and Carl Blechen(see Koerner 1990.from ephemeral gestures This content downloaded from 202.and maps. in nacan find no innateor universal meaning thatwhich we project ontoit. series ofimages ispresented as if wearelooking through in a room. ofhisattempt to recover thecapacity suggestive ofarttoengage with wider andtheprolifsociety ofmassproduced eration imagery.Photographic imagesare used to denote aspectsof as a meansto work within contemporary reality. from ofdifferent intoa multiplicity forms.Zweite1990. 1995.650 Gandy an appropriate their eggs. Hitler. The motifs largely painterly use of photomontage servesto destabilize the naturalism ofdramatic photographic landscapes.Vaughan 1994).41. The presence of nature doesnotform a symbolic continuity with ofBeuys. ofimages.Thereis no attempt heretoreproduce a direct experience art of of nature.see alsoKoch1992).30 on Tue.the ture. theroom is presented as a vastarenawith panoatimpossible ramic glimpses ofclouds angles. moreunidentified sky. The landscape panelsrea flickering semble bankoftelevision setsorperhaps even the fragments of a half-remembered dream(Figure ofalpineimagery so 7). Greenland.unidentified landscapes. The complex oscilin lation betweenpaintingand photography Richter's work at thevery coreofhisartistic plays dilemma betweena "redundant and figuration theinflated idealism andexistential subjectivism. metaphysical redundancy hasreferred tothese ofnature as "cuckoo's pieces Conclusion The increasing with nature ofart engagement thelate 1960s basedsources ofinspiration from onwards is one ofthemostsubtle. ranging the earth worksof RobertSmithsonto the the of in thework system and is notattached to anyclaim for innate originality. so pervasive Beuys.His worklies neither claimsforaesthetic transcendence traditional in the workof and universality. beyond nature andculture becomes relationship between Inandsocially mediated. or standing windows. yetprofound uneasetowards the indications ofcontemporary radicalseparation ofculture from nature under theimpetus oftwentieth-century modernity. Richter uswith an ironic in presents landscape herecognizes which thecontinued poignancy. we between artand massculture. Munich. plans. Fragments turebecomestimuli to memory and interpretationand serve to emphasize existential concerns with human ephemerality and the centerless characteristics intellectual disofcontemporary in the realmof course. historically contingent stead ofcommuning with a transcendental nature the dialecticof that seversmaterial relations.Richter 1995: 152).nor withinthe morecynicaland selfto theculidioms ofslavish serving adaptation ture industry.10. By theearly nature-based arthad diversified 1970s. of variousforms of abstraction" weightlessness (Osborne 1992:104. thenight York. Then we abruptly turn backto a mix ofimages drawn from nature and history: mountain ranges. is retained nature ofnathroughout." analogy for superficial resemblance to theclassic imagery oftheromanticperiod(quotedin Butin1994:461). a dialectic massculture between and theelitist and esoteric ofhighculture conditions (Kochet al. Elements ofthetranscendent beloved eyein themountain are overlaid with genreof Europeanaesthetics abstract andtextures.The pictures are ofrealplaces interspersed with designs andmodels produced in theimagination ofplanners andarchitects: there isan eerie thevistas similarity between ofpostwar reconstruction andtheminiature models ofhighrise housingprojectsand multilane highways (Figure 6). clouds. Dusseldorf.17 Richter attempts to divest nature-based iconographies oftheir ideological import bysubverting ouraesthetic sensibilities towards nature. Venice. sketches and detailsfrom Richter's own work. The nextseries drawn from thelate isofa series ofaerial 1960s onwards. andseascapes. If. 14 May 2013 04:21:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The oflandscape inRichter's depictions Atlas provide a multi-perspectival vista interspersed witha ofother unconnected range seemingly figurative and abstract elements. trees. photographs. is derived The rhetorical power ofRichter's Atlas imfrom its contextual of diverse conjunction inorder therelationship agery toradically rework likeRichter.

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for romantic utopianism through his ironic engagement withnature -basedthemes.Forfar toolong wehavetold ourselves a landscape the of some the of was beauty expression tocertain transcendent law: the esthetic conformity tocertain or orthe principles conformity biological laws.In thispaper.Contradictory Modernities mammoth installations ofRobert Christo to the newpublic spacesofNancyHolt. In this respect. tory critical ofthediscourses ofnature leads reworking to an aesthetic rather thansuppresacceptance innature. ofnature has as an ideological for emerged pointofreference wider socialand political discourses concerning thetransformation ofsociety. community gardens. 14 May 2013 04:21:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .In Richter's we sawhownatureAtlas.Indeed. hisarthas nonetheless been at the forefront of both the ecological critique ofmodernity and thepostwar challenge to theinstitutionalized spacesofhigh modernism. Richter contributes to theon-going internal critique of thathas developed modernity sincethe earlier andAdorno(seeWellexplorations ofBenjamin mer1991). The lackofanyclearly demarcated and postmoderdistinction between modernity nity is also reflected in Richter's continuing attachment to a seriesof ostensibly outmoded aesthetic strategies ranging from collageto abIn questioning thepossibilities straction. The new urbanvistasof This content downloaded from 202. thedestruction Sincethe1960s. As John B. partial.Ross 1993). based motifs can playa role in the searchfor new forms of representation adequate to the relations betweenhighartand mass changing culture. To throw off is to rework thepast tradition to invoke nature. and Gillian Rose has explored the pervasive anthropomoroflandscape phicrepresentation (andreception) as a female I havesought to body. anaspect but their essence isnot beauty simply very human from the andthat their derives beauty presthat ence. whereas for thecrisis ofmodernity stems Richter. sionofthehuman presence Jackson (1984:xii)reflects: I look atlandscapes andseek tounderthelonger themore I am that stand convinced their them. in Recent years haveseenimportant advances scholarship on the cultural depiction of nature and landscape: John Barrell has unearthed the the socialand economic realities thatlie behind has addressed pastoral facade. ForClement and Greenberg theguardians ofhighmodernism.Krauss1985. of modernity articulated byBeuys leadsbacktonature andthe illusorycertaintiesof holistic universalism. was mistaken sincethepresence of Greenberg in art does not figurative nature-based forms involvean aestheticregression to necessarily thepast. Beuys hasplayed rolesince the1960sinrevitalizing theromantic tradition in Western art.Within this proliferation ofcultural representations of nature.He has used natureas a powerful in order metaphor to challenge cultural modernismandrationalist discourse. I have developed my theneedto locatethe argument byemphasizing nature and culture in thehisrelations between I arguethata of environmental discourse. that We can argue thecontradictory ofmodernist dynamics aesthetics havebeen repeatedly expressed through nature. stepsignaling of aesthetic and a reversion to the autonomy moreprimitive and unsophisticated artof the past (Greenberg1940:45). Richter hasattempted toretain an aesthetic with dialogue nature andlandscape in theabsence ofanylinkage to metaphysical traditions in European The ecologicalcritique thought. In contrast.TMitchell enceofcolonial andclass-based in iconographies the Europeanlandscapetradition.Richter the fragceptions emphasizes 653 mentary.the suppression or exaltation of nature canbe readas oneofthedefining tensions in modern intellectual discourse. the"wishtoreturn ofnature" was an everto theimitation a retrograde a loss present danger. workof Beuysand Richter a seriesof mirrors intellectual tensionsbetweenmodernity and whereas works within the postmodernity: Beuys romantic tradition basedaround universalist conof value.41. and countless othernew cultural engagements with nature(Beardsley 1991. from theeffects ofterroristic and the ideologies inadequacies of art to represent the centerless characteristics ofWestern thought.10.Charles Harrison the fallacy of aesthetic the autonomy through separation of landscapeart from its intended has explored thepresaudience. WJ. and multi-perspectival dimensions to social reality.30 on Tue. ecological within thedevelopment modofcultural Implicit ernism was a celebration of the urbanpresent over the ruralpast. istoreturn tonature. the approaches ofJoseph Beuys and Gerhard Richter occupy radically difa key ferent positions. of natureexplorethe ideological implications basedclaims for aesthetic andhistoriautonomy cal transcendence.nottomention theburgeoning of murals. Yet if Beuys'sromantic utopianism placeshimat oddswith thepostmoderncritique ofEnlightenment ideals. Ata superficial thecontrast the between level.

DavidRieff. bridges.and Cologne (1990).Munich (1989)." a conflatique there isinvariably tionofconcern abouttheaesthetic of impact with more of modernity generalized indictments rationalist epistemologies. Edward LuFriedhelm cie-Smith.41.Modernity is alsousedina more specific torefer sense totheemergence ofcultural modasa particular ernism aesthetic This is sensibility.654 Gandy skyscrapers.10. as stimuli scapehaveserved and points ofreference to enhancethe capacity of artto become boththe"objectand process ofhistorical memory"(Buchloh1993:48). Marcia Tucker. tobecome however. tionship we can articulate a dynamic interaction that isnegotiable and historically Ifwe dispense specific. toplace isa tendency who use 4.In Richter's nature andlandart. Acknowledgments An earlier version ofthis paper waspresented tothe 1996 annualmeeting oftheAssociation ofAmerican inCharlotte. 14 May 2013 04:21:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Williams 1989). with any historical ordialectical conception ofnature. Yetthepostwar recovery of an aesthetic with nature dialogue remains profoundly contraIn one sense. ofsocialtransformation.The antinature transcendentalism ofDe Stijl. Mario Kramer. between and pastandpresent between theartist andhissubject islaidbare. Mennekes.In practice. 2.1995.30 on Tue. thenew urban landscapes ofLe Corbusier andtheFuturist glorification of machinesand technology all sought tobreak free ofnature (Rosenblum 1991). Thesymposium "Considering Joseph Beuys" was heldat theVera List Center for Art andPolitics inthe New School for Social Research. Shapiro. array Atincluding Terry kinson. in1964. Yet through time. New York. Ifwe holdontoa dialectical understanding oftherelabetweennatureand culture. When one talks ofthe"ecological criofmodernity. Wedrift intoa realm ofarbitrary nature-based in conjuncideologies tion withconceptions of aestheticautonomy where thehuman isrendered presence uncertain. Jean-Pierre andWerner A weakly is simply dictory. tothelatenineteenth-century frequently traced and iswidely tohave considered reached its zenith under theabstract ofthe expressionism immediatepostwar period (Clark 1985. of swirling crowds. Notes 1. Berenice Rose. a reflection of theemerging crisis innature-society In relations. Donald Kuspit. Germano Celant. until 1995 the spring of1996. these meanings tend blurred. andthe avant-garde's political wastobe ever futility more sharply revealed in thefaceofthecapitalist art market. ofa radical opening out and diversification of modernist discourses (Berman 1982). An aesthetic reconciliation withnaturehas as a prominent emerged element in newcultural discoursessince the 1960s. The radical impulse of modernist artwas to becomelostin theautonomous aesthetic ofabstract expressionism. Johannes Stittgen. Geographers North Carolina. Gerhard Richter's Atlas wasshown at theDia Center for inNewYork theArts from April 27. Michael Michael Danoff. Theterm modernity iswidely used torefer toan era of unprecedented historical transformation sincethesixteenth in or earlier century (later someaccounts) (see Giddens 1991. 3. A mythic naturecan easilydegenerate into a mereinstrument ofpower a dialectical whereas or social natureis open to contestation and change. Hubertus Butin for (1994).In Richter's dialectical therelation nature. andthe radical separation ofsociety from inthetwentieth nature century. Thesymposium drew together a diverse ofcontributors. the ofRichter's questions work simplistic placing thetradition within ofGerman romanticism bya ofscholars variety Robert including Rosenblum. The shifting of boundaries between audienceand artist has ina rearrangement volved in theclassificatory canons and relative status ofdifferent genres (Crow 1993). we haveno means to makesenseoftherelationship between nature andculture. example.Kern 1983).modernist aesthetics was to becomeincreasingly separate from theprogressiveimpulses ofmodernism moregenerally: earlier architectural innovations were to become subsumed intopostwar "corporate modernism" andmass housing projects. andArmin Zweite. There artists images ormotifs from drawn nature within the realm of theromantic tradition in European rethought ofthe extent towhich art their isactually gardless inpantheistic founded andmetaphysical readings ofnature. April 3-8. I would like to thankTerry Atkinson and the referees fortheir helpful comments on an earlier draft. This contrasts withBeuys's use ofnature in order to andrevive therealm dispel history ofmyth. and factories. another itisindicative sense. Spies. Begun the Atlas installation wasfirst exhibited in Bremerhaven andUtrecht during 1972 andhasalso been shown in Krefeld (1976). were toincreasingly dominate cultural and political life. developed differentiation ofaesthetic tonature approaches is problematic since some scholars that suggest This content downloaded from 202.

(Greenberg 1961). Further elaboration in thework ofJane thesethemes is to be found Bennett perspective (1993. 12.YetUlmer artcan be conshows performance whyBeuys's ceivedas an exposition oftextual deconstruction ofthe becausehisanalysis rests on an obfuscation and epistemological questionsthat ontological illuminate the contextual dimensions of the art itself.Cox 1982. 13. 6.Gro5ning The coyote(Canislatrans) has longhelda symand bolic place in NativeAmerican mythology the coyote Morerecently.Crow1993). understanding then the ecological formulationsbehind Beuys's art wouldbe better considered quasireligious thanideological. The strict demarcation ofmodern artfrom mass embodied of culture. art historians the aesthetic concerning representations ofnature andlandscape.30 on Tue. 1995). In contrast. mized to effect byDuchamp.S. 1988. Yetin theGuggenheim catalogue. 11. 1994). withtheinfluential roleofClement Greenberg.Buchloh a plane crash. 5. 1970. This has subsequently sion broadcast been interpreted as an early attack byBeuyson ofthemodernist thefailure as epitoavant-garde. Goodman1984). Habermas (see Eagleton1991).Moffitt This content downloaded from 202.Manresa (1966) and I AmTrying toSet (Make)YouFree(1967). 10. byCaroline ent imagealso described as thewreckage ofhis "Who would. Buchloh Benjamin bytheartscholar of Beuyseditedby noteshow.Matless 1992. inExamples cludeCosgrove andDaniels(1988).tobecome jacket at thecenter ofinternational debateandscholarofhis 1992.A contrasting ofnature andculture on thecoyote as an interface can be foundin studies of urbanecology(Gill 1970). his autobiographical experience Beuysmingled intoa carefully "artpersonality.thereby of aesthetic autonomy (see Sandler conception 1983). Natter et al. bythepostwar development abstract is especially associated expressionism. One of Beuys'searliest performance pieces or Aktionen was entitledThe Silenceof Marcel Is Overrated and givenas a liveteleviDuchamp in 1964. is now knownto have been partof the the hegemony ofthe West during planned cultural dispelling the Greenbergian Cold War. when after pose forphotographs Andwhotookthephotographs? severely injured? camera?" The Tartarswith theirfat-and-felt 1980:39).Alvin andJurgen Gouldner. Kemaland Gaskell(1993). 1961 traces His essay "Modernist Painting" from a direct modernist between Kantian selflineage reflection and abstract expressionism as a teleological progression of western aesthetic sensibilities ofwider and historical independent 655 9. wonders plane.10. anyrealchangein society (Blume1994). If we wereto adopt thismorerestricted oftheterm.and Guilbaut thatBeuys's performance Gregory Ulmerinsists ofthepedaexposition artrepresents a practical gogical project of Derridean grammatology ofthe and displacement founded on "thedisplay of Western literal sense of the rootmetaphors andart" andrhetoric. Geographers albeit tothebroader ofthe only tentatively.41.theartist nexttowhatis purported tobe hiscrashed JU87 in theCrimea.Contradictory Modernities innature anyaesthetic interest issimply an extenin sosionofwider aesthetic sensibilities learned in ciety (thesekinds ofarguments arecontained Wollheim [1980]andSavile[1982]). Matlessand Revill 1995. science thought-dialectic never satisfactorily (Ulmer 1985:264). Danto 1981. have nowbegunto respond.therehas been an increasing between and dialogue geographers.1996b. 1987.Cambell1980." compromoted fishing recognizable pletewiththe immediately andfelt a persona Homburg hat. Otherearlyactionsthat to Beuys's contributed rapidly growing notoriety within theartworld include How toExplain Pictures toa Dead Hare (1965). is a closer imbrication ofgeographical scholarship withcritical in Europeanthought.afforestation of formed partof the planned"Germanization" in Eastern the invadedterritories-particularly ideal ofa landscape Europe-and theimposition toan expansive nationalistic concepwasintegral nature and cultionoftherelationship between ture(see Dominick 1992). 1993. Rollins1995). The conceptofideology has also been used to refer to thetechnical rationale ofsecularsocieties in the writings of Clifford Geertz. we find a quitedifferedited Tisdall. implications of modernity forthe understanding of critique environmental to thisproject Central problems. Another (1994). and Wrede area of interdisciplinary emerging scholarship the aesthetic concerns tensions between nature andmodernity (seeGandy 1996a. 8.. In recentyears. Duncanand Ley (1993). 14 May 2013 04:21:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . a discourses not onlyof relevance to the condevelopment cerns ofthis butalsoto thewider paper historiography of the discipline (see Joneset al. Buchloh. fornatureby vokedas a generalized metaphor of Donna Haraway(1991). Mitchell and Adams(1991). Nicos Poulantzas. philosophers. in the arts The extentof occultist influences but is remains a neglected area of scholarship withnature-based associated iconogespecially raphies (see Adams1991.The veracity ship(Storr war-time has beenopenly questioned experience D. or could. otherscholars stress innatedifferences between aesthetic responses toartandnature andcontend that nature is simply a reflection ofdifferent ways of seeing(see. (Buchloh During the Second WorldWar. 7. The postpolitical influences in the ofabstract expressionism wardevelopment U. has been thebiography Goetz Adriani standing ispictured etal. forexample.

1995. 1992. Trans. Earthworks: In Denatured after Modernism. Manchester: Manchester Press. John.Woodbury. Bennett. 61-75. Essays. Beuys.ThankstoWilhelm Nevill. Donald. London 1790to1990. is developed ofargument byCoosjevan Bruggen that (1985). Melts Air: Marshall. P Lech. Joseph 51:26-34. andSubjectivity: From Andrew.Thoreau's Nature: Ethics. ed. W.. WallsEight Lehmbruck.41. Bonn:InObituaries. 14 May 2013 04:21:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 250-65. is a timely one. Space: Bonnett. CA: Stanford University Press. Life andWorks. and Liverpool University Liverpool: TateGallery Press.Interview In Energy the Man:Joseph Plan Western for resfield.30 on Tue. .does notdevelopan in accordance with an idea:Nature organism lets its forms and modifications come.Eugen. 185-95. andThomas.whocontends wecanfind important between Richter andCezanneintheir similarities for aesthetic as a pictorial analsearch "harmony. Joseph. Case ofJoseph Art Beuys.becausethere isno centralimage of the world (worldview) any longer:we mustworkout everything forourto a general selves. "Every would-be mystic.Aesthetics Bowie.andCarleAndre(see Richter 1995).. York: Museum in Bellman. andEveryday Ideology. [1980] 1990.CA: Sage Publications. Art Journal K. London: Verso.Primate In In theNature and Language. UniKanttoNietzsche. every devotee art ontological zoo. University Chaloupka. C. NewYork.. versity 14. Adriani. Beuys:Pioneerof a Radical . 1991.Joseph G. David Thistlewood. andRoyal ScotandEdinburgh: Gallery Hayward tish Academy." with sound. of Bourdieu. Stanford. David Thistlewood. Series. withinthe ofitsgiven framework facts and with thehelpof chance" (1986:128-29).feels empathy towards Beuys's It evenmakes feel obscurantism. [1992]1996.Beuys's tothesymposium "ConsidSpirit. Environment andPlanning Space10: 69-86. thatoccultism and nature-based motifs were integral to the ofabstract artin theearly emergence decadesof thetwentieth century (one thinks hereparticuofKandinsky andMondrian) larly (see Tuchman andFreeman 1986). Joseph Art in German Robinson. NewAndyWarhol.AllThatIsSolid into Berman. pp. notpromote thenotionofartist as autonomous it is strongly secularand devoidof any genius. SocialResearch. voice of the artist in matters of interpretation (Huyssen 1989. A.Occultism inAvant-Garde Art:The Adams. 17. Claes Oldenburg. Sensibility? Environmental Voiceand theCoyote Atkinson. Jane. 1979. 1995b. myabstract paintings evolvetheir motifs as the work proceeds. . Visions and Alter-Tales. Art: Genesis Pierre. Other influences that Richter hasalluded toinhis andwritings include interviews RoyLichtenstein. every champion ofevery ofthe catalogue ofoccultentities. inAmerica.Trans. Ecology. Stuart and Culture in theTwentieth Century. 1990. JaneBennett and William theEnvironment. shamanistic anditdoesnotprivilege the impulse. 1992. Thousand Oaks. 1995a.' ery and anti-bureaucracy" (Atkinson1995b: 173). 165-76. sciousness others. 1986. References D. Hartley. NY: Barrons Educational Scienceor Alexander. Paper presented held at theNew School for ering Joseph Beuys" April 3-8. Barnett man.10.1993.TheRules Field. Politics ofThings: ed. with Kate HoBeuys. pp. 15.455-56. Critiques.Art. them 'politically in progressive' sinceitisso compulsively couched a rhetoric of'free Greendemagogudemocracy. Richter has compared abstract painting with the ofnature biophysical processes as a nonteleologiofform: cal evolution "Thisplausible that theory. New Beuys York: Four Windows. contrast toBeuys. Beuys. ogy Another oftheGerleading postwar interpreter manromanticist tradition isundoubtedly Anselm Kiefer whohassought torework romantic iconogshornof its metaphysical In raphy pretensions. 1994. Konnertz.ed. Adams. TateGallery and Liverpool University Liverpool: Press. In The Romantic Spirit pp. terNationes.New ofModern Art.Susan and Structure of theLiterary Emanuel. pp. 50:96-98.. too.for Nature. . Terry. Politics andthe Wild. theartofKiefer does however.Trans.however. 1994.Bioregionalism: Ethics 12:161-73. In Joseph Beuys: Diverging ed.1992). 1990. Kuoni. from Dada to PostmodSubversive Tendencies D: Society and ernism. Richter has also occadrawn between thecreative act sionally analogies and musical ofpainting This line improvisation. Minneapolis: ofMinnesota Press. In In Memoriam Joseph Beuys: Timothy Speeches. David. Wrede and William H.pp. pp. pp. Beuys's'Social Sculpture' In Joseph Beuys: Diverging Historical Perspective. Critiques.656 Gandy 1988). TheExperience ofModernity.K. It alsoconforms principle ofNature.57-61. 110-17. 16. The Landscape Beardsley. Visions: Landscape ed. Trans. Terry Atkinson (1995a) draws on therationalist philosophy of Thomas Nagelandhisessay entitled "WhatIs It Liketo Be a Bat?"(1974) in order to refute Beuys's claimsforknowledge of the conof nonhuman For Atkinson. ed. Joumal This content downloaded from 202.Beuyspeak.Michael Blume. 1982. We should note.1991.

10. don:Verso.Oxford: Selfand Society Press.David Britt. versity Life: ofModern J. 1991. . ofChicago University Art. 1987. 1993.BloomProphets many. Chicago: Modem NaAre Cyborg.Cambridge.American oftheLos Angeles cupants 72:821-26. Paris ofManet ThamesandHudson. History.eds. 14 May 2013 04:21:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1970.1983. TheRomantic Spirit ed.Pandora's Painting: pp.Postmodern Press. The GreatCat Massacre Darnton. CA: UniMovement. 1989. Hubertus.1988.In Joseph Beuys: ed. don:George 1981. thropologist andOther Matters.Stephen. in theLateModemAge.David. pp. Richter. Harvard University and Robert.Art-as-Politics: Cox. Peter.eds. Gert. Routledge. and Wood. Epochs. of and the Protection Planning 1987. Society Beuys. versity S. Press. in Berlin.CT YaleUniversity tury: Press. eds. In Artin Painting. 1989. October 62:84-101. TheHistorian 49:508-38. D. MarianGoodman Richter. F 1980.ed. 1996. 1992.Discovering John Jackson. 1992. 1984.. Ann Arbor.HowNew York Press. 1871-1971. of Kiefer: The Terror 1989. 1993.. IndianaUniversity Press. H. 1993. The Un-Romantic Butin. Germer. Eagleton. HerofWerner ofNaturein theFilms sentation 3:1-21.Modernities Contradictory in theTwentieth CenAnna. Politics. A History B. Planning in Germany. Annals American the Association of of Photographs. Annette. cismof Gerhard inGerman Art1790to 1990. FalFrom Abstract . The Painting Clark. Visionsof Darkness: Gandy. New Haven. 2:128-29 for A German Landscape: . Critiques.308-14. MA: A Philosophy ofArt. Press.The Feeling Research 17:108-15. Wolfgang. andGaskell. Harris. Guilford Space.1993. In Trans. The Heretical Pier Paolo Pasoliniand the Scopic Regimeof D: and Planning Cinema. in GerMovement . 1940. John Jones. Serge. Modernity Anthony.1?.October 63:41-67.CT YaleUnivernacular Landscape. [1961] 1992.Towards Greenberg.The Nazisand theNaRaymond Dominick. a Newer Laocoon. 1985. Ideas Ecological Nature: Political AbuseofEarly Perspectives 1933-1945. . the Stole Ideaof Guilbaut. University MA: Harvard bridge.Liverpool: Press.Artin Theory Harrison. Romanti1994. Everyday Burger.OxofChanging 1900-1990:An Anthology ford: Blackwell. pp. The Environmental andPioneers. Ivan.Anselm Andreas. David Thistlewood.LonEuropean Wiedenfeld & Nicolson. CamN. 21:106-20. 1991.London: This content downloaded from 202.Kiefer the VerBrinckerhoff 1984.Artforum 18:35-43. and Ley. thePersistence ofGenrein RecentArt. Diverging andLiverpool UniTateGallery 81-93. Avant-Garde pressionist Research Press. Broodthaers. at Large.TheIconogand Daniels. The Transfiguration oftheComDanto. FitzSimmons. C. 1880-1918. Geographers eds. Camand theArts. In Gerhard laciestoHeroicTravesties. Antipode The RepreM.New York: Politics. Hartley. H. 1996a. Giddens.The Matter Margaret. pp.41.Don. Haacke. A History. Constance Penleyand AndrewRoss. ington: MustRust: and Andrea. Gro5ning. NewYork: and the Life. 1993. Modernist ModernCulture. Is Elsewhere: and theGeography tureIs Coyote. Contentions: Theodore R. monplace: Press. 461-63. 84:270-94.Ecumene oftheBody: Landscape . ture Conservationists. 45:63-75 October and Self-Identity: 1991. Press. October 48:22-45. 1984.1983. Londonand EdinandRoyal ScottishAcadHayward Gallery burgh: emy. 1992. 1980. Cosgrove.The Actors Haraway. Gallery.OfMind Goodman. 1996b. Clement. Francis Frascina and pp. Polity OcGill. and Society. the Temptation of Myth. 1988.Ideology: Terry. Avant-Garde: Apropos ofJoseph 40:1016-28. University Cambridge: Cambridge The Abstract Ex1982. Landscape Example.Cambridge: NaturalBeauty Press. ContestedGlobal Visions: and theApolloSpace Whole-Earth.Arthur. The Culture Weidenfeld. One-World. Ideas. zog. MI: University ofMichigan Life: Pastoralism and Thomas. ofNature. Partisan Review 7:296-310. Theosophical ofthe ofCalifornia Press. Designand Use of PastEnvironments. Donna. and American . 1994.Allegory 1986. Kemal. 1995.Beuys: of The Twilight Buchloh. Salim. London: Cultural Other inFrench History. and Wolschke-Buhlman. Minneapolis:University Press.Rockets Beuys Duncan.44-53. Merkur Beuys. 1992. Episodes Penguin. the Workof Iron in Nature. Ecology Bramwell. The Riseof theSixties: Artinthe Era ofDissent 1955-69. Stephen.James culture Londonand New York: / representation. Benjamin theIdol.Environment European andSpace14:293-309.The Simple Crow.30 on Tue. Berkeley. New Haven." In Technoculture. on theSymbolic RepreEssays raphy ofLandscape: sentation. University bridge ofTimeand Space Kern. sity and Schatzki. Huyssen. K. Jonathan Joachim. eds. 657 LonAn Introduction.Ancient Revived: Wisdom Duncan. Natter. Paul III.Timothy London: inthe Art andhis Followers. London:Phaidon. Stefan.Denis..The Coyoteand theSequential AnBasin. to"Cyborgs Postscript ed. of Minnesota 21-26.Landscape.

Knopf. Vaughan. 1989. Stuart Wrede and ture Twentieth Century. H.Cambridge University Press. Liverpool: TateGallery and Liverpool University Press.Julian. Leipzig: Reclam Philipp jun. 1991.CT YaleUniversity 1992.The EndsofArtAccording to Michaud. Obrist. W J. 1986. SalimKemaland Ivan Gaskell. Ecumene 2:423-48. and the Arts. pp. [1948] 1992.Friedhelm. the Non-Human. Roberts. 1995.The Richter-Scale ofBlur. JosephBeuys:MANRESA. Los Angeles Angeles: County L.1985. David TateGallery Thistlewood. Nairne.Gertrude. andGleick. Landscape inthe ed. F Elliot. 27-49. Annals of the Association ofAmerican Geographers 85:494-520. Kuoni. 33-41. In Landscape.Objectivity andItsOther. sity Nagel. umph ofAmerican Painting. andRevill. Koch. Greenbelt: Rosenblum.10. Judi. The Originality oftheAvantGardeand OtherModernist Myths. Richter: Painting Coosje. ed. Cambridge. Paris: Editions Dis Voir. Liverpool: Tate Gallery and Liverpool Press. eines StUttgen. D. Johannes. Nicholson-Smith. Tuchman. John AnnArbor. pp. Gerhard. Critiques. P Wood. Light.Speeches. London: MacMillan. 1995. Richter. A. ErraticArt of Andy Goldsworthy. The StateoftheArt:Ideasand in the1980s.CasparDavidFriedrich and the London:Reaktion.pp. 1995. 102-13. Trans. David Thistlewood. 1995.PlaceandEnPhilosophy andGeography vironmental Ethics. 1990.Applied Post (e)Ulmer. inArt: Abstract 1890-1985. 1990. ed. 1982. Negatives. to BalDerrida Pedagogy from Jacques Joseph Beuys. 177-84. 1995.TheDailyPractice ofPainting: D. William. and Geography.Beuys andtheCelticWorld. David ThisJoseph Beuys: Diverging Critiques.WhoseLandscape? Technolon theNaogy.1974. Lanham.Joseph Between Showman and Beuys: ed. 107-28. 1: Space. Ullrich.Liverpool: andLiverpool Press. TateGallery and Liverpool Liverpool: University Press. Henri. 1991.What Soper. 1970. The Testof Time. 1995.1987. Porter. TheCaseofJoseph MI: UniverBeuys. Krauss.658 Gandy Chaos. 158-82. Essays. 1988. eds.Gerhard as a MoralAct. pp.ed. Harrison and 1900-1990. and Environmentalism tional Socialist Autobahn. 1992. October Joseph Beuys. Fascism. Lang. University Lefebvre.Liverpool: Press. Robert. pp. 1986. C. 17-25. in R.The andFreeman. Dusseldorf: versity.41.Joseph Beuys: In Joseph Beuys:Diverging Critiques. Gerhard Richter. 1995. TateGallery and tlewood. 1982. 45:36-46..The Withering Aspects of Landscape in Twentieth-Century InDenatured Visions: andCulPainting. Chicago: University F. Heiner. Irving. and Beuys-or the Affirmation Joseph Trans. German Romantic Painting. Mennekes. London: ThamesandHudson. A. and Smith. pp. In 1995. ing Critiques. Schatzki. Britt.Nature's London:Scribners. ed.MD: Rowmanand Littlefield. Culture. New York:MuseumofModern Art. Rosalind. Donald. Lifeas Drawing.[1974] 1991.Joseph Beuys: The Bodyofthe Artist.Writings byandInterviews with the Artist.The Celtic Quest:Beuys as Hero andHedgeSchoolMaster.Stephanie. PaulIII.Los Spiritual Painting Museum. Landscape and Memory. Verlag Stachelhaus. Subject ofLandscape. Eric. Marilyn. timore: Johns Hopkins University vanBruggen. Occultism in Avant-Garde Art: Moffitt.Simon. Jonathan M. Maurice. Natter. Caroline.Timothy Nevill. The TriSandler. Savile. DavidThistlewood. Tisdall. Oxford: Blackwell. 1995. Joseph Leo. What Is It Like to Be a Bat? Review Philosophical 83:435-50. The Idea of the MoralImperative Storr. William H. John NewYork: Guilford Press.A Modern Stream: LandMatless. NaturalBeauty vironmental ed. Press. Writings 1962-1993. Rollins. Gregory Grammatology. 1992. This content downloaded from 202. 1990.In Joseph Beuys: Diverging Critiques. 1985. Andrew. Peter.Richter's October 62: Osborne.Thomas. of Creativity.Oxford:Oxford University Press. Oxford: Blackwell.1994.A Solo Ecology: The George. Newman. Mitchell. Adams. and EnArt.TheProduction ofSpace. and Jones. October 62:133-42. Kuspit. Shaman. . andAntoine. Sandy. New Schama.Modernism D: Society andPlanning andSpace10:569-88. 14 May 2013 04:21:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . TheodoreR. Press. 1982. Bonn:Inter Nationes.1988. 1995. trans. Smith.Joseph Beuys. Trans. 1994. 1997. MA: MIT Press. Ross. New Haven. 1995.-U. InJoseph Beuys: Diverged. Jean-Philippe. pp. pp.Oxford: Blackwell. Barnett Is Now. Artforum 10:80-86. eds. 149-64. 129-49.ArtCriticism Contemporary 7:38-39. Art..30 on Tue. 1985. New York: FourWallsand Eight WindowsPress. 1993.The Sublime In ArtinTheory ed. ofMichigan Research Press.London:Thamesand HudImages son. Koerner. William H. Kockel. Environment scape. Walter Benjamin.Gardens.In Joseph Beuys: Diverging ed. Landscape and Power. York: Alfred P-K. ofChicagoPress.1992.Abstract Expressionism: London: PallMall.In In Memoriam Beuys:Obituaries. ed. Luc. Beschreibung UniFreeInternational Kunstwerkes. Karin. Earthworks. University Is Nature? Politics and Kate.Artforum 23:82-91. James.Man as His Own Creator: Diirer Schuster. T. 1995. Water. David. Wolfgang. David Thistlewood. Liverpool University eds. Elliot.

30 on Tue.K. When Was Modernism? NewLeft Review 175:48-52. Ethics and Skizzen. University College London.5-15. 1980. and Adams. Trans.gandy@geog.Stuart. 659 Wood. R. pp. 14 May 2013 04:21:53 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1986. Wiegand. Trans. Zweite. NewYork: Museum ofModern Art. pp. Cambridge University Press. The Message of Death: Joseph Beuys's Vision ofReality. London. 1993. Raymond.10.ucl. Denatured Visions: Landscape and Culture in the Twentieth Century. WC1H OAP. Oxford: Polity Press.Christopher. Wrede. Correspondence: Departmentof Geography. [1985] 1991.Willfried. emailm. 2nded. eds.7-20. 1989. Timothy Nevill. Albrecht.41.Art Wollheim. 26 BedfordWay. U. 1990. ofLandscape. Munich andCologne: Stadtische Galerie imLenbachhaus andMuseum Ludwig.In In Memoriam Joseph Beuys: Obituaries. Speeches. Armin. Bonn:Inter Nationes. This content downloaded from 202. Williams..'In Gerhard Richter: Atlas. David Midgley. Essays. The Persistence of Modernity: Essayson Aesthetics.Contradictory Modernities Wellmer.Gerhard Richters AtlasderFotos. Albrecht Altdorfer and the Origins London:Reaktion. andItsObjects: An Introduction toAesthetics.WilliamH.

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