American Academy of Political and Social Science

Culture and Race/Ethnicity: Bolder, Deeper, and Broader Author(s): John D. Skrentny Source: Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 619, Cultural Sociology and Its Diversity (Sep., 2008), pp. 59-77 Published by: Sage Publications, Inc. in association with the American Academy of Political and Social Science Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40375795 . Accessed: 14/05/2013 04:31
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Cultureand Race/Ethnicity: Bolder, Deeper, and Broader Keywords: ethnicity; race;culture; globimmigration;
alization; inequality

in the sociology The role of cultural of race, analysis and immigration variesacrosssubjectmatter. ethnicity, ithas been marginalized for reasons, Primarily political in the studyof ethnic/racial inequality, thoughnew in thisimportant It workis reclaiming culture context. ofdiscrimhas an unacknowledged presencein studies in macroandhisanddomination, butis explicit ination This article thesesubfields and torical studies. surveys makesa call forbolder,deeper,and broadercultural in the field.More workis needed on cultural analysis and discrimination how inequality assimilation, prohowethnic and racial duce racialand ethnic meanings, in concepinterests variations cultures affect through howsending oflife, statecultures tionsofthemeaning and ethnicculturesin the United affectimmigrant immiis Americanizing States,and how globalization homelands. before evenleave their they grants

By D. SKRENTNY JOHN

in thesociological roleofculture study fieldof and the related of race,ethnicity, but unevenly. is growing steadily immigration inone as a strategy haslagged Cultural analysis variation areasofresearch: central ofthemost in socioeconomic racial/ethnic between groups culfor reasons, Here, political largely mobility. The tends tobe a "lastresort" ture explanation.
is a professor of sociologyat the JohnD. Skrentny San Diego. He is theauthor of ofCalifornia, University The Minority (Harvard University RightsRevolution Action Press 2002) and The Ironies of Affirmative of Chicago Press 1996) and the editorof (University Color Lines (University of Chicago Press 2001). His articles have appeared in American Journal of Sociology, Annual Review of Sociology, and International Review,amongothers.He is Migration the recipientof awards and fellowships from the the Social ScienceResearch Foundation, Guggenheim Centerfor Council, and the PrincetonUniversity HumanValues. wouldliketo thankRichard NOTE: The author Alba, Tomas Amy Binder,John Evans, David Fitzgerald, Lee, and Daft Jimenez,Michele Lamont,Jennifer or assistanceon earlier Punk for helpfulcomments drafts.
DOI: 10.1177/0002716208319761

2008 ANNALS,AAPSS,619, September

59

This content downloaded from 202.41.10.30 on Tue, 14 May 2013 04:31:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

I boundoretical than with matter. Tocqueville trenchantly suffered from white whites blacks self-hatred andstripped them tyranny. analyze possible of life itself as this racial variations on "existential" the may meaning questions I meana truly comvariations andpatterns. it is a cultural has also laggedin studies of discrimination and racism. that we should Bydeeper. ofintrinsically I amlessconcerned herewith thenature ethnic orracial cultures. cultural achievement questions the nature the of in and role culture ethnic and racial requires assessing inequality and ofAmerican I mean ethnic culture.41. from cultural analysis: shapes on ofthefield allowonly a focused overview concentrating Space limitations in thekeyliteratures which show mentioned all the American above. meanings.60 THE ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY in thisarea has been to analyze or racialcultures forscholars ethnic challenge without on for their Although putting responsibilitydisadvantaged groups plight. contributions. meanings of race and ethnicity Fromthe perspective the study of cultural sociology. The Sociology ofRace and Ethnicity in the UnitedStates:KeyQuestions The field ofrace and ethnicity has fewdirect roots to theclassical theorists. I should should be bolder. Tocqueville(1990)writings based on in observations 1831 and focused on black and conrace. Moreover. and Weber the most s on Tocqueville provide insight. [2007]for Theseare useful butcompared to other fields suchas religion. family. genocide. and American Indians faced and religion. in relation to and globalapproach thatsees American ethnic parative patterns other societies as andunderstands American by shaped immigrant groups possibly and thecultures of their An issuein all of theseareasis theexistence origins. approach subject though emphasize as andrepertoires tounderstand howracial culture andethnic matter. theAmerican with raceandethnicity.30 on Tue. Weber devoted by"Jim little attention to raceand ethnicity butoffered a definition thatendures: "We shallcall'ethnic those human that in entertain a belief groups* groups subjective their common descent becauseofsimilarities ofphysical or of customs or type orbecauseofmemories ofcolonization and migration" both. sociologists deeper. perceptive often articulated his view: blacks and Indians neglected. give sociologists much tobuildon. emphasizing especially ripe cultural analysis. 14 May 2013 04:31:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . analysis in the and studies of construction as well as assimilation there. context. aries. (Weber1968.389.10. slavery wouldendbutbe replaced Crow" norms ofdomination. and broader. politics. might wellas a basicinsight culture interests. taught oflanguage. see Cornell and Hartmann a discussion). growing presence ofracial andcategories. 1832. slavery with flict intheUnited American Indians areimpressively but States. and the classical theorists did not American capitalism. I thenoutline an agendafor thefield ofprominence ofculture. playa roleinobservable Bybroader. so experience This content downloaded from 202. By This in not shyawayfrom and assimilation. varying degrees tobecomemore for areas that seem cultural. mean that bolder.

be considered longtraditions. dominated. demographers. attempts inwhileavoiding pitfalls. American concepts European required rosetotheoccasion.-despite hasled thefield theglobal ofdu Bois. education. Equallyprominent studies and race. 14 May 2013 04:31:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . defined. may from receive considerable and in partbecausethey support majorinstitutions. and however. However. parochial ofthefield continue to comeout oftheAmerican The keyquestions today and American with racial ofrace oppression immigration.10. . focus. publicopinion ingstudies on howimmigrants marked Theyalso concentrate poorneighborhoods. the since research sociological primarily political culture tobring recent havemadeimportant scholars reasons. uniqueness experience. combine with sciunites ofresearch strand morerecent Another political sociologists are on how races It focuses and scholars. perspectives . especially interviews and ethnomosttypically are qualitative studies. inequalities addressing adapt is taking assimilation of inequalities reduction place). analysis rather than for This is 1960s. quantitative methodologies andeconomists. legal entists. bysociologists. historimore is and and constructed.Light entrepreneurship study exceptions. in or sometimes over racial of at look and hierarchy longperiods patterns scope remote history. overwhelmingly bybarbarous slavery. sociology in variations ethnic of the as such (e. get thetwomethods. typically categorized. performed regression. andtheSocialScienceResearch theRussell SageFoundation especially in include these studies The dominant analyses. CultureIs theLast Resort Achievement: Explaining achievement or educational in economic variations or racial ofethnic Studies Witha few of race and of the center the been at havelong ethnicity. in are moremacro theseworks studies ofinequality. of andthedramatic mass seemed intheworld and experience immigration.and ofincome.totend an almost Thomas andZnaniecki toward U..30 on Tue. historians. anthropologists. political Thepolitical explanation ofcultural implications avoidcultural scholars that Patterson Orlando (2006)has argued explanations blame that cultural becauseofmisconceptions: ofracialinequality explanations This content downloaded from 202.however. racially also various in United often life the to (the States.CULTURE AND RACE/ETHNICITY 61 defined theslaughter ofAmerican Indians. of subfields behind other inthis areahaslagged cultural 1972). sociologists experience on the of racial/ethnic focus and ethnicity dynamics inequality. Unlike cal in methodology.Park.S. discrimination. unique theories and not derived from sources. Council.41. These subjects suggests in part becauseoftheir thecoreofthefield. with du Bois(1903/2005) onthelegacies sociologists focusing ofslavery andPark and and Thomas Znaniecki more to (1950) (1984)contributing thestudy ofimmigrant The of the American incorporation. of the at to Many experiences ethnicity subjective graphies.g. providtypically aboutrace.

to to culture thus learned Sociologists only appeal . and blaming thevictim is bad becauseit implies is no shared there for ethnic 1997). of cultural of black The politics explanations poverty exploded Patrick Daniel whenthe so-called named after the author.after as a lastresort all ostensibly for noncultural factors to explain controlling in achievement.g. capital.Steinberg cultural to attack used (1981/1989) argucomparative analysis oriented and ments that he called"ethnic areacademically myths" (e. practices . (1969).10. economics Patterson out scholars singled Although the of "culture the of Oscar Lewis the science.62 THE ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY culthevictim. Mostly neglected by of black or Latino poverty of the Right became the province explanations Hein (Patterson 1997. black lashfrom thosewhobelievedMoynihan forpolicy to remake was calling and families thus rather black than (and culture) simply jobs (Rainwater provide ethnic or racial The showed that for 1967). variation social suchas human economic capital.He showed that cultural theories achievement many in skill basedon faulty different andeducathat are similar assumptions groups tionlevels. In thisview. leaked to the a social assistant of was scientist and labor. in and turedoes notchange..30 on Tue. (1987). other and "structural" variables. and of Most also the and achievement. (Patterson responsibility inequality for themarginality One might add another reason tothose listed byPatterson inthis ofculture to ethnic culture werevery subfield: someearly invoke attempts weak.especially a lack cultural Lewisargued that andvalues ofthepoor put.a supporter welfare thereality andindependent effects ofcerstate.that Jews of were Catholics are not). secretary and stahad black that that the family press. whenexplaining thepoverty oftheblack"underclass. culture without thevictim Analyzing blaming In this itwasa boldmove ofa whenWilson environment. simply forthcoming) sociology ethnicity .keptthem inpoverty. slavery destroyed Moynihan argued created an backble families werekeyto upward Press accounts angry mobility. Moynihan Report. andthat that are deterministic. 2006). Yancey identifying controversy many. opportunities. 14 May 2013 04:31:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Thisviewfit culwellwith of where quantitative analyses inequality. peoplehad in varying than a constitutive of their ethforce that defined themselves or elements groups nicworlds." In a later Wilson work. the cultural Left. traits. cultural to show that detrimental (1996)usedsophisticated sociological concepts behavior can becomeentrenched and self-reproducing. Moynihan. they turning peopleintorobots. ture is often a residual variable. ofvalueon achievement commitThe misconceptions Patterson notedarose in partfrom political in 1965 ments. Wilsonalso However. generous acknowledged taincultural suchas a tendency toward tardiness or absenteeism at work.41. political originator ghost and Small ofpoverty" has haunted thesociology ofpoverty (Lamont argument. was onlya trait rather culture that types. cultural andpractices is bad becauseitblames beliefs that contribute to poverty thevictim. This content downloaded from 202.

g.arosedue city a of recent black to thelackof goodjobs. significant will that an immigrant make itmore andracism broken families. American of cultures" Although may appear poorer "oppositional are hereis onhowcultures infact thestress ofpoverty tobe a culture argument. family including background a group faces whether ofreception and context arepresent). Darity. composition (e.41. Portesand Rumbaut 2001). that it work Carters victim? (2005) Focusing suggests culcultural from cultural of a variety concepts capital. (Wilson . and Waters (1999) presented study in the of culture withered face continwhose away proachievement immigrants. discussion becauseculture themfrom banishes Why policy ofpoverty. American African nal:"For many This content downloaded from 202. and the cultures students Latino and African American low-income of thecultures ofsolcultures students these that She schools. is epiphenomenal. bothparents (e. the In Carters do this. "fixing" policy this theconditions? tosocialandmaterial a response aresimply tures Moreover. in on how success ers. using between thedistinctions she examined and symbolic toolkits. ifthose culcultures toward ordirect talk about culture. in learned or are created but America to notbrought by groups by particular States.whether capital. Anderson new role works.is Thisview ethnicity is and thus not as a focus of nota fundamental social cause. a sociological as Thisapproach withdiscrimination.10. ual experiences represents from the and then back move: ittakes cultural wellas political explanations Right. human Low as assistance receives whether it or racism caprefugees). including sociology.CULTURE AND RACE/ETHNICITY 63 was externally created and uninteresting thatculture from thepointof argued He explained view ofraceandethnicity.3) in theblackinner oflow-status models who.61) andthat "group ingroup inbehavior. group likely but not the children the where "dissonant acculturation. tural boundaries. that "culture is a response tosocialstructural constraints andopportunities" variations (Wilson 1987.assimilate intothe and control to understand difficult children their whofind this minorities. Rather. anypoorgroup shape assimilation" of"segmented is thetheory in thisapproach Prominent (Portes in three and Zhou 1993.g. they depends part tools to to are able who straddlers" the "cultural are successful most play deploy ofthepeergroup.that culture haseffects butis decoupled from orrace.75)..contemptuous jobs. 14 May 2013 04:31:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . appropriate policy inother Forexample. experience . discussed canbe found (1990. norms andvaluesoften reflect variations accesstochannels ofprivilege andinfluence" 1987. ofpublic positive develop argued and oththemselves between boundaries cultural and creating idarity distinction.School analysis.. ital." parents. orethnic cultures that racial thevictim avoided ofculture bydenying blaming ory in arises ofblocked a culture werein playat all. (Tyson. (somehow) opportunity Castellino and behavior to 2005). rules as wellas thecultural oftheschool rules bythecultural as epiphenomewhoviewcultures from those herapproach Carter distinguished cultures ethno-racial their and Latinoyouths. in the United conditions structural of classand or racialculture of ethnic Is a theory (as opposedto a culture to not does that in this context blocked appear blamethe possible opportunity) and the school context on is.30 on Tue. whereimmigrants vary human factors.

14 May 2013 04:31:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . . impact This content downloaded from 202.30 on Tue. ethnic in thecontexts ofinequality andpoverty. and Lee (1999) assessedthecultures Neckerman. Lee showed that these inner-city tural In brokers an in conflict. association.10. is todiscuss Another andavoidblaming thevictim waytouse cultural analysis in ethnic theroleofculture success. impacts negative Otherrecent moveshavebrought to thestudy creative cultural arguments of disadvantaged minorities but do not use culture to explainachievement. vii). Kao and Thompson or racialgroup (2003) educanoted that theories for Asian American cultural areprominent to account human tional which for remains distinctive evenafter success. anyintrinsically internally generated that achievement. capital controlling of middlevariables. . role dialog play especially important mitigating withRobertWuthnow. blackchurches that their "religious presence. 179). Carter. ethnic or traceable to ancestral cultures. . dressing niquessuchas "caucusing" solidarity in particular minimize the and speaking their classstatus.In hisview. homelands.rituals." arguing or theideas. of classAfrican exhibit cultures that thesegroups Americans. and eventhemostexplicitly cultural accounts often avoiddescribing endeavor. Using or conspicuously for and support." along moving upward strategies getting techa predominately white world thatmaymisjudge and repress them.These are blackemployees merchants who help blackimmigrants rather thanAfrican Americans) (though typically storeowners culunderstand black culture.41.64 THE ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY areimportant sources ofstrength oradaptive andarenot reactive by-products merely oftheir in a stratified structure" positions opportunity (p. in stores For example. and symbols on thatthey has a positive impact generate. showing "minority in or cultural and tools for and mobility. they waysthatsignal of from treatment whites. are making moreattempts to Sociologists understand thecultures ofethnic groupsin the contexts and poverty.Lee (2002) founda key role for"cultural brokers" ownedbyKoreanor Jewish in Harlem. Small to used cultural (2004) voluntary why neighanalysis explain borhoodpoverty is sometimes associatedwithlow social capitaland sometimes not. ofinequality are making moreattempts to understand the cultures of then. Sociologists. it is a delicate groups Politically. inhowconducive are "frames" differ neighborhood they toparticipation. in thosewhofind their bestopportunities for mobility upward their are to to more hold frames conducive neighborhoods likely participation (p. McRoberts(2003) analyzedthe cultural impactof inpoorneighborhoods.

nizedboth i. (symbols. 12). component strong group emphasize . Consider theory "symbolic phenomena in tradias lacking viewblackAmericans Americans white In this studies. lyze ofa system with as part ofpower share andracism discrimination studies defining of and the notions neoinstitutional rules. typwithout that are doingso. interpretation. particular along reorganize is "a spewhich ofracism. 14 May 2013 04:31:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. rarely "Prejudice" or of as cultural them Similarly. thesemeanings These attitudes ification. explicitly phenomena systems meaning. (Kinder blacksis nota liberal to benefit to policies white behind opposition vingforce Bobos viewseemsto white status. make cultural arguments acknowledging they ically butstudies anahavecognitive and"stereotypes" components.or moreprecisely. ofracial studies historical (2002) study and American in the labor and Southwest. intellectual) orga(moral.41. manyEuropean .Feaginand Sikes1994).CULTURE AND RACE/ETHNICITY 65 StudiesofRacial Domination and specifically discrimination andracism.showing power." to effort and an racial of or dynamics. This content downloaded from 202. South." they projects. ofdiscrimination social-psychological typically in publicopinion racism" (Edles 2002). Edles lines" racial resources redistribute and 56).. to threat a but Although perceived ideology becauseit is cultural has a it still interests. (p. meanings. in hisare morecommon to racialdomination cultural approaches Explicitly formaon theprocessof "racial Omi and Winant work.arecorrelated topoliwith inAfrican Americans Americans opposition perceive thedriand Sanders blacks ciesto benefit 1996). ofracial Scholars domination.representation withthreemaindimensions tiveanalysis language. ofculture models Similar comparativeplaya prominent and gender ofracial Glenn's domination.racist suppose systems biologically toothareinnately somegroups onthebasisofgenetic that inheritance. express the andsocialstructure onsocialnorms). of kind ofracialized cific (implicitly explicitly) system meaning internal betweengroupsare assumedto reflect 'racial'differences physical are differences that these and differences. domination citizenship through meanof racial creation the how and showed well this Hawaiicaptured approach hercomparaShe structured is an interactive domination process. inpublic studies cultural We canalsofind opinion arguments unacknowledged as see attitudes which andracism. rolein big-picture. view.10.emphasis removed). micro-interaction raceandgender that andimages (focusing meanings). 101. (rules p. ability . gratresponsibility.. Feagin1991.e. explanation representation. (p. torical (1994) focused an as "simultaneously defined which itself basedon "racial tion. ofmeaning andhierarchically. taken-for-granted theory for neoinstitutionalism seldom but these studies (see. engage scripts. regulating the and labor to control and race used different ways gender waysemployers for a framework Patterson subordinated (2005) presented groupsresisted. example. personality.a cognitive. ingsthrough . in herdefinition front and center (2002) putculture or in which . to defer and individual values suchas work tional ethic.In Bobos (2001)view. white interthat drive cultural threat of phenomenon perceptions estsandattitudes 206). superior ers"(p.30 on Tue.

blackandbrown where dominate and politics thepropeople andplaya significant in a culturally fessions roleinbusiness pluralistic society. he considered howthis newattention to thebiology purposes. and Stamatov us tothink ofethnicity as a Brubaker.notontological world butepistemological realities. process.66 THE ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY race stratification in different understanding partsof the African diaspora. geography.41. (e.ethnicity.30 on Tue. which ormay may categories nothavea domination is in also cultural orientation component. demography ofthehost andthenature shows ofEuropean culture. whiletheAfro-Caribbean modehas dropruleas an instrument raceas continuum. for North America a mode" characterized example. meanings society. works such as theseare mostly abouthow political However. (2004. and identifications." The statemay categories alsoplaytheroleofinstitutionalizing that aretheresult ofpolitical or categories evenscientific contestation. categorizations. American (Latinos. including analysis variety interacting African cultural the ethnic system present.createracialmeanings. excluding others the in ofinclusion (white ethnics. Thereis noobvious reason culture a clearandexplicit roleinmacro. pressure to require thatmembers ofdifferent racesbe included as research government in medical showed how the ofracial studies. His approach society. why. background. why plays historical studies of racialdomination in studies ofthe whileit is often muted United States. The Social Construction ofRace Work on theconstruction ofracial andidentities. movements and the state Lamonts(2000) analysis of blackandwhite in men the United States and France shows how working-class This content downloaded from 202. Rather than the reason for concerns. in theworld.Cornell typically . In hisanalysis ofhowpolitical led the U. produced "binary bytheoneof oppression. likely contemporary political theabsenceofexplicit cultural in is that the this research is to analysis agenda document thatdiscrimination occursand to measure itseffects rather thanto understand howandwhy itoccurs." The statemaybe a keyactorin thecategorization (2002. in his a of suchas thekind ofslave factors. Loveman.S. 14 May 2013 04:31:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . These studies Nagel 1994. Regarding race/ethnicity. Skrentny howpolicy makers' 2006) has shown cultural.g.part struction of race and racialor ethnic as an interactive identity process assertion andpart which race or ascriptionthrough gains meaning significance. Indians)and even nonracial the as similar to African while (women. representations.45) invited in and exist and "Race. (2007) subjects Epstein categories and mobilization also came to serve as for scientific belonging political categories Atthesametime. process panethnic that becametheAmerican states"official minorities. gays/lesbians) shaped political dynamics this created minority rights programs.10. cognitive processof analogizing some racialcategories AsianAmerican. ofracial difference alters thebroader of in race U. classifications. interpretations.S. disabled) Americans. processes .. nationality only cognitive phenomenon: through ourperceptions. but perspectives on the Theyare notthings . strongly and Hartmann see thecon2007).

for or understudied new to cultural ripe more topics. formerly redefining may assimilating." with use self as a more to "the are standard. culture. tively andJimenez 2005). be into can nature cultural. explicitly as a assimilation processof has movedtoward turalsociology. inequality Staiger forCultural New Frontiers Bolder. energetic ethnic to understand state cultures to attention on "existential" sending questions. 14 May 2013 04:31:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . would andracial cultures ofethnic andbroader A bolder." "acculturation" tostudy partly and Zhou 1993.g. Studies oftheconstruction variable." be "bright" by may (unambiguous) may immithemselves boundaries the or shift. Analysis: Cultures to Ethnic and Broader Approaches Deeper.30 on Tue. as part practices grant This content downloaded from 202. (e. theassimilation havetaken however.Moretypically. groups disappear. conceptualizing boundaries. and assignmoralmeanings tionin relationships bothuse moralcriteria to distinguish thatblacksand whites case. religion acquisition from the majority Alba showedhow boundaries groups immigrant separating cross boundaries Individuals or"blurry. integrity emphasizes plinedself.. hand. (e. citizenship phenomena. employment. impacts globalization culture and American assimilation to cultural Bolderapproaches wordas scholars wasalmost a dirty "assimilation" For several preferred years. Portesand Rumbaut s work(Portes of Portes on the strength that becauseitis undeniable ofAlbaand Nee (2003). Whites themselves work on the other and ethic. on ethnic of the and intheUnited cultures States. creates racial assesshowracial 2006) and/or meanings. become cultural ten out of a conceptthatseems to have a significant component of race and wasa keyidea in theearly assimilation" "cultural ethnicity sociology assimilation measure 1964). Especially analysis bring of American culture racial/ethnic the are mapping analysis assimilation. ofthemainstream.S. patterns. she found are morelikely to use a standard of"thediscifrom others.for directions. concept sociologists Recently. in culon work Alba(2005). has But it madea comeback. to racialmarkers. cultural building example. (Gordon quantitatoday sociologists and of residential in statistics languageuse. of cultural acrossor movement movement Examining language and well as as cultural as and race.10.CULTURE AND RACE/ETHNICITY 67 or moral lifethesemendrawsymbolic boundaries that in everyday specify posiIn the U.g. whereby canbe writ"culture" is howeasily hasbeensurprising What assimilated. looking disaplikely caring or in those consider on exploitative lacking compassion. This their brought fruitfully (currently) approach very to showhowraceis constructed areasofthefield lesscultural everyday through and domination whichmay includediscrimination social interaction.Waters partners marriage intonew..41. they proval where raceis a dependent areby ofrace. or"transnationalism. questioning deeper. which Blacks.andpartly 2001) andthat That ethnic differences ethnic is a process there is.

fashion.ethnic A full ofethnic cultures wouldneedto be comparative understanding cultures must be in understood relation to cultures. of what American in culture is the first questions place. Binder that broadcultural ideas demonstrated aboutraceinform howthemedia(andothers) culture perceive popular objects. relatively promisin thisdirection.taking harmful activities as a result oflistening toheavy metal sex. developed by groups as forms of culture but and other also art. ancestry. . ethnicity ingwork Building havemaintained tiesto Waters thewayswhiteethnics 1990) thatemphasized their ties after ethnic and elective rituals. however. gangs. andrevealed their within ethnic andsignificance cultures. Jimenez livesof multiethnic Mexican with one Mexican-descent Americans (individuals side and one He showed how their Mexican white. ethnic cultures? How are they similar to or different white from mainstream or blackcultural More studies of cultural assimilation lead to styles? important. suchcultural forms as Theirauthors examined car consumer and relicontests.10. engaging gang Controlling tent ofthelyrics in bothgenres. culture. partially A related area ofinquiry is thedistinctively American culdivergent yetstill tures in address not ethnic the United States. youth theyshowedhowAsianAmerican . killing cops. Sociological This content downloaded from 202.68 THE ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY The more fit ofethnic andtheways these culture. Bringing American-style to the Birmingham Schooltheorists. leaving background through their theidentities and cultural ethnic (2004) explored neighborhoods. supply. Jimenez in "Mexican tensions ofmixed-background the Mexican Americans' participation American narrative" that is only their own. campus beauty import racing. 14 May 2013 04:31:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .notclearly havecreated a newhybrid notclearly Asian culture American. parent non-Hispanic parent). is continually with Mexican contact political replenished neighborhoods. having . whowereseentoinflict harm on therest ofsociety. Following of to documented the narrative understand ethnic (2004) cept identity. drugs.Whatarethesources ofthenew Clearly. scholars Here. reprejust cognitive patterns Lee andZhou's Americans shows sentation. which is typically a European ora mix ofEuropean ethnicities. ofAmerican andAsianelements. Yet culture.out . foods. For ethnic interpretations example. ethnicity tends tobe inshort the cultural conCornell who used (2000).they and attempting suicide articulated an altogether different concern about blackrapaudiences. expressive aspects into thewider American there is are understudied. wereassumed to haveracially distinct Whilewriters and audiences. Too often.30 on Tue. volume onyoung Asian (2004)edited thepotential ofthis an sensibility sociological approach. byrapand in warfare. giousgroups meaning Another is in to examine the role race mainstream instituthat approach plays tions' of racial and culture. through and celebrations stuffoftheir non-Mexican whereas the"cultural movements. minority majority research onraceandethnicity is only onracial andethnic minorities (theAmerican Association hasa Section on RacialandEthnic rather than Minorities. on work on symbolic (Gans 1979. groups' expressive we can buildon Binders(1993) comparison in ofmediaconstructions ofharm twopopular music of the late 1980s metal and both of which genres heavy rap. producers in concern that white audiences expressed young might indulge self-inflicted. there is more tobe doneinthis area.41. for theconingwomen. .

Americans think dle-class words. contribution showing shapes sociology: is a daunting task to saytheleast. of within orracial ferent ethnic (orindeedclass)groups Wary of ethnic or castingcultures victims manysociologists negatively. thatPortesand Rumbauts Note. and. They showedhow depthand sophistication unprecedented individualism" traditions of "utilitarian cultural American (the beliefin selfindividualism" and individual (the initiative) "expressive through improvement in in the midoftheself)are manifested cultivation white. key ofcultural howculture interests. youth racing ofcomparable white orblack But a describe thepractices bolder youth. of meaning Americans but to middle-class limited their focus white. ferent ethnic They groups.10. To this a credible But is havethesameinterests.studiesindicate aspirations similarly high when same individuals if it means the clear Butitis farfrom white thing youth. Bellah and his colHabits the Heart in their 1985).41. provided leagues(1985) in theiranalysis. simply a of assimilation makes about the (1996)study second-generation strong argument no on of nonwhite race contains data non-Latino white Americans. approach culture wouldalsoneedto getdeeper. that tural stuff car import American we makes Asian culture need to be able to distinctive.Given theclassand culture American mapping to a in does it even make sense search for the United differences States. in is it celebrated theAmerican so often andthecultural mosaic. in the same ways? demands life. might profoundly experience. But yet impact ifwe do notknow what white culture or"American" culture looks howcanwe like. likely. regional to ethnic and racial cultures? and its relation American culture mainstream find of howAmericans be theclassicstudy One useful might place to start et al. assume want out on average. of American as a We can conceive and culture set of boundaries that society as "out.CULTURE AND RACE/ETHNICITY 69 on Race and Ethnicity).Albaand Nee 2003) and Lamont s (2000) works on boundaries are important an approach thattakesAmerican culture stepstoward seriously. to ethnicity. aboutsuccess. achievement emphasize all ethnic and of life. diversity outof want allthesamethings on average that allgroups orevenpossible. tures. race. can shapeinterests. racialgroups assumption? be and of nonwhite educational sure. ways In other and freedom. justice. (Bellah lives. blaming in whatdifor evenuniformity.in the same degree. 14 May 2013 04:31:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .forexample. howculture showed they ofdifHabitsoftheHeart:an analysis Whatis neededis a truly comparative the United States. is distinctive about nonwhite or about know what groups. togo tocollege orgraduate want orracial cultures ethnic different from saythey in variation ethnic culGiven all of the from school(Kao andThompson 2003). We should alsoknow moreaboutthesubjective as experiences This is the that wellas distinctive shape practices. particular. immigrant groups? Albas (2005.andAmerican cultural ofrace and ethnicity deeper:An existential sociology Getting andmeanings.30 on Tue. Forexample. or assumesimilarities. Ofcourse.and balancecompeting inlife? see thesamemeaning Does everyone This content downloaded from 202." somegroups as "in"andothers Butwe canknow more oftheculdefine ifwe areto claim within theboundaries.

117). Andshefound somevariation. assofourth ofwhites). whites Italian particularly against Americans. success towhites. groups." of Desmond andTurley theimportance (2007)showed cally "familism" Mexican and Americans. victims or casting cultures Waryofblaming ofethnic negatively. Kao (1995) foundstrong evidenceof cultural inexplaining effects Asian American educational achievepatterns showing high ment. specifically compared working-class .a choicethat theimportance ofremaining at homeduring often collegeyears leadsto lower levels ofachievement. achievement emphasize or evenuniformity. Alba found of Catholic (2006) compared underrepresentation white on thefaculties ethnics ofeliteuniversities andconcluded that elites white drawdistinctions between and discriminate. Stryker Jewish ofsuccess educational and occupational when status understandings emphasized with other whites. found variation betweenAsiansubgroups.Filipinos. more workers valuestandards ofevaluation black ciated with theupperhalf. This content downloaded from 202. suchas money" (p. Southeast OnlyChinese. Asians. in whatdifferent ethnic on average. are morelikely to define "blacks "Compared in financial white to a third of their terms of blue-collar blacks (half compared to a and to ambition third of black workers (a counterparts) compared praise In fact. gests among arguing underrepresentation couldbe theresult of"the selective movement more ofItalians toward other. example.and South Asiansearned highergradesthan did whites. 14 May 2013 04:31:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .70 THE ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY Lamont a start toward a multicultural HabitsoftheHeart.41.As (2000) offered discussed she black and white menon above. Islanders moresigns showed ofeducation than other typidisadvantage groups considered "Asian.Even after for human Asian earn Americans controlling capitalfactors.30 on Tue. The common ofgrouping all whites is also unwarranted on practice together of life" For found American (1981) "meaning questions. higher grades adding ethnicity. specifically amongHispanics. and Pacific Japanese. Variations inthemeaning within oflife canbe found between ethnicities likely racialgroupings. particularly ." shewrote. wantoutoflife. and PacificIslanders earnedgradessimilar to whites.10. variables for she however. For example.including a variety offactors definitions ofsuccess. than After whites. an alternative with that alsosug(2006)countered Massey explanation cultural variation that Italian American whites. manysociologists or assumesimilarities.Koreans.

howdo they corlife? orpersonal vary? important. Intermarriage in cultural we may see variation orientations as wellas intraracial variation.Waldinger employment niches Americans and exist for Italian as well as nonwhite Americans." on "contexts whichplaces greatimportance Immigrants might much all that is but or broken intact or human families. hardly Doingso would interests. and to conditions s [1999] attention Mexico. in theUnited States or discrimination to counteract either strategies emphasize of Asian success relative to the on education Asian values invoke explain casually a review). inAmerican Asianstudents cessofEastand South Typically. In an intheUnited Peach that examination ofmobility found the Irish (2005) Kingdom. (cultural?) suggesting special resolve allows for is another that areawhere superior performance. cometo theUnited Durand. 548). . far are States United in the immigrants This content downloaded from 202. sectors wheremembers ofparticular ethnic in be in are found concentrated than other secnumbers. bring and sucthe effort understand in to is also Inattention attempts apparent bring. Waters ofthepast at theturn ofEastern Morawskas [1985]study European immigrants of note their of Asian Studies importation entrepreneurs immigrant century). incomes whereas Jews despite higher penetration gration. Americans [2003]for (see Kao andThompson counknow wellthesource Some Thereareofcourse sociologists exceptions. and life? of race the of of to Sociologists ethnicity meaning respond perceptions and should ofU. they pretty capital.S. (Lee attempts rotating on or culture stateexperience of sending theimpact theorize to systematically rarer. assimilation. can culture is shape point simple: national How do immigrants' horizons: Broadening matter? and globalization cultures between attention to theconnection ofraceand ethnicity Scholars givelittle in the UnitedStatesand howthey cultures ethnic originally appearedin their in transnationalism.. diversity groupings ofcultural the From theview move. culture to offer on thenature situated are uniquely insights and nature of ethnic cultures within forgranted on theexistence takenothing for different of "habits of the heart" a and racial populations.is it moredebateon what theneedfor is going on Thesevariations suggest in their career and and racial that ethnic vary groups preferences what possible or a satisfying to be a marital consider life. itis morecommon interest states.to beginandend at theU.g. integration. scholars education.41. resemble each other and are Caribbean toward inteandblack immigrants moving andgreater andIndians. of reception.Massey. show lower into suburbia. Despitegrowing sending . whenthey on immigrants their consider and/or oftheimmigrants tries impacts on and Malones[2002]work States(e. wages may higher groups either discrimination outside the niche or some tors. be a radical sociology. Jewish groups In theseoccupational in New York. . 14 May 2013 04:31:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . particularly regarding intermarriage. But ventures business to finance associations credit 2002).10.30 on Tue.CULTURE AND RACE/ETHNICITY 71 attractive that ethnic (1996)showed occupations" (p. including satisfying meaningful they Most how does behavior Ifso.S.andthustheir attention for scholars' theorizing of segmented in thetheory mostexplicit Thisis perhaps borders. in the West Indies.

Cramschools are a major in Korea.Japan. as thestatus from the most or schools are gained prestigious occupations. andeffects ofintraethnic andinterethnic conflicts. patterns Nationalcultures. ingrained can explore states to understand howtheseconSecond. shape Scripts ininstitutional behavior contexts. political that ethnic culture isnot but that cultural norms from interactions primordial emerge of cultural and noncultural in the homeland This factors and destination state. Similar andinAsiasuggest notall behavior area response to theU. understandings. 31). distinguished and other in "effects" thatarisefrom (valuesand norms) experiences sending states. innational andchoice effects ofinequality tivism).collecelements: values(including individualism religious norms ofconstraint innetworks.Catcha Gangnam showed the value on status and Mother. Heinstressed institutions.30 on Tue. Gangnam ofSeoul.appear Thompson immigrant-only and muchmoreas transported and institutional cultural phenomena arrangements from states.10. consider Asian American educational achieveagain ment. In 2007. Buttheseare easyto conceptualize or schemas as cultural. habits. sociologists sending texts matter. use to approach prominent gives place culturally shapedcognition: "Immigrants and to into the and culture histories. do come with a with not tabula rasa. The substantial effort and moneydevoted to educationby Asian to the UnitedStates. and assimilation globalization.First. 14 May 2013 04:31:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .72 THE ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY Heins(2006)study ofCambodian intheAmerican andHmong Midwest refugees a model offers on which to build. For example. common themesin everyday lifeand popularculture 2007). Thereare four vs. an excellent Immigration provides opportunity to study howreactions to the UnitedStatesare conditioned in byexperiences states. oftheir homelands" as they inthenewcontext create lives (p.S. context. (Skrentny Koreansociety was rocked a scandal leadersand by major involving political celebrities who inflated their A popular educational to get ahead. education It details the in sacrifices of a mother the section differently.2 mothers with children abroad sometimes for so the that including living years children can gain usefullanguageand othereducational benefits (Douglass educational beliefs and practices ofAsiansin the UnitedStates 2006). come sending Immigrants They andperceptions ofmeaning overyears. as wellas thebuilding ofinstitutions suchas immigrants "cram schools" and much as less (Kao 2003).41. success. Morecanbe doneinthis area. university.known formothers whoareparticularly with obsessed their children's education. Another theuse ofcultural in thestudy ofraceand wayto broaden analysis is to consider the ethnicity oppositedynamic: immigrants maybe bringing This content downloaded from 202. ina gentlemen's Sheworks clubtoearnmoney tosendhersontoprivatetutoring inthehopesthat school onedayhe willearna placeina prestigious Great sacrifices for children's education are in fact common in Asia. memory imaginationcontinuously tap politics.1 credentials Koreansoap opera. sending industry inAsia. andelsewhere andtheimportance ofeducational as well Taiwan. we canuse cultural tounderstand theory themechanics ofthis Hein between cultural factors (2006) process. He developed an "ethnic to origins hypothesis" understand howhomeland affect of and assimilaexperiences patterns integration tion.

Jim ownchoosing" oftheir different while (p. are now morediverse culture culture can I collect in world of a He explained. and Asia. arrive. andimmigration. globalized "Only readthe music of listen to the tribes. perceptive as out that there is no such relevant. American African of the is as theworld Hipplayers. today Germany to the become and others around these led have shared world. between moving immigrants and American statesare awashin imagesof the UnitedStates. arrive they This content downloaded from 202. is all over Association Basketball The National Africa. reach can occurbefore duced to the UnitedStates. immigrationjoinwith from the moves which culture how and of in a tural sociologists project tracing is reintroand and is other to UnitedStates states. by style playpioneered areglobal(Mitchell andlanguage 2001). as wellas theinattention tocultural research studies of assimilation do not consider how is assimilation. theworld.CULTURE AND RACE/ETHNICITY 73 distinctive national cultural to theUnitedStates. a "pure"national nationalists.in effect. In other words.41. butthey also maybe patterns on American cultural before even arrive.ethnicity. taking patterns they cultures arechanging due to globalization. variously interpreted. on across encesis going has givenindividuals Globalization thanbefore. cultural is elements. popular Europe. reinterpreted reproduced. Becauseofthenarrow vision in muchofthe ingthedynamics on race. 128). By thishe meantthatnational in the Trade and than were more similar are and France they past. technology .30 on Tue. Despite orforms ofrepresentation cultural cherished andeventhemost practices hybrids. typically globalization states before their even their shores. paths pursue my neighbors he that theprocess isparticularly s (2002)example While Cowen middle-class. hopclothing andthen shores toAmericas ofimmigrants The notion "acculturating" coming at best. has swept culture. society adapt shaping immigrants and acculturation ofassimilation an international In short. and thismay state be affectsending of assimilation. Pygmy prints.There seems extraterrestrials if are as and "assimilating" they quaint culto and of for here is room sociologists race. 14 May 2013 04:31:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . nineteenth-century Japanese of Canadian and enjoythehumor VS.ethnicity. and behave how American shores. oftheworld. sociology they cultural national distinctive sometimes can showthat pattransport immigrants evenbefore Americanization their that and States totheUnited terns may begin to ourshores. especially can be heardin theglobe. he seem First. of differa reduction an assimilation moresimilar involving process a national within individuals Atthesametime. depart sending emigrants changing oftenseem to assumean anachronistic of immigration imageof Sociologists But discrete and disconnected national societies. African American American limited. morechoices. arepopular. haveforeign Second.Rap music.globalization producing homogenizacultures such as tionand heterogenization.10.Assimilation immigrants when to U. pointed thing especially points cultures are claims of all the culture. styles ofthis Two oneofthemore Cowen(2002)offered analyses process. Naipaul. author Trinidadian Carrey. mostsending in all regions ifnotdominant. so is described hardly culture.S. nations.

we willneed efforts loosely whether itevenmakes sensetotalk of"racial" cultures. and [A]n international ofassimilation sociology acculturation can showthatimmigrants sometimes distinctive national transport cultural to the United Statesand that patterns their Americanization maybeginevenbefore arrive to ourshores. Lamonts(2000) and Kaos (1995) work that this is flawed. Sociologists fruitfully sociology. they We can also do moreto explore cultural assimilation and to understand the extensive in ethnic variation and racialexpressive cultures. insights existing arguments invoke and rules or beliefs. the we canbuildon Carter (2005)toidentify although roleofethno-racial cultures' rolein achievement. only implicitly meanings. It appears tobe assumed in most studies that all groups .as ifthey all identical on thedeepestquestions are all toyrobots differfacing ent obstacles but goingthe same direction. using from social orbuild on their that now constructionism. 14 May 2013 04:31:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .30 on Tue. Although theterms "ethnic" and "racial" to determine here. sociology ethnicity. more existential howdifferent questions. Another approach would be toaskdeeper. immigration. We should include studies ofwhite suggests assumption ethnic as wellfora full. Understanding ethnic andracial tendtosee themeaning andpurpose oflife would groups getat one oftheuniqueand valuable contributions ofcultural thecultural sociology: constitution ofinterests.41. This content downloaded from 202. studies ofeveryday crimination and publicopinion on racism lack and discrimination typically a cultural link to could them cultural sensibility. relational I haveused groups understanding.10. taken-for-granted scripts. ofthebestculturally oriented works especially Many this areahavetreated that culture as epiphenomenal orshied from away asserting ethnic cultures areinplay. theethnic variMapping ations in themeaning oflifecouldyield intoinequality andcouldaid in insights thedevelopment ofmore effective socialpolicies. inthestudy in ofinequality.74 THE ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY Conclusion I haveargued inthe that cultural hasan uneven butgrowing presence analysis of are needed and More and bolder efforts race. works on thesocial conUnlike ofraceormacro/historical struction disstudies ofdomination.that want thesamethings inlife with different ancestral homelands are groups .

Burroughs.Germany universities. options immigration ofChicagoPress. class. University NJ:Princeton This content downloaded from 202. http://english. university Anderson.com/w21data/html/news/200707/200707270011. Ethnicity and PeterStamatov. begins and sometimes is a political and racial ofethnic thecultures groups Studying can to socialjustice. forAmerica. Unlike other scholbroader fields. 41-53.S. culture part a broadand full on sending ofglobalization to theeffects states. Notes 1. Thereis little ersdo comparative wherewe can traceethnicor studiescan yieldinsights. France. Ethnicities and contemporary Assimilation mainstream: theAmerican Nee. 14 May 2013 04:31:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 2. immigration. Race.10. 1985.html.com/w21data/html/news/200707/200707200014. and civilrights In Colorlines:Affirmative newdirections. That'sthe story Press. Skrentny. University ethnic in constructing and multiplicity of our life.Berkeley: University oftheheart:Individualism metaland rap music.30 on Tue.Remaking andVictor Alba. Richard. ed. understanding differences now ofethnic that the reduction would culture ofethnic acknowledge before immigration.interests. ed. Press. Mara Loveman. Spickard identities.chosun. world. blurredboundaries:Second-generation Alba.Constructing Binder.Habits and StevenM. R. 2005. Creative Cowen. ofharmin heavy Media depictions racialrhetoric: 1993.2nd ed. 191-213. TempleUniversity in a changing and race: Makingidentities 2007.CA: Pine Forge. See. cultures. Sullivan. Keepin it real: Schoolsuccessbeyondblack and white.Stephen. P.Chicago:University D. contexts tutional for how to live of and their and it. Richard Bellah. John and Society as cognition. Rogers. many and other race and States studies arsstudy boththeUnited countries. and should to full include a commitment understanding. AnnSwidler. N. forexample. 2006. LawrenceD. MA: Harvard University Cambridge. maybe repertoires meaning purpose life. ethnicity somescholars focus on theUnited States andothoflabor where havea division communication between them..and changein an urbancommunity.Robert Press. ofCalifornia in American and commitment life.2000. Bright and the UnitedStates.and Douglas Hartmann. Butcomwork. William Madsen. American Sociological and action:Unanswered aboutaffirmative and beliefs questions Bobo. J. Ethnicity Cornell. political sociology. A commitment minefield. Philadelphia: and W. Amy. See http://english.41. M.Tyler. theworld's is changing How globalization Princeton.In Narrative Cornell.html. of elite American blind spot: Catholicethnicson the faculties .2005. Streetwise: ofChicagoPress. PrudenceL.Stephen.CULTURE AND RACE/ETHNICITY 75 intothestudy ofraceand ethnicity is to takea culture Another wayto bring such as where focus. Diversity's 6 (4): 518-36. 1990.Richard. Press. of homeland culture and or as from homelands developed hybrids brought attend of broader vision would The other this andsocialstructures.chosun. Tipton. emotional however. destruction: 2002. References and exclusionin assimilation vs. 33:31-64. 2001.New York:Oxford Carter.mcago: Elijah.Ethnicand Racial Studies28:20-49. action. ThousandOaks. 2003. Press. Theory Brubaker. U. Race. 2004. L. Review58:753-67. especially parative inthecultural to andinstiin United States cultures the likely origins immigrant to deep questions on the Ethnicorientations of homelands.

Sikes. 1903/2005. Tony.and HowardWinant.. Paper presented at the annualmeeting of the American Sociological Hispanic-white New York. Douglas S. Global noise:Rap and hip-hopoutsidethe USA. Chicago:University Michele. ed. New York:Russell Sage understanding. Constructing ethnicity: Creating Problems 41:101-26. 2nd ed. in PacificAsia. Grace.1969.Assimilation in American Gordon. University Press. Diversity's smoke and mirrors: Mexican immiDurand. Ethnicenterprise among Chinese. Kinder.30 on Tue. University and MinZhou. of glory:Churchand community ofChicagoPress. and MelvinP. Berkeley: ofCalifornia Press. Middletown.. our How culture matters forpoverty: Lamont.Forthcoming. PrudenceCarter. 14 May 2013 04:31:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .AsianAmericans 121-59. August. Jennifer. life. . ofworking ofrace. 1999. Ethnicand Racial Studies22:945-65.AsianAmerican and ethnicity. This content downloaded from 202. The continuing significance American Review56:101-16. Douglas S. Cambridge University and recreating ethnicidentity and culture. Grace. in public places. 2002.A deathin theSanchez family University in America:Businessand welfare Light. Culture. Ethnicorigins: Theadaptation Hein.2002. Michael.Livingwithracism: Beacon. For bread withbutter: The life-worlds Morawska.Social Nagel.. CT: Wesleyan Mitchell. gration integration. Lewis.1994. International Planning Development Douglass. Pennsylvania. 2003. Racialand ethnic stratification Kao. McRoberts. University blindspotor thedata'sblindspot?Ethnicities 6 (4): 546-50. Segmented assimilation and minority Neckerman.New York: University infourAmerican 2006. youth: identity Routledge.EvelynNakano. Thompson. AnnualReviewofSociology 29:417-42. Massey. Symbolic ethnicity: and Racial Studies2:1-20.Cambridge. Unequallabor: How race and gendershaped American citizenship labor. Sociological Boston: Theblackmiddle-class experience.Oscar. Thesoulsofblack folk. Herbert J. Jennifer. Dividedby color:Racial politics and democratic ideals. University Ewa T.Matthew. Joe R. M.New York:RussellSage Foundation.JoeR. B. Cultural in practice.1964.1994. David Harrisand Ann Lin. Lee. 2001. CO: Paradigm. 1985. Beyond Massey.41.. E. MA: Harvard Press. Ethnic The future of ethnicgroupsand cultures Gans. University Cambridge.MA: Blackwell. Michael. Staying forthe home forcollege:An explanation Desmond. Chicago:University ed. Omar M. Civility in thecity. ofCambodianand Hmongrefugees cities. 1890-1940.Ivan. Streets in a blackurban neighborhood. in the UnitedStates. Racialformation 1990. tity American A lookat their academicperformance. Thickening In The colorsof poverty.eds.Malone. New York: Routledge.and MarioLuis Small. ofChicagoPress. Chicago: University Epstein. Feagin. educationgap. Japaneseand blacks. du Bois.2002. Thedignity men:Morality and theboundaries Lamont.classand immiMA: Harvard Press. Edles.Jeremy. Michele. Association. 2002. Jorge in an era ofeconomic New York: RussellSage Foundation. 2006. Lopez Turley. and ethnic idenMexican Americans TomasR.W. Inclusion:The politicsof difference ChicagoPress. Global householding Review28 (4): 421-45. Foundation.Cambridge. sociology of in medicalresearch. 1972. and Jennifer Lee. Kathryn cultures ofmobility. in America. as modelminorities? Kao.Ethnicities 4:75-97. Donald R. and Glenn. 2006. gration.2000.76 THE ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY and RuthN.Boulder.1996.1994.and NolanJ.10.2007. 1979. 2007. 1991. Maiden.and Jennifer and attainment. 2004. Press. ofEducation103 (February): Journal in educational achievement S. and LynnM. 2003. ofeast central EuropeansinJohnstown. discrimination of race: Antiblack Feagin. 2004. Oxford Milton.Berkeley: ofCalifornia Press.New York: Press. MA: Harvard Press. Sanders. in the UnitedStates:Fromthe 1960s to the Omi. Laura Desfor. New York: Lee.Steven.Joane. 1995. Negotiating ethnic boundaries: Multiethnic Jimenez.

Ethnicoptions: Press.MarioLuis. Teles. Wilson. William underclass. Caribbean socialmobility and publicpolicy: theUS and population Comparing UK. Its not"a blackthing": and Domini Castellino. 2005. 2006. identities Waters. 2002. immigrant MaryC. and Ruben Rumbaut. 2001. 178-203. ofChicagoPress. AnnualReviewofSociology oretical challenges. Lee. Jimenez. University Berkeley: and publicpolicy. 2006. Loury. California .. Harvard University and theNew empirical assimilation: 2005. Cambridge University . A poverty ofmind. Press. D. in postindustrial and newimmigrants Americans city?African Roger. University A portrait. Four modesof ethno-somatic stratification: The experience of Blacksin Europe and the In Ethnicity.1996. and Steven M.Robert Glencoe. Small.Urbana: ofIllinoisPress. ofCalifornia oftheimmigrant Berkeley: University Press. Annegret Staiger. March26. Americas. 1996. ed. whiteand otherdilemmas the burdenof acting Sociological 70:582-605.IL: Free Press.Economy Weber. 1990. Learningdifference: metropolis.10. revolution. . I and II.ethnicity myth: Stephen. and WilliamL. 14 May 2013 04:31:25 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Segmented Alejandro. truly disadvantaged: Julius.New YorkTimes.AnnalsoftheAmerican ofPolitical Academy Rainwater. Alejandro. Policy-elite perceptions 111:1762-1815. MA: Harvard New York. Patterson. Immigrant America: of Portes. American in affirmative action. The Polishpeasantin Europe and America.1997. Press.The newsecondgeneration: Portes. Press. ofCalifornia and society. ofCalifornia in America. University in the multiracial Race and schooling Daniela. and social mobility: and intermarriage of the Peach. Yancey.and StevenM. Berkeley: University Press. CA: Stanford Palo Alto. Washington. Black identities: Cambridge. MA: MIT Press. 2004. Darity Karolyn.30 on Tue. John in group and social movement success:Understanding variations . Review46:212-31. University Boston:Beacon.. Steinberg. Cambridge. MA: Harvard Press. University Vol. Max. in the earlycareer. This content downloaded from 202. 1968. University Cambridge.1967. assimilation and itsvariand MinZhou. 31:105-25. and TomasR. Press. Religion-ethnic Stryker. Theminority University Cambridge. and FlorianZnaniecki. New York: . social mobility and publicpolicy:Comparing the US and UK. 2006. Progress DC: Civitas. University Berkeley: Choosing MaryC. 1990. 1981.Stillthepromised Waldinger. William Understanding Jr.AmericanSociological on attainment effects Robin. Chicago:University Theworldofthenewurbanpoor. New York: in America. Review American of highachievement.Race and culture.WilliamI. Vintage. Social integration Spatialsegregation in Britain.1996.Whenworkdisappears: Knopf. city.Tariq Modood.41. Teles. and Social Science530:74-96. MA: realities. Tocqueville. The benefits 7:135-41.1981/1989. rights Skrentny. ed.1984. VillaVictoria: Chicago: ofChicagoPress. GlennC. dreamsand American WestIndian immigrant . In Ethnicity. 1993. 2005. New York:Cambridge Press.Democracy Alexis. Tyson. Thomas. TariqModood. Ceri. of comparison: New challenges . and class in America. 2005. de. Park. Legacies:Thestory secondgeneration. 1999. The ordealofintegration: and resentment in America's "racial"crisis. ants. Glenn C. The transformation of socialcapitalin a Bostonbarrio. 2007. Assessing Waters. Orlando. 1950. The Moynihan Reportand the politicsof controversy.New York: Loury. Press. the The inner The 1987.CULTURE AND RACE/ETHNICITY 77 E.67-121. inclusion ofSociology Journal Ethnicities to race and ethnicity research. Theethnic Race.

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