Bicol University College of Engineering Architecture Department Legazpi City
A Research Paper on
Corporate Office Building Design
Palevino, Marinet O BS Architecture 4A
Ar. Dealca, Ramon E., uap Professor
CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES RESULTS Historical Data Office Building Office Components of the Office Examples of Corporate Office Buildings in the Philippines Examples of Corporate Office Buildings of the World Building Amenities Office Space Planning Guidelines CONCLUSION REFERENCES
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PALEVINO, Marinet O. BS Architecture 4A (12-13)
CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
The productiveness of Building Designs has taken a large part in today’s major developments in the fields of economy, business, trade and industry, urbanization, and many more. A fragment of these, building large structure was done to serve as office spaces, workplaces, recreational areas, and dwellings for busy people to managed doing their tasks. Corporate Office Buildings are planned for the convenience of a community engaged in corporate businesses. Today, more of these buildings were designed in a form where all the needed spaces can be found in one or a compound building structure, some of these spaces are the office spaces, dwellings like hotels and condominiums, parking spaces, amenities like a typical mall, wellness facilities like spas, fitness gyms, yoga centers, dental and medical centers, and other recreational facilities. Since these buildings are used by a massive scale of people, basic characteristics must be observed like sustainability, productivity, security, strength, functions and many others. There are enormous considerations and guidelines to be followed in designing a particular building structure. To make an effective plan, thorough studies must be done and wide-ranging evaluation is needed.
PALEVINO, Marinet O. BS Architecture 4A (12-13)
The Palazzo Uffizi in Florence of the Medici or
PALEVINO. BS Architecture 4A (12-13) Page 3
. Marinet O.
The minor Objectives are:
To give a short background of a Corporate Office Building To be able to know the space requirements of a Corporate Office Building
To know the characteristics of an efficient Corporate Office Building To give examples of Corporate Office Building
Historical Data Origin of the Office
The office has existed in one form or another throughout history as an administrative adjunct to the centralized power of the state.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
The main objective of this research paper is to give necessary information about a Corporate Office Building.
BS Architecture 4A (12-13) Page 4
. The floor plan would then be stacked to generate the greatest income from the site — this profit-driven logic came to define the skylines of Chicago and New York by the early twentieth century. The first commercial offices appeared in the northern industrial cities of the United States in the late nineteenth Century. offices could be situated away from the home or factory and control could be retained over production and distribution to distant markets. New technologies such as electric lighting. With the invention of the telegraph and telephone. Marinet O. The suspended ceiling took over these functions. or to be near an opening window for ventilation. The Chase Manhattan Bank of 1961 illustrates the essentially hierarchical nature of American business. following a group of American tourists touring a steel and glass metropolis looking for the ‘real’ Paris. The large sculpture on the plaza and the elegant high modernist interior. his delicate naturalist ornamentation and bold forms expressed his own mystical vision of a new and vital democracy based on industrialization. The office had successfully become fully autonomous from the exterior environment. With the widespread use of air-conditioning and fluorescent lighting. whether from windows or skylights. In the 1950s and 60s a number of these hermetically sealed ‘glass boxes’ were built in New York and expressed the city’s commercial and cultural dominance. managers in partitioned offices and executives in the luxury of the sixtieth floor. epitomized by interior designers such as the Knoll planning unit.
PALEVINO. where administrative and clerical staff still worked in open pools. These were the first speculative office buildings and generally followed the traditional layout of separate rooms opening into corridors. the typewriter and the use of calculating machines allowed large amounts of information to be accumulated and processed faster and more efficiently than before. The 1967 film Playtime by Jacques Tati pokes fun at this idea of the Modernist city. The concentration of wealth in the new corporations required an ever-greater proportion of an increasingly literate population to work in the ‘white collar factories’. the mid-western hub of the American rail network. became the new international language of business and success. containing lighting and air distribution. There was now no longer an imperative to have natural lighting. In Chicago. these new high-rise buildings could have highly efficient deep and open floors. technologies such as the steel frame and elevator enabled office buildings to be constructed higher than previously possible to generate maximum income from the site. The American architect Louis Sullivan was a pioneer in his study of the formal articulation of the tall commercial building or ‘skyscraper’. The Lever House of 1952 designed by Skidmore Owings and Merrill was the first project to offer the modernist image of efficiency and standardization to a corporate client.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
the Bank of England are notable examples.
1950’s Corporate America
In the 1950s the steel and glass architecture of the international modern movement was adopted as the new image of corporate America. This formula was influential worldwide.
It must be able to accommodate the specific space and equipment needs of the tenant. these projects apply life-cycle analysis to optimize initial investments in architectural design.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
Office Building Overview
In the words of office design consultant and author Francis Duffy. technological. Conference Rooms Employee/Visitor Support Spaces Convenience Store. healthy. it can have a very dramatic effect on personnel contributions representing the 90 to 91 percent of the service organization's costs. Marinet O. northern Europe. Special attention should be made to the selection of interior finishes and art installations. at least 50 percent of the working population is employed in office settings as compared to 5 percent of the population at the beginning of the 20th century. and financial progress. systems selection. comfortable." This is true because the office building is the most tangible reflection of a profound change in employment patterns that has occurred over the last one hundred years. durable. 1 percent for furniture. and Japan. Typically. Interestingly. improved health. or Vending Machines
PALEVINO. "The office building is one of the great icons of the twentieth century. As such. the buildings must benefit from an integrated design approach that focuses on meeting a list of objectives. To accomplish this impact. Office towers dominate the skylines of cities in every continent… *As+ the most visible index of economic activity. conference rooms and other areas with public access. they have come to symbolize much of what this century has been about. and enhanced energy. A. Through integrated design. aesthetically-pleasing. greater flexibility. Types of Spaces An office building incorporates a number of space types to meet the needs of staff and visitors. a new generation of high-performance office buildings is beginning to emerge that offers owners and users increased worker satisfaction and productivity. These may include: Offices Offices: May be private or semi-private acoustically and/or visually. the life-cycle cost distribution for a typical service organization is about 3 to 4 percent for the facility. and accessible. and building construction. of social. In present-day America.
An office building must have flexible and technologically-advanced working environments that aresafe. 4 percent for operations. if the office structure can leverage the 3 to 4 percent expenditure on facilities to improve the productivity of the workplace. particularly in entry spaces. BS Architecture 4A (12-13)
. Kiosk. and 90 to 91 percent for salaries.
personnel shifts. Marinet O. sometimes referred to as "churn. This includes their desired image. owners need to appreciate that optimizing building performance will require a willingness to invest more initially to save on long-term operations and maintenance. special floor loading and filing/storage requirements. Flexibility The high-performance office must easily and economically accommodate frequent renovation and alteration. Operation and Maintenance Spaces General Storage: For items such as stationery. equipment. Urban Planning The concentration of a large number of workers within one building can have a significant impact on neighborhoods. and general information Atria or Common Space: Informal. voice and fiber. For a complete list and definitions of the design objectives within the context of whole building design. operating hours. multi-purpose recreation and social gathering space Cafeteria or Dining Hall Private Toilets or Restrooms Child Care Centers Physical Fitness Area Interior or Surface Parking Areas Administrative Support Spaces Administrative Offices: May be private or semi-private acoustically and/or visually. Food Preparation Area or Kitchen Computer/Information Technology (IT) Closets. special utility services. group assembly requirements. See WBDG Automated Data Processing Center for PC System related information. any material handling or operational process flows. modular and harnessed wiring and buses. data. security issues and vulnerability assessment results. food
PALEVINO. special health hazards. and economic objectives. In some cases. Consider raised floors to allow for easy access to cabling and power distribution. BS Architecture 4A (12-13) Page 6
. and conferencing hubs to allow for daily flexibility at work as well as future reorganization of office workstations. interior systems. schedules. Maintenance Closets
B. and furnishings must be up to the challenge. as well as advanced air distribution capabilities to address individual occupant comfort. and instructional materials. long-term consistency of need. Tenant Requirements—The building design must consider the integrated requirements of the intended tenants. acoustical requirements. click on the titles below. degree of public access. Office structures can vitalize neighborhoods with the retail. changes in business models. but the office infrastructure." These modifications may be due to management reorganization.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
Lobby: Central location for building directory. growth potential. organization and group sizes. use of vehicles and types of vehicles used. growth demands. electronic equipment and technology requirements. or the advent of technological innovation. Incorporate features such as plug-and-play floor boxes for power. Cost-Effective The high-performance office should be evaluated using life-cycle economic and material evaluation models. Important Design Considerations Typical features of Office Buildings include the list of applicable design objectives elements as outlined below.
opportunities for interaction.. sports teams and institutions of higher education. localized temperature. Natural light is important to the health and psychological well-being of office workers. Consideration of the municipal resources should include housing costs and availability. and control of one's immediate environment are some of the factors that contribute to improved workplace satisfaction. ventilation rate. and air movement preferences. Consideration of transportation issues must also be given when developing office structures. The acoustical environment of the office must be designed and integrated with the other architectural systems and furnishings of the office. voice/cable/data systems such as audio/visual systems. and education. and Comfort—In office environments. speaker systems. masking white noise. It generally exceeds the lease and energy costs of a facility by a factor of ten on a square foot basis. Internet access. with absorptive finish materials. industry. The results of this feedback should inform maintenance operations and be available as input to new design efforts. A minimum of 30 foot candles per square foot of diffused indirect natural light is desirable. traffic congestion. and interrelated business links the office brings to the neighborhood. Health. it is widely accepted that worker satisfaction and performance is increased when office workers are provided stimulating.safety. which would allow technological access in virtually all the spaces. consider the following issues when incorporating it. particularly if the office is moved or opened in a new geographical area. and comfort of employees in a high-performance office are of paramount concern. During the planning stage. it is critical that long-term performance be confirmed through an aggressive process of metering. the specification of non-toxic and low-polluting materials and systems. and flexible IT infrastructure. Office buildings are often impacted by urban planning and municipal zoning. Once a building has been constructed and occupied. particularly information technology (IT). mountains and public parks. BS Architecture 4A (12-13) Page 7
. by far the single greatest cost to employers is the salaries of the employees occupying the space. which attempt to promote compatible land use and vibrant neighborhoods. Provide individualized climate control that permits users to set their own. identify all necessary technological systems (e.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
service. Special consideration must be given to noise control in open office settings. Utilize strategies such as increased fresh air ventilation rates. school system quality.
PALEVINO. The design of office environments must place emphasis on providing each occupant with access to natural light and views to the outside. and civic infrastructure capacity such as water. Worker Satisfaction. dynamic working environments. Given that technology is driving a variety of changes in the organizational and architectural forms of office buildings. and sufficient separation of individual occupants. and indoor air quality monitoring. robust. natural attractions such as coastal areas. The development of new office locations will often necessitate relocation of employees.
Technical Connectivity Technology has become an indispensable tool for business. Marinet O. Access to windows and view. Consideration should be given when selecting office locations to the distance the majority of occupants will have to travel to reach the office. monitoring and reporting. waste water and waste processing. Studies including zip code origination should be conducted to determine the best location of the office. into an office: Plan new office buildings to have a distributed. crime rate and law enforcement. the health. cultural resources such as museums. availability of educated labor. While difficult to quantify.g. For this reason.
Flexible design principles include spaces that: are easy to modify can serve multiple uses and/or users accommodate future technologies and are life-cycle cost-effective. and air-conditioning systems. may have trouble navigating the safest exit route from the building.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
and Local Area Networks [LAN] / Wide-Area Networks [WAN] / Wireless Fidelity [WI-FI]). optimizing the building envelope [decreasing infiltration. First-time visitors. and provide adequate equipment rooms and conduit runs for them. fuel cells. security requirements for individual buildings are identified. An owner may talk about the ultimate design providing a "user-friendly work environment" and "future flexibility. open areas that allow for easy visual detection by occupants.. programming. Also. Through comprehensive threat assessment. ventilating. Additional consideration should be given to the applications of other distributed energy sources. including microturbines. unfamiliar with their surroundings.).
Secure / Safe Terrorist attacks of the last decade have focused design on protection of occupants and assets against violent attack. Consider using increased signage and/or providing safety information and a building directory in welcome brochures. Consideration should be given to the application of renewable energy systems such as building-integrated photovoltaic systems that generate building electricity. Consider entrances that do not face uncontrolled vantage points with direct lines of sight to the entrance. Marinet O. lighting. that provide reliability (emergency and mission critical power) and grid-independence. strategies for minimizing energy consumption involve: 1) reducing the load (by integrating the building with the site. and appliances. and reduce reliance on fossil fuel grid power." What exactly does this mean? Physically. local climate. and minimized glazing. as appropriate. For existing office buildings. perimeter barriers and blast resistances. Utilize site barriers and setbacks. or geothermal heat pump systems that draw on the thermal capacitance of the earth to improve HVAC system performance. etc. and risk analysis.
Plan for Flexibility: Be Proactive
During the early stages of developing a building. these concepts are demonstrated with spaces that can be easily modified and that can serve a variety of purposes for a diverse group of users. BS Architecture 4A (12-13)
. access control and intrusion detection. and 3) installing high-efficiency equipment. increasing insulation]. entrance screening. and utility rates. Consider and accommodate for wireless technologies.
PALEVINO. consider improving access to the IT infrastructure as renovations are undertaken. and concept design are being shaped and molded. when the planning. package screening and control. vulnerability assessment. solar thermal systems that produce hot water for domestic hot water (DHW) or space conditioning. review and evaluate safety plans on a regular basis Sustainable Energy Efficiency—Depending on the office's size. and appropriate reasonable design responses are identified for integration into the office buildings design. use profile. etc. 2) correctly sizing the heating. there may be many goals.
activities. Technological advances. and thermal comforts for its occupants is the underpinning of worker effectiveness. Sustainable design principles help achieve this objective. BS Architecture 4A (12-13)
. educational settings and learning methodologies. social support. and collaboration—the building blocks of productivity. friends. learning. Provide Comfortable Environments An environment designed and operated to provide the highest achievable levels of visual. business practices. and enter and use the bathroom. Also. There are five fundamental principles of productive building designs: Promote Health and Well-Being Indoor environments strongly affect human health. and technology to promote new ways of
PALEVINO. acoustic. Organizational effectiveness today means using space more wisely. refers to including basic barrier-free features in single-family homes so that they can be visited by relatives. Productive Wise use of space means creating the right context for concentration. 32-inch clear width at user passage doors. Design for the Changing Workplace Providing spaces with flexibility. work and workplace. Marinet O. and educate both designers and consumers about the characteristics of more usable products and environments. and others who may have disabilities. and continual demands for innovation have created pressures for environments to catch up with the changing nature of organizations. Visitability Visitability. a movement started by Atlanta-based Concrete Change. workplace productivity strategies support sustainable design principles and should be taken on balance for the longevity of all the issues considered. Routes through visit-able homes should also be a minimum of 36 inches wide. and projects evolve. Information in these Productive pages must be considered together with other design objectives and within a total project context in order to achieve quality. and a bathroom or powder room on the entrance level. Visitors with a disability can enter the home through an accessible entrance on an accessible route. high-performance buildings. Organizations. This does not just mean cutting costs. demographic shifts. A visitable home includes a zero-step entry. It means designing for flexibility to enable space to change as work groups. An effective environment should be designed to support and enhance the health and well-being of its occupants. and the workforce have changed dramatically in the past two decades. guide the design process. easily negotiate spaces and hallways. communication.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
Universal Design and Visitability The Center for Universal Design at North Carolina State University defines Universal Design principles to include: Equitable Use Flexibility in Use Simple and Intuitive Perceptible Information Tolerance for Error Low Physical Effort Size and Space for Approach and Use These seven principles may be applied to evaluate existing designs.
reliable. or solve problems brought upon by new projects with unique circumstances. Fire Protection New facilities and renovation projects need to be designed to incorporate efficient. database. organizations have to stay current. The analysis requires more than code compliance or meeting the minimum legal responsibilities for protecting a building. health. containing. Planning for fire protection in/around a building involves knowing the four sources of fire: natural. clean power.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
working. They must leverage these evolving information technologies to match the specifications of their stakeholders. it is necessary to creatively and efficiently integrate code requirements with other fire safety measures as well as other design strategies to achieve a balanced design that will provide the desired levels of safety (evacuation. and fire alarm—should enable whole building control and performance optimization. Fire protection engineers must be involved in all aspects of the design in order to ensure a reasonable degree of protection of human life from fire and the products of combustion as well as to reduce the potential loss from fire (i. costeffective passive and automatic fire protection systems. and other technologies that sustain their activities.). learning and engaging in a number of activities is a cornerstone of change and innovation. Occupants must be able to rely on building systems. router. Wire management systems that enable quick and low-cost reconfiguration. egress/smoke.
Integrate Technological Tools Integration of information technology and building architecture calls for a robust.
PALEVINO. manmade.e.. building and fire codes are intended to protect against loss of life and limit fire impact on the community and do not necessarily protect the mission or assets. information. Integrate Technological Tools Effectively integrating technological tools and distribution networks required in today's environments to enable occupants to perform activities or their duties starts first and foremost with properly designed pathways and spaces. To stay in business. Assuring flexibility to accommodate the dynamic nature of telecommunications systems starts first and foremost with properly designed pathways and spaces. Integration of wireless products as appropriate and necessary. that is. and the market is strong for high performing buildings having: Power supply systems that provide flexible service. Identify critical systems: diesel generators. Interoperability across building systems—including power. These systems are effective in detecting. equipment. and secure infrastructure that will support the growing and evolving demands of business and government in the 21st century. recovery. and can adjust power delivery to building occupation patterns. media. and tools that function consistently and are properly maintained. real and personal property. Assure Reliable Systems and Spaces Reliability is one of the greatest concerns for building occupants—it directly affects their safety. purchasing the appropriate server. BS Architecture 4A (12-13)
. and Distributed computing environments that have reliable cooling compatible with human comfort. and controlling and/or and extinguishing a fire event in the early stages.
etc. lighting. wildfire and incidental and taking an integrated systems approach that enables the designer to analyze all of the building's components as a total building fire safety system package. Marinet O. Therefore. and comfort. security. organizational operations). Demands on the building's data pathways are heavy. global. HVAC.
materials. the design of a debris mitigating façade. Accommodate the access of fire apparatus into and around the building site Comply with local authorities having jurisdiction to accommodate the access of fire apparatus into and around the building site and to coordinate access control point layout. and area Exposures/separation requirements Fire ratings. the isolation of internal explosive threats
PALEVINO. key boxes. at a minimum will address the following elements: Exit stairway remoteness Exit discharge Areas of refuge Accessible exits Door locking arrangements (security interface) Fire Detection and Notification System Requirements. at a minimum will address the following elements: Survivability of systems Electrical Safety Distributed Energy Resources Special Fire Protection Requirements. and Exit Signage. Provide rapid access to various features such as fire department connections (FDCs). annunciators. allowable height. Marinet O. elevators and stairs. BS Architecture 4A (12-13) Page 11
. and systems Occupancy types Interior finish Exit stairway enclosure Egress Requirements. the prevention of progressive collapse. at a minimum will address the following elements: Engineered smoke control systems Fireproofing and firestopping Atrium spaces Mission critical facility needs Security for Building Occupants and Assets The basic components of the physical security measures to address an explosive threat considers the establishment of a protected perimeter. Lighting. Fire hydrants Coordinate with security measures Building Construction Requirements.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
Fire department access Design buildings with uncomplicated layouts that enable firefighters to locate an area quickly. at a minimum will address the following elements: Construction type. etc. hose valves. at a minimum will address the following elements: Water supply Type of automatic fire extinguishing system Water-based fire extinguishing system Non-water-based fire extinguishing system Standpipes and fire department hose outlets Emergency Power. at a minimum will address the following elements: Detection Notification Survivability of systems Fire Suppression Requirements.
parking control systems Forced-Entry-Ballistic Resistant (FE-BR) doors. anti-ram barriers Traffic control. walls and roofs Barrier protection for man-passable openings (greater than 96 square inches) such as air vents.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
that may evade detection through the screening stations or may enter the public spaces prior to screening and the protection of the emergency evacuation. BS Architecture 4A (12-13)
. Package Bombs
PALEVINO. contractors. etc).g. biometrics. networks. rescue and recovery systems. utility openings and culverts Mechanical locking systems Elimination of hiding places Multiple layer protection processes Perimeter intrusion detection systems Clear zone Video and CCTV surveillance technology Alarms Detection devices (motion. 5th edition) The Risk Management Process for Federal Facilities (21 March 2012) Draft The Use of Physical Security Performance Measures (June 2009) Facility Security Committees (est. These may include disgruntled employees or persons who have gained access through normal means (e. support personnel. ID cards Credential management Tailgating policies Primary and secondary credential systems Protection of information and data Acoustic shielding Shielding of electronic security devices from hostile electronic environments Computer screen shields Secure access to equipment. April 2012. remote controlled gates. Marinet O. and hardware. e. The most recent revision of the ISC guidance is a risk-based approach that is split into multiple documents: Facility Security Level Determinations for Federal Facilities (21 February 2008) Physical Security Criteria for Federal Facilities (12 April 2010) The Design-Basis Threat (routine updates. acoustic.g. To mitigate this threat some items to consider include: Implement personnel reliability programs and background checks Limit and control access to sensitive areas of the facility Compartmentalization within the building/campus Two-man rule for access to restricted areas Explosive Threats: Stationary and Moving Vehicle-Delivered. nonlinear material response and ductile detailing. bollards. fingerprints. infrared) Personnel identification systems Access control.. windows. Q4 2010) Protecting the facility and assets from unauthorized persons is an important part of any security system. satellites and telephone systems Insider Threats One of the most serious threats may come from persons who have authorized access to a facility. These protective measures are generally achieved through principles of structural dynamics. Some items to consider include: Compound or facility access control Control perimeter: Fences. anti-ram hydraulic drop arms. hydraulic barriers. Mail Bombs.
. skylights. H. Confer with authorities who have had previous experience. roofs. by critical asset location strategies. If introduced late in a design. and less critical buildings Ballistic resistant rated materials and products Locating critical assets away from direct lines of sight through windows and doors Minimize number and size of windows Physical energy absorption screens such as solid fences. Some items to consider include: Obscuration or concealment screening using trees and hedges. Materials are rated based on their ability to stop specific ammunition (e. and/or by security protocol through policy and procedures (e. Some items to consider include: Including qualified security and blast consulting professionals from programming forward. Consider plans for suicide bombers. smaller amounts may be introduced into a facility through mail. or simply hand carried in an unsecured area.g. etc. If introduced early in the design process. tree masses. Providing defended standoff for vehicle-borne weapons using rated or certified barriers such as anti-ram fencing or bollards. etc. vehicle inspections. walls. this may be done in an efficient and cost-effective manner. fuel. Marinet O. packages. intrusion detection. security protocol through policy and procedures (visitor management. strengthening of walls. and other facility components. White Laboratory.. personnel and package screening. etc. Devices may include large amounts of explosives that require delivery by a vehicle. such a measure may prove to be economically difficult to justify. Avoid sight lines to assets through vents. The most common ballistic protection rating systems include: Underwriters Laboratories (UL). electronic surveillance. roadways. It is important to quantify the potential risk and to establish the appropriate level of protection. by using natural and man-made elements such as storm water elements. territoriality using defined spaces. or other building openings
PALEVINO. This is typically called standoff distance. electricity. or if retrofitting an existing facility. If standoff is not available or is insufficient to prevent direct contact or reduce the blast forces reaching the protected asset. walls. by using reinforced street furniture such as planters. Ballistic Threats These threats may range from random drive-by shootings to high-powered rifle attacks directed at specific targets within the facility (assassinations). National Institute of Justice (NIJ). and ASTM International. loading docks and other locations accessible by vehicles. shades or drapes to decrease sight lines. plinth walls or lighting standards. solid fencing. Consider loading docks in structures unattached to the main building with a dedicated HVAC system to limit contamination and damage to the main building. earthen parapets Provide opaque windows or window treatments such as reflective coatings. Provide redundancy and physical separation of critical infrastructure (HVAC).) Consider structural hardening and hazard mitigation designs such as ductile framing that is capable of withstanding abnormal loads and preventing progressive collapse. natural access control suing exterior and interior pedestrian layout strategies. ditches. However.) Consider handling mail at alternate or remote locations not attached to the building or in a wing of the building with a dedicated HVAC system to limit contamination and damage to the main building.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
Explosive threats tend to be the terrorist weapon of choice. Normally the best defense is to provide defended distance between the threat location and the asset to be protected. protective glazing. projectile size and velocity). barrier (thorny) plants. Provide defended standoff for hand-carried weapons with anti-climb fencing. berms.g. BS Architecture 4A (12-13) Page 13
. communications and ventilation) Provide for refuge and evacuation. by site layout strategies for parking areas. utility systems (water. structural hardening may be required.P. berms. natural surveillance of routine occupants and unobstructed spaces.
PALEVINO. andproductive while minimizing their impact on the environment. or military base. While fully protecting a facility against such threats may not be feasible with few exceptions. and prevent unauthorized access to or the destruction of sensitive information. including consideration of the reuse or rehabilitation of existing buildings. Buildings use resources such as energy. Sustainable Building construction and operation have extensive direct and indirect impacts on the environment. vehicle barriers. Optimize Site Potential Creating sustainable buildings starts with proper site selection. Building owners. If the computer system is electronically secure but vulnerable to physical destruction it may need more protection. Provide software and hardware devices to detect. The location. and energy use. or simply the ability of your organization to communicate via email and other LAN/WAN and wireless functions. water and raw materials. business information such as proprietary designs or processes. healthy. generate waste (occupant. including locations of access roads. Some items to consider include: Understand and identify the information assets you are trying to protect. Some items to consider include: Protect ventilation pathways into the building Control access to air inlets and water systems Provide detection and filtration systems for HVAC systems. there are several common sense and low cost measures that can improve resistance and reduce the risks. Protecting these systems from attack is critical. campus. these threats generally have a low probability of occurrence but the consequences of an attack may be severe. parking. and perimeter lighting. monitor. whether the project is a single building. Siting for physical security is a critical issue in optimizing site design. secure. Biological. construction and demolition).e.. and emit potentially harmful atmospheric emissions. and builders face a unique challenge to meet demands for new and renovated facilities that are accessible. Protect the physical infrastructure that supports information systems. Whether designing a new building or retrofitting an existing building. Avoid main entrances to buildings or critical assets that face the perimeter or an uncontrolled vantage point
Weapons of Mass Destruction: Chemical. provide separate HVAC for the lobby.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
Use foyers or other door shielding techniques to block observation through a doorway from an outside location. orientation. and landscaping of a building affect local ecosystems. designers. and access to a wide range of electronic data and communication systems. BS Architecture 4A (12-13) Page 14
. These may include personal information. loading docks. national security information. air intakes and water systems Provide for emergency HVAC shutoff and control Segregate portions of building spaces (i. Marinet O. and Radiological (CBR) Commonly referred to as WMD. storage. transportation methods. It is important to incorporate smart growth principles into the project development process. and the core of the building) Consider positive pressurization to keep contaminates outside of the facility Provide an emergency notification system to facilitate orderly response and evacuation Avoid building locations in depressions where air could stagnate Provide access control to mechanical rooms Provide CBR monitoring apparatus Cyber and Information Security Threats Businesses rely heavily on the transmission.
optimizes acoustic privacy. and are cost-effective and reduce life-cycle costs. it is essential to find ways to reduce energy load. and prevented system failures. Designers can specify materials and systems that simplify and reduce maintenance requirements. a sustainable building maximizes daylighting. and avoids the use of materials with high-VOC emissions. and/or treat storm water runoff. The site of a sustainable building should reduce. higher productivity. BS Architecture 4A (12-13)
. Encourage building operators and maintenance personnel to participate in the design and development phases to ensure optimal operations and maintenance of the building. Environmentally preferable materials have a reduced effect on human health and the environment and contribute to improved worker safety and health. design facilities to include meters in order to track the progress of sustainability initiatives. Protect and Conserve Water In many parts of the country. reduced liabilities. and reuse or recycle water for on-site use. and maximize the use of renewable energy sources in federal facilities. and achievement of environmental goals.
PALEVINO. Marinet O. fresh water is an increasingly scarce resource.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
site design must integrate with sustainable design to achieve a successful project. Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) of a building has a significant impact on occupant health.
Use Greener Materials A sustainable building is constructed of materials that minimize life-cycle environmental impacts such as global warming. require less water. comfort. concerns for energy independence and security increasing. and toxic chemicals and cleaners to maintain. A sustainable building should use water efficiently. when feasible. increase efficiency. Optimize Energy Use With America's supply of fossil fuel dwindling.
Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices Considering a building's operating and maintenance issues during the preliminary design phase of a facility will contribute to improved working environments. and productivity. including reductions in energy and water use and waste generation. and the impacts of global climate change arising. in the facility and on site. has appropriate ventilation and moisture control. Principles of IEQ also emphasize occupant control over systems such as lighting and temperature. Additionally. resource depletion. control. reduced disposal costs. Government and private sector organizations are increasingly committing to building and operating net zero energy buildings as a way to significantly reduce our dependence on fossil fuel-derived energy. Improving the energy performance of existing buildings is important to increasing our energy independence. Among other attributes. reduced energy and resource costs. energy. and human toxicity.
When used as an adjective. one can distinguish three different types of office spaces: work spaces. the term "office" may refer tobusinessrelated tasks. astorage silo rather than an office. even if that presence consists of. whether it is a small office such as a bench in the corner of a small business of extremely small size (see small office/home office) through entire floors of buildings up to and including massive buildings dedicated entirely to one company. meeting spaces and support spaces. for example. Serviced Offices can provide a simple solution and provide all of the former types of space. office as place originally referring to the location of one's duty. To aid decision-making in workplace and office design. officeholder.
Open office: An open work space for more than ten people. the latter is in fact an earlier usage. suitable for activities which demand frequent communication or routine activities which need relatively little concentration Team space: A semi-enclosed work space for two to eight people. a company or organization has offices in any place that it has an official presence. however. There are nine generic types of work space. In legal writing. With different people performing different tasks and activities. For new. each supporting different activities. Marinet O. remote satellite offices and project rooms.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
An office is generally a room or other area where people work. suitable for teamwork which demands frequent internal communication and a medium level of concentration
PALEVINO. official). writing and computer work. Office spaces The main purpose of an office environment is to support its occupants in performing their job—preferably at minimum cost and to maximum satisfaction. it is not always easy to select the right office spaces. BS Architecture 4A (12-13) Page 16
. In modern terms an office usually refers to the location where white-collar workers are employed. but may also denote a position within an organization with specific duties attached to it (see officer. Work spaces Work spaces in an office are typically used for conventional office activities such as reading. or developing businesses. An office is an architectural and design phenomenon and a social phenomenon.
each supporting different activities. BS Architecture 4A (12-13)
. suitable for semiconcentrated work and collaborative work in small groups Team room: An enclosed work space for four to ten people. suitable for short-term activities which demand collaboration and/or allow impromptu interaction Touch down: An open work space for one person. suitable for activities which demand medium concentration and medium interaction
Private office: An enclosed work space for one person. There are six generic types of meeting space. Marinet O. demand a lot of concentration or include many small meetings Shared office: An enclosed work space for two or three people. suitable for teamwork which may be confidential and demands frequent internal communication
Study booth: An enclosed work space for one person. suitable for short-term activities which require little concentration and low interaction Meeting spaces Meeting spaces in an office are typically used interactive processes. suitable for activities which are confidential.
PALEVINO. suitable for short-term activities which demand concentration or confidentiality Work lounge: A lounge-like work space for two to six people.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
Cubicle: A semi-enclosed work space for one person. be it quick conversations or intensive brainstorms.
informal meetings Support spaces Support spaces in an office are typically used for secondary activities such as filing documents or taking a break. Marinet O. suitable for ad hoc. informal interaction Brainstorm room: An enclosed meeting space for five to twelve people.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
Small Meeting Room
Large Meeting Room
Small Meeting Space
Small meeting room: An enclosed meeting space for two to four persons. each supporting different activities. suitable for formal interaction Small meeting space: An open or semi-open meeting space for two to four persons. suitable for brainstorming sessions and workshops Meeting point: An open meeting point for two to four persons. There are twelve generic types of support space. suitable for short. suitable for both formal and informal interaction Large meeting room: An enclosed meeting space for five to twelve people. BS Architecture 4A (12-13)
. suitable for short. informal interaction
Large Meeting Space Brainstorm Room Meeting Point Large meeting space: An open or semi-open meeting space for five to twelve people. scanning and copying
Filing Space Storage Space Print and Copy Area Filing space: An open or enclosed support space for the storage of frequently used files and documents Storage space: An open or enclosed support space for the storage of commonly used office supplies Print and copy area: An open or enclosed support space with facilities for printing.
i. computer games. journals and magazines
Games Room Waiting Area Circulation Space Games room: An enclosed support space where employees can play games (e. darts) Waiting area: An open or semi-open support space where visitors can be received and can wait for their appointment Circulation space: Support space which is required for circulation on office floors. Marinet O. managerial fashions and the culture of specific companies can be even more important. how many people will work within the same room. At one extreme. each individual worker will have their own room. the loss of privacy and security can increase the incidence of theft and loss of company secrets. pool. Open plan offices put multiple workers together in the same space. A type of compromise between open plan and individual rooms is provided by the Cubicle desk.g. and some studies have shown that they can improve short term productivity. workers in walled offices almost always try
PALEVINO. Most cubicles also require the occupant to sit with their back towards anyone who might be approaching. possibly made most famous by the Dilbert cartoon series.e. but often fails on acoustic separation and security. At the same time. BS Architecture 4A (12-13) Page 19
. within a single software project.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
Mail Area Pantry Area Break Area Mail area: An open or semi-open support space where employees can pick up or deliver their personal mail Pantry area: An open or enclosed support space where people can get coffee and tea as well as soft drinks and snacks Break area: A semi-open or enclosed support space where employees can take a break from their work
Locker Area Smoking Room Library Locker area: An open or semi-open support space where employees can store their personal belongings Smoking room: An enclosed support space where employees can smoke a cigarette Library: A semi-open or enclosed support space for reading of books. linking all major functions
There are many different ways of arranging the space in an office and whilst these vary according to function. Choices include. at the other extreme a large open plan office can be made up of one main room with tens or hundreds of people working in the same space. which solves visual privacy to some extent.
The executive suite proprietor rents entire floors (or buildings) and leases the smaller office spaces or workstations to businesses that don't need. which means that those occupying a space or building can share facilities. executive office. business center. some modern requirements for offices make this more difficult. such as:open plan office. In the event of company growth. Examples of offered amenities may include the following: Breakroom Conference room access Video conference room equipment
PALEVINO. These requirements can be both legal (e. a business may choose to upgrade from executive space to a flexsuite. There is no universal agreement on terminology as executive suites go by many different names. singular or open-plan offices.g. Many office buildings also have kitchen facilities and a staff room. requirements for computer networking). flexible terms may be useful to accommodate unforeseen growth. shared-office space and office hoteling. Office suite. stands as testament to the confusion in the terminology. Some executive suite landlords offer additional services.
An executive suite is a set of individual offices sublet from a larger suite of offices. as software.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
to position their normal work seats and desks so that they can see someone entering. It is not uncommon for a traditional tenant to sublet unutilized space and to characterize it as an “executive suite.
While offices can be built in almost any location and in almost any building. and usually are provided with desks. Alongside. also known as an office block or business center is a form of commercial building which contains spaces mainly designed to be used for offices. The primary purpose of an office building is to provide a workplace and working environment primarily for administrative and managerial workers. other requirements such as security and flexibility of layout. managed office. serviced office. Marinet O. furnished office. one or several meeting rooms. where workers can have lunch or take a short break. has led to the creation of special buildings which are dedicated only or primarily for use as offices. install tiny mirrors on things such as computer monitors. PCs and other equipment they may need within these areas.
Executive Suite Terms
Many business' considering executive suites are small entrepreneur start-up companies that could experience growth before a term's end-date. flexible office. An office building will be divided into sections for different companies or may be dedicated to one company. as well as toilets.
A major advantage executive space has over typical commercial space are additional services that may be offered. These workers usually occupy set areas within the office building. each company will typically have a reception area. In either case. or can't afford. This variation on the traditional office idea has become an industry with roots in the early ‘90s. office business center.” A flexsuite is a multi-office suite with many of the same amenities included in an executive suite. large space. An office building. office suite. light levels must be sufficient) or technical (e. Many office spaces are now also serviced office spaces.g. Considering this. and in some instances. BS Architecture 4A (12-13) Page 20
CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
Training rooms Fax/Copies/Scan to email access Kitchen Cyber cafe Lounge area Covered parking Cleaning/Maintenance Daily parcel pick-up services In-house postage meter services Daily postal drop-off Day offices (temporary work-space for short term use) The opportunity for tenants to temporarily "hire" executive office staff to assist with projects/assignments On-site fitness center On-site spa facility Landscaping Custom company signage Notary services
Components of the Office
The Arts Council National office will have areas for working. The main components of the office are explained below. BS Architecture 4A (12-13)
. Workspaces Areas Formal Meeting
PALEVINO. Marinet O. meeting and relaxing as well as more specific support services. in the following sections these components are organised in several ways to illustrate the scale of the organisation at the national office.
Marinet O. BS Architecture 4A (12-13)
.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
Programme by Department
Marinet O. BS Architecture 4A (12-13)
.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
Formal meeting areas
CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
Programme by Function
Services Common Area Formal Waiting Area
PALEVINO. BS Architecture 4A (12-13)
. Marinet O.
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.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
Examples of Corporate Office Buildings in the Philippines
International Tower is an office skyscraper located in Makati City. International Tower opened
. the building's owner and chairman of the Metrobank Group. natural stone and metal.
G. BS Architecture (12-13) vertical
fin. The tower is crowned with a4A 10-storey PALEVINO. The building also utilizes tinted insulated vision glass in full height for the curtain walls to seal off heat and noise. and having continuous wide panels in full height glazing allow magnificent views while providing ample natural light into the offices.T.Philippines. Marinet O.T. The offices spaces feature high ceiling headroom to enhance cozy working atmosphere." in the name stands for George Ty. The building has 47 floors above ground. This fin marks its presence in the Makati City skyline and provides a visual signature at the towers crown. perimeter columns to provide flexibility in interior space planning. provision for raised access floor or underslab ducts. unitized curtain walls in aluminum frames. Standing at 217 meters (712. A landscraped garden in stepped podium also adds to the natural effect of the building's design.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
Phil Bank of Communications
PBCom Tower’s exterior double-glazed. Although the G. The "G. Its interiors are an elegant interplay of glass.T. together with a monumental lighting effect. create a facade that reflects a fusion of art and function. and 5 basement levels for parking. International Tower G. it is currently the 3rd-tallest  building in the country and Metro Manila as well.93 feet).T.
574. BS Architecture 4A (12-13) 14 high-speed elevators and 2 service elevators will service the entire building to the office floors and to the parking basements. Marinet O. PALEVINO.670 m2 (674. Function Rooms with audio-visual facilities. There will also be a 9 basement levels for parking with paging system. and was renamed "UnionBank Plaza". There will also
. The building has an 8-level concrete podium as its base. the real estate arm of Union Bank of the Philippines. while its main body is fully clad with aluminium unitized curtain wall.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
UnionBank Plaza Originally the building is owned and developed by Megaworld Corporation..
One Corporate Centre The building will have a gross leasable office space of 62. It has a distinctive design of having multiple corners. making it easily recognizable among the buildings in Ortigas Center. Amenities inside the building include a Food Court. and a Fitness Center. Gallery overlooking Ground Floor lobby for art and other exhibits. and a helipad at roofdeck. Inc.27 sq ft). Executive Dining/Restaurants. Coffee shops. respectively. and was known as the World Finance Plaza. but during construction the project was taken over by Union Properties.
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The condensation wa Page 28
system equals to 20 O
per year and in turn.
Examples of Corporate Office Buildings of the World
Engineers working on installing triple-decke
been the first in the w building uses double-
PALEVINO. The entrance facades employed mirror stainless steel shopfronts. u Over 330. whose architectural elements were generated by the cultural and climatic context of The Philippines and Manila's position in a global econom The 48-storey office building boasts of large columnfree floor plates. light bullnoses. The tower proper is incorporated into the system horizontal sunscreens. aluminium panel and granite. vertical fins. This makes Philamlife Tower a benchmark in exterior wall design and function. Shallow and deep-set cladding was used extensively on the building envelope. Marinet O. crown lighting and balcony trellises. capped with functional sculpted canopies in hairline finish. and uses fully unitized curtainwall of glass.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
Philamlife Tower The Philamlife Tower was conceived and designed as a world-class intelligent office building.000 cubic m
metric tonnes of steel
The height of this building has changed from its original plan . However.shanghai
The observation bridge will be the highest outdoor observation deck in the world. A 6-star hotel will be located near the top of the building.world Marinet O.
Glass and metal were covered on simple geometric bodies to create mysterious sight effects. and in four years would finally rise up in Shanghai.
Not implemented within two years.the BS Architecture 4A (12-13) Centre. the building remained. the project should have been canceled according to relevant regulations.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
Shanghai World Financial Center 100 Century Avenue. which will be the second highest hotel in the
after one in International Commerce PALEVINO.94 stories at 460m to the current plan 101 stories at 492m.
The maximum elevator speed is 600 m/min.
. because it is a project of huge investment and there have been no other suitable investors.
172 miles) of elevator cables. Construction took just over 18 months. A 7-star Ritz-Carlton hotel with 300 rooms will be located near the top portion of the tower on 13 floors.000 tonnes.
Empire State Building New York City Constructed with 60. and the new design is by KPF. The original World's Tallest design (574m with a pyramidal top) was changed. surpassing the one in Jin Mao Tower. The Empire State Building is a legend. The lobby is a five-story Art Deco masterpiece crafted in rich granite and marble. This tower will form a "gateway" for Victoria Harbour withTwo International Finance Centre at the opposite side of the harbour. and a metal mosaic featuring the building as the center of the universe. Built in the midst of the Depression. and utilizes several setbacks to offset the optical distortion of its 102-story height. 1.000 tons of structural steel.400 windows and weighs 331.886 kilometres (1. 6. The 7-star hotel will be the highest elevated hotel in the world.000 cubic feet of Indiana limestone and granite. Decorated with enormous bronze medallions celebrating the craftsmen responsible for the building. Will become the tallest building in Hong Kong. and highlighted by brushed stainless steel. surpassingTwo International Finance Centre by some 60 meters.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
International Commerce Centre Nga Cheung Road & Austin Road West The final design of this tower was made in 2001 after more than four design proposal changes. a Marinet O. The building incorporates 10 million bricks. and still remains PALEVINO. it was.
. The façade is composed of more than 200. the lobby is without peer. BS 4A (12-13) testament toArchitecture American fortitude and ingenuity. It will also include convention and conference facilities.
PALEVINO. The ground floor is 3 metres above the sidewalk level of the main entrance. Almas Tower is located on its own island within the Jumeirah Lake Towers development. BS Architecture 4A (12-13)
This tower has 60 commercial floors and 4 service levels. Marinet O.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
Almas Tower UAE.
BS Architecture 4A (12-13)
.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
PALEVINO. Marinet O.
Marinet O.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
United Nations Capital Master Plan Office Space Planning Guidelines
• Assessed user requirements • Appraised the planning potential of the Secretariat Building • Reviewed relevant best practice in public and private offices • Developed space planning guidelinesLessons From User Requirements United Nations Capital Master Plan Office Space Planning Guidelines ƒ Accommodate both interaction and individual concentrated work • Support the need for privacy • Deal with noise and distraction ƒ Support high levels of collaborative work • More meeting spaces • More varied settings for meetings ƒ Respond to users’ desire for change • Greater consistency of space allocation • Collocation is a higher priority than more individual space • Better paper handling and file storage • Present a fresh image for the UN – in space and its management • Improve environmental quality (air and temperature) • Better ergonomics and more comfortPre-Renovation Typical Floor Plan • Provide more opportunity for team work/collegiality • Improve flexibility in space use
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for easy reconfiguration USG/ASG 24’X16’=384sqft Directors 12’X16’=192sqft Professionals 12’X8’=96sqft General Services 8’X8’=64sqftNew Shared Resources on Every Floor United Nations Capital Master Plan Office Space Planning Guidelines Resource Area Space Standard 12’x16’ = 192 sqft Arrival Point Space Standard 8’x12’ = 96 sqft Visitors touchdown Space Standard 8’ x 8’ = 64 sqft Browsery Space Standard 6’x8’ = 48 sqft Focus Booths Space Standard 4’x6’ = 24 sqft Pantry Space Standard 2’x10’ = 20 sqft One per floor Typical 8 seats per floor Typical 2 per floor Typical 3 per floor Typical 3 per floorNew Shared Meeting Spaces on Every Floor United Nations Capital Master Plan Office Space Planning Guidelines Small Meeting Room Space Standard 8’x12’ = 96 sqft Medium Meeting Room Space Standard 12 x16’ =192 sqft Open Informal Space Standard 8’x8’ = 64 sqft Soft Meeting Space Standard 8’ x 8’ = 64 sqft Large meeting rooms are consolidated on the 15th& 27th elevator crossover floors Typical 2 per floor Typical 2 per floor Typical 1 per floor Typical 1 per floorNew Meeting Room Plans. Coat Closet
Combinable Conference Rooms Suite for short-term use Breakout Areas Access through two Elevator
PALEVINO. Pantry. BS Architecture 4A (12-13) Page 34
.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
• Allocate office space in a rationalized. Compared To Former
Simplification of office size standards
Implement 4 work space types (compared to currently 8+types) Work space sizes are multiples of each other. Marinet O. simplified and streamlined way • Realize organizational values of openness • Use daylight and views • Reduce wasted double circulationNew Individual Workspace Standards. Floors 15 & 27
Reception & Visitor Area with Resource area.
PALEVINO. BS Architecture 4A (12-13)
. The brief background incorporates that there could be more developments to come and more advancements are expected to run in Corporate Office Building Designs. The space requirements and characteristics of a proficient building must be made concise to meet the fulfillment of the industry. Moreover. Architecture is still the frontrunner of building more beautiful and competent Corporate Office Buildings.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
Banks Conference Rooms Touchdown Office AreaOpen vs. Closed Spaces
Corporate Office Buildings are primarily designed to meet the appropriate needs of people who are engaged in the field of business. Marinet O.
org/design/office.php http://www.ph/Downloads/knowledge_products/20110524%20%20ENV%20KPs/Guidelines_on_Energy_Conserving_Design_on_Buildings_(v.org/files/10329_GoodBuildingHandbookPhilippines.carusostjohn. Marinet O.org/wiki/Office http://www.com
PALEVINO.org.pdf http://en._2008).emporis.CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING DESIGN
http://www.com http://www.pdf http://www.undp.wikipedia.wbdg. BS Architecture 4A (12-13)