Structure: 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10.2 Technology Choice 10.3 Technology Assessment Process 10.4 Technology Leadership and Followership 10.5 Technology Concepts Technology acquisition Meaning of innovation and creativity Innovation management 10.6 Summary 10.7 Glossary 10.8 Terminal Questions 10.9 Answers 10.10 Case Study
Previous unit familiarised us with the transfer of technology. In the previous unit, we studied about the different models, modes, and dimensions of technology transfer, features of technology package, and the routes of technology transfer. This unit will familiarise us with the concept of technology choice. In this unit, we will study about the process, that is, different phases of technology assessment process. We will also have a discussion on technology leadership and followership. We will also study about different technology concepts used in an organisation, such as technology acquisition, innovation and creativity, and innovation management. This unit will enable us to understand the process to carry out technology assessment. Objectives: After studying this unit, you should be able to: Describe technology choice. Discuss about technology assessment process.
Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 188
Because we can use different types of technologies to realise an organisation's goals. The social world is.2 Technology Choice
Let us start our discussion with the concept of „technology choice‟ used t o assist in the success of an organisation.Technology Management
Explain technology leadership and followership. These imaginary designs play an important role in modelling the choice of „symbolic representation‟ constituted by the world. In addition. it depends on the ability to identify and evaluate opportunities in different technologies. The effective choice depends on previously decided measures for a technology's conference specified requirements. and innovation management. and especially the choice of its organisational symbolism as well as the ends to which it supports „functionality‟. Symbolic representation proposes implications which require perceptions of not only the real or rational. we can say that imaginary implications are the result of both rational technology based economic behaviour and complex imaginary struggles that emerge at various points
Sikkim Manipal University Page No.
10. These implications exist after they have been formed. Define technology acquisition. The technology choice in the framework of society and its creation is the idea of imaginary assumptions and are the key sources of meaning in social and cultural life. creativity. but also an additional imaginary component. constituted and expressed as a function of such a system of implications. in every situation. The use of technology is always related to an objective. In the perspective of technology choice. but the issue of choice arises. Imaginary assumptions can be considered as conscious or unconscious symbolic representation of human actions in the creation of meaningful and sense making ideas. 189
. innovation. Choice of technology has significant involvement in growth and productivity of an organisation. in the method of what we call the actual imaginary or the imagined. This eventually comes from the original ability of positing or presenting oneself with things and associations that do not exist and have never been given in any depiction. The expected result is that the organisation will go for the most "appropriate" technology (AT) in this situation.
Technology assessment has been defined as a form of policy research that assesses short-term and long-term results of the application of technology. 2. so we will now discuss about the process of technology assessment. This is an imaginary field which individuals and institutions create in order to maintain and show „representations‟ and „projections‟ of possible alternative realities and ideas of possible fate related to the content and application of a technology.Technology Management
and in many shapes by providing archives of meaning about the content of technology and its application.1. the acquirement of certain technologies can simultaneously provide verification of membership of certain social groups. and reporting results. expertise and relations to other actors by encouraging new aspects of subjectivity. 190
. For example. We can classify these three cycles into nine steps. the real and the imaginary components of these implications. and in the previous section we have discussed about the technology choice. (True/False)?
10. These implications and dominant interests are reflected in the shape and functioning of technology in imaginary practice. data gathering. but also the engraved imaginaries of technology in society. the technology and its choice encloses not only the preferred technology based economic implications of the technology itself. and institutions. Self Assessment Questions 1. indicate cherished relationships and include imaginaries about knowledge practices. Imaginary implications can be apprehended as conscious or unconscious ________________ of human actions in the creation of meaningful and sense making ideas. work. Because of this balance between the assumed. We can say that the process of technology assessment comprises of recurring cycles of planning. as given in the figure 10. 3. The concept of _____________ deduces access to information on alternative technologies and the capability to assess these efficiently.
Sikkim Manipal University
Page No.3 Technology Assessment Process
As we are discussing about the technology assessment. The technology choice in the structure of society and its institutions is the idea of real implications as the key sources of meaning in social and cultural life.
1 explains the technology assessment process. It is good to plan the technology assessment at the same time we coordinate the technology introduction. 2. 191
. Description of technology and context: In the first step of technology assessment. Identification of stakeholders and their requirements: In the second step of technology assessment process.
Sikkim Manipal University Page No. so that we can take necessary steps such as collection of baseline data.Technology Management
Instructional technology assessment involves recurring cycles of planning.
Figure 10. Identification of their needs will help us to aim attention at the technology assessment process. their needs. that is. we identify the purpose of the assessment of technology. gathering data. Identification of the purpose of assessment: This is the third step of technology assessment process. we must describe the technology we are going to use.1: Technology Assessment Process
1. and the resources that are required. we identify the stakeholders. in terms of the function or intention or purpose of the technology. In this step. and reporting. its possible affects. 3. Figure 10. so that we can get good results. and their requirements. This will help us in determining the procedure of conducting the assessment.
description of the roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders those were identified in step 2. and making decisions about the procedure to organise. and input from the stakeholders. Whatever conclusions we made. Making conclusions and recommendations: After analysis of gathered data. And. This analysis of data covers the identification of patterns in the data. and methods to use. This plan is an elaborated description of the procedure of implementation of the assessment. Creation of an assessment plan: This is the fifth step in the process of technology assessment. in which. we create a plan for the technology assessment.Technology Management
4. 8. the types of data existing. and display information. 5. connected to the proof gathered and verified against agreed-upon standards set by stakeholders. method(s) to be used for research. and the relevance in which the data gathering occurs. Analysis of data: After gathering the data as per the assessment plan. information to be gathered. which comprises of the identification of resources existing for the implementation of the plan.
Sikkim Manipal University
Page No. we made conclusions and recommendations wherever needed. we gather data as per the assessment plan. we identify the intended uses of the assessment. interrelate. either by isolating the significant findings (analysis) or by combining information sources to reach a larger understanding (synthesis). We can define intended uses as the particular ways in which the results of the assessment will be applied. We guide these decisions by the questions being asked. divide. and time duration for the accomplishment of the tasks. In this step. 7. the recommendations we made are the actions for consideration that are based on the conclusions we made. compare. Data gathering: This is the sixth step in the process of technology assessment. information quality and quantity. Data gathering comprises of the indicators. but go beyond simple verifications about efficacy or interpretation of the proof gathered. sources of the data to be gathered. Identification of the intended uses of the assessment: In this fourth step of technology assessment process. analysis of that data takes place. 192
We must consider some factor while reporting the results. in which a firm unambiguously chooses not to be first on innovations. Describing the aim of the study and its limitations. Technology assessment has been defined as a form of policy research that examines short-term and long-term ____________ of the application of technology.4 Technology Leadership and Followership
After discussing about the process of technology assessment. including organisations that ignore technological change on the whole. These factors are: Creating a report content for the audience. Instructional technology assessment involves recurring cycles of planning. sixth step is covered under the „data gathering‟ cycle. we will now discuss about technology leadership and followership. and the remaining three steps are covered under the „reporting results‟ cycle. 193
. In this step. Sometimes. 5.Technology Management
9. (True/False)? Activity 1: Suppose that you are the manager of a company and the company is going to conduct a technology assessment process. You must note that the first five steps are covered under the „planning‟ cycle. gathering data. The concept of technological leadership is relatively clear as an organisation strives to be the first to introduce technological changes that support its basic strategy. all organisations that are not leaders are viewed as technological followers. What steps would you follow to effectively implement the process? Hint: Analysis of data. Self Assessment Questions 4. Listing both the strengths and weaknesses of the technology. and reporting.
Sikkim Manipal University Page No.
10. we report the results of the assessment. Reporting results: This is the final step in the process of technology assessment. Technological followership should be a meaningful and dynamic strategy. The most important issue an organisation must address in technology strategy is whether to look for technological leadership.
The organisations can choose to be a technological leader or follower in a significant technology on the basis of three factors: Sustainability of the technological lead: The extent to which an organisation can hold its leadership over competitors in a significant technology. They answer the most prevailing question of how timing transforms into competitive advantage or disadvantage and into entry and mobility obstacles. while acting as a follower is considered the method for achieving low cost. First-mover advantages: The advantages an organisation has from being the first to implement a new technology. First-mover disadvantages: The disadvantages an organisation suffers by moving first rather than waiting for others. All three factors cooperate with each other to determine the best choice for a particular organisation. First-mover advantages and disadvantages take place most often in the perspective of technological choices. It is also possible to have more than one technological leader in an industry because of the various technologies involved and the different types of competitive advantage required. then the leader becomes the leading low-cost producer in the market. If a technological leader is the first to implement a new lower-cost process. first-mover advantages may transform an initial technological lead into a sustainable competitive advantage in another place though the technological lead itself disappears. On the other hand. We will focus our discussion at the strategic choice between revolutionary innovation in any value activity and waiting for others to revolutionise. the issue is much broader. the follower can become the market leader. but their importance for competitive strategy formation goes beyond technological strategy. 194
. if a follower can learn from the leader‟s mistakes and modify product technology to meet the needs of customers better. Large disadvantages of being a first mover may eliminate the interest of taking the leadership role even if an organisation can sustain its technological lead.Technology Management
Even as technological leadership is sometimes considered in terms of product or process technology. Leadership can be developed in technologies involved in any value activity. Or.
Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Organisations tend to view technological leadership mainly as a vehicle for achieving demarcation.
people making it difficult for someone to lead. it is evident that the skills of followers are also very essential. because we all have to take up leadership roles at certain times. 195
. It occasionally happens that people say “yes” in the conference room. there are situations when it is crucial to exhibit the skills of followership which are: To listen politely to someone else‟s idea. Concealment: The leaders can make good decisions only when they have the information they need. and work and personal life. As well as disguising material data. such as unspent budget. So. Following are the observations: Absence: Nobody can lead if the team itself is not there. and understand it. and then go out and do some other job. so that a leader can act on the basis of full information. so that
Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Even at the most senior levels in firms. In industry. In case you might have observed that actually sometimes the process is reversed. even when you do not fully understand the whole framework. To accept a brief.Technology Management
Where there are leaders there must be followers. and are engaged in another job. This common-sense fact is strangely ignored by much of the management content. It is generally said that we are all leaders. To offer useful suggestions skilfully without undermining the other person. This only works if the followers do what they are supposed to do. Inaction: A leader always acts through the help of others. The job of followers is to make the work easier for someone to lead. Excellent followership is necessary to business success. Similarly. In large organisations we frequently notice that. we are all followers at certain times. A skilful follower communicates sincerely. In a busy corporate world. and so prevent the leader from handling real potential issues. especially at senior and middle executive levels. To take directed action in collaboration with others. This makes leadership more difficult. a skilled follower balances the inconsistent demands of line management and project management. an uncooperative follower will mislead with their own opinions and concerns. this often means that the project team members fail to give assurance.
It means that a more hypothetical component must be added to the practical dimension that already exists. Sometimes all organisations that are not leaders are viewed as ________________. as was practised. In other words. is a part of several project teams and needs to manage personal commitments too. technology education must be more than the concepts and learning of handicraft skills. (True/False)? 7. You are working on a new project under your project manager. This ability of followers to stabilise and focus is a talent that makes leadership possible. while considering the key scientific.Technology Management
the follower is present and dedicated when required by the team. Now we will study about the technology concepts used in an organisation.
10. so that a leader can act on the basis of full information. A skilful follower communicates ____________. Self Assessment Questions 6. financial. not only skills. we studied about technology leadership and followership which helped us to understand the importance of leaders as well as followers. but also concepts of
Sikkim Manipal University Page No. This talent is specifically important in a business where someone might have several managers. But in order to address the need for technology concepts for technological literacy in modern society. 196
. Activity 2: Suppose that you are in a multi-national company. including organisations that ignore technological change on the whole. The quality of life sustained by a society is directly and positively related to the level to which people understand and efficiently use existing technology. 8. Technological followership should be an insignificant and inactive strategy in which a firm unambiguously chooses not to be first on innovations.5 Technology Concepts
In the previous section. What are the skills you should develop and follow to succeed in the organisation? Hint: Listen politely. social and environmental aspects. as well as innovatively develop new technologies.
In addition.Technology Management
technology need to be trained and learnt. However. Therefore. Internal technology acquisition is the outcome of technology development efforts that are instituted and controlled by the organisation itself. This is mainly because the development costs are often disregarded against the application for which it was originally developed. Though. the understanding of our technological world is also a necessary component of technological knowledge. Recognising the role of non-realistic aspects in technology does not mean denying the fact that theoretical concepts also have a significant role. 197
. it is clear that conceptual knowledge is a crucial component in technological design and problem solving processes. Here. In addition. situational and strategic knowledge. 10. This facility could vary from one expert that understands the technological application effectively to manage a project conducted by an outside research and development (R&D) team to a full-fledge R&D department. internal development also has problems. And. The development of technology usually takes more time than acquiring and implementing previously existing technology from external sources. It also includes the less popular process of seizing implicit knowledge which means understanding and codifying knowledge that already exists within the organisation. we have to differentiate between two levels: one is the general concepts of the nature of technology („concepts of technology‟) and a second level dealing with the hypothetical concepts that are used in technological action („concepts in technology‟). those selling technologies usually do not have to recover the full production costs in their selling price. it is
Sikkim Manipal University Page No.1 Technology acquisition We will first discuss about technology acquisition. Internal acquisition requires the existence of a technological facility in the organisation. but is not properly understood or widely used. Internal technology acquisition alternatives have the benefit that any development becomes the special asset of the organisation. the resulting technology will be modified to meet the company's need. Internally-evolved technologies usually are costly than those acquired externally.5. Studies in design methodology have revealed that design processes are a combination of knowledge about concepts and process knowledge such as technical.
We can say that creativity and innovation are the main components to the success of a business. and increasing competition. or even the acquisition of an organisation that has the required technology. function. 10. Nevertheless.5. We can define innovation as the process by which a value is made and given to a community of users in the form of a new solution. almost all technologies available from external sources were originally developed for various other applications. External technology acquisition generally has the benefit of decreased cost and time to carry out. investment in a collaboration which has a technology development function. which is the result of the
Sikkim Manipal University Page No.2 Meaning of innovation and creativity Businesses. the choice becomes a corporate decision where costs and advantages of each choice are compared and the best overall alternative is selected. time.Technology Management
also a fact that the organisation may not have the capability to develop or even manage the development of a technology internally. The importance of fairly elusive things like long-term relationships and public reputation must be considered along with more technical issues like the robustness of the technology to the requirement. The selection of the external acquisition channel generally depends on the channel that has the required technology accessible. and risks to the project. Creative knowledge and innovation are mostly helpful during strategic planning and in „product and service management‟. Several driving forces to this transformation included a speedily broadening market. and when developing new products and services. are facing radical transformations like never before. Thus. Supposing the technology is available from different sources. for-profit and non-profit. The acquiring organisation must understand that this adds extra costs. It is significant to take into account all the factors before making this decision. We can also use innovation to explain a new product or service. especially during strategic planning. and the existence of new types of technology. quality issues. buying equipment with embedded technology. 198
. outside acquisition normally must comprise an aspect of adaption to the acquiring organisation's application. External acquisition can take the shape of licensing. diversity among consumers. and lesser risks. and price. External technology acquisition is the process of procuring technology developed by others for use in the organisation.
Creativity is not something where a person who has never worked in that area suddenly gets an excellent idea. Revolutionary innovation: Innovation of this kind disturbs and provides established technical and production capability outdated. in brainstorming sessions. The effect of these changes is. the effect on production and technological systems being to preserve and strengthen established designs. creativity is the act of generating an idea and is an essentially individual act. comparatively. Creativity is based on a
Page No. One of the big concerns for many organisations is how to create more and better ideas and how to become more innovative.
Creativity. but yet it is useful to existing business and customers. It is the development of an idea and its execution where the team is required. which delivers value to a community. This allows the brainstorm expert the unlikely comfort of asserting success in generating many creative ideas. We will now briefly discuss about four kinds of innovation. to establish existing skills and resources. Regular innovation: Innovation of this kind entails change that is created on established technical and production capability and that is applied to existing business and customers. the key elements of the definition are originality and value delivery. is the ability to imagine new concepts. On the basis of this reason. 199
Sikkim Manipal University
. creativity is the generation of the idea in the first place. If implementation is setting an idea into practice. It is important to remember that creativity does not bear the burden of value creation that innovation does. In either case. Market place innovation: Innovation of this kind opens up new market opportunities with the help of existing technology. which are: Architectural innovation: Innovation of this kind discusses the foundation ingredients of product and process and creates the technical and marketing plans that will guide successive development. As opposed to common belief. Let us have a look at some features of creativity. it is not suggested that concepts are displayed for merit. Creativity is an important part of innovation as it is the point of exit. even when the result is deficient of value.Technology Management
innovation process. Creativity has little implications with the inspiration out of things.
knowledge of both the marketplace and the technical problems are required. By applying suitable innovation management tools. Innovation processes can be stretched to any extent through development. it is not possible for R&D to be effective.
10. The main priority of innovation management is to make the organisation able to respond to an external or internal opportunity. processes or products. A pulled process tries to search areas where customer‟s requirements are not fulfilled. arts. sports. implement and capture. We can define „innovation management‟ as the process of managing processes in innovation. technology and market by recurring series of activities such as search. Innovation management comprises of a set of tools that allow managers and engineers to work together with a common knowledge of goals and processes. motivated and knowledgeable. creative people spend their whole lifetime acquiring and cultivating their knowledge base – be it music. both problems can be
Sikkim Manipal University Page No. and marketing. management can activate and deploy the creative efforts of the whole work force towards the constant development of an organisation. In fact.Technology Management
concept to a particular structure of knowledge. The existing structure of knowledge is as crucial as the original idea. on people being enthusiastic. To succeed with the help of either method. innovation management is not referred to R&D. In fact. A pushed process depends on existing or newly invented technology. Without suitable processes. By creating multi-functional development teams. creativity may be well-organised. that the company has access to.3 Innovation management Let us now briefly discuss about innovation management. Significantly. mathematics. However. choose. The process can be seen as an evolutionary combination of organisation. We can use it for creating and executing both product and organisational innovation. and design. and then concentrates development efforts to find solutions to those requirements.5. it involves employees at every level in contributing creatively to an organisation's development. production. 200
. and tries to find cost-effective applications to use this technology. it depends much more on natural motivation. and use its creative capabilities to introduce new ideas. comprising of engineers and marketers.
Self Assessment Questions 9. (True/False)? 12.6 Summary
In this unit. Technology leadership goes beyond managing the day-to-day logistics of a strategic tech planning process. It is a true fact that where there are leaders. 13. Activity 3: Assume that you are the manager of a company. Technology assessment is a type of strategy research that examines shortterm and long-term consequences of the application of technology. there must be followers. The lifecycle of new products is gradually getting shorter as increased competition forcing organisations to reduce the time to market. without sacrificing quality or meeting the requirements of the customers.Technology Management
solved. The development of technology usually takes less time than acquiring and implementing previously existing technology from external sources. Which type of innovation defines the basic composition of product and process and establishes the technical and marketing plans. which provides access to information on changing technologies and the capability to measure them efficiently. We also analysed the different technology assessment phases involved in the proper functioning of an organisation. Innovation executives must therefore reduce the development time. Creative knowledge and innovation are mostly helpful during ____________ and in Product and Service Management. Internal acquisition requires the existence of a _______________ in the organisation. Which are the two levels of technology concepts? 10. The company has come up with a new product. 201
. 11. we understood the concept of technology choice. What innovation management processes you would follow to check the viability of the product? Hint: Pushed process
10. Followers need to remember
Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 14. The lifecycle of new products is gradually getting shorter as increased _____________ forcing organisations to reduce the time to market. This unit also enabled us to understand the concepts of technology leadership and followership.
untested solutions. Technology acquisition can be a complex. and innovation management. We generally use the words "creativity" and "innovation" identically.7 Glossary
Terms Appropriate technology Description Appropriate technology (AT) is technology that is designed with special consideration to the environmental. samples of manufacturing and facilities among governments and other institutions to ensure that scientific and technological developments are accessible to a wider range of users. organisations define technology solutions that don‟t fully align with their requirements or select uncertain. profitability. technologies. quality.Technology Management
that their mindset and behaviour affect the quality of their leaders‟ performance. Sometimes. methods of manufacturing. competitive placement and market share. Deciding on the appropriate course of action may be both difficult and risky for the follower. time taking process that requires thoughtful strategic planning. Technology transfer is the process of sharing of skills. social and economical aspects of the community it is intended for. followers must find means to reduce the leader‟s power for the betterment of the organisation. Appropriate action by followers often increases the leader‟s ability to enable others to perform his or her work. 202
. Followership requires a lot of skill. Something visible that by association or convention represents something else that is invisible. Due to improper planning. It normally adds value by changing old organisational customs and practices. and initiative. First-mover advantage or FMA is the advantage gained by the initial occupant of a market segment. though. Creativity is about coming up with ideas while innovation is about bringing ideas to life. such as. knowledge. patience. knowledge. technology acquisition.
Symbolic representation First-mover advantage
Sikkim Manipal University
Page No. Innovation is related to performance and growth through improvements in efficiency. cultural. We also studied different technology concepts. but it is not right.
10. ethical. creativity. innovation.
Write a note on technology leadership and followership. 5.4 Technology Leadership and Followership. 7. 2. Refer section 10. Refer section 10. 8. 2. 13. 6.5 Technology Concepts. Briefly explain the technology concepts. 11. Refer section 10. 2. 4.
10. Refer section 10.
Sikkim Manipal University
Page No. 6. 3. 9. 3. 3. Assessment Questions Technology choice Symbolic representation False Consequences True False Technological followers Sincerely Concepts of technology and Concepts in technology Technological facility False Strategic Planning Architectural innovation competition
Terminal Questions 1. 203
.2 Technology Choice. 6.5 Technology Concepts. Write a short note on innovation management.Technology Management
10. 5. 4. Refer section 10. 12. 5. Refer section 10. Explain the meaning of innovation and creativity. List and explain the steps involved in technology assessment process. 10. 4.9 Answers
Self 1.5 Technology Concepts.8 Terminal Questions
1. Briefly describe the concept of technology choice. 14.3 Technology Assessment Process.
Sikkim Manipal University Page No. and the allocation and transportation of natural gas. The company was established in 1917 and is based in Texas. A recent serial interface or any other way to interact with the radio transceivers was required. ABC contracted with MNP consultants for help and training. it supplied electric and gas service to approximately 525. the fact that the meters use PLC technology to interact directly with the radio. fault detection. meters began failing and replacement parts were needed. that is. ABC Company also offers steam services. As of December 2009. with the help of packet radio technology. leaving ABC‟s system without a clear source of support.Technology Management
10. was acquired by some other company. which communicate via radio transceivers over power line carrier (PLC). and many other energyrelated products and services to customers. Unfortunately XYZ. the original manufacturer. the manager of Technology Development. That architecture is part of an international industry initiative to develop frameworks for the next generation of energy delivery. suggested the project could benefit from the principles of the MNP architecture. Minnesota. Gradually.941 retail customers. For decades.634 and 233. and other internal purposes.10 Case Study
Company Profile ABC Company is one of the leading suppliers of electric and gas energy and equipments in the United States. ABC Company has used a feeder monitoring system from XYZ to track power distribution for load analysis. USA. An early member of the MNP consortium. Most new meters are serial. The company engages in the production and allocation of electric energy. As ABC formed a team to address the issue. The transceivers interact with one of 27 gateway sites in a 9600baud peer-to-peer network. Solution: Alliant turned to another company MNP for help developing requirements and reviewing technology. The system employs 967 meters. Challenge: ABC Company has nearly one million electric customers in Texas. One output was a Telecommunications Assessment document that was elaborated and systematic. 204
. There is one other confusing factor.
it takes the confusion out of the process.html
Sikkim Manipal University
Page No. In spite of the deferment. this translates the findings from the first two steps into a design for the entire system. The MNP‟s Technology Assessment Methodology also helps when developing a “nice to have list” with which to approach vendors.innovatingtowin.managementhelp. MNP‟s Technology Assessment Methodology steps into that gap. Systems engineering.com/innovating_to_win/2009/04/defininginnovation. the resulting evaluations become valuable in many ways. Questions: 1) What was the problem faced by the ABC company (Hint: Failure of support system) 2) How did the company overcome the problem? (Hint: MNP‟s Technology Assessment Methodology)
References: http://www. which maps those requirements to available technology. The Technology Assessment Methodology also discusses requirements not generally included by use case scenarios. Benefits: Some time back. exact technique to assess the alternatives. advantages have leaned heavily on vendor fact sheets and informal. There was no established. 3. 2. Use cases which capture the requirements. It provided a framework to show which technologies matched up with functional and non-functional requirements. the process of evolving requirements and executing a technology review has served useful purposes.htm http://www. subjective opinions to select their technology path.Technology Management
MNP used the following technology assessment methods to solve the issue: 1. Technology Assessment Methodology.org/crt_inov/innovate/innovate. First. 205