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An Introduction to Mass Media Summary 1. Pervasive/Intrusive 2. 8 Types of Mass Media a. Convergence i. 1 Medium Internet 3. Staying Connected a.

. Benefits: Information vs. Knowledge 4. Mobility advances in digital technology 5. Convergence in the diversity of views and opinions Mass Media & Its Impact You are surrounded by Mass Media Mass Media becomes Wireless How the communication process works What are the mass media industries Three key concepts to remember Mass Media are profit-centred businesses Technology changes mass media delivery and consumption Media take advantage of digital delivery How todays communications network operates Mass Media both reflect and affect Politics, Society & Culture 1440 min in a day 590 min (41%) consuming media (33%) sleeping (26%) physical activities How the Communication Process Works Three ways to describe how people communicate 1. Intrapersonal Communication 2. Interpersonal Communication 3. Mass Communication What are the Mass Media industries? 1. Books 2. Newspapers 3. Magazines 4. Recordings 5. Radio 6. Movies 7. Television 8. Internet The Three Key Concepts 1. The mass media are profit-centred businesses 2. Technological developments change the way mass media are delivered and consumed 3. Mass media both reflect and affect politics, society and culture

Mass Media Becomes Wireless 1930s o You need an electricity outlet to listen to the radio. You placed the furniture around the radio so that the family could listen to the programmes 1950s o You put an antenna on the roof so you can watch television 1990s o You still needed an electrical outlet at home and at work to be connected to your computer and the furniture in your living room was still arranged to accommodate the cable, satellite and/or telephone lines for your TV set 2010 o Technology makes mass media wireless. New technologies give you access to any mass media in almost any location without wires. Implications 1. Today, you and your mass media are totally mobile 2. New mass media are as convenient as your mobile phone, complete with graphics and sound, offering massive choices of information, entertainment and services whenever and wherever you want Mass Media are Profit-Centred Businesses The products in this business are information and entertainment that depends on attracting an audience of media consumers to generate income The key motive of American media (and media in capitalist societies) is to generate profits Other motives of the media include the desire to fulfill the publics need for information To influence the countrys governance To disseminate the countrys culture To offer entertainment To provide an outlet for artistic expression Who owns the mass media industries? In the US, all media are privately owned except Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) and National Public Radio (NPR) They survive on government support, private donations and minimal sponsorship Presently, American media ownership has been contracting rather than expanding. This is because larger companies are buying smaller companies. The trend is for media companies to cluster together into big groups, which means that a small number of companies now control many aspects of media business. This trend is called concentration of ownership.

Concentration of Ownership Takes on 4 different forms 1. Chains used to describe a company that owns several newspapers 2. Broadcast networks a collection of radio or television stations that offer programs during designated program times In 2006, the TV networks announced they would offer shows on demand for downloading, Apple and Disney agreed to make series programming available on iPods. Today, broadcast network programming is available on all mobile media, such as mobile phones and iPads. To generate revenue, broadcast networks today take the programming to their viewers instead of waiting for viewers to come to them. 3. Conglomerate a. Universal Pictures is not an independent movie-making company but is 49% owned by General Electric (GE) Company. GE also has a 51% stake in Comcast Americas largest cable company b. Temasek Holdings stakes in banks, SMRT, SPH, SingTel etc. 4. Vertical Integration a. This is the most widespread trend amongst todays media companies, where ONE company owns several related aspects of the media business at once, with each part of the company helping the others. Actions Taken By Singapore Government Against Media That Are Intrusive Used inappropriately can undermine the stability and development of the country 1. Legislation a. NPPA b. Appointed Chairman of SPH 2. Lawsuits 3. Decrease in Circulation 4. Detention