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1.2 1.4

radio waves < infrared radiation < visible light < ultraviolet radiation (a) 2.997 92 × 108 m ⋅ s −1 = (λ )(7.1 × 1014 s −1 )

λ=

2.997 92 × 108 m ⋅ s −1 7.1 × 1014 s −1

= 4.2 × 10−7 m = 420 nm (b) 2.997 92 × 108 m ⋅ s −1 = (λ )(2.0 × 1018 s −1 )

λ=

2.997 92 × 108 m ⋅ s −1 2.0 × 1018 s −1

= 1.5 × 10−10 m = 150 pm

1.6

From Wien’s law: T λmax = 2.88 × 10−3 K ⋅ m.

**(T )(715 × 10−9 m) = 2.88 × 10−3 K ⋅ m T ≈ 4.03 × 103 K
**

(a) E = hv

= (6.626 08 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s)(1.2 × 1017 s −1 ) = 8.0 × 10−17 J

1.8

(b) The energy per mole will be 6.022 × 1023 times the energy of one atom.

E = (2.00 mol)(6.022 × 1023 atoms ⋅ mol−1 ) × (6.626 08 × 10−34 J ⋅ s)(1.2 × 1017 s −1 ) = 9.6 × 107 J or 9.6 × 104 kJ

40

1. and the speed of light: Etotal = Ework function + Ekinetic 41 . wavelength.626 08 × 10−34 J ⋅ s)(2.02 × 10−18 J = 7.23 × 10−19 J ⋅ atom −1 ) = 2.00 × 10−19 J Ekinetic = 1 mv 2 2 1 = (9.5 × 106 m ⋅ s −1 ) 2 2 = 1.022 × 1023 atoms ⋅ mol−1 )(4. frequency.54 g ⋅ mol Cu ⎠ × (6. Ework function = (4.72 × 10−18 J To obtain the wavelength of radiation we use the relationships between E.00 g Cu E =⎜ ⎟ −1 ⎝ 63.23 × 10−19 J ⋅ atom −1 E (for 1.12 (a) false.55 × 105 J ⋅ mol−1 or 255 kJ ⋅ mol−1 1. E (for one atom) = (6. The kinetic energy of the electron is directly proportional to the energy (and hence frequency) of the radiation in excess of the amount of energy required to eject the electron from the metal surface. E = hcλ −1 .5 × 106 J or 1.6022 × 10−19 J ⋅ eV −1 ) = 7.02 × 10−18 J = 1.10939 × 10−31 kg)(1.022 × 1023 atoms ⋅ mol −1 )(8.997 92 × 108 m ⋅ s −1 ) 470 × 10−9 m = 4. UV photons have higher energy than infrared photons.00 mol) = (6.5 × 103 kJ 1. (c) true.0 × 10−17 J ⋅ atom −1 ) = 1.14 The wavelength of radiation needed will be the sum of the energy of the work function plus the kinetic energy of the ejected electron. (b) false.10 From c = vλ and E = hv.37 ev)(1.00 × 10−19 J + 1.(c) ⎛ ⎞ 2.

16 × 10−7 m or 116 nm 1.69 × 10−39 m 1. 1.11 × 10−11 m 1. we can calculate wavelength. n2 = 4 state and the n1 = 2.022 × 1023 atoms ⋅ mol−1 = 6.00 × 108 m ⋅ s −1 ) = 1.64 × 10−24 g or 6.20 Yes. n2 = 2 state.64 × 10−27 kg From the de Broglie relationship.From E = hv and c = vλ we can write hc λ= E (6.626 08 × 10−34 J ⋅ s = (6.64 × 10−27 kg)(1230 m ⋅ s −1 ) = 8. λ = hp −1 = h(mv) −1 .6 m ⋅ s −1 λ = h(mv)−1 = (6.6 m ⋅ s −1 )]−1 = 7.18 The mass of one He atom is given by the molar mass of He divided by Avogadro’s constant: 4.00 g ⋅ mol−1 mass of He atom = 6. 42 .72 × 10−18 J = 1.626 08 × 10−34 kg ⋅ m 2 ⋅ s −1 = (6.626 × 10−34 J ⋅ s)(3.22 The observed line is the third lowest energy line. p = hλ −1 or h = mvλ . (200 km ⋅ h −1 )(1000 m /km)(1 h /3600 s) = 55. λ = h(mv) −1 6. degeneracies are allowed.16 Use the de Broglie relationship.64 × 10−27 kg)(1230 m ⋅ s −1 ) 6.626 08 × 10−34 kg ⋅ m 2 ⋅ s −1 )[(1550 kg)(55. The lowest energy states which are degenerate in energy are the n1 = 1.

9 nm (b) Lyman series (c) This absorption lies in the ultraviolet region.29 × 1015 s −1 ) ⎜ − ⎟ λ ⎝ 1 25 ⎠ −8 λ = 9. 1.The frequency of the given line is:ν = c λ = 2.9979 × 108 m s-1 = 5.073 × 1013 s -1 5910 × 10−9 m This frequency is closest to the frequency resulting from the n = 9 to n = 6 transition: ν = ℜ⎜ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1⎞ ⎛ 1 − = 3.997 92 × 108 m ⋅ s −1 = (3.997 92 × 108 m ⋅ s −1 ⎛ 1 1 c=ℜ⎜ 2 − 2 n1 ⎝ n2 ⎞ ⎟λ ⎠ ⎛1 1 ⎞ 2.08 × 1013 Hz 2 2 ⎟ 9 ⎠ ⎝6 ⎝ n2 n1 ⎠ 1. ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ v=ℜ⎜ 2 − 2 ⎟ n1 ⎠ ⎝ n2 and c = vλ = 2.49 × 10 m = 94.26 Here we are searching for a transition of He+ whose frequency matches that of the n = 2 to n = 1 transition of H.29 × 1015 Hz ⎜ 2 − 2 ⎟ = 5. The frequency of the H transition is: ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ − 2 ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ℜ 2 ⎝1 2 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ νH = ℜ⎜ A transition of the He+ ion with the same frequency is the n = 2 to n = 4 transition: 1 ⎛ 1 − 2 2 4 ⎝2 ⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ 2 ⎟ = (2 )ℜ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ ℜ ⎠ ⎝ 16 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ν He = (Z2 )ℜ ⎜ + 43 . from which one can calculate λ from the relationship c = vλ .24 (a) The Rydberg equation gives v when ℜ = 3.29 × 1015 s −1 .

997 92 × 108 m ⋅ s −1 ) 2. or λ = hcE −1 .91 × 1014 s −1 = (3.04 n2 2 1 n2 2 44 .28 (a) The highest energy photon is the one that corresponds to the ionization energy of the atom. We can use the following equation to solve for the starting value of n: v= c λ = 2.29 × 1015 s −1 ) ⎜ 2 − 2 ⎟ n2 ⎠ ⎝ n1 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 6. This energy corresponds to the transition from the highest energy level for which n = 1 to the highest energy level for which n = ∞.11 × 10−8 m = 91.626 08 × 10−34 J ⋅ s) E = hℜ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ ⎜n ⎟ nupper ⎠ ⎝ lower 1 ⎞ ⎛1 ×(3.1 nm (c) ultraviolet 1.1. or E = hcλ −1 .18 × 10−18 J = 9. it belongs to the Balmer series for which the ending n is 2.99792 × 108 m ⋅ s −1 = 6.626 08 × 10−34 J ⋅ s)(2.30 Because the line is in the visible part of the spectrum.29 × 1015 s −1 ) ⎜ 2 − 2 ⎟ ∞ ⎠ ⎝1 = 2.250 − 1 = 0. ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ − = (6.210 = 0.91 × 1014 s −1 −9 434 × 10 m ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ v = (3. λ= (6.29 × 1015 s −1 ) ⎜ 2 − 2 ⎟ n2 ⎠ ⎝2 0. the energy required to produce the condition in which the electron and nucleus are “infinitely” separated.18 × 10−18 J (b) The wavelength is obtained from c = vλ and E = hv.

1. ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎛ Zr ⎞⎛ Zr ⎞ 2 4 ao Z e As in part (a) above. (R3s is given in Table 1.32 (a) The easiest way to approach this problem is to plot the radial 2 . P(r ) = r 2 ⋅ R3s using the plot. while the d x 2 − y2 orbital will have its lobes pointing along the x and y axes. Taking the latter approach.n2 2 = 1 0. one finds three extrema for the 4d distribution: 12ao . 1.10 ⋅ ao and 1.2) and. Taking the derivative of the probability distribution function and setting it equal to zero. Another approach is to take the derivative of this probability distribution with respect to r and set this derivative equal to zero to find the position of the extrema of the curve. The first of these three is the position of the node while ( ) ( ) the latter two are the positions of the maxima in the distribution. 2 7 + 13 ao . one finds that the minima are at ⎛ 9 + (3 ⋅ 3) ⎞ ⎛ 9 − (3 ⋅ 3) ⎞ a and ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ o ⎟ ao .34 The dxy orbital will have its lobes pointing between the x and y axes.04 n2 = 5 This transition is from the n = 5 to the n = 2 level.90 ⋅ ao . probability distribution. the easiest (b) R4d = 1/ 96 5 ⎜ 6 − ⎟⎜ ⎟ a a 2 2 o ⎠⎝ o ⎠ ⎝ 2 − Zr way to find the node is to plot the probability distribution function and find the position of the node by inspection. and 2 7 − 13 ao . or 7. 45 . determine the position of the nodes.

46 .65a0 .65 a0 ) / a0 3 ψ 2 (r = 0. integration of any s-orbital over all θ and φ always gives the same result: π 2π 2 2 ∫ ∫ ψ (r ) sin θ dθ dφ = ψ (r ) ⎢ ∫ ∫ sin θ dθ dφ ⎥ 0 0 ⎡ π 2π ⎣0 0 ⎤ ⎦ ⎡ 2π ⎤ = ψ (r ) 2 ⎢ ∫ 2 d φ ⎥ = ψ (r ) 2 (4π ) ⎣0 ⎦ The sinθ term in the equation above is needed to correct for the differential volume element in spherical polar coordinates.36 The equation demonstrated in example 1. From this expression it is clear that the probability distribution is (4π ) ψ (r ) 2 r 2 .φ ) π a0 = = 0. Since sorbitals are spherically symmetric and are not a function of θ or φ. to integrate over all possible values of r one must evaluate the integral: ∞ ∫ (4π ) ψ (r ) 0 2 r 2 dr where again the r2 term corrects for the differential volume element in spherical polar coordinates.θ.φ).8 can be used: e−2(0.θ .θ .x x d xy d x 2 − y2 1. Likewise.27 ψ 2 (0. ψ(r.φ ) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ 3⎟ ⎝ π a0 ⎠ 1.38 The radial probability distribution may be found by integrating the full wavefunction. over all possible values of θ and φ.

(b) The radial wavefunction for the 4s-orbital is: − ⎛ 3 1 2 1 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞2 4 ao 3⎞ R4 s = C ⎜1 − r+ r r e C − = w here ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2 3 4 ⎝ ao ⎠ 8 ⋅ ao 192 ⋅ ao ⎝ 4 ⋅ ao ⎠ 2 The derivative of the radial probability distribution. 15.62 ao. The roots are most easily found using a computer and are: 0. set the result equal to zero and solve for r: P = r 2 R32d = C 2 ⋅ r 6 ⋅ e − 2r 3 ao 7 ⎛ 1 ⎞2 where C = ⎜ ⎟ 81 ⋅ 30 ⎝ ao ⎠ 4 ⎡ ⎛ −2 dP = C 2 ⎢r 6 ⎜ dr ⎢ ⎝ 3ao ⎣ 2r 2r 2r − − ⎤ ⎞ − 3ao 3 ao 3 ao 5 2 + 6 r ⋅e ⎥ = C ⋅e ⎟⋅e ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ⎡ 6 ⎛ −2 ⎢r ⎜ ⎣ ⎝ 3ao ⎤ ⎞ 5 ⎟+6 r ⎥ ≡ 0 ⎠ ⎦ The non-trivial solution to this equation is found when: ⎛ −2 ⎞ 5 r6 ⎜ ⎟+6 r =0 a 3 ⎝ o⎠ Dividing both sides by r 5 : ⎛ −2 r⎜ ⎝ 3ao ⎞ ⎟ + 6 = 0 and. The last of these roots. 3 r with respect to r is: − ⎡ 3 dP 3 3 13 4 19 5 = C 2 e 2 ao ⎢ r 2 − r6 r + r − r + 2 3 4 2 ⋅ ao dr 128 ⋅ ao 16 ⋅ ao 96 ⋅ ao ⎣ ⎤ 1 1 − r7 + r8 ⎥ 5 6 768 ⋅ ao 36864 ⋅ ao ⎦ r The non-trivial solutions to this equation are found when the polynomial in brackets is equal to zero. P = r 2 R4 s. 1. 24. 6. therefore. one can take the derivative of the distribution with respect to r.732ao.65 ao.872 ao. 4 ao. is the position of the maximum of the probability distribution for the 4s-orbital.62 ao.52 ao. r = 9ao ⎠ The position of the maximum in the distribution for the 3d-orbital occurs when r = 9ao. 47 .611 ao. 10. and 24.40 (a) To find the maximum in the radial probability distribution function for the 3d-orbital.1.

(c) exists. l = 1 (d) −1. 14 (b) 5s. 1. 3p. 2. 0. 1. l = 2. (d) 98 (d) cannot exist (a) cannot exist. (c) 2. 1. there are four protons in the nucleus and four electrons. (b) −3. and r is the distance from the electron to the nucleus.44 (a) 6 values: 0.1. 2. −1. 5. value: 0. (a) The total Coulomb potential energy V(r) is the sum of the individual coulombic attractions and repulsions. 2. (b) 6. (b) 2. 2.46 1. 4. (c) 10.52 1. (b) 7 values: −3. 3.54 1. (b) 5s. 0. 2. 3. (c) −2. 1. There will be one attraction between the nucleus and each electron plus a repulsive term to represent the interaction between each pair of electrons. 5g. 1. 0. −1. ⑀ 0 is the vacuum permittivity. For beryllium. 1. (d) n = 5. (b) cannot exist. 0. l = 3. orbitals (c) 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 = 25 1. (d) 4f.58 (a) 2. 3. l = 0. Each attractive force will be equal to (−e)( + 4e) −4e2 e2 = =− πε 0 r 4πε 0 r 4πε 0 r where −e is the charge on the electron and +4e is the charge on the nucleus. −2.48 (a) n = 2. (a) 6. (d) 3 subshells: 3s. and 3d (b) n = 6. (d) 14 (c) 7p. −1. 2. 5f. 6. −2. (c) n = 4. 10. 5p. (c) 1 1.56 1. 5d.50 1. (a) 3d. 1 (a) 0.42 (a) 5: l = 0. 4. 3. The total attractive potential will thus be 48 .

Examining the progression. we see that n= 1 2 1 3 3 4 6 5 10 6 15 7 21 # of repulsive terms = 0 Hence. There should be one term representing the attraction between the nucleus and each electron. so there should be a total of n terms representing attractions. The number of repulsive terms goes up with the number of electrons. This relation can be written as a summation to give the total number of repulsive terms: number of repulsive terms = 1→ n ∑ (n − 1) The repulsive terms will have the form (−e)( − e) e2 = 4πε 0 rab 4πε 0 rab where rab represents the distance between the two electrons a and b. the addition of an electron adds one rab term for each electron already present. (b) The number of attractive terms is straightforward.− e2 πε 0 r1 − e2 e2 e2 e2 ⎛ 1 1 1 1 ⎞ − − =− ⎜ + + + ⎟ πε 0 r2 πε 0 r3 πε 0 r4 πε 0 ⎝ r1 r2 r3 r4 ⎠ The first four terms are the attractive terms between the nucleus and each electron. The total repulsive term will thus be e2 4πε 0 r12 e2 4πε 0 + e2 4πε 0 r13 + e2 4πε 0 r14 + e2 4πε 0 r23 + e2 4πε 0 r24 + e2 4πε 0 r34 ⎛ 1 1 1 1 1 1 ⎞ + + + + ⎜ + ⎟ ⎝ r12 r13 r14 r23 r24 r34 ⎠ This gives 49 . and the last six terms are the repulsive interactions between all the possible combinations of electrons taken in pairs. so the difference in the number of repulsive terms increases by n − 1 for each additional electron.

with each added electron. the other configurations represent excited states. There will be two electrons in the p-orbitals. There are three p-orbitals. because n = 2. (e) false.60 (a) false. (d) false. (b) false. the spin magnetic quantum numbers will have the same sign) for the ground-state atom. they will be in these orbitals with the spins parallel (i. Ge. The ground-state configuration is given by (d).e. they must have opposite spin quantum numbers. (c) false. 50 . because the Pauli exclusion principle states that no two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers. The ability of the electrons in the 2sorbital to penetrate to the nucleus will make that orbital lower in energy than the 2p.⎛ −e 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1 1 1 1 ⎞ V (r ) = ⎜ ⎟⎜ + + + ⎟ ⎝ πε 0 ⎠ ⎝ r1 r2 r3 r4 ⎠ e2 ⎛ 1 1 1 1 1 1 ⎞ + + + + + ⎜ + ⎟ 4πε 0 ⎝ r12 r13 r14 r23 r24 r34 ⎠ The total number of attractive and repulsive terms will thus be equal to n + ∑ (n − 1) 1→ n The point of this exercise is to show that. (b) This configuration is possible. 1. and the electron configuration for C will be 1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 2 . ms.64 (a) This configuration is not possible because the maximum value l can have is n − 1 . lmax = 1. 1. as per quantum mechanics and Hund’s rule. Because the 2porbitals do not penetrate to the nucleus as the 2s-orbitals do.. Because the electrons are in the same orbital. we add an increasingly larger number of e-e repulsive terms. The 2s-electrons will be shielded by the electrons in the 1sorbital and will thus experience a lower Zeff. 1. they will experience a lower Zeff.62 The atom with a 4 s 2 4 p 2 valence-shell configuration is germanium. but each will go into a separate orbital and.

1.72 (a) Ga. note that the filled 3d-orbitals become core electrons. ml can only equal 0. (d) 4s (a) 5. or ± 3. so the set of electrons experience an overall greater nuclear charge.e. (b) 3p. ±1. This exception may be 51 . i.(c) This configuration is not possible because. (b) 3. (c) 1. Cd. (d) ns 2 np 2 1. Zn. 1.76 (a) 2. (d) 0 (a) ns 2 np 5 . (d) Eu (a) 4s.78 (a) As one goes across a period. (c) 7. ± 2. (d) 12 For (d). (c) Sr. which are not available. The electrons. (c) 3p. a proton and an electron are added to each new atom. (b) ns 2 np 4 . and.. ml can only be an integer from −3 to +3. (c) nd 3 (n + 1) s 2 .66 (a) sulfur (b) cesium [Ne]3s 2 3 p 4 [Xe]6s1 (c) polonium [Xe]4f 14 5d 10 6 s 2 6 p 4 (d) palladium [Kr]4d 10 (e) rhenium [Xe]4 f 14 5d 5 6 s 2 (f) vanadium [Ar]3d 3 4 s 2 1. for l = 4. and Se lie somewhat lower than those of the Group 15 elements that preceed them. and Hg are often grouped with the pblock elements and referred to collectively as the post transition metals. are not completely shielded from the nucleus by other electrons in the same subshell. S. (b) The ionization energies of the Group 16 elements of O.74 1. (b) Na.68 1. (b) 2. The chemistry of Zn is dominated by its +2 oxidation number.70 1. consequently. however.

52 .80 While Na has a smaller effective nuclear charge than K. (c) mercury (155 pm) > cadmium (152 pm) > zinc (137 pm). In potassium atoms. (b) Sb. the outermost electron occupies a 4s-orbital and so on average is much further from the nucleus than the electron in the 3s-orbital of sodium. (b) titanium (147 pm) > chromium (129 pm) > cobalt (125 pm). further from the nucleus. as the three p-orbitals up through Group 15 are filled. the electron in potassium is more easily removed because it is. This increased repulsion makes it easier to remove the additional electron from the Group 16 elements. each electron goes into a separate orbital.82 (a) silicon (118 pm) > sulfur (104 pm) > chlorine (99 pm). 1. which consequently often show similar reaction chemistry. 1. the radii (in pm) are Ge Ge 2+ 122 90 Sb Sb3+ 141 89 The diagonal relationship between elements can often be attributed to the fact that the most common oxidation states for these elements give rise to ions of similar size. the outermost electron occupies a 3s-orbital. (d) bismuth (182 pm) > antimony (141 pm) > phosphorus (110 pm) 1. (c) Sn 2+ 1.86 1. Despite the larger effective nuclear charge. on average.88 (a) Al. The next electron (for Group 16) goes into an orbital already containing an electron.84 (a) Ba 2+ .explained by observing that. so electronelectron repulsions are higher. (c) Si From Appendix 2D. (b) As3− .

For an electron. (c) metalloid. Because diagonal relationships often exist as a result of similarities in ionic radii. or v = h m −1λ −1 .92 (c) hafnium and (d) niobium 1.1. E = hv or E = hc λ −1 E = (6.) v= (6. the Kα radiation from Cu is 0.20 × 10−9 m = 9. Note: (b) Be and Al exhibit a diagonal relationship.90 (a) Ga and Si and (c) As and Sn. For a neutron. (f) metalloid 1. (Convert units to kg and m.626 08 × 10−34 J ⋅ s) (9. (Convert units to kg and m. mn = 1.6 × 106 m ⋅ s -1 (c) Solve similarly to (b). (e) nonmetal. (d) metalloid.109 39 × 10 −28 g. (b) From the de Broglie relationship p = h λ −1 .626 08 × 10−34 J ⋅ s)(2.674 93 × 10−24 g. 1.96 (a) λ = 0. X-rays produced from these two metals are those most commonly employed for determining structures of molecules in single crystals. me = 9. (b) nonmetal.626 08 × 10−34 kg ⋅ m 2 ⋅ s -1 ) = (9.0709 nm.94 (a) metal.109 39 × 10−31 kg)(200 × 10−12 m) = 3. For comparison.997 92 × 108 m ⋅ s −1 ) 0.) 53 .154 439 0 nm and that from Mo is 0.20 nm.9 × 10−16 J This radiation is in the x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum. we can write h λ −1 = mv. they can exist across the s and p blocks.109 39 × 10−31 kg)(200 × 10−12 m) (6.

13 4.0 9.62 5. This configuration means that as one goes across the periodic table in Period 2.99 12.5 24.67493 × 10−27 kg)(200 × 10−12 m) = 2. This added electron-electron repulsion energy causes the ionization potential to be lower.31 16 14.626 08 × 10−34 kg ⋅ m 2 ⋅ s −1 ) (1.100 molar volume (cm3 ⋅ mol−1 ) = molar mass (g ⋅ mol −1 ) /density (g ⋅ cm −3 ) Element Li Be B C N O F Ne Molar vol.7 Element Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar Molar vol.87 4. oxygen is the first element encountered in which the p-electrons must be paired.98 A ground-state oxygen atom has four electrons in the p-orbitals. 24 14.1 54 . 1.626 08 × 10−34 J ⋅ s) (1.0 × 103 m ⋅ s −1 1.v= = (6.0 15.0 17.1 17.674 93 × 10-27 kg)(200 × 10−12 m) (6.1 16.5 17.

This trend indicates that it doesn’t take very much change in electronic structure to cause the normal orbital energy pattern to rearrange. 1. Ne has a filled 2p-sublevel. then to Al(13) and Si(14). this effect is most clearly seen in passing from Ne(10) to Na(11) and Mg(12). as the principal quantum number increases. In the above plot. mol -1 ) 20 15 10 5 0 0 s 5 p 10 s 15 p 20 Atomic Numbe r The molar volume roughly parallels atomic size (volume). 1. the 3s-sublevel fills with Na and Mg.30 25 Molar Volume (cm 3 .104 (a) sin ∫⎜ ⎝ 0 L ⎛ π ⋅x⎞ ⎛ ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ sin L ⎠ ⎝ 2π ⋅ x ⎞ ⎟ dx L ⎠ L L ⎛ π ⋅x⎞ L ⎛ 3π ⋅ x ⎞ = ⎜ sin ⎟− ⎜ sin ⎟ =0 2π ⎝ L ⎠ 6π ⎝ L ⎠0 55 . the energy spacing between orbitals becomes smaller. and the 3p-sublevel begins to fill with Al. which increases as the s-sublevel begins to fill and subsequently decreases as the psublevel fills (refer to the text discussion of periodic variation of atomic radii).102 In general.

64 × 10−28 kg ⋅ m ⋅ s −1 Because the mass of an electron is 9.(b) Below is a plot of the first two wavefunctions describing the onedimensional particle-in-a-box and the product of these two wavefunctions.272 85 × 10−35 J ⋅ s ∆p = 5. making the integral of the product zero.106 (a) ∆p ∆x ≥ 1 = 2 where = = ∆p∆x ≥ 6.. This happens whenever a wavefunction that is unaltered by a reflection through the center of the box (wavefunctions with odd n) is multiplied by a wavefunction that changes sign everywhere when reflected through the center of the box (wavefunctions with even n).e.054 57 × 10−34 J ⋅ s) = 5.272 85 × 10−35 J ⋅ s 2 The minimum uncertainty occurs at the point where this relationship is an equality (i.054 57 × 10−34 J ⋅ s 2π 2π 1 (1. using = rather than ≥).109 39 × 10−28 g or 9. the uncertainty in velocity will be given by 56 .272 85 × 10−35 kg ⋅ m 2 ⋅ s −1 = 2.64 × 10−28 kg ⋅ m ⋅ s −1 −9 200 × 10 m = ∆ ( mv ) = m∆v = 2. The uncertainty in position will be taken as the 200 nm corresponding to the length of the box: ∆p∆x = 5.109 39 × 10−31 kg. Notice that the area above zero in the product exactly cancels the area below zero. ψn = 1 ψn = 2 0 0 x x 1 L (ψn = 1)(ψn = 2) 0 0 x x 1 L 1.626 08 × 10−34 J ⋅ s h = = 1.

64 × 10−28 kg ⋅ m 2 ⋅ s −1 = 0.∆v = (2.272 85 × 10−35 kg ⋅ m 2 ⋅ s −1 = 5.00 mm is considered the uncertainty in position.109 39 × 10−31 kg) −1 = 289 m ⋅ s −1 The calculation is then repeated for a 1. Technically. the mass of the Li+ ion should be the mass of the atom less the mass of one electron.15 × 10 kg (c) From the calculations.0578 m ⋅ s −1 The uncertainty in velocity is much less in the macroscopic wire.00 × 10 m ∆v = (5.108 (a) Evaluating the integral for an n = 1 to n = 3 transition: 57 . ∆v = 2.27 × 10−32 kg ⋅ m ⋅ s −1 −3 1. but now the mass is that of a Li+ ion.27 × 10−32 kg ⋅ m ⋅ s −1 )(9.109 39 × 10−31 kg) −1 = 0.022 × 1023 ions ⋅ mol−1 ) = 1. 1.15 × 10−26 kg ⋅ ion −1 . (b) The problem is solved as in (a).15 × 10−23 g ⋅ ion −1 or 1.00 mm wire where 1. which is roughly (6. the loss is insignificant in the overall mass of the lithium ion. as would be anticipated from quantum mechanics.94 g ⋅ mol−1 )/(6.63 × 10−28 kg ⋅ m ⋅ s −1 )(9.0230 m ⋅ s −1 −26 1. ∆p = 5. but because the mass of an electron is five orders of magnitude smaller than the mass of a neutron or a proton. it is clear that the larger particle will have less uncertainty in the measurement of its speed and could theoretically be measured more accurately.

(b) Again.∫ sin ⎜ ⎝ 0 L ⎛π x ⎞ ⎛ 3π x ⎞ ⎟ ⋅ x ⋅ sin ⎜ ⎟ L ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ 2π x ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 2π x ⎞ 2π x ⎜ cos ⎜ L ⎟ + L sin L ⎟ − ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ L2 ⎛ 4π x ⎞ ⎛ 4π x ⎞ 4π x cos ⎜ sin ⎟+ 2 ⎜ L L ⎟ 32π ⎝ ⎝ L ⎠ ⎠0 L = L2 8π 2 = ⎡ L2 ⎤ L2 L2 L2 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 + 0)⎥ + − + − + − ) ) ⎢ 2( ) 2 ( 2 ( 2 ( 8π 32π 32π ⎣ 8π ⎦ =0 Because the integral is zero. one would not expect to observe a transition between the n = 1 and n = 3 states. Given the L2 term. evaluating the integral: L ∫ sin ⎜ ⎝ 0 ⎛π x ⎞ ⎛ 2π x ⎞ ⎟ ⋅ x ⋅ sin ⎜ ⎟ L ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ L L2 ⎛ 1 ⎛ ⎛π x ⎞ π x ⎛ π x ⎞⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎛ 3π x ⎞ 3π x ⎛ 3π x ⎞ ⎞ ⎞ = 2 ⎜ ⎜ cos ⎜ sin ⎜ sin ⎜ ⎟+ ⎟ ⎟ − ⎜ cos ⎜ ⎟+ ⎟⎟⎟ L π ⎝2⎝ ⎝ L ⎠ L ⎝ L ⎠ ⎠ 18 ⎝ ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠⎠⎠ 0 the length of the box increases. we see that the integral. and therefore I. will increase as 58 .

- On Writing
- The Shell Collector
- I Am Having So Much Fun Here Without You
- The Rosie Project
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- Hyperbole and a Half
- Quiet Dell
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- No One Belongs Here More Than You
- Love Today
- Sail of Stone
- All My Puny Sorrows
- Fourth of July Creek
- The Walls Around Us

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