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1 2 3 Biology Chlorophyll[Plant leaf]. [Plants Producers] Autotrophic Nutrition Study of Plants and Animals. Plants prepare their food with the help of chlorophyll of the leaf by the process of photosynthesis The synthesis of food materials by the plant themselves constitutes autotrophic nutrition. Algae and other green plants are autotrophs. The organisms which use plants only as food are called herbivores. The organisms that eat the herbivores like sheep, cattle and deer are called as carnivores. The Organisms that eat both herbivores and carnivores. Mode of obtaining nutrients from other sources is known as heterotrophic mode of nutrition. Types: 1. Halozoic Nutrition. 2. Parasitic Nutrition. 3. Saprophytic Nutrition. Process by which an organism engulfs plant or animal as a whole is called Halozoic Nutrition. Certain organism obtains their nutrition by affecting other organism. Affected organism Host (Host become victim of diseases). Mode of obtaining nutrients from decaying organic materials of plants and animals is known as saprophytic nutrition. [In your home you can observe cotton like structures growing over beans and bread. These are saprophytic fungus. The fungus is made of thread like struc. Called hyphae.] Basic Components of food Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fat, Water, Vitamin, Minerals etc., Provides energy.

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Herbivores [Cow, Buffalo, Sheep] Carnivores [Lion, Tiger etc.,] Omnivores [Man,Dog] Heterotrophic Nutrition


Halozoic Nutrition Ex: Amoeba feeds on micro organism by swallowing. Parasitic Nutrition Ex: Malaria fever is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium. Saprophytic Nutrition Ex: Agaricus (Mushroom) obtains nut. From this method.

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Nutrients Carbohydrate. [Rice, Sugar, Sweet potato, Potato, Millets and Ragi] Proteins [Pulses] Fat [Vegetable oils and butter] Water Protoplasm (Human body) Vitamins [Green Vegetables, Egg, Milk etc.,]

Important for growth. Provides energy, excess energy is stored as a reserve in the form of fat. Essential for all organisms from the microbes to man and Plants. Protoplasm present in every cell has 90% water. Regulate the growth and metabolism.


Minerals [Vegetable, Wheat etc.,] Growth Growth in Plants Meristematic Tissue Growth affecting factors External Internal Factors Hormones

Involved in Biochemical Reactions. Growth Growth may be defined as the division of 1 cell 2 cell 4 cell 8 cell to a body. The meristematic tissue is found at the tips of stem and root and it is responsible for the vertical growth of a plant. 1. Biological Factors. 2. Chemical Factors. 3. Physical Factors. Hormones. For the uniform growth of plants, growth substances called hormones are very important. Similarly in man and animals several hormones are produced for regulating the growth. Different Sizes of Animals Amoeba, Euglena and Paramecium are microorganisms which cannot be seen by naked eye. Seen with the microscopes. Ex: Hydra, Man, Fish. Seen with the help of naked eyes. Metabolism may be defined as a group of interrelated biochemical reactions that occur in living cells. 1. Anabolism 2. Catabolism This involves biochemical reactions resulting in the synthesis of larger biomolecules from simple molecules. Ex: Photosynthesis. This involves biochemical reactions resulting in the breakdown of larger molecules to smaller ones. Ex: Digestion Photosynthesis means synthesis or formation of starch with the help of light. During photosynthesis, starch is synthesized with the help of chlorophyll pigment, carbon-di-oxide, water and the light energy of the Sun. Control the temperature in the Biosphere. Energy Content of Food Measured in terms of Calorie. 1 gram carbohydrate - 4.1 calories 1 gram of protein - 4.0 calories 1 gram of fat - 9.3 calories. 1. Respiration Intake of oxygen and release of CO2. 2. Digestion Food is digested to release energy. 3. Blood Circulation Transport of nutrients and oxygen to different parts of the body and the removal of CO2 and other wastes to the excretory organs through the blood. 4. Coordination of nervous system, Activities related to reproduction.

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Unicellular Organisms

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Multicellular Organisms Metabolism

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Anabolism Catabolism Photosynthesis

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Forests Energy


Bio Chemical Activities

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Stimuli Natural Stimuli


Artificial Stimuli Thigmotrophism Phototropism Hydrotropism Geotropism Sense organs

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Tongue Skin Nose Locomotory Organs


Locomotion of unicellular organisms.


Locomotion in higher animals

Types of Stimuli Organisms respond to stimuli. The stimulus may be natural or artificial. Flowers like Jasmine, Nytanthes, and Morinda blossom at night time. Lotus opens in daytime and closes in night time. Sunlight is acting as stimulus. The response caused in an organism due to the touching on its surface is called thigmotropism. Ex: Touch-me-not Mimosa Pudica Movement of parts of an organism towards sunlight. Movement of parts of an organism towards Water. Movement of parts of an organism towards the gravity. Sense Organs Lower organisms do not possess well developed sense organs. Higher organism Well developed sense organs. Ex: Eye, Ear, Nose, Tongue and Skin. Light rays are converged on the retina to form an inverted image. From retina Message is taken to the brain through the optic nerves. Information are sent - Auditory Nerves Brain ultimately help us to realize the sound. [Sharp Heraing Bat] Sensory Nerves Brain. We can feel the feelings like light, touch, pressure, heat, cold and pain with the help of the nerve cells present in the skin. Differntiate Smell, Inhalation of Air. Locomotion 1. Pseudopodia. 2. Flagella 3. Fins 4. Wings and 5. Legs. Algae: Chlamydomonas and volvox Uses flagella for locomotion. Amoeba: Amoeba Moves by forming temporary organs called pseudopodia. Euglena: Euglena Uses flagellum to swim. (Swims in water restlessly). Earthworm Moves by muscular contraction. Fish Fins [Swim in water] Median Fin for balancing Lateral fins for forward and backward movement Tail fin Changing direction. Frog Jump with legs, swim with webbed feet. Birds Wings to fly. Reptiles Move by legs. Man Legs to walk.


Sponges and Coral Reefs



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Animals Immovable. Significance of Reproduction Plants Reproduction The capacity or ability of an organism to produce offsprings of their own kind for the continuance of their races, is known as reproduction. Reproduction in Plants 1. Sexual Reproduction Androecium(M)/Gynoecium(F) 2. Asexual Reproduction Conidia in Pencillium. 3. Vegetative Reproduction Plantlets. Ex:Bryophyllum Reproduction - Animals Reproduction types 1. Sexual Reproduction 2. Asexual Reproduction Reproduction in unicellular Amoeba, Eugelena Binary Fission. organism Hydra Budding. Sexual Reproduction Take place in lower organisms as well as higher organisms. Testes Produces Sperms Ovary Produce Eggs. Organism which developed by the union of sperm and ovum is the product of the sexual reproduction. Gestation Period The period of time during which the female carries the growing embryo in uterus is called the gestation period.


Sexual Dimorphism

Differentiation of organisms as male and female on the basis of sex is called sexual dimorphism.

Bio Diversity
56 Organisms Different types of Organisms Some organisms live in 1. Water 2. Land 3. Few in deserts etc., According to the environment the organisms have special structures and functions. A classification become essential to know all these type of organisms. Laid basis properly for such a classification.

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Classification Carolus Linnaeus

59 Virus Obligate Parasites Kingdom : Monera. Virus means Poison or Venom. 2 Charecteristics. 1. Hereditary Nature. 2. Multiplication. Virus live and multiply only inside the living cells. Virology: Study of viruses. Size: Virus are 50 times smaller than the smallest bacterium. Discovery of Virus Controlled the viral disease called small pox by vaccination. Mosaic Disease: TMV Tobocco Mosaic Virus.(Bunch of grapes) AIDS Structure of Virus An intact virus particle capable of causing a disease in a particular host is called viron. Made up of Nucleoic acid + Proteins (Nucleoid+Capsid) (Protein Coats) Protein sub units of Capsid is called Capsomers. Deoxy Ribo nucleic acid Plant Viruses Ribo nucleic acid Animal Viruses. Seen with the help of Electron Microscope. Viruses are measured by the unit nanometer or millimicron. 1 micrometre 1/1000 mm. 1 millimicron 1/1000 micronmetre. Smallest Virus: Satellite Virus. Largest Virus: Potato Virus. 1. Spherical HIV Virus. 2. Cylindrical TMV 3. Tadpole Bacteriphage. 4. Brick Pox Virus. Classification of Virus Classified based on their hosts. 1. Plant viruses. TMV, Potato leaf roll disease virus. 2. Animal viruses. Polio virus, Small pox virus, Foot and mouth virus. 3. Bacteriphages. T4 bacteriphage. Diseases Caused by Virus.

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Edward Jenner Dimitri Iwanoski Robert Gallo & Associates. Viron Virus

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DNA, RNA Hereditary Materials Virus Size [17 nm to 300 nm]


Virus Shape


Virus Classification


Diseases in Plants


Diseases in Man

Diseases: Common cold, mumps, small pox, Chicken pox,


Jaundice, Flu, Fever, Polio, Rabies and AIDS. Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome. Azitothyamidine (AZT) Prolong the life of the affected person. Classification of Different organisms Five Kingdoms Robert 1. Monera Unicellular org. (Without nucleus) Ex: H.Whittaker Bacteria and Viruses. 2. Protista - Unicellular org. (With nucleus) Ex: Amoeba, Chlamydomonas. 3. Fungi Unicellular and multicellular Plants without chlorophyll Ex: Agaricus. 4. Plantae Multicellular Plants having Chlorophyll Ex: Algae to all higher plants. 5. Animalia Ex: Multicellular Animals.

1. Monera: Bacteria
Do you Know which converts milk into curd? Do you know which microorganism was responsible for the fermentation of idly and dosai flour? Do you Know the reason for diseases in man Chlorea, Tuberclosis, Plague,Typhoid and Leprosy? Bacteria Anton Von Leewvenhoek discovered bacteria. Called father of bacteriology. Study of bacteria Bacteriology. First formed organisms in the world. They live as Parasites as well as saprophytes. Some bacteria also lead symbiotic mode of life. Structure, Size and Shape of Bacteria. Structure of Bacteria




Size of Bacteria

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Shape of Bacteria Bacteria Classification

Can seen only on Compound microscope. Width: 0.2 Micrometre to 1.5 Micrometre. Length: 3 to 5 Micrometre. Rod, Spherical, Spiral and Comma. Classification of Bacteria According to shape it is divided in to four types as said above. According to flagella it is divided into four types.

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Lacto Bascillus Leuconostoc Bacteria that affects Plants

Beneficial/ Harmful Bacteria The bacterium that is present in the curd , multiplies several times and ferments the milk. Responsible for the fermentation of flour of dhosa and idly.


Diseases in man

Diptheria, plague, tetanus, cholera, tuberculosis, typhoid, leprosy, etc.

2. Protista
81 Protista Animals and Plants of protista are of one celled and they live sea as well as fresh water. Some are parasites. Many types of unicellular organisms. 1. Paramecium. 2. Euglena. 3. Amoeba. 4. Plasmodium. Paramecium consists of Cilia.


Paramecium Class: Ciliata.


Euglena Class: Mastigophora.

Euglena consists of Flagellum.


Amoeba Class: Sarcodena

Amoeba consists of Pseudopodia.

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Parasite Plasmodium. Class: Sporozoa Malaria

Dreadful disease malaria is caused by Plasmodium. Plasmodium affects the RBCs. Mosquitos (also spread elephantiasis) acts as main carriers. Micro Algae It can be seen only with the help of microscope. Algae are autotrophs. Ex: Chlamydomonas and volvox.


Micro Algae



Algae belonging to this category are greenish brown in colour. Most of the algae are motile. Two flagella are used for movement.

3. Fungi Ascomycetes
90 Fungi Ascomycetes Ex: Penicillium and Yeast.

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Penicillium Antibiotic Penicillin Queen of Drugs Yeast Fermentation

Penicillium is a simple organism, and it lacks chlorophyll. It lives as a saprophyte. Obtained from the fungus called Penicillium. Yeast is Saprophysic fungus.It is useful in the preparation of alcohol by fermentation process. It is also used in bakery. Conversion of sugar solution into alcohol with the release of carbon-di-oxide is called fermentation.

4. Plantae
98 Plants Bio Diversity among Plants Plants are broadly divided into two groups. 1. Cryptogams. [Non-flowering Plants]. 2. Phaenarogams. [Flowering Plants].


Macro Algae

Macro Algae It can be seen with the help of naked eye. They have leaf and stem like structures. 1. Green Algae Ex: Enteromorpha.(Sea water) Pigment Chlorophyll is present. 2. Brown Algae Ex: Sargassum. (Sea Weeds,Salt Water). Pigment Phycoxanthin is present in cells. 3. Red Algae Ex: Grenella. Pigment Phycoerythin is present.


Non flowering plants


Vascular Cryptogams Ex: Selaginalla and Nephrolepis.


Gymnosperms Gymno - Naked Angiosperms


Non Flowering Plants Ex: Riccia, Funaria, Algae, Fungi, Moss(Bryo), Ferns(Pteri) Those plants which are having vascular tissues are called vascular plants. Riccia and Funaria are non vascular plants. Vascular Plants: Ex: Cycas, Amaranthes. Some Plants do not produce flowers. But have vascular tissues Xylem and Phloem. Xylem: Transports water from root to stem and leaf. Phloem: Transport food materials to storage region of the plant. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms In some Plants the seeds are naked. ie) the seeds are not surrounded by any tissues. The seeds are exposed. Sperm means seed. Ex:Cycas. In this plants the seeds are present inside the fruits. So, they are called closed seeded plants. Classified into 1. Monocotyledans. 2. Dicotyledans.

5. Animalia
104 105 Phylum Phylum: Porifera Phylum is a unit of classification comprising a group of animals having similar common charecteristics features. Ex: Sea Sponge. Have pores through out the body.No locomotary organs. Seen fresh and sea water. Used as ornaments.


Phylum: Coelentereta

Ex: Hydra, Jelly fish, Coral reefs. Body made up of tissues. Body wall is made up of two layers of cells called the ectoderm and endoderm. Use stinging cells by which they paralyse the prey and eat.

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Phylum: Platyhelminthus Phylum: Aschelminthes Phylum: Annelida

Ex: Tape Worm. [ Parasites] Ex: Round worms and Hook worms.[Parasites] RW and TW are found in the digestive system of man. Ex: Earthworm and Leech. Body is made up of segments. Blood red.

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Earthworm Friend of farmers Phylum: Arthropoda

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Phylum: Mollusca Phylum: Echinodermata Phylum: Chordata Fishes Amphibians Reptiles Mammals Birds Anthropology Man Homo Sapiens. Negroes Plant Morphology

It converts the decaying wastes into natural manure. This type of natural manure is better than the chemical fertilizers Ex: Prawns, Crabs, Spider, Centipede, Millipede, Scorpion, Cockroach, Butterfly, House fly,Mosquito and Honey bee. Joints in legs. 1. Prawns and crabs are protein rich foods. 2. Honey bees produce honey. 3. Butterflies and other insects help in cross pollination. 4. House flys spread the microorganisms which causes disease like Cholera, Typhoid, Anthrax, Diarrhea and Dysentry. 5. Mosquitos spread malaria and elephantiasis. Ex: Octopus, Snail and Fresh water muscle. They move with muscular foot.Protective Exoskeleton. Ex: Star fish, Sea Cucumber and Sea lilies. These have spines on the upper surface of the body. Ex: All the animals which have backbone come under this Phylum. Fish live in water and move with fins. Organisms capable of living in both land and water. Ex: Frog Crocodile, Snakes, Lizzard, Tortoise etc, Cat, dog, rat, squirrel, bat, tiger, lion, elephant, cow and man Birds like sparrow, ostrich, eagle, peacock and crow are ex. For aves. Study of human race. Melanin pigment is thick in them, big jaw bones.

Structure and Function of Living Organism

Study of external structure of plant is called Plant morphology. Study of structure and functions of 1. Shoot system. 2. Root system 3. Leaves. Root System Structure and Function Root System Root System generally seen below the soil. Root absorbs minerals and water from the soil. It anchors plants firmly in the soil. Root prevent soil erosion. Types of Root System 1. Normal or Tap root system. - Dicots 2. Fibrous root system. - Monocots




Tap root System

Ex: Mango and Hibiscus. Charec of dicot plants.


Fibrous root system

Brown Colour. Consists of primary, Secondary and tertiary roots. The radicle that comes out of germination of seed, grow into tap root system. Ex: Maize, Sugarcane and Paddy. Cha. of monocot plants.


Root Modification


Tap root modification Conical, Fusiform, Napiform

These root do not grow very deep into the soil. Root Modification Root undergo modifications for the purpose of storage and other functions. Two types of modifications 1. Tap root modification. 2. Adventitious root modification. Ex: Carrot Ex: Radish Ex: Beetroot

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Adventitious root Prop root

Root that is produced from any part of the body other than the radicle is called adventitious root. Ex: Bryophyllum Ex: Banyan tree


Ex: Vanda. Plants grow on branches of trees. Unlike parasites they do not absorb food from the host plant. Only shelter.Spl. type of adventitious roots having a spongy tissue called Velaman.


Shoot System

Shoot systems and Funcitons Stem develops from the plumule. Seen above the soil. It bears various parts of the plant such as stem, branches, buds and flowers.


Parts of the shoot System

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Charecteristics Functions of Stem


Underground Stems


Rhizome, Corm

1. Stem grows towards sunlight. Positively phototrophic. 1. Stem conducts water, mineral salts and food. 2. Gives support to flower, fruits, branches and leaves. 3. Stem undergoes modification and store food. 4. Green stem prepares food. 1. Rhizome. 2. Corm 3. Tuber 4. Bulb Ex: Ginger Ex: Amorphophallus


Tuber, Bulb

Ex: Potato

Ex: Onion



Parts of Flower and its Functions Flowers are the structures produced for the purpose of reproduction. Flowers are generally modified shoots. Flowers involve in the process of reproduction and produce seeds.


Parts of Flowers



Androcium- Male reproductive organ of the flower. It is made up of stamens. The anther produces pollen grains. Gynoecium- Female reproductive organ of the flower. It is made up of ovary, style and stigma. Leaf Structure and Functions Meant for photosynthesis. The stalk of the leaf is called petiole.

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Respiration Transpiration

During this process oxygen is taken inside and carbon-di-oxide is given out. Leaves are involved in exchange of gases. The removal of excess water in the form of water vapour through the aerial parts of the plant is called transpiration. Stomata Transpiration takes place. Cuticle Check the rate of transpiration. 1. Stomatal 2. Cuticular 3. Lenticular transpiration.


Internal structure of leaf

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Bell Jar Experiment Light Screen Experiment Mohls half leaf Experiment Respiration in plants Aerobic respiration


Anaerobic respiration



Transpiration takes place through stomata. Proved by this experiment. Leaves require sunlight to prepare starch. Light is req. for To prove carbon di oxide is necessary for photosynthesis. 1. Aerobic respiration. 2. Unaerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration is the process during which oxygen is utilised. Starch is completely oxidised and the energy is used. Ex: Trees, Birgs, Human Beings. Anaerobic respiration takes place in the absence of oxygen . Starch is incompletely oxidised and less energy is obtained. Ex: Fungi and bacteria. Mitochondria are the power houses of the cell.

Levels of organization
1 Cellular levels of organization Ex: Chlamydomonas, Amoeba, Bacteria, Blue green algae, Chlorella, Euglena and paramecium. [ All the metabolic activities like respiration, digestion and excretion are performed by the single cells.]. There is no division of labour. Multicelluar Organisms Ex: Higher plants and Animals. A group of cells perform certain functions. Lungs perform respiration, kidneys perform the function of excretion. There is division of labour. 1. Epithelial Cell Prtotection. 2. Sex cell Reproduction 3. Muscle cell Contraction. 4. Nerve cell Sensory impulse and motor activity. Cell as the basic fundmental unit of life Cell All living organisms are made up of cells. The cells are the basic unit of organism. Structural and functional unit of organism. Types of cells Cells are differentiated according to their structure, position and function. Plant: 1. Parenchyma 2. Collenchyma 3. Scleranchyma Animal: 1. Nerve cells 2. Blood cells 3. Muscle cells 4. Epithelial cells 5. Reproductive cells Unicellular Organisms

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Animal Cell and Plant Cell:

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Cell: Cell wall Cell: Plasma Membrane Cell: Protoplasm Cell: Cytoplasm


Cell: Plastids

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Cell: Mitochondria Cell: Endoplasmic reticulum

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Cell: Ribosomes Cell: Golgi bodies Cell: Lysosome Cell: Centrosome Cell: Nucleus Cell:Nucleus:Nuclear membrane Cell:Nucleus:Nucleoplasm


Present only in plants. Made up of cellulose and provides shape to the cell. Protect inner contents. Both. Provides shape to the animal cell. Selectively permeable. Made up of phospolipids and proteins. Includes nucleus and cytoplasm. Cell sap filled within the plasma membrane is called as protoplasm. Homogeneous gelly like substance which fills the space between the nucleus and cell membrane.Consists of water, carbohydrates, proteins,minerals salts, vitamins and RNA. Includes organelles. Present only in plants. 1. Leucoplast 2. Chromoplast 3. Chloroplast Leucoplast: Colourless Plastids. Function as storage. Chromoplast: Colured Plastids.(Red,Yellow,Orange). Responsible for colouration of flowers and fruits. Chloroplast: Green Plastids. Contains Chlorophyll. Involved in photsynthesis. Granular rod shaped organelles. Provide energy for various functions of the cells. Powehouse of cells. Unite the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. They provide mechanical support. Help in conduction of substances within the cell. Help in Protein synthesis inside the cell. Tube like structures. Involved in secretion and storage. Involved in extra cellular and intra cellular digestion. They are called Suicidal bags. Present in animal. Plays a important role in cell division. Generally spherical in shape and present at the centre of the cell. Known as nuclear envelope. Has pores through which the movement of the chemical substances takes place bt. nucleus and cytoplasm. The sap inside the nucleus is called nucleoplasm. Made up of DNA(Deoxy ribo nucleic acid). Concerned with hereditary.

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Cell: Nucleus: Nucleolus Cell: Vacuoles Cell: Storage granules


Size of the Cells


Multicellular org. Plants



Spherical body in the nucleoplasm is called nucleolus. It stores the proteins. Perform the function of storage and maintain the internal pressure of the cell. These are stored food materials and secretary substances. Present in forms like oil droplets, yolk granules, secretary granules and glycogen granules. Size of a cell are measured by a unit called micron. 1micron (micrometre) = 1 * 10P-6 metre. Smallest living cell: PPLO(Pleuropneumonia like organisms). Largest living cell: Ostrich egg. Largest unicellular plant: Acetabularia. 1. Epidermal cells Protection. 2. Root hairs Absorbtion. 3. Xylem Transportation of water. 4. Phloem Transportation of food materials. Multicellular org. have greater capacity for survival than unicellular org.Ex: Blood cells are continuously destroyed and replaced by the bone marrow where as damage may result in death of unicellular org.

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Organisation at Tissue level Agroup of cells that are similar in structure and performing similar function is called tissue. Tissue level of organization Found in Hydra Animal and Bryophyta(Moss) Plants. Bryophyta Parenchymatous tissue Specialized as epidermal, photosynthetic, and storage tissue. Functions of tissues - Plants Dermal tissue: Forms the covering of the plant body. Ground tissue: Provides mechanical support and stores food materials. Vascular tissue: Conducts water and food materials. Functions of tissues: Epithelial tissue: Forms the covering of the body and lines the various cavities, tubes and vessels. Animals Muscle tissue: Helps in movement. Nerve tissue: Enable the organism to understand the surroundings and to adjust itself accordingly. Connective tissue: Attaches muscles to bones. Reproductive tissue: Involved in reproduction. Tissue Growth and transformation of tissues. Plants 1. The Juvinile stage: Meristematic cells divide and multiply in number. 2. Stage of growh and maturation: Formation of permanent tissue takes place. 3. Reproductive stage: Formation of reproductive parts.


Plants Organ System Root and Shoot System Root System 32 Root System

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Root: Region of Root cap Root: Region of Cell division Root: Region of Elongation Root: Region of root hair Root: Region of maturation Respiratory Roots

Covers the apex of the root. Cells undergo repeated division. Increase of growth in length takes place. Absorbs water and mineral salts. Provide anchorage to the plant.(helps in fixing plant body). Modifications of root for performing the function of respiration. These are called respiratory roots or pneumatophores. Ex: Avicinnia and Rhizopora. Cluster of roots arise from the petiole of leaves. Ex: Pogostemon. These roots are formed at the nodes for fixation. Ex: Betal, Pothos. In large forest trees, stout roots arise at the base of the trunk. Ex: Silk cotton tree. Shoot System Aerial part of the stem in some plants modify to do special functions. 1. Stem Tendril For Climbing. Passion flower, Ballon wine. 2. Thron for Protection. Duranta and lemon. 3. Phylloclade for food manufacture. Opuntia, Euphorbia. 4. Bulbil for vegetative reproduction. Agave, Onion. Species Individuals resembling one another in all important morphological charecters and capable of reproducing among themselves is called species. Population density Population per unit area or unit volume.

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Foliar roots Climbing roots Buttress roots






Population density


Factors responsible for Population strength

Availability of food, shelter, mate and good climatic conditions. Determined by the following charecteristics. 1. Death rate 2. Birth rate 3. Imigration rate 4. Emigration rate Association of several populations of different species in a particular locality is called community. Components: 1. Abiotic factors(Non living) 2. Biotic factors(living substances.) Sunlight Plants(Photosynthesis) Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores. The flow of solar energy from one level to another level is called energy flow or food chain. Interlinking many food chains food web. 1. Standing water habitat ponds and lakes 2. Running water habitat streams and rivers. Organisms in seawater. Sea High salt content. 1. Sandy , 2. Muddy, 3. Rocky shore. Terrestrial habitat: forests, deserts, tundra, polar regions and caves. Forests: Tropical, Decidious, and Coniferous forests. Forests: Ex: Lion and Tiger. Desert: camel and Kangkaroo. Caves: Proteus and salamandar. Aerial:Birds, reptiles like draco, and mamal like bat. Patagium.




Energy flow


Fresh water community

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Marine Community Terrestrials community/ Aerial community

Cryptogams Non flowering plants - Bryophytes

51 52 Flowering Plants Phanerogams Non Vascular Bryophytes Ex: Mastard, Jasmine, Brinjal, Hibiscus etc., Vascular tissues like Xylem and Phloem are absent. The life cycle of bryophytes show 2 distinct phases namely Gametophyte and Sporophyte. Reproduces by vegetative and sexual method. Vegetative: Fragmentation and Adventitious branches. Sexual Method: Male organ Anthreidium. Female organ: Archegonium. The Zygote develops into Sporophytes. Plants that possess xylem and phloem is called vascular crytogams(Pteridophyte) Fern: Highly developed cryptogams. Sporophyte: The plant body is called sporophyte. Sporophyll:Spore bearing leaves are called sporophyll. Both sex organs: Prothallus.(antheridia and archegonia).


Riccia Non Vas Bryophyte

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Sporophyte Nephrolepis

Structural Organization
56 Cell Studies Anton van Leeuwenhoek - Observed bacteria. Robert Brown Discovered Nucleus. Purkinje and Mohl Discovered Protoplasm.(Living substance of the cell). 1. Prokaryotic cell. 2. Eukaryotic cell. The cell that shows primitive cellular organisation is called prokaryatic cell. They have DNA, RNA scattered in the cytoplasm. Ex: Nostoc, Oscillatoria and Eschericia coli. The cell which shows the advanced organisation is called eukaryotic cell. Ex: All higher plants and animals. Cells are seen only through the microscope. Tissues A group of cells having a common origin and performing the same function is called tissue. 1. Merismatic tissue. 2. Permanent tissue.

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Types of cell Prokaryotic cell

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Eukaryotic cell Microscope Tissue

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Merismatic tissue Permanent tissue



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Collenchyma Sceleranchyma Xylem(4) Phloem(4)

3. Rectangular in shape. Function is to undergo repeated divisions and leads to growth of the plant. The cell which lost the capacity of division is called the permanent tissue. 1. Simple and (Paren, Collen, and Scleran) 2. Complex tissue (Xylem and phloem) Present all over the body of the plant. Thin walled with spaces. Function is storage. When parenchyma contain chloroplast they are called Chlorenchyma. This cells are elongated and have uneven thickness in the corner.Provide support to the young organs. These are dead cells. They provide mechanical support and strength. Transport water and minerals. (From root to shoot). Transport food materials. (From green part to storage region of plants).

1. Epidermal tissue system. 2. Fundamental or ground tissue system. 3. Vascular tissue system. 70 Epidermis All the external covering tissues that protect the internal part of the plant is called the epidermis. 71 Dermal system Aerial parts of plant External tissues Wax coating Cuticle. 72 Epidermis Stomata Bark The epidermis of leaves and green stem possess stomata. The epidermis. outermost layer of the root is called the epiblema. 73 Stomata Stomata are used for the interchange of gases between the plant and the atmosphere. Evaporation of water also takes place through the stomata. Interrelationship of plants 74 Epiphytes The plants that grow on aerial on other plants and are rooted on soil is called epiphytes. Ex: Vanda and Orchid Clinging roots Fix themselves on the host. Aerial roots Absorb moisture from atmosphere. 75 Parasitic Ex: Plasmodium Host: Man and Mosquito (Causes malaria and it lives in RBCs) Ex: Ascaris lumbricoides(Worm) Host: Small intestine of humans. 76 Commensalism Association of members of two different species, only one organism is benefitted and neither of them is harmed is called commensalism. Ex: vanda and Sea anemone(Back of crab). 77 Symbiosis The condition in which there is a close physical association between individuals of pair of species is called symbiosis. 78 Sym: Groundnut plant and Rhizobium(Bacterium) helps to absorb nitrogen from the Rhizobium. atmosphere. The plant offers nutrients and shelter to rhizobium. 79 Sym: Lichen Lichens Algae and fungi Fungi Supplies minerals, shelter and moisture to the algae. Algae Provide food for the fungi 80 Sym: Micorrhizae Roots Outerpart Fungi helps in the absorbtion of nitrogen. Pines, Oaks and birches. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Tissue System