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Dr. Lee Chi-Ran
(Professor, Dongguk Buddhist Cheonbop College, South Korea) Contents I. II. III. IV. I. Introduction Sangha Formation The Originality of Sangha wisdom in Korean Buddhism Conclusion Introduction In Buddhist studies, ‘the Originality of Early Buddhism and Its Contemporary Significance’ is a quite important and interesting subject for the students of the history of Buddhism comparatively. By means of Early Buddhism, in this context, Buddhism and its related matters during the period from the time of the Mahâparinirvâna of the Sâkyamuni Buddha down to the 4th century __ arising of different Buddhist sects is __ meant. As we know there are three main schools in Buddhism : namely, Theravâda1), Mahâyâna2) and Vajrayâna3). The Theravâda tradition exists in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia and Laos ; Mahâyâna in China, Korea and Japan and Vajrayâna in Tibet and Mongolia. However, all Buddhist traditions basically have many things in common __ in their origin, spirit, and historical development. Moreover, there is hardly any difference between teachings of the Buddha and the Buddhist Sangha in the ancient Indian Peninsula and modern Korea. For these reasons, in this paper I have made an attempt to research the early Buddhism and Sangha both ancient and modern periods with special reference to Korea in briefly. As a teaching that aims at the development and perfection of human being, the role and significance of Buddhism are tremendously increasing in relation to the ever-increasing tendencies and concerns of human roles and issues in modern societies. Many religious figures and scholars regard that social role and responsibility of Buddhism is not likely to be decrease, but rather it will increase in XXI Century. Thus, it creates a great responsibility to Buddhism and its followers. That is to say, it is very important to adapt wisely itself according to the demands of contemporary social life on one hand, and hold rigorously its root teachings and moral conducts on the other hand. It is our belief that Buddhism can spread and glorify only if it preserves its original state of holy aspects and qualities. It has proven throughout the entire historical developments of Buddhism that is a history of Buddhist tradition and its reformation. For instance, if we look at the History of Korea and Japanese Buddhism, it would be clear that the immovable foundation for many hundreds of years development of Buddhism in these countries
are true faith in Buddha’s teachings and unstained preservation of rules and norms for the Sangha community. It holds the same truth in Lamaism4) or Yellow-hat sect or Tibet-Mongolian Buddhism. When Lama Je Tsong Khapa, who is founder of Lamaism, reformed Tibetan Buddhism in accordance with social development of Tibet at his own time, say middle age, he had specially stressed the importance of maintaining what Buddha and holy aspects and qualities of original state of Buddhism teach. That is why, this particular tradition succeeded and spread in many centuries. As far as Buddhist and scholar’s viewpoint is, concerned, Tibetan Buddhism is spreading with increasing speed and its influences are gaining more and more power in the nowdays world. Early Buddhism and Sangha(fully ordained monks and nuns) formation issues have been a subject matter of world Buddhist Studies right from its beginning. Let me give a brief account of some creations by some well-known scholars out of this rich hermitage of studies. Those Outstanding scholars, who established Buddhist Studies made tremendous contribution to its development, had done extensive research about the origination, earlier period and further development of Buddhism and created numerous valuable works. Very first research target was those literatures in Pali language. The scholars, who had established Scientific Studies of Buddhism for the first time, were all from European countries such as England, Germany, Russia and French, etc. One of those first biggest creations, which contain the entire history of Buddhism, was “Introduction a l’histoire du bouddhism Inden” by a French scholar, E. Burnouf. This work, which published in 1844, deals with some researches on Buddhist source materials and root texts based on the comparison between Sanskrit and Pali traditions. As for finding out, translating and publishing Pali texts, first biggest step was taken by a Danish scholar, V. Fausboil and Holland scholar, Prof. H. Kern.5) The most famous creation of V. Fausboil was that he had published “Jataka tales”. He had published six volumes of works within the certain length of time starting from 1877 to 1897, which can be one of the biggest research material for Buddhist literatures, likely Studies, Similarly, prof. H. Kern had also put a lot of efforts and labor to publish root texts, especially those in Sanskrit. While H. Kern deals with the entire history of Buddhism in his “Manual of Indian Buddhism” (1896) his two volumes of work that titled as “Histoire du Bouddhism dans l’india,(1901-1903) reveals a life story of Buddha, what are Dharma and Sangha, a historical accounts of origin and developments of Buddhism and its many fold schools, and streams and traditions. One of those scholars, who had greatly contributed to study early Buddhist teachings and history, especially translated and print pali texts, was a English professor T. W. Rhys Davids. He had written many works such as “Buddhism, its History and Literature”, “Buddhist India” and etc.6) Rhys Davids had established a well-known society for its great works of “Pali Text Society” in 1881.There are many translation those of creations by Rhys Davids himself among those published
almost published works from this society. This society had published almost 40 series of translations that contains most of sutras of Pali tripitakas within first 15 years only, say in 1881 to 1895. There were many others, who had participated in this masterpiece works along side with Rhys Davids such as a German Professor E. Muller, Russian Professor Minayeff, Danish Professor V. Fausboll, French Professor M. Leon Feer, etc. These scholars also translated many root texts into English, French and Germany. Prof. T. W. Rhys Davids had also written an extensive “Pali English Dictionary”, which is still significant in this modern time, by working in collaboration with Dr. William Stede. By any means, an outstanding scholars like Rhys Davids could only complete this real monumental creation. C.A.F. Rhys Davids, who is wife of T.W. Rhys Davids, was very active in all activities of the Pali Text Society, and hence she had continued her husband’s work that resulted many translations of the root texts. She had written many books based on her research works for history of Buddhist thoughts.7) H. Oldenberg, who played significant role in the 19th Century Indian Studies, had made a great contribution to the Buddhist Studies, besides his extensive researches on Vedic Literature. His treatise called “Buddha, Sein Leben, seine Lehre, seine Gemeinde “ was the first European fundamental creation that was directly based on Pali texts. He had also published all the texts of Vinaya pitaka and translated many others into English.8) A new pace of Buddhist studies was begun with the works of English Scholars A. B. Keith, B. C. Law, E. J. Thomas, French scholars S. Levi, Russian scholar Th. Stcherbasky, Belgium scholars L. de la Valle Poussin0and0Et. Lamotte. Italian scholar G. Tucci, etc0 in the 1920s of 20th century. A Scholar of Indian studies, Sylvain Levi had achieved a great success in studies of Sanskrit texts of Buddhism and it can be clearly seen from his famous book on Nepal.9) He had mastered in Chinese, Tibetan, Kuchean and Tokharian Languages that enabled him to deepens his research. One of his greatest creations was an Encyclopedic dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms. A Russian distinguished Buddhist Scholar, academician Th. Stcherbatsky 10)had done research words on both Sarvastivada of Hinâyâna and philosophical thoughts of Mahayana. While he dealt with the entire theoretical thoughts of Early Buddhism in his “The Central Conception of Buddhism” , he had clarified the conception of Nirvana based on his own studies of Mahâyâna philosophy in his other monography. Th. Stcherbatsky had also put tremendous efforts and endurances to study Buddhist logics and translate its root texts that resulted in coming out his monumental creation called “Buddhist Logic” (two Volumes). St-Petersburg’s “Bibliotheca Buddhica,” had published 30 volumes of Buddhist, particularly Mahayana texts under the guidance of Th. Stcherbatsky. There were many distinguished scholars, who participated and contributed greatly to this publication such as Russian distinguished scholars like S. Oldenburg, Th. Stcherbatsky, W. Radloff, E. Obemiller, B.Vladimitsoff and outstanding scholars from other countries like N. Kern, L. de la V. Poussin, L. Finot, C. Bendali, A. Grunwedel, M. Walleser, B. Nanjio, and so forth.
Louis de la Vallee Poussin had dedicated his works for studying teachings of Hinayana and written many valuable treatises11) Besides of his many translations of the root texts he had translated Vasubhandu’s both “Abhidharmakosa12)” and its commentary into French (1923-1931).Thus, we can regard this as his biggest creation. The most famous work by a well-known English scholar, A. B. Keith is “Buddhist Philosophy in India and Ceylon “. A scholar, E.J. Thomas had presented detailed accounts of early Buddhism and its Theravada texts in his creations. His work about the Buddha was very peculiar for it presented some analysis of historical facts of founder of Buddhism, and therefore it was essentially significant for illuminating History of Early Buddhism. Here we should acknowledge those works of well-known english scholar B.C. Law on early Buddhism13) If we look at a general outline of the World Buddhist Studies, it is obvious fact that first Buddhist scholars of Oriental Countries had developed this Western research works further based their own traditional texts by creating numerous works. As for such scholars are we can make a list as follows: Indian scholars S. C. Das, S. C. Vidyabhusan, D. Kosambi, B. M. Barua; Sri Lankan scholars S.Hewavitarane, G.P.Malalasekera, Ven. W. Rahula; Japanese scholars Bunyiu nanjio, J. Takakusu, D. T. Suzuki; Chinese scholars Rev. Tai Hsu, Prof. Kan Yu-wei, Yang Wei-hui, etc.14) David Hewavitarane or known as Anagarika Dharmapala15) had initiated the activities for preserving and developing Buddhism and contributed a lot to these particularism deeds for many years. For example, “Mahâ Bodhi Society” (1891), which is founded by him, had played a significant role in these activities. Even today, this society is working actively for studying and spreading Buddhism. The World War II was a biggest obstacle ever happened in the World Buddhist Studies for its further growth and development. Due to this terrible war, it was very difficult to extend research work scope and publish root texts. After the war, starting from the 1950s onward Buddhist Studies had revived again. 2500th of Anniversary of Sâkyamuni Buddha’s Passing away was celebrated world widely
in India, 1956. Since, many scholars and religious0figures from different countries had participated to the celebration it activated the Buddhist Studies and attracted numerous people to this work. Thus, it was actually begging of new era for the Buddhist studies. After the 1960s Buddhist Studies had greatly expanded, and hence it developed strongly in USA, Canada and many other Asian countries, besides those European countries like England, Germany, Russia and French, etc those had classical hermitage of research works for Buddhism. Since then, the numbers of research institutions and centers, where intensive Buddhist Studies carried on, were established. Thus, it became very difficult to make even outline of research works. We should mention an English Buddhist scholar Ed. Conze from those distinguished scholars of later half of the 20th Century. He had made classifications of Buddhist philosophical thoughts as (1), the Archaic Buddhism; (2), the Sthaviras; (3), the Mahâyâna and paid a great attention to theoretical thoughts
particularly Prajnâpâramitâ (wisdom perfection) teachings and Buddhist meditation16). His Holiness XIV Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso has written many works on Buddhist teachings and some important issues of the Enlightenment17). Rhi Kiyoung. Jo Myeong-ki. or a root text. Most of them dealt with the historical outlines of an Early Mahâyâna Buddhism. Particularly. Thailand is giving a great importance on developing Buddhist meditation as a common practice in the entire Kingdom. Kim Young-tae. purifying one’s own mind in particular. which is one of those countries that has preserved a Buddhist Tradition. 5 . They have analyzed through a broad scope of research areas and problems on history of Korean Buddhism18). His Holiness the Dalai Lama emphasized on certain issues such as how one can live with happiness. Vinaya teaching in particular in the light of modern scientific methodology. with translation and publication of root texts. Nowdays those research works on Early Buddhism. research institutions in many countries all around world. mostly monks are doing extensive research works on Buddhism in general. but particularly dedicated to study Mahâyâna Buddhism. Lee Nung-hwa. Seong Chul. likewise. They are very significant for studying and commenting Theravâda literature in general. Here we must underline works of Sri Lanka and Thai monks and professors. Ko Ik-jin. or thinker. But they have not a very important in connection to our present time since they are dedicated mostly to historical accounts. Kim Ji-kyun. This is due to the activities of His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s Tibetan Government in exile at the Dharamsala in India and Tibetan Monastery. All these research works by these outstanding scholars contributed enormously to development of world Buddhist Studies. and some of them become the subject matter or important source materials. and hence practicing pure morality by all means. Chong Pyong-cho Ven. Lee Young-moo. the serial Publications. Yi Jong-ik. which are edited by The Buddhist Publication Society(Kandy). and analysing of them. The Scholars from Korea. Many Thailand Buddhist Universities. Its specific characteristics and its renowned thinkers. have paid and contributed a lot to Buddhist studies. Here we can mention the research works of Kweon Sang-ro. Ven. Park Sung-bae. practicing Buddhist morality in one’s day to day life. Kim Wol-woon. such as Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University and Mahamakut University are deeply engaging with Buddhist studies and Educations. At present many Tibetan experts. A Numerous detailed researches by American scholars are generally on a School of Buddhist Thought. Cho Oh-hyun and Kim Gwang-sik etc.of Early Buddhism in his “Buddhist Thought in India” E. how one can purify the mind in these modern circumstances and conditions accordance to Buddhist teachings. Having gone through all these works at certain extend enables my dissertation to have both theoretical and methodological basis. Pali Literatures are developing much more in Sri Lanka and Thailand. particularly on Seon Buddhism and Jogye School(ùfªn—[ ÿand gave important estimations and conclusions . Lee Ji-kwan. Conze had also done deep research works on Mahâyâna. Kim Dong-hwa.
” since it was understood to be an extension of the individual Sangha. but is told by deities (or spirits. nevertheless it can be assumed that the Buddha underwent some inner psychological torment as to whether or not he should present the Dharma to the people. what are specific characteristics. Yet in spite of this. Moreover. He finds by his insight that they are near Varanasi (Benares) and resolves to go there. They were very much annoyed to see how the people went to these new yellow-robed ascetics of the Sakya ascetic Gotama to hear them preach and to give them the best of fool and medicines. and they showed their respect and veneration for Him wherever He went. This was also true of the “Four Quarters Sangha. and specific efforts for preserving and developing its originality. therefore. who had been selected in the early days of Buddha’s life. And many of the followers of the other religious teachers did not like to see this at all. The legend of Brahma’s advice obviously is a later addition. let us first consider why the early Buddhist community has been considered to be a monkish community. led to surmise that the early Sangha must have been an ascetic community from which laymen (upasaka) and laywomen (upasika) were excluded. therefore. The early use of the words bhikkhu-sangha and bhikkhunisangha indicates that the Sangha consisted of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns) as regular members. neither he nor any other of the Bhikkhus ever tried to do any. by providing plentifully for the wants of Himself and His company of Bhikkhus who went about everywhere with Him. On the way he meets an Ajivaka 6 . We are. namely Sangha.The special characteristics or novelty of this research lies in its revelations on early Buddhist teachings and its practitioners. belong to the Sangha only as individuals. we hope this research will give a clear picture of outlines for Korean Buddhism and its specific characteristics. Considering to whom he might first teach his doctrine. original doctrines. The Sangha consisted primarily of bhikkhus and bhikkhunis. it did not include lay people. present traditions and significances of this grand hermitage. According to the Vinaya Pitaka. the Buddha never tried to astonish the people by doing any wonderful deeds and after this affair with Moggallana. Sangha Formation Accordingly. following the advice of the god Brahma. but. the people clearly saw and felt that the Buddha was a great teacher. devata) that both have recently died. the Buddha thinks of Arada and Udaraka. Thus. nuns. and laywomen-but this does not mean that there were four organized groups. The lay people.19) Although the universal Sangha is now seen as extending to the three worlds. it is evident that the early ‘Four Quarters’ Sangha’ was fundamentally a monastic association of monks and nuns. Buddha was undecided after his enlightenment as to whether he should deliver the Dharma or not. while they neglected them and their teachers. According to the Mahavagga. he began to transmit it. II. rather than as part of an organized group such as that of the monks or of the nuns. laymen. There were four categories of followers-monks. He then thinks of five compassions of his in his wandering and ascetic practices before the enlightenment.
was most impressed by his calm and pleasant bearing. this is our last birth. invited by King Bimbisara. though it is found in many later On the Buddha’s approach. whom the Mahavastu (but not the texts of the other schools) identifies with the leader of the Agnostics. who remarks on his happy. They first resolve to treat him without respect because he had given up the severe ascetic practices he was formerly following with them and relapsed into a life they regard as worldly. Sariputra and Maudgalyayana. disadvantage he has acquired extinction.named Upaka. which he eventually gave up as useless. Next follows (confirmed by the Mahavastu) the story of how the Buddha gained his two best followers. The Buddha replies that he has no teacher. The ascetic objects on the ground that there is a dangerous dragon (naga) there. This refers to the tradition of the extreme asceticism tried out by the future Buddha. The Buddha asks to stay the night in Uruvilva Kasyapa’s fire temple(the ascetic is apparently an orthodox brahman maintaining a sacred fire). that he is enlightened. The Ajivaka is sceptical. the five former companions receive him with respect in spite of themselves and become his pupils. The monk says that he has not learned much of the doctrine but can state the meaning (artha) of it very briefly. He tells them how (as described above) having the principle of birth and discovered its ones. Here the Vinaya in its different recensions(confirmed by the Mahavastu) narrates a strange event when the Buddha meets three ascetics with matted hair (jatilas). Sariputra was brilliant of intellect and not need any elaborate explanations. who were great friends. So he asked for just the 7 . the influences being exhausted in him. contented appearance and ask whose doctrine he follows. that he is freed. Sariputra met one of the buddhist monks. The Buddha is not afraid of dragons and insists. however. The Buddha finds his former companions in a park (now called Sarnath) near Varanasi. The dragon tries to overcome the Buddha by breathing forth fire and smoke. The Buddha next goes on to Rajagriha. now there is no rebirth. but the Buddha is too powerful for him and subdues him. the reaction of the Ajivaka symbolizing that of all those who were not ready to understand the new doctrine)20). The tradition does not occur in the text we have so far followed. attaining enlightenment whilst living moderately and taking a resonable amount of food. Among the latter were Sariputra and Maudgalyayana. the ascetic giving way. Convinced of the marvellous power of the Buddha the three Kasyapas and their followers join the Buddha’s community21). the capital of Magadha. and insight: our freedom is certain. A wanderer named Sanjayin. except by implication here. was staying in Rajagriha with some of his followers. a hint of the doctrine would been enough to give him insight into it. shaking his head and going away by a different road (this can also be interpreted as by a wrong road: the ambiguity is no doubt deliberate. According to the Buddhist community22). saying ‘It may be so’. knowledge then arose in them. The King is pleased with the Buddha’s teaching and becomes a lay disciple. and asked him who his teacher was and what his doctrine. all of the Kasyapa clan and each having numerous followers. After the events in Varanasi the Buddha returned to Uruvilva in Magadha.
When Bhikkhus from other places come to visit you. let the others wait upon them and care for 8 . attend to their wants and treat them well and hospitably. but strictly adhere to the observance of those rules which I have given you for your help and protection . But the bullock had wandered further away than he expected. When any among you are sick. a Brahmin. and be able to get back to the village before the time when the preaching was to begin. he found that one of his bullocks was missing. So He told Ananda to gather the Bhikkhus together in the Preaching Hall at Rajagaha. so long the Sangha will continue to flourish and prosper. living near by. He addressed them as follows: “O Bhikkhus. but before He passed away He wished to give His Bhikkhus some last advice which should serve to guide them in their general conduct after He was gone and could advise and guide them no more with His living voice. hoping he would still be in time to hear the end of the sermon at least. the Sangha will never decay and die out. The Buddha welcomes the two friends to his community and says they will be his best pupils. he hurried to the place where the Buddha was. but he did not want to miss hearing the Great Teacher speak. so without waiting to take a rest or get anything to eat. But when he got to the preaching place what was his surprise to find that the sermon had not even begun. He was only a poor man and could not afford to lose it. who refuses to go with them. as long as you remain united and meet together frequently. ''Always treat with respect those who have been longer in the Sangha than yourselves. The Lord Buddha now began to feel that His days in this world were coming to a close. there and everywhere. They first tell Sanjayin. But to his dismay. it was some time after mid-day before he found it and got back to the village. a poor farmer. hoping that he would soon find it. hard to keep. There in the preaching hall the Buddha sat silent with all the people round Him patiently waiting for Him to begin.meaning without elaboration. wherever he thought his bullock might have got to. He was very hungry and very tired with running about all the morning under the hot sun. Upon one occasion when the Buddha was known to be going to deliver a discourse in a village where. So long as you meet together and decide all important questions in union and harmony one with another. He had rested overnight. where I have made none. He at once tells Maudgalyayana and they decide to go to the Buddha. so he set off at once into the jungle all round to look for it. Pleased and thankful to find that he was still in time. made up his mind to be present and hear the Great Teacher speak. but all the other followers of Sanjayin go. and do not make new and oppressive rules. The monk tells him the Master teaches the organization of principles from causes. Do not seek company: seek solitude. This is enough to give Sariputra insight into the doctrine.so long as you do this. the farmer crept quietly in at the back of the hall to look for a seat there. and although he made all the haste he could searching here. Be ever on the watch against the beginnings of anything that tends to evil in order that you may not become the slaves of evil before you are aware. and pay attention to their counsel and admonition. and when all the Bhikkhus had assembled. on the morning of the day when the Buddha was to preach.
avoid the company of the bad. much to the annoyance of the young princes of the place who wanted to have the honor of doing this themselves. And now He is feeling His years. at a little village called Pava. He exhorted them earnestly. Indeed.them. did He not once tell Sariputta in the years when He was still hale and well. the advantage. spread it on the ground between the two big Sal trees. a kind of mushroom which wild boars much delight to eat. He who thus waits upon and cares for a sick brother. but only to rest His sick and weary body while His mind remained calm and collected as ever.” Then.He would be able to expound His Teaching and answer any 9 . and His thoughts turn to the north. When the Bhikkhus had all come. The Buddha partook of the meal Cunda offered Him. “All that belongs to this world is changeable and un-lasting. that they cause suffering to him who clings closely to them. It is in that country that He wishes to pass away from the world He has served so ungrudgingly these many years. where His youthful days were passed. He was invited by the son of the village goldsmith. intending to go to the little town of Kusinara. still. whose name was Cunda. felt very much refreshed and strengthened. and there await death. it is the same as if he waited upon and cared for me. “Exert yourselves! Strive earnestly! Follow the Good Way! Keep close watch over your minds! So shall you find certain deliverance from the round of birth and death and all things evil. folding it in four. Think and reflect frequently upon the nature of all things here. So Ananda took the Buddha’s robe and. as His last parting admonition to them. and on the way. the next morning. He turns His now feeble steps northwards. that they are empty of any solid substance. to follow faithfully the good way He had taugthem. and after He had eaten.” He said. still going north. So. for the sake of the benefit. leaving Rajagaha. He thought He had quite got over His illness and He praised Cunda for having given Him a meal that had done Him so much good. He feels that He is not going to live much longer. that they do not last. Then the Buddha lay down on the couch thus prepared for Him. Shun pride vain show. Seek the companionship of the good.” And now the Buddha is getting to be an old man. hence its name which means boar’s delight. both now and in the future. and said that the good deed Cunda thus had done would make for his well-being both here and hereafter. and then. On the way to it. He is eighty years of age. to partake of a meal of sukara-maddavam. teaching and preaching without any rest except during the rainy season of each year. the welfare of the world of men which need to have kept before it the example of the holy life. through the rich town of Vesali where He once was splendidly entertained by the courtesan Ambapali. perfect and pure. For nearly forty-five years He has been traveling about on foot up and down His native land of India. for the sake of the world. the Buddha started out direct for Kusinara. not to sleep. For. and given a Vihara by her. so that his Master could lie on it with His head towards the North. towards the lands that lie at the foot of the great snowy mountains. for all that. He passes through the city that is now called Patna. that if He were to live to become so old and weak that He could not walk but had to be carried about in a litter. He is weary and worn out in body. though His mind remains as strong as ever.
they have always wanted to hear more from his lips. He has always been pleasant to them in all his words and ways. not perfect yet. When he has addressed them. You have done much that is good by your faithful service of me. and saying that he is only a learner. I have not yet reached the state of Arahan. Ananda. in deed and word and thought. For a long time now. he who has always been so kind to me. is not possible. He always knew when it was a suitable time to let visitors see me. he began to weep. has had a beginning. Reverend Lord. Then the Buddha opened His eyes and seeing that Ananda was not beside Him as usual.” Then the Buddha spoke to the other Bhikkhus round Him and said: “All the Buddhas before me have each had a favorite disciple and body-servant just as I have had Ananda. devotedly. Ananda.” replied one of the Bhikkhus.” So the Bhikkhu went and told Ananda that the Buddha wanted to see him. Let the Blessed One be pleased to pass away from one of these places. I am still only a learner. come to an end? Such a thing. sundered. There are great cities like Rajagaha and Savatthi and Vesali and others. do not weep. Have I not told you many and many a time that it must be that some day we shall be separated.” “Go. Ananda. you have waited upon the Tathagata and served him with body and speech and mind.” Then Ananda spoke and said to the Buddha: “Pray. In these cities there are many wealthy and high-placed believers in the Blessed One who will see to His funeral rites in a manner worthy of the Tathagata.” And the hot tears rolled down poor Ananda’s cheeks. when Ananda saw that his beloved Master was really going to leave him he was filled with grief. 10 . And Ananda came and sat down near the Blessed One. cut off. should not again die. ungrudgingly. And he went into the Vihara close by. and now is losing his teacher who was always kind to him. cheerfully. and in a very short time you will become one. “the venerable Ananda has gone into the Vihara and is now standing behind the door there weeping. Such an excellent disciple and servant has Ananda always been to me. now. and beyond measure. And all the Buddhas to come will each have a favorite attendant like Ananda. do not pass away to Nibbana from this little mud-built place. And the Blessed One spoke to him and said: “Enough. And now my Teacher is going to pass away and leave me. How is it possible that any-thing that has been born.” said the Buddha. this out-of-the-way corner. A wise and faithful servant has Ananda been to me. he could not help it. O Bhikkhu. Ananda! Do not grieve. There is no help for this. this jungle town. Ananda. and hiding himself from the Buddha’s eyes behind the door. kindly. and they have always been pleased with his manners towards them. Now exert yourself to get rid of all the things that hinder you from becoming an Arahan. as long as they could stay awake to ask questions! He would never be tired in His mind. He said to the other Bhikkhus who were round Him: “Where is Ananda?” “Reverend Lord.question about it that might be asked even by the wisest and cleverest scholars. But now. “and tell Ananda that his teacher is calling for him. saying to himself: “I am not like the other Bhikkhus. parted from all that is dear to us? This must be.
the Sakya Prince who became Gotama the Buddha. mud-built. before He passed away. To Lapland in the cold North the Message was borne by them. He is quick of wit. he resolved to go and see Him at once and ask Him about a certain matter that puzzled him. and to Java and the isles of the southern seas. of millions of the human race.” Now it happened that a certain wandering ascetic. His Teachings. So that to-day two and a half millennia since He passed away from the earth. in the last watch of the night. and he pressed Ananda again and again to let him see the Buddha. and passing beyond its boundaries. in days gone by. But His words. Ananda. For. jungle place. And by earnest and diligent labor in the Doctrine and Discipline. and told Ananda to give him ordination. after His passing away. where He lay. without a peer. carried it far away to the West into Egypt. the Arahants and other disciples of that Blessed One spread the tidings of His great Teaching all through His native land of India. the Instructor of gods and men the Teacher unique. Do not call this a little out-of-the-way. nearly a third part of those that dwell upon it revere the name of the Exalted One. the Buddha Supreme. and tell the chief men and the people of Kusinara that tonight. the guide through life to what is beyond life. this was a great and flourishing city. have not passed away. The Originality of Sangha wisdom in Korean Buddhism We are here concerned with brief history of Korean Buddhism and Tripitakas23) in order to understand what the reality is including the relationship between ancient Korean Buddhism and Mongolia 11 . who taught Nibbana and the Way Thither. the Tathagata will pass away to Nibbana. the Buddha. For at one time Ananda. and not merely in order to troubleme. III. Subhadda very shortly became an Arahant. caught a word or two of the talk that was passing between Ananda and Subhadda. Ananda. These still remain. But Subhadda was too anxious to have his doubts settled by the Buddha before He passed away. thus passed away in far Kusinara. and when he heard that the Buddha was about to pass away. Do not keep Subhadda from seeing me. and Ananda again and again told him that his Master was far too ill and could not be disturbed by any one. “do not talk like that. Therefore let them come and see the Tathagata before He passes away. For he felt sure that the Lord Buddha could answer the question he wished to ask and clear up all his doubts about it. Ananda. just as Kondanna in the deer park near Benares was the first. the capital of the country where a great king lived in his golden palace.” said the Buddha. It is twenty-five centuries ago since Siddhattha Gotama.” Then Subhadda asked to be admitted to the Order of Bhikkhus. and the Buddha granted his request. called Subhadda was staying near Kusinara at this time. and He called Ananda to Him and said: “Come. Ananda. and will readily understand what I say to him. However. Let Subhadda come and see me if he wishes. and to the East into Tibet and China and Japan.“Nay. What he asks will be for the sake of learning from me. In this way Subhadda became the very last Bhikkhu whom the Buddha admitted to the Order.” “But go now. to take a refusal from Ananda. the Blessed One.
articles that the deceased had used during his life time were buried with him. Foremost among these was the sun. There is much anthropological. Subsequently. Before Buddhism came to Korean. for a tradition of such practices can be found in the routines of the cheongun (Heaven prince) of the Shaman period. Bak (brightness) is owed to the fact that light radiated from his body. it is necessary to observe Korean Shamanistic Beliefs and religions before considering from angles of various culture and anthropological point of view.Empire and Mongolian Buddhism as well. when the monk Sundo came to Goguryeo from the Earlier Jin state then in control of northeastern China and transmitted images of the 12 . All of the Three Kingdoms laid great stress on inculcating the Confucian ethos as a means of maintaining their aristocratic social orders. For example. The souls of natural objects such as mountains. rivers. Stones were placed around the corpse in an effort to protect it from evil spirits. introduced to Korea in much earlier times along with continental iron culture. Man. Again. Accordingly. Because in the north part of korea was not homogenous in those times. Neolithic man in Korea held animistic beliefs. being convinced that every object in the natural world was possessed of a soul. too. and the corpse was laid with its head toward the east. at the Gyeongdang in each locality. we are able to understand primitive men’s life and their religious rituals. and trees were thought of in the same way as those of men. Already in 372 Goguryeo had established a National Confucian Academy at which Confucianism was taught. Yuhwa24) is said to have conceived after the rays of the sun shone on her body and to have an egg from which the founder of Goguryeo. came into considerably more wide spread use during the Three Kingdoms period. Accordingly. the unmarried youth of Goguryeo were assembled for intensive instruction in the reading of Chinese texts as well as for archery practice. was born. and in the area of Northeast Asia they are known by the general term of Shamanism. Jumong. it also believed that evil spirits such as those who dwelled in darkness brought misfortune upon man. in the direction of the sunrise. intermediaries with the ability to drive off evil spirits and invoke the gods so as to bring about a happy outcome.26) The Chinese writing system. The widely used date for the initial acceptance of Buddhism is the year 372. but intense nationalism has prevented Asian countries from adequately studying history and facts. it was necessary that there be adepts in magic. It is supposed that these tribal magicians performed ceremonies designed to forestall calamity by means of chants and dancing. and it is related that the name he was given. and certain of these were accorded statues as divinities. and its worship is perhaps best evidenced by the numerous instances that can be found of myths of human birth from eggs. in burying the body of one who had died. DNA and archaeological evidence to support this. Both these legends indicate that exalted personages were thought to be children of the sun. Through this burying customs. Primitive religious practices of this same form are found throughout the world. of course had a soul and it was believed that this soul was immortal. Bak Hyeokgeose’s25) birth is described as being from an egg. It was a mix of Chinese new comers and the local Korean-Manchurian population. With good spirits like the sun were believed to bring good fortune to human beings. a variety of special attentions were shown.
in societies like these marked by such strict social stratification. then. At the same time. In both these instances it would appear that a receptive attitude toward the adoption of Chinese culture already had developed and that the new doctrine was conveyed through officially sanctioned missions from states in China with which the recipients had friendly relations. that Buddhism came to be accepted as a system of thought peculiarity suited to the needs of a centralized aristocratic state headed by a king. however. three Buddhas and the harvest God are merged into Korean Buddhism. The fact that Buddhism came to be so strongly supported and promoted by the royal house probably was because it was seen to be well-suited as a spiritual prop with which to under gird the new governing structure centered on the authority of the throne. In all of the Three Kingdoms the principal initiative for the acceptance of Buddhism was taken by the royal houses. was welcomed as a doctrine giving recognition to the privileged position of the aristocracy.Buddha and Buddhist sutras. Accordingly. taking together with the notion of the whole of the nation’s people serving the king as one. it should not be forgotten that without the acquiescence of the powerful aristocracy the official acceptance of Buddhism likely would not have come about. a mountain god building(q\^y£•) and the three holy sages of the world. a century after it first had been propagated among the populace. too. However we should concentrated this legend. buddhism was introduced around BC 1st century. There was a sea route in 13 . When Silla recognized Buddhism officially Lee Cha Don’s religious martyrdom was inevitable. Twelve years later the monk Malananda brought Buddhism to Baeckje from the Eastern Chin state in the Yangtze river valley. Buddhism was welcomed by the royal houses of Goguryeo and Baekje without giving rise to any significant discord. For example. surely played a major role as a force for unity and cohesion in these early Korean states. Moreover it was the king and those who served his person who turned aside the opposition of the aristocracy and forcibly carried through the official sanction of Buddhism. That is why even now we can know and find out there are many shamanistic evidences among Buddhism. Buddhism was first disseminated not very much later. However we should focus the first transmission of korean Buddhism in the korean peninsula on other records and legends as well. Buddhism. In the process of religious mixing. It may be argued. According to legends of Gaya nation. It is plausible that. was the way finally opened for official recognition of this alien religion. but officially not recognized in korea. the Buddhist teaching of reincarnation. This is seen with particular clarity in the case of Silla. Confucianism and Taoism were fused into shamanistic custom but three major religion did not lost their identity. It meant that there was religious struggle between buddhism and shamanistic custom. a Taoist shrine consecrated to the Big Dipper(Nf£•). The concept of a single body of believers all alike devoted spiritually to observing the way of the Buddha. of a rebirth based on karma. The nation lasted for many centuries. In Silla. Only when Buddhism had been transmitted to the royal houses of Silla. by the monk Ado who entered Silla from Goguryeo. certainly by the mid-fifth century. For example nation Gaya was located in east-southern part of the peninsula. Confucianism and Taoism.
” Then he asended to heaven. 14 . but through Garak country’s legend we presumed not later than A. and his words are still ringing in our ears. in that the unity of belief and discipline fostered by the religion could be made to serve the purposes of the state as well. with steamed dates of the sae and fairy peaches of heaven for my provisions.28) The Tripitaka is a general term for the whole set of Buddhist texts including the Vinaya Pitaka. When they were far out at sea a ship with a red sail and flying a red flag appeared on the horizon. It is the command of the god. my daughter. and Suro is a holy man. Then he and the princess entered the sleeping chamber. ‘ My family name is He. 00 A look at the Buddhist sects that flourished during the Three Kingdoms period will also serve to illustrate the close nexus that existed between state and religion. The sailors escorted her to the shore. 372 in Korea. “I have sent down Suro to be King of Garak. and the monks Gyeomik of Baeckje and Jajang of Silla were major figures in this school. in fact. The most important sect was Vinaya.” the princess said. and so exercised supervision over the entire Buddhist establishment in Silla. Jajang. My opinion is that there was religious interchange between korea and India. occupied the position of Chief Abbot of State. it would protect the Korean peninsular and put an end to the invasions by northen people such as Khitan and Mongolian. and in our dream we saw a god who said. The emphasis on the Vinaya doctrines. Samguk Yusa27) says about this story as follows. and I am sixteen years old. and the Abhidharma Pitaka.D. Now I blush to sand in your noble presence. It is generally accepted that the whole set of texts was carved twice. ‘ Last night we had a dream. He is not yet married. “ I am a princess of Ayuta(in India). although some hold that it was done thrice. The first set was made during the reign of King Hyojong. and the second during the reign of King Gojong. It was originally created because the royal family and the people believed that if the entire collection was carved.D.372. the Sutra Pitaka. which set forth the ‘disciplines’ or rules governing monastic life. In May this year my royal father and mother said to me. so send your daughter to become his Queen. darting toward the north like an arrow. The king bestowed native costumes and jewels upon the suite and bade them rest on beds covered with embroidered quilts and pillows. my given name is Hwangok(Yellow-Jade). bid farewell to your parents and go. The Gaya sailors waved torches and made signs for the mysterious ship to come near.” The above legend story says that she was from India and brought a buddha statue with her and her elder brother became a monk in Eunha temple. The introduction of buddhism is officially recognized A. also had a political significance.’ so I started on my long voyage. The Goryeo Tripitaka is considered one of the best Mahayana sets because of the exquisite carving of the characters on the wooden blocks and the completeness of the texts. they found that a beautiful princess was on board. where a courier mounted a swift steed and galloped off to convey the news to the King.southern part of Korea via China to the south east Asia and India even to the middle east. when it did so. All Buddhist countries possess complete collections of the Tripitaka.
Thereby. and surrounded Pyeongyang. and ordinary people as well as monks and scholars worked for it. At that time. The Mongolians in particular swept through and conquered India. This edition included 1. monks like Master Bobon led the monks militia. the logs being transported by sea so as not to be threatened by the mounted Mongolian hordes. Yuan insisted on imposing excessive tribute on Goryeo. Yuan invaded six times all together. the armies of Khitan (Georan in Korean) invaded the northern part of Goryeo. They occupied Uiju and Seoncheon. stone pagoda of Hwangnyong-sa and the woodblocks were burnt by the Mongolian. but in spite of this. the project of carving all the texts was started. officials.In 1010. King Hyojong took refuge in naju and started the huge0protect of carving the wood-block edition of the Buddhist canon to inspire the people to overcome this national disaster. the Buddhist publication office at Seonwon-sa in Ganghwa-do for the carving of another set of wooden blocks 1 of the Buddhist texts in 1236. originally strongholds of the northern territories of Goryeo. Yuan invaded Goryeo in 1231. was forced to submit to Jin in 1126 and to Yuan in 1259. 15 . Goryeo had to face many hardships and problems in its domestic and foreign situation.29) The protect was continued even after the withdrawal of the enemy armies. even the capital Gaeseong fell. making 5. and when could Goryeo could not fulfill the demands. established Daejang-dogam. At that time. central Asia. King Gojong and his government took refuge in Ganghwa-do in 1231 and time. This aim was to create a new set of blocks like the last one and to inspire the people in their belief of the state-protecting power of Buddhism as had King Hyonjong. taking about 40 years to complete in the reign of King Munjong. For sixteen years. Scholars and technicians all over the nation were mobilized and the necessary materials for the project were collected. The main office of Daejang-dogam was organized in the provisional capital of Ganghwa with branches in districts such as Boju. This belief was backed and supported by Gyo-jong rather than by Seon-jong. At that time the people needed inspiration and belief in Hoguk-bulgyo (state-protecting Buddhism) in order to rouse the national spirit. to promote the Buddha Dharma and to secure the national benefit with the help of the protecting power of the Buddhas and other divine protectors.048 volumes and it is known as Goryeo Gujang-gyeong In the 12th century.106 parts. the nine-storeyed . The entire set was completed in 1251 and it is called Jaejo-jang-gyeong or Goryeo Jaejo-jang-gyeong. and part of eastern Europe as well as mainland China and they established a kingdom unparalleled on soldiers. the state-backed Gyo-jong rather looked to the sutras to justify their preference and encourage the people’s belief in the protection offered by the Buddha. For the people believed that the bodhisattvas and the gods could protect the nation. Wood mainly from Jiri-san was specially cut and prepared for this great work. The Jurchen tribe of the Jin dynasty(1115-1234) and the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty(1156-1367) rose up aganist Goryeo after the Khitan tribe of the Liao Dynasty. From that during the next 30 years. the nation focused on the project. and soldiers. as we have already mentioned. Nearly all of the territory of Goryeo was occupied by Yuan and.
258 wooden blocks of the Jaejo-jang-gyeong and both sides are carved. making 52. Most Koreans. In Yi Dynasty Korean buddhism was oppressed 16 . Unfortunately.) in length. even though they may not call themselves Buddhists. At present it is kept in Haein-sa and usually known as the Goryeo Taejang-gyong or Palman Daejang-gyeong or Palman Daejang-gyeong. After Liberation in 1945. the movement toward a meditationbased view of practice which came to be known as chan (ªy. A new epoch in Korean Buddhism began during the latter Silla with the birth of schools of Seon in Korea. the Choson Dynasty came to an end with the annexation of the country to Japan. maintain a Buddhist view of life and the after world. I mentioned about the history of Korean Buddhism briefly at the beginning. had begun during the sixth and seventh centuries.512 parts which make up 6. About half the population of Korea is Buddhist. However modern korean buddhism has been changed so much since the ancient type of buddhism. In 1910. About 30 scholars monks like Master Sugi carefully compared the texts with other wooden blocks from wooden blocks from Sung and Liao.There are 81. during this period. Jogye. Each surface has 23 lines. across. During the Colonial Period. The wooden blocks have 1. taking special care with the editing. This led to the creation of a Tripitaka which is famous for its quality.) thick. Each wooden blocks is two chok three chon (67cm. and each line has 14 Chinese characters. programs for people of all ages include learning to chant. and social gatherings. eight chon (23cm. However.516 surfaces. Seon seck was higher than doctrinal one and Seon Buddhism dominated cross the country.” widely known in the West through its Japanes zen). In considering on doctrinal development of the Korean Buddhism for the first half year of Shilla period Korean buddhism had been researched in various fields. Mind Only study was dull as well. meaning “meditation.791 fascicles.152 characters in all. Recently. More over in Koryeo Dynasty invasion of foreign enemy caused doctrinal research callapsed and no more than Shilla period’s level even if there were many Dharma meetings and ceremonial events.). Large numbers of men and women were ordained and there was a great revival of Korean Buddhism. specially its principle of practice has changed a lot since introducing Seon Buddhism.330. Heads of temples were appointed by the Japanese occupation authorities. all night meditation classes. That is why Yogacara school. the celibate ordained members of the main sect of Korean Buddhism. many Buddhist art treasures were taken to Japan in order to have these stolen treasures returned to Korean. the latter period scholarly study was collapsed and resulted in stagnation rapidlly because of entering into Seon throwing away the doctrine(hcNeeQªy) through the way of Seon meditation from China. Through the history of the Korean Buddhism. making 322 characters on each side. making 162. On the Chinese mainland. and one chon. three pun (3cm. Buddhism was greatly favored and supported by the Japanese government. the celibate sects were discouraged and monks were encouraged to take wives. superseded the married monks who had taken over the main temples during the Japanese Occupation. On Seon point of view doctrinal study was just affiliation of Seon Buddhism. studying. many new temples and centers have opened in the town.
while Sokguram was known for the beauty of its stone sculpture. including painting. Korea was also the source of the initial Buddhist transmission into Japan. Being geographically contiguous with China. which culminated in the 17 . his birth name was Han Yong-un( korean:\Õ©Æ´Æ or Ó—Äùò–. During this period many large and beautiful temples were built. Manhae was his religious name(buddhist name). sculpture. There he introduced hwadu meditation practice which was later promoted by National Master Taego Pou as the main Korean form of meditation. such Zen masters as Cheongheo Hyujeong and Buhyu Seonsu continued the transmission of the hwadu tradition. arts and societal customs. The transmission of Buddhism to Korea from China happened along with the importation of Chinese ideographic writing and various other currents of Chinese philosophy. As a result. as well as medicine. The founder of the first Jogye Order. With a virtual end to organized Zen meditation in China during the latter half of the 20th century. people from different countries have taken ordination in the Jogye Order. Bulguksa was especially famous for its jeweled pagodas. In the Goryeo Dynasty. it was not long before the influence of the new meditating school reached Korea. As was the case in Tang China. Prior to being ordained as a buddhist monk. the tradition was continued by Masters yeongheo Seongwoo and Yongseong Jinjong who played vital roles in bringing new life to the meditation tradition. Korea has become widely recognized as the country which preserves the Zen tradition of seeking enlightenment through the use of koan (K: hwadu). Despite the Joseon Dynasty’s severe repression of Buddhism. and the cave-retreat of Sokguram (ówŸzµ ^ ). In the early 20th century. literature. the history and development of culture on the Korean peninsula is strongly influenced by that of the continent. the sparkling intellectual developments of Silla Buddhism also brought with them significant cultural achievements in many areas. where it was known as Seon. Huineng. received transmission from the Chinese monk Xitang Zhizhang in the lineage of the Sixth Patriarch of Zen. Since Koreans were in continuous close contact with developments in Chinese Buddhism. Ts’aochi where Huineng resided showing the great veneration that the Sixth Patriarch is held in by the Jogye Order. especially during earlier periods when Chinese culture was so advanced as compared with that ofits neighbors. We should focus on a great meditation master Manhae Han Yong-un(1879-1944) who was a 20th century korean Buddhist Reformer and poet. he was involved in resistance to Japanese influence in the country. National Master Pojo Chinul established Suseonsa Temple the forerunner of today’s Songgwangsa Temple in which meditative and doctrinal schools were integrated into one system. National Master Doui. ‘Jogye’ is the Korean pronunciation of Mt. as well as the Nara and early Heian periods in Japan (which are roughly contemporary to the Silla). Manhae was born in southern Chungcheong province South Korea. remaining in this role for several centuries. and two crowning achievements were the temple Bulguksa ([OWú[). and Korea has become justifiably proud of its growing worldwide reputation. which he also used as a nom de plume. also written Han Yong-woon).until Japanese Empire occupation and again Japanese Empire tried to force Korean Buddhism a branch sect of Soto sect of Japanese Buddhism. and architecture.
scholars of East Asian Buddhism nowadays are generally becoming aware of the important role of Korean Buddhism in the East Asian religious philosophical sphere.Japanese occupation from 1905 to 1945.1 Korean scholars and monks not only devoted unusually large portions of their time and energy toward the resolution of sectarian debates and apparent doctrinal inconsistencies. In the Korean Buddhist tradition is the tendency for its most noted thinkers to be holistic in the interpretation of The most distinctive general characteristic that can be seen doctrine and to be exasperatingly thorough in the resolution of doctrinal and “loose ends” passed on from Buddhist predecessors. the monks have 3 months to “float like the clouds and flow like water. There are three types of meditation sessions: the regular daily schedule is 8-10 hours. and helped inspire the tendencies toward passive resistance and non-violence in Korean independence movement. with its deep store of untouched resources. Han Yongun was one of the 33 members who in 1919 singed the historical document as a representative of the people to declare Korea’s independence from the Japanese colonial control of Korea. depending on the temple’s own regulations. monks sever all ties with the outside world and concentrate on discovering their Original Nature through this practice. monks arise at either 2 or 3 am to the crack of the bamboo clapper and perform three prostrations of homage. Manhae was ordained as a Buddhist monk at Baekdam Temple on Mt. These works revolve around the ideas of equality and freedom. During the rest of the day. At the Zen centers. A meditation monastery or center is the place for monastics to practice Korean Seon. it still lies. Since Korean Buddhism has come to the attention of Western scholarship rather late compared with Chinese and Japanese Buddhism. These 3-month retreats. are one of the strong points of Jogye Order Buddhism. the monks immerse themselves in meditation until either 9 or 11 pm. Seorak.” although nowadays many monks continue their meditation efforts all year long. As a social writer. one of his more political collections was Nimui chimmuk. The same year the occupation began. For a time. which date back to the time of the Buddha Sakyamuni. His poems mainly concern his philosophical meditation on nature and the mystery of human experience. published in 1926. and “ferocious”meditation periods of 18 hours or more. they produced a strain of Buddhism of a significantly new character from that which had been initially transmitted to them. In 18 . 1905. almost fully open for exploration. Manhae’s poetry dealt with both nationalism and love. or meditation. Manhae called for the reformer of Korean Buddhism. This Korean ethnic color of Buddhism. except for mealtime and group work time. And while early ignorance regarding the Korean Buddhist tradition lent to some degree of uninformed glossing over from preconceptions drawn from models in Chinese and Japanese Buddhism. the additional practice sessions of 12-14 hours. During the intensive 3-month meditation retreats in the summer and winter. termed by its most important exponent Weonhyo (CQÉf 617-686) as tong bulgyo ( [ONe ‘interpenetrated Buddhism’ ) remanifests itself in various forms in the works of one major Korean thinker after another throughout the history of the tradition. the monks practice hard and in between these retreats.
The Jogye Order takes the teachings of the Buddha Sakyamuni as its basis and its principles are transmissional Seon. standard. most temples have one month of this “ferocious” meditation. the legislative organ. after which they receive their full precepts (250 for men. and sometimes even years. Monastics of the Jogye Order receive a number of educational programs. the highest authority in transmitting the order’s traditions. analysis of the precepts as well as programs to foster such monastic resources as translators and lecturers. the most important and widely known practice is hwadu meditation. and a Bureau of Missionary Activities. a President who overseas administration of the order. and a Board of Adjudication. The charter set out at the monks’Conference in 1929 stands as a model for the modern constitution which came into being on April 10. These fall into the categories of basic. or training rules. and propagation. 1994. 19 . candidates then take prescribed examinations and if successful. After 10 years of steady practice. when the practitioner will go into a solitary cell or cave for months or even years without ever coming out until enlightened. a Central Directorate for Religious Affairs comprised of an Administrative Headquarters. or nun. At about 5 pm. a future member of the community first seeks out a teacher at a temple. In addition to the basic and standard educational program. bhikkhuni. In the Jogye Order. a Bureau of Education. chanting and devotional practices are integrated into the program. All ordained members must complete the standard education program. depending on the season. special or re-education. they then take the full precepts. the order has a number of special programs. including chanting. And then after another session of meditation or study. These consist of refining the ethical standards of the individual. which include deeper philosophy.general. text study. Some may be involved in administrative affairs and the teaching of the laity. they retire at about 9 pm. realization of Buddha nature. After completing four years of basic training in living in the monastery and attending training college where the aspirant learns philosophy and other necessary subjects. without lying down. and serves as an aspirant apprentice for a period of at least five months. and “no door”meditation. The Jogye Order has its own constitution based on the Buddhist Dharma and discipline. Once ordained. The administrative organization of the Jogye Order includes a Supreme Patriarch or Spiritual Leader. a Central Council. Once the aspirant is accepted. has his head shaved or his hair cut very short. not all are required. Monks then proceed to their respective practice halls for meditation or sutra study. maintenance. bhikkhu. 348 for women). meditation retreats. there is a ceremony of the taking of the novice precepts. The order relies on the Diamond Sutra as a guiding text and though sutra study. they have the evening meal followed by chanting. At 10:30 am they return to the Main Buddha Hall for the traditional offering and then after their meal and some free time they resume their activities. and so on. Other forms of meditation include sitting for at least 3 months. a new monk will participate in all the daily activities of the temple. they can take the 3rd Class examination which entitles the successful candidates to be in-charge of a temple. There are also programs giving monastics a chance to develop in a variety of fields in cultural as well as artistic subjects. becoming a monk. the legal organ.
” Chinese Buddhism shows a special quality of development in its many schools. the most noteworthy aspect is the perfect overcoming of any philosophical confrontation between the different ideas and scholars of Korean Buddhism and the harmonization of theory and practice. Of course in three kingdom’s time Indian buddhist theory.” Korean Buddhism shows the harmonization of “whole Buddhism. He was about to go to study China but he changed his mind under way with master Uisang. The Five Precepts (to refrain from taking life. I introduced Korea Buddhism in general conception and brief history in the preceding pages. Hamhur(Duktong).A lay member of the Jogye Order receives precepts and education according to the constitution and laws of the order. There are four types of educational programs for the laity: basic. Basic educational programs can be found at all temples and it is necessary to complete this course to become a lay follower. Indian Buddhism is the introduction. hence it exhibits a tendency toward “ diversity “ and “ decentralization. teaching. These programs teach people about the philosophy. According to legend. Yogacara and Madyamika were dominated by monk scholars those who studied in China or inland korea. We can mention outstanding monks who gave great and important influence on korean buddhism throughout history of korean buddhism. Such a characteristic was developed through the deeds of the long line of eminent Korean practitioners. sexual misconduct. special. Buddhism in Korea is certainly different in the process of its development and in the final result. In re-education programs. language misconduct. Nowadays. we can compare the history of the spread of Buddhism to a book. The special and teaching programs are aimed at fostering special knowledge and cultivation so that the laity can be more active in the temples. Jinul(Bojo). Indian Buddhism is characterized by the fact that it is the origin and thereby it may be considered as “ The principle. Chinese Buddhism is the matter. Seosan(Hyujeong) and Manhae etc. in which philosophical confrontation and conflict are overcome. we call Korean Buddhism as total traditional Buddhism which accepted all different tradition even Taoism and Shamanism. practices and how to behave in the temples and in communal situations. stealing. In the process of the historical development of Korean Buddhism. Korean buddhism mainly rely on Chinese Buddhism throughout the history of Korean Buddhism rather than Indian Buddhism. Korean Buddhism can be “Whole Buddhist Harmonization. the Dharma and the Sangha. and re-education. and Korean Buddhism is the conclusion. Therefore. Wonhyo (617-686)has been called the most and best scholar monk in Korea.” making it one. However they realized the hut was a tomb and discovered water they drunk was water in a skull container. the order holds training programs to further the cultivation of executives of the Lay Association. They are Wonhyo. He realized that every thing happened and 20 . one night two monks took a sleep in a hut after sunset.” Comparing the Buddhism of India and that of China. or community of monks establish a person as a member of the lay order. and taking mind altering substances such as alcohol) coupled with taking refuge in the Triple Gem of Buddhism the Buddha. from this point of view.
Guided by a sea dragon. so much the better for the country. Then he gave up going to study in China. Jogye. pure-minded practitionners deep in the mountains. Wonhyo wrote many buddhist books but many of them were being scattered and lost. 21 . both in terms of its external reputation as well as on internal issues of doctrine. Straight Talk on the True Mind represents a median stage in the development of Chinul. Here he moves away from the basic practice of balancing samadhi and prajna. Jinul sought to establish a new movement within Korean Seon which he called the ‘samadhi and prajna’ society (š[ga>yjeonghyesa). Straight Talk suffered the same fate as secrets: lost in Korea during the Mongol invasions. There is a book called Straight Talk on the True Mind (wÃ_ôvª Š) by Jinul. Goryeo buddhism was protected by the founder Wang Geon(877-943Taejo. In the middle of Goryeo dynasty (937-1392). he was born at a time when the Sangha was in a state of crisis. Jinul is considered be the most influential figure in the formation of Korean Seon buddhism. around 1205.” 30) When he wrote a commentary on the Hwaeom(avatamsaka sutra) scripture he stopped at the fortieth chapter. For these reasons he never rose above the lowest ranks of the monks. Next we should concentrate on Jinul(Bojo 1158-1210) in Koryo Dynasty. Most of korean buddhist scholars agreed to opinion that wonhyo is the best writer in ancient Korea. “Who will lend me as axe that has lost its handle? I wish to cut a heavensupporting pole. and when he lived at Bunhwansa temple in early life he was constantly occupied with public affairs.s thought.dependent on mind. and he felt a strong desire for a woman. Some of his writings are very important for korean buddhist scholars.918-943).” The passers by laughed at him . His statement opens with the solemn caveat: “ All the great enterpprises of our kingdom depend upon the protectivepower of all the Buddhas. it was reintroduced into Korea in the fifteenth century via the Northern Ming edition of the Tripitaka. This movement’s goal was to establish a new community of disciplined.r. he received a commandment from Buddha to write while traveling a song about Sammaegyeong(Samadhi sutra). He put his ink-stone and his writing brush on the two horns of the ox he rode. not realizing thereal meaning of his song. “ The love lorn monk wants to marry a noble lady and get a wise son by her. The kingdom encouraged very much religious activities. the year of his death. Taejo promulgated ten admonitions to guide his sucessors in ruling the kingdom. If a sage is born. and investigates the more sophisticated cultivation of no-mind. Jinul accomplished this mission with the founding of the Songgwangsa monastery at Mt. the primary method explored in his early work encouragement to practice. At this stage.” Jinul wrote many seon books. The precise date of composition is unknown. but King Muyeol said when he heard it. One day Wonhyo saw bees and butterflies fitting from flower to flower. He walked through the streets of Kyungju singing. however he has yet to progress into an examination of the exclusively Seon technique of hwadu investigation which will characterize his late works. it was probably written about the same time as secrets. In 943. and therefore people called him kaksung(Horn Rider).
He took up from Jinul the tradition of unificationof Seon and Gyo(sutra) Buddhism. advancing his Seon studies and teaching at monasteries all around Korea. Manhae called for the reform of korean buddhism. leaving behind some 1000 disciples. (3) his subcomentary and redaction of the Collection of Yongjia. Manhae was ordained as a Buddhist monk at Baekdam Temple on Mt. which culminated in the Japanese occupation from 1905 to 1945. His poems mainly concern his philosophical meditation on nature and the mystery of human experience. 22 . Gihwa. returning to the itinerant life. Like most monks of the Joseon period. Gihwa. who was the leading Buddhist figure of his generation. Hyujeong (or “Seosan Daesa. after making a name for himself as a teacher. 70 of whom were monks and nuns. (2) his redaction and subcommentary to five famouse earlier commentaries on the Diamond Sutra. a guide to Seon practice which is studied by Korean monks down to the present. Dissatisfied. These are his commentary on (1) the Sutra of Perfect Enlightment(the Wongak gyeong hae seorui).s commentary on the sutra of perfect Enlightenment was traslated by Charles Muller. Now I will mention two Seon masters among them in Joseon period. He was oringinally a Conucian scholar of the higest reputation. Before ever having tested his hand as a military commander. and helped inspire the tendencies toward passive resistance and non-violence in the Korean independence movement. Later. the Yonggajip gwaju seorui and (4) the Hyeonjeong non. Manhae was his buddhist and pen name. also known as Hamheo Teuktong(1376-1433). I introduce his poetry. the geumgang banyabaramilgyeong ogahae seorui. and many of whom held a prominent role in the later transmission of Joseon Buddhism Manhae(1879-1944) was a 20th century korean Buddhist reformer and poet. He was a late Goryeo -early Joseon Biddhist monk of the Seon order. These works revolve around the idears of equality and freedom. Gihwa(ñ]ŒT) and Hyujeong(O\ — ). and a strong appreciation for the scriptual tradition. Seorak.We remember other Seon masters like Hyegeon(gaäR) and Taego(*YäS) in Goryeo dynasty. He was involved in resistance to Japanese influence in the country. eventually joining the sangha. he wandered through the mountain monasteries. Seosan was a first-rate Seon master and the author of a number of important religious texts. Among his writings. 1520-1604) is quite famous monk in Joseon dynasty. also as hamheo. he was made arbiter of the Seon school by queen Munjeong. but he converted to Buddhism at the age of upon the death of a close friend.” as he is popularly known in Korea) had been initially educated in Neo-Confucian philosophy. He wrote many buddhist books and poetry. Han was one of the 33 members who in 1919 singed the historical document as a representative of the people to declare Korea’s independence from the Japanese colonial control of Korea. his birth name was Han Yong-un. the most important of which is probably his Seonga gugam (ªy¶[œŸQ”). there are four works in particular that made a deep impact on the subsequent Seon tradition in Korea. One of his more political collections was Nimui Chimmuk published in 1926. He died at 85. He soon resigned from this responsibility. Seosan Hyujeong (n‰q\O\—. Gihwa’s writings showed a distinctive mixture between iconoclastic and suddenistic Seon(Chan) language. As a social writer.
has turned to cold ashes. I hear not his sweet voice. I know parting can only destroy our love if it causes futile tears to fall. I am not parted from love. Chán is 23 . I see not his fair looks. I mentioned buddhist thinkers mainly among monks but we should know that there were many lay thinkers as well among modern scholars those who are monks and laypeople. Summer retreat starts from the full moon day of April to the full moon day of July for three months according to lunar calendar. I remember his poignant first kiss and its memory has wrought a complete change in my destiny. summer and winter season. Chán is the Chinese name for the school of Mahayana buddhism which is the origine of Japanese Zen. Tearing himself away from me he has gone on a little path that stretches in the splendor of a green hill into the autumn/tinted woods. so. But dhyana in India including Hiduism also is quite important to understand the origine of Seon meditation. then withdrawn into oblivion. Our last oath. dreaded a parting to come when we met. I would rather transfer the surge of this sorrow onto the summit of hopefulness. Though my love is gone. This Seon practice tradition has been sine Chinese Chán(ªy) Buddhism was introduced to the Korean Peninsula. gone is my love. The separation came so suddenly it broke my heart with renewed sorrow. blown away in the breath of wind. I alert. In order to understand korean Seon we should study Chines Chan and Japanese Zen.The Silence of Love Love is gone. However Seon Buddhism dominates Korean Buddhist tradition entirely although other traditions are mixed with in Korean Buddhism. As we dread parting when we meet. Buddhist studies in korea rely on sutras and sastras traditionally. Yet. shining and enduring like a gold-mosaicked flower. Each retreat lasts for three months. We call summer retreat haangeo(Y‰[E\ summer vassa) and winter retreat dongangeo(¬Q ‰[E\ winter vassa). Korean Buddhist Sangha has two retreats each year. we promise to meet again when we part. Winter retreat starts the full moon day of October to the full moon day of January to the next year. Since it is human to love.
Only the subtlest of mental movement remains-perceiveable in its absence by those who have entered the second Jhana. When a meditator emerges from Jhana. and then “zen” in Japan). Ekaggata) The Five hindrances have completely disappeared and intense unified bliss remains. The establishment of Chán is traditionally attributed to Bodhidharma. the word Jhana is never explicitly used to denote them. Hapiness. all the forms of the Bodhidharma legend concur that he ultimately settled in the kingdom of Weiw here he took as disciples Daoyu and Huike. and then “zen” in Japan). Second Jhana(Piti. The Jhanas are said by the Buddha to be conducive to detachment but they must not be mistaken for the final goal of nibbana. G. In his “Notes on some artists of the Six Dynasties and the Tang. Vicara joy. The noted historian J. Though they agree on almost nothing else. Sukha. agitation. Sukha One-pointedness. Sometimes these are also referred to as the “formless” Jhanas. where it came to be transliterated as “chan”(“seon” in Korea. It is a key concept in hinduism and buddhism. The deeper Jhanas can last for many hours. Bodhidharma brought Dhyana to the Shaoline temple in China. Sukha. Equanimity. aversion. In the Pali Canon the Buddha descibes four progressive states of absorption meditation or Jhana. in the Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall (952). The ability to form unwholesome intentions cease. A. although not to the point of abandoning serious study completely. under the names Chan. sloth. Piti(Sanskrit:Priti) 2. Jhanas are normally described by the way of the mental factors which are present in these ststes. Upekkha(Sanskrit: Upeksa) First Jhana(Vitakka. Piti. “Chán” in modern Chinese and Seon in Korean. The Jhanas are states of meditation where the mind is free from the five hindrances(craving. whose arrival in China whose arrival in China is dated to the Liu Song Dynasty (420–479) in the Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks (645) and to 527. In the Buddhist canonical texts. Vitakka in Pali (Sanskrit: itarka) 1. Then how Buddhism accepted this term from hindu tradition. Ekaggata(Sanskrit: Ekagrata) 3. In East Asia. Vicara. According to tradition. There are four deeper states of mrditative absoption called the immaterial attainments. several schools of Buddhism were founded that focused on dhyana. Retention of the mind on the object. or Arupajhana(distinguished from the first four Jhanas. Dhyâna in sanskrit or Jhâna in Pali refers to a type or aspect of meditation. Ekaggata). but they are always mentioned in sequence after the first four Jhanas.” Pual Pellio asserts that all accounts of Bodhidharma are legendary.known for its emphasis on meditation and everyday life ahead of philosophical and scriptural pursuits. Zen and Seon. one’smind is empowered and able to penerate into the deepest truths of existence. Roberts in his book “The Complete History of China” notes that Chan Buddhism most likely was an indiginous development within China. Jhanas are normally described by the way of the mental factors which are “chan” (“seon” in Korea. All 24 . Movement of the mind onto the object. Rupajhana). doubt) and incapable of discursive thinking. Equivalent terms are “Zen” in Japanese.
The scriptures state that one should not seek to attain ever higher jhanas but master one first. stay as long as one likes. Here he moves away from the basic practice of balancing samadhi and prajna. existence is equal to dependent origination.” And in early Buddhist sutras it is said that “All existence be it form or formless is the result of dependent origination.” and “Seeing dependent origination is seeing the dharma.”That is to say. dialog question. Ekaggata). The precise date of composition is unknown. A kôan (lQHh. We can understand an example of Gong-an which is through The Gateless Gate Wumenguan(!q€•Ü•. dependent origination is equal to the dharma. Fourth Jhana(Upekkha. if the jhanas have not been properly developed. it was reintroduced into Korea in the fifteenth century via the Northern Ming edition of the Tripitaka. then move on to the next. Third Jhana(Sukha. Five koans in the collection derive from the sayings and doings 25 . it was probably written about the same time as secrets. These words are the same.s thought. When we discuss korean seon(meditation) we should know abot Hwadu or kongan in korean(koan in japanese) first. which the Buddha said is actually a subtle form of hapiness(more sublime than piti and sukha). around 1205. That is. The breath is said to cease temporarily in this state. We are Seon itself and the truth itself. At this stage. The Mahaparnirvana Sutra says. Straight Talk suffered the same fate as secrets: lost in Korea during the Mongol invasions. Ekaggata) One half of bliss disappears(joy). “All sentient beings and non-sentient beings have Buddha Nature. There is only bliss. often translated into English as The Gateless Gate but more accurately rendered as Gateless Barrier or Gateless Checkpoint) is a collection of 48 koans and commentaries published in 1228 by Chinese monk Wumen(!q€•). yet that may be accessible to intuition. leading to a state with neither pleasure nor pain. Straight Talk on the True Mind represents a median stage in the development of Jinul. The Buddha is seen to advise his disciples to concentrate and the jhana further. They also seem to suggest that lower jhana may manifest themselves in higher jhanas. leave at will and experience each of the jhana factors as required. Mumonkan in Japanese.mental movement utterly ceases. the primary method explored in his early work encouragement to practice. and seeing the dharma is seeing the Buddha. and the dharma is equal to the Buddha. The ability to form wholesome intentions cease as well. however he has yet to progress into an examination of the exclusively Seon technique of hwadu investigation which will characterize his late works. this fourth jhana is seen as the begining of attaining psychic powers. There is a book called Straight Talk on the True Mind (wÃ_ôvªŠ) by Jinul. Seon is the Buddha and the Buddha Nature. pronounced Mumungwan in korean. Japanese: kôan. the Buddha is equal to the existence of beings and beings are the same as the Buddha. or statement in the history and lore of Chan (Zen) Buddhism generally containing aspects that are inaccessible to rational understanding. traditionally. and investigates the more sophisticated cultivation of no-mind. The other half of bliss(hapiness) disappears. Chines: gông-àn) is a story. ‘Mastery of jhana’ involves being able to enter a jhana at will. The Buddha descibed the jhanas as “the footsteps of the tathagata”.
that “The question has no meaning”. a perplexing 26 .” Wu-Men actually intends his scathing insult as a form of high praise.” Another time. koan can refer to a story selected from sutras and historical records. and students in training. However. some teachers have accepted prefabricated responses such as shouting “mu!” or barking like a dog. and that this interpretation only has meaning to a meditator who contemplates the koan. many other teachers demand an entirely improvised response.” There are many examples of Gong-an. “Does a dog have Buddhanature or not?” Zhaozhou answered. usually those authorized to teach in a lineage that regards bodhidharma as its ancestor. Teachers routinely reject common speculations by students. the same Chinese character appeared at the end of verse 40 of lao Zi’s (Tao Te Ching) in a line sometimes translated as “existence emerges from nonexistence”. independent of words and transmitted beyond doctrine. “Does a dog have Buddha-nature or not?” Zhaozhou replied. Only Mahakashyapa broke into a broad smile. the True Form of the Formless. he held out a flower to his listeners. students offering such canned responses may not withstand the “checking questions” that such teachers pose in further inquiry. and sometimes said to confound the habit of discursive thought or shock the mind into awareness. Moreover. and some Zen practitioners concentrate on koans during meditation. “I have the True Dharma Eye. or nonexistence. Centuries earlier. This I have entrusted to Mahakashyapa. The Buddha said. “capping phrases”(jakugo). and the Subtle Dharma Gate. a monk asked Zhaozhou. Teachers may probe such students about their koan practice using “checking questions” to validate an experience of insight (kensho) or awakening. Mahayana Buddhist doctrine codified in the Nirvana Sutra held that all sentient beings. Koans originate in the sayings and doings of sages and legendary figures. “Yes. He sells dog meat labeled as mutton and thinks it commendable. Title is “Buddha holds out a flower”. “Wu. I will introduce one mre which is quite important one in Buddhist seon tradition. A related koan in the Book of Serenity reinforces the teaching that Zhaozhou’s response does not refer to affirmation or negation: One time a monk asked Zhaozhou. the Marvelous Mind of Nirvana. “No. including animals. the way we would say “woof!”. including the assertion that wu signifies that “It is unknowable whether the dog has Buddha-nature”. “Does a dog have Buddha-nature or not?” Zhaozhou answered. A monk asked Zhaozhou. wu and mu mean no. that Zhaozhou intended to convey the sound of a barking dog.of Zhaozhou Congshen (transliterated as Chao-chou in Wade-Giles and pronounced Jôshû in Japanese). However.” Translators often render Zhaozhou’s answer as mu from Japanese retellings. Everyone was silent. Normally. and other erroneous interpretations. the commentary of teachers in the Linji(Rinzai in Japanese) tradition tends to emphasize that this koan dialog consists of a challenge the monk posed to Zhaozhou to demonstrate Buddha-nature without becoming entangled in doctrine. Koans are said to reflect the enlightend or awakened state of such persons.” From Wu-Men’ comment about this koan: “Gautama insolently insults noble people. Zen teachers often recite and comment on koans. without. When Shakyamuni Buddha was at mount Grdhrakuta. and verses inspired by the koan. As used by teachers. not. possess the capacity for enlightenment. Responses by students have included actions or gestures. thwarting any student’s attempt to rationally explain the koan as feeble. monks. Nevertheless.
He did it! Anathapindika covered the whole grove with gold coins and was able to do so because he was so rich. neither matter any more. This model of the “Ten Ox herding Pictures” has 27 . The underlying idea is that the mind is naturally pure but is polluted by extraneous impurities. How rich he was! Before building the Jetavana monastery. English-speaking non-Zen practitioners sometimes use koan to refer to an unanswerable question or a meaningless statement. the essence of enlightenment. agreed to sell it on one condition which was that Anathapindika must cover the grove with gold coins. Anathapindika is the name of the rich merchant. the Jetavana grove which is also known as Anathapindika’s Park is described. even though it is still unclear. the term koan sometimes refers to any experience that accompanies awakening or spiritual insight. In the Diamond Sutra. The mind has submitted. the Dharmakaya Buddha. a koan is not meaningless.” which are not necessary. Prince Jeta. a time for a change of lifestyle and the eradication of bad habits. The mind wanders. The herder and the ox are transcended. He transcends the ox and stands alone. the herder is you. Less formally. a murmur of achievement is heard faintly. You may notice that the ox is changing colour from dark to light. or to the story appended by poetry and commentary authored by later Zen teachers. different teachers may demand different responses to a given koan. the mind is unruly but by perseverance the ox (mind) follows by itself. He catches the ox. who owned the grove. in Zen practice. He was a very rich man.element of the story. Appropriate responses to a koan may vary according to circumstances. The herder pays no further attention to the ox. however. However. The way appears and he recognizes it as right. He returns to the world where he lives to teach others. the person on the spiritual quest and the ox is the mind. You know what happened. The herder mounts the ox. sometimes layering commentary upon commentary. Through discipline and meditation practice it is cleansed and regains its original nature. a concise but critical word or phrase (qŠ-˜ huà-tóu) extracted from the story. We should break the dual thinking such as “you” and “I” and “existence and non-existence. a koan is not a riddle or a puzzle. These pictures originated in China in the 12th century during the Sung Dynasty. Even so. and teachers often do expect students to present an appropriate and timely response when asked about a koan. It is the beginning of the spiritual search. Evidence of the importance placed in meditation in Korean Buddhism may be gained by the prevalence of the famous ‘Ox herding Pictures” adorning the exterior walls of the main hall of most temples. who donated the Jetavana monastery to the Buddha. He finds evidence of the ox. The circle is the symbol “Il Won”. The herder is searching for the ox. This is the moment of Awakening. The reason for doing hwadu practice is neither to raise doubt nor to attain mental focus. Anathapindika was a man who cared a lot for the poor and homeless. It is difficult to tame. In these pictures. and not all teachers assume that a fixed answer is correct in every circumstance. Sometimes the Path is difficult to find. He sees the ox for the first time. He reaches the origin. He tames the ox. Returning to the origin he ‘recognizes’ what he knew before. The struggle is difficult and success seems far away. Sudatta. We inevitably have a doubt during our hwadu practice because of our dual thinking.
is clearly borne out by the fact that the great Buddhist King. Even so here should one tie one’s own mind tight to the object of mindfulness”. encountering praise and slander. gives quite a life-like-picture of Gotama. the birth place of Buddha. otherwise an insignificant place. Sakyamuni was born here. ] IV. the personalities of these two founders of religion and some major events of their lives. as we know. like other people. Yet the germs of some of these teaching are traceable to a much earlier period. and its little known Sakya rulers. the product of their age and cultural traditions. The immediate source of Buddhism. Numerous races and religions. The Buddha and his followers had ‘gone forth’ from the worldly society as wanderers and formed their own community in which to live the ‘best life’ and attain peace of mind. In fact. however.its roots in the Pali commentaries where it says: “Just as a man would tie to a post a calf that should be tamed. however. the Indian thought assumed a composite character at a very early stage. Thus a wide variety of views have been expressed about the origins of Buddhism. Thinkers. struggled and fused into one another in the long history of india and so its process of thought-development cannot be properly viewed without this historical perspective. in no small measure. E. let them to a definite conclusion. Asoka visited this place. meeting and mingling with different ideas around them. more than the provision of an escape route for 28 . The fact that Kapilavastu. the Buddha. moving from place to place. if relied on as exclusive basis. nirvana. was much more than this. Attempts made by various scholars to trace the origins of Buddhistic ideas have not. Conclusion The early Buddhist Literature.C. Kapilavastu. Some think that Buddhism was derived from a corresponding theory of the fore-runners of the Jains. preaching his dharma. They have to grow in an open atmosphere. The inscription as translated by Dr. had become a well-known holy place for Buddhists. The movement thus started. in spite of some exaggerations and discrepancies. he came himself and worshiped (this post) because. are. Thoughts. Opinions are widely divided. at least as early as about 250 B. the Buddha and his contemporaries given by Buddhist tradition has striking similarities with that of the Jaina tradition. is the teachings of Buddha. An epoch-making departure from the tradition with so strong a reaction on the contemporaries would be really passing strange without believing in a great living personality shaping and changing the course of the age. at least. Their mutual correlation hardly leaves any doubt regarding. are bound to misdirect the investigation. we know. and many of them have tacitly assumed that all thoughts existing before Buddhism must necessarily have a vedic origin. and recorded his memory on a column which was discovered in 1986 near the Nepalese village of Paderia. could not have gained any importance but for a real Buddha. rarely develop in closed rooms. have clear limitations and so. Hultzsch reads as follows: “When King Devanampiya Piyadassi had been anointed 20 years. It appears that most of the scholars in attempting to answer have been mainly guided by the similarities of ideas. Both these considerations.” Again the account of Gotama. communities and cultures have met. the individual. as yet.
The object of the first discourse is to show that the claims of the brahmans are baseless and to maintain that all beings are equal before the moral law (good conduct will lead to a good destiny). we find in other texts. The primary principle. but only food gathering at need. A little warfare is not enough: only a massive general slaughter can produce the requisite impression. Before the time.’ In a time when ‘sword intervals’ are frequent. He was a Seon master in Goryeo dynasty however his effort and teachings of Seon Buddhism is still guide line for Seon practitioner of Korean Buddhism. etc. the first which must be established and from which the others would seem to follow or derive. A few other principles are mentioned occasionally. The last of main principles is truth: ‘abstention from false speech’. It would seem also that there was no religion. Equally there was no basis for any violence or use of force. harsh. I focused on Jinul’s Seon practice and his method. also there was no aristocracy and no king. a split exacerbated by increasingly inflammatory and intransigent attitudes among adherents of both schools. just as in the absence of property there could be no theft. so that all needs were easily satisfied and the question of private property could not arise. As a kind of government there was simply the assembly of all the people. A major split had occurred between the scholastic and Seon sects. The food plants were abundant and prolific. boycott the fighting. with or without Buddhism. There was no priesthood. If a happy society is to be restored. and it seems to be assumed that its advantages will be so self-evident at that time that the majority will come to follow the principle. which eventually established private property and thereby ensured the doom of the ancient society.those who wished to contract out of transmigration. the following are the moral principles which must prevail. With this are associated avoiding all kinds of harmful speech: malicious. is ‘abstention from taking life. social regeneration will be begun by people who withdraw from society. Moreover in the absence of immorality there would seem to have been no ideas of good conduct until at the end of this period sex and property originated. This will increase the expectation of life. in the phase of degeneration. Moderation in taxation belongs rather to the principles of government. Drawing 29 . There was no work. It was suggested that sramanas such as the Buddha hoped from their vantage point outside society to exercise some influence inside it. for each meal. its advantages will apparently not to be self-evident to very many people. With this principle it is natural to group its more general statements found in these texts: nonviolence and non-malevolence. then. is that in a state of intoxication people are liable to perpetrate bad actions). Jinul was faced with a fully developed temple showing serious signs of moral and spiritual decline. are presumably good but not basic: the bad principles prevalent in the phase of degeneration included wrong theories and disrespect towards sramanas and brahmans (these might be instructing his vassals included with false speech). Hwadu to approach to enlightenment. Finally the emperor when instructing his vassals included not drinking intoxicants among his precepts(the reason for this. The most important feature of this society was that it was classless. living in the middle of the Goryeo dynasty. since there were no priests.
From this state of thoughtlessness. concentration. especially as outlined in the Chan school. and wisdom. Western accounts of Ch’an have been dominated by descriptions of the five schools into which the mature tradition of the late T’ang and early Sung dynasties was divided. The method of hwadu is considered a shortcut to realization because it proposes that enlightenment can be achieved without following the traditional pattern of Buddhist spiritual development through morality. there was considerable experimentation among the immediate followers of the early teachers. rotten aspect overwhelmed the harmonious nature of Buddhism. Until this systematization of the Ch’an teachings. Since the mind is the initiator of speech. The hwadu method is regarded as the best way of practice for enlightenment in korean Buddhist tradition so far. could all work together to guide Buddhism students toward the same goal of liberation. the characteristic practices of independent sects in China. however. But Vipassana tradition is introduced and very popular for korean meditation disciplinants. while that approach remained fundamentally Seon in focus..” The basis of this movement was. From Korean independence in 1945 until the 1960’s the trend of the Korean Buddhist community was towards purification. Chinul’s ecumenical attitude toward Buddhist philosophy led him to develop a remarkably eclectic approach toward meditation practice.inspiration from his vision of the basic unity of Seon and the Sutras. It was Chinuls accomplishment to demonstrate how these techniques. can best be taken metaphorically as the ‘apex of speech’ or the ‘point beyond which speech exhausts itself’. to the transcendental realm of the unconditioned.” which is a mean to concentrate mind to one pointness. Hwadu which means ‘head of speech’. This push comes from the force of “doubt. Jinul’s basic Ch’an tradition is originated from Chinese Ch’an teachers. however he found his methods of meditation. It was only after 1970 that the Korean Buddhist community could finally start putting itself in good order under the slogan of “restoration of old glory. the self-realization of the Buddhist 30 . all the discriminative tendencies of the mind are brought to a halt. and he insisted that all would eventually lead to the same result for the adept who cultivated with sincerity and vigor. he incorporated a number of techniques which would appeal to practitioners of differing capacities and needs. governed by cause and effect. It was a miserable period for korean Buddhism. when the crooked. But this process of purification in the Korean society of that day appears as if it is a movement of discord. one more push is all that needed to move from the ordinary world. It was through these schools that Ch’an emerged as a distinctly Chinese schools of Buddhism with a viable doctrine and practice. By focusing the student’s attention exclusively on the one thought of the hwadu. speech in this context includes all the discriminating tendencies of the mind itself in accordance with the classic Indian Abhidharma formula that speech is fundamentally intellection and imagination. Jinul developed an approach to Buddhism in which the theoretical aids of the scholastic doctrine-particularly as presented in li T’unghsuan’s interpretation of Hua-yen philosophy-could be used to support Seon epistemological views. Chinul regarded these methods as expedient devices designed to assist different types of people in their own spiritual development. of course.
Fear. that is only when a new value system has been settled. however. Korean society has many problems. but the main current was the reflective awareness brought on by the wave of western influence. Lots of activities were produced. the Korean Buddhist community continuously explored ways in which to modernize. Korean Buddhist community has a look to have interfaith relationship with other religions. a World Religious Leaders’ Conference was held from June 7-14. 31 . That is why now korean buddhism is doing a quite practical programm which is temple stay for foreigners. Those problems can only be solved when sound morally principled citizens live and work together. is not a very reliable brake on man’s impulses. Nowadays. Korea. equal and correct education. and various Buddhist research centers. because the turbulence and suffering that. and it constantly poisons the atmosphere by creating a feeling of frustration which again will fan the fires of hate. The same old mechanism is at work again: the interaction of greed and fear. Therefore. affect increasingly larger sections of mankind. are generally equivalent with political history.” Not all of the projects of the young Buddhists associations and Buddhist social movements have been developed to the best possible extent. remaining blind to the source of the illness which is no other than the three strong Roots of Everything Evil(akusala-mula) pointed out by the Buddha: greed. more gripping and heart-rending than all the numerous single facts of suffering produced by recent history. This programm was originally implemented during the 2002 FIFA World Cup. But what should be carefully understood here is the meaning of “modernization. Through the temple stay programm. directly or indirectly. hatred and delusion. and gamered many positive reactions from participants. The temple stay programm offers visitors the chance to stay in a Korean temple for several days and experience the daily life of a Korean temple. centers were opened.community. history seem to repeat its lessons to humanity with a voice more audible than ever. the most important are: democratization. Korean Buddhism is placed in a turning point. This is very important suject for korean buddhism. all aimed at the modernization of Buddhism. in spite of many defects and much criticism. is the uncancy and tragic monotony of behaviour that prompts mankind to prepare again for a new bout of that raving madness called war. among these. 2006 in Seoul. And it should find out new role for new society. One of the most epoch-making projects of Buddhist modernization was the publication of the korean Buddhist texts. Yet it does not appear that these lessons have been learned any better than before. and Sunday Seon meditation centers were opened. many propagation centers in the cities. and cultural opportunities. several korean temples are opened to foreigners in order to offer opportunities to experience the traditional culture of korean Buddhism. To a thoughtful mind. The concept of “social service” also required further examination. In the 1980’s. In the present era after the two big wars and small wars. But men still bungle only with the symptoms of their malady. economic inequality. alas. and many new dimensions of Buddhism began to awaken. Now days. Lust for power or desire to dominate are barely restrained by fear the fear of man’s own vastly improved instruments of destruction.
as far as our analysis as well as Buddhist Tradition is concerned. and preservation of its original doctrine in general. there comes an ancient teaching of eternal wisdom and unfailing guidance. Buddhist teachingsDharma. the Buddha-Dharma. but rather these are naturally related to human beings. we have tried our best to depend on the actual instructions given by Buddha himself. We regard that conception and practice of Three Jewels is one of the essential parts of Buddhism. our accounts on the religious and philosophical meanings of Three jewels enable us to see certain issues such as ‘how to preserve and develop Buddhism in this modern time’ in a way that is more fruitful and effective. but quiet and unobtrusive question whether. this time. which reveals the paths to that Buddha nature. So. generating compassion. This sublime view. three higher training are not mere an abstractive conceptions or supersition. We have paid special attention to studies on Sangha. who is a founder or Buddha nature. so that important realizations and training for the 32 . theoretical base for and paths to the Enlightenment(wisdom and method) are fully contained in those three higher training When we study three higher training it is obvious that even today they serve their abovementioned role. That is to say. 3. we put special efforts to clarify this commonly spread practice. which has preserved and developed in all Buddhist countries right from early Buddhism up to today. and reveal its modern significance. The Main aim of Buddhism is to overcome the bondage of this Samsaric31) life and achieve the highest Enlightenment. the Doctrine of the Enlightenment One. It comes with earnest and compassionate. Early Buddhist teachings and practice. which was dominant in Buddhism right from its very origination. One can clearly see that Buddhists are truthful holders of their original doctrine when one studies Buddhism and discovers that Vinaya teachings of Moral disciplines of Sangha are commonly preserved and practiced in both Hinayana and Mahayana Tradition. therefore. and practioners of the path-Sangha. etc for Buddhists of different countries. While doing so. Thus. According to the teachings of Early Buddhism. holds main characteristics of Buddhism and serves as an essential criterion for the originality of Buddhism. 1. developing ones own intellectual thinking or perfection of wisdom. and hence to benefit the entire society. Therefore. 2. which is an embodiment of Early Buddhism in particular. even today these three higher training play a significant role in purification of mind. feel a peace of ones own mind. the people’s of the world will be prepared to grasp the helping hand that the Enlightened One has extended to suffering humanity through his timeless Teaching.To this sick and truly demented world of ours. Three Jewels or Three Sublime Ones are as unified nature of Buddha. and its disciplines. we intended to clarify the characteristic of Buddhism that how it is truthful for its original teachings. with its message and power of healing. It is also very clear from our research that following and practicing those moral disciplines for Sangha in its original form is the most important factor for existence and glory of Buddhism.
4. which is successor of former one. it has a strick practice of its original doctrine and moral disciplines on one hand. along with Theravada. and in recent decades Theravada has begun to take root in the West and in the Buddhist revival in India. tantric Buddhism). Today Theravada Buddhists number over 100 million worldwide.. Haedong English-Chinese Academy. and Jogye tradition. or Pali canon.Vice President/ Buddhist University of Mongolia. Burma. “Mahayana” also refers to a level of spiritual motivation or realization based on bodhicitta—the altruistic aspiration to achieve enlightenment not only for one’s own sake. In recent decades Theravada has begun to take root in the West. These are very important training for building excellent characteristic of man such as compassion or say for moral education. Among its adherents.D. Bangladesh (by the ethnic groups of Baruas.. Writer: Dr. It was founded in India. while recently gaining popularity in Singapore and the Western World. Theravada is also practiced by minorities in parts of southwest China (by the Shan and Tai ethnic groups). Laos. What is Theravada Buddhism? 2) Mahayana is one of two major divisions of Buddhism. and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia.e.USA).Wikipedia. and in some forms of Tibetan Buddhism. deepening and broadening ones own narrow-minded views. Myanmar/Burma. this is how we reveal positive roles of Buddhism in this modern world. which Theravadins reject as spurious. It is relatively conservative. Vice President/Director. Lee Chi-ran. National University(Religious Studies)of Mongolia/Int’l 000000000 Exchanging Committee Member of Jogye Order of the Korean Buddhismÿ00000000000Lotus University-America Buddhist College(L. Malaysia and Indonesia. Theravada . with Vajrayana (the “Diamond Vehicle. though this is Mahayanist in terms of motivation. Vietnam (by the Khmer Krom).A. Footnotes: 1) Theravaday”The Teaching of the Elders” or “the Ancient Teaching”. Today Theravada Buddhists number well over 100 million worldwide. culture and moral education of people of course of changing time and circumstances on the other hand. Theravada has been the predominant religion of continental Southeast Asia (Thailand. Thailand). thus. the free encyclopedia Theravada: The “Doctrine of the Elders. Ph. and an efficient factor for social life.” i. which takes meditation as its main practice. As we consider history of Korean Buddhism. It is a result of preservation of original doctrines of Buddhism in korea. Mahayana Buddhism is distinguished primarily by its recognition of the Mahayana sutras. The term contrasts with “Hinayana” (the “Small Vehicle”). Note on usage: The term “Hinayana” 33 . but for the sake of all sentient beings. which scholars generally agree contains the earliest surviving record of the Buddha’s teachings. based on Seon Buddhism. In this sense. Cambodia.” is the school of Buddhism that draws its scriptural inspiration from the Tipitaka. is the oldest surviving Buddhist school. and Laos) and Sri Lanka. and generally closest to early Buddhism. and Magh).sake of perfection of humankind. Chakma. For many centuries.
” The Mahayanists. scholars believe that it originated in India in the 1st century CE. Tientai. several different versions may have survived of the same sutra. rather they claimed to be recovering the original teachings of Buddha. Huayan. where it took on two principal forms: Tibetan Buddhism (found in Tibet. and East Asian Buddhism (associated with China. the latter. they accounted for the non-presence of these teachings in over five hundred years by claiming that these were secret teachings entrusted only to the most faithful followers. it centered on a monastic life and an extreme expenditure of time in meditating. or “The Lesser Vehicle. they represent a significant departure in the philosophy. is Nikaya Buddhism. for historical contexts when “Theravada” is too narrow. “The Greater Ox-Cart”) or Mahayana. Korea. did not see themselves as creating a new start for Buddhism.Wikipedia. Mahayana spread throughout Inner Asia and East Asia. Mahayana . Scholars think that Mahayana only became a mainstream movement in India in the fifth century CE. or the 1st century BCE. Although the Mahayana movement traces its origin to Gautama Buddha. the free encyclopedia Theravada Buddhism focused primarily on meditation and concentration. In theological discussions. Major “schools” within East Asian Buddhism include Pure Land Buddhism. however. the “Greater Vehicle” (literally. one that would attempt to reformulate the teachings of Buddha to accomodate a greater number of people. This left little room for the bulk of humanity to join in. The Mahayanists claimed that their canon of scriptures represented the final teachings of Buddha. Before the 11th century CE (while Mahayana was still present in India). A useful alternative. the bodhisattvas. one may refer to followers of the Shravaka (“Hearer”) or Pratyekabuddha (“Solitary Realizer”) path. and is therefore often avoided. Whatever the origins of Mahayana doctrines. Japan. the overall goal of Mahayana was to extend religious authority to a greater number of people rather than concentrating it in the hands of a few. They called their new Buddhism. and various Himalayan regions). the Chinese Buddhist canon. At the top was Buddhahood itself which was preceded by a series of lives. since it could accomodate more people and more believers from all walks of life. since that is when Mahayanic inscriptions started to appear in epigraphic records in India. 34 . These different versions are invaluable to scholars attempting to reconstruct the history of Mahayana. The Mahayanists managed to turn Buddhism into a more esoteric religion by developing a theory of gradations of Buddhahood. Thus. Like the Protestant Reformation. the eighth of the Eightfold Noble Path. as a result. They distinguished themselves from mainstream Theravada Buddhism by contemptuously referring to Theravada as Hinayana. Mongolia. so a new schism erupted within the ranks of Buddhism in the first century AD. The former follows the Tibetan Buddhist canon. and Chan Buddhism (Zen). the Mahayana Sutras were still in the process of being revised. and Vietnam).tends to be received as a pejorative among adherents of the Theravada tradition. In the course of its history. in much the same way that the Protestant reformers of sixteenth century Europe claimed that they were not creating a new Christianity but recovering the original form.
” While we do not know much about the earliest forms of Buddhism. and then passes into Nirvana . The Buddha was not a human being. which occupies the heavens in the form of a ruling and governing god of the universe. one could become a pratyeka-buddha . The believer hears the truth. or “Future Buddha. The boddhisattva . the Body of Bliss is an 35 . It could be the person serving you food. it took on the Body of Magical Transformation (nirmanakaya ). ceased to exist. however. a kind of “Buddha-in-waiting. It could be you. This doctrine of arhanthood is the basis for calling Mahayan the “Greater Vehicle. In order to make Buddhism a more esoteric religion. The goal of Theravada Buddhism is practically unattainable.” for it is meant to include everyone. This being had three bodies. but the one that rules over our world is Amithaba who lives in a paradise in the western heavens called Sukhavati. that meant that the second Buddha is already on earth passing through life after life. There were. that is.” was originally invented to explain the nature of Buddha’s earlier lives. as he was in Theravada Buddhism. When it occupied the earth in the form of Siddhartha Gautama. strong tendencies for Buddhists to worship Buddha as a god of some sort. If a future Buddha was coming. What if there was more than one Maitreya? Five? Ten? A billion? That certainly raises the odds that you or someone you know is a future Buddha. This Body of Magical Transformation was an emanation of the Body of Bliss (sambhogakaya ). Below the pratyeka-buddha is the arhant . comes to realize it as truth. however. Therevada Buddhism holds that Buddha was a historical person who. these tendencies probably began as early as Buddha’s lifetime. there is some evidence that the earliest followers believed that there was only the one Buddha and that no more would follow. In these previous lives he was a bodhisattva . The Mahayanists developed a theology of Buddha called the doctrine of “The Three Bodies. Before Buddha entered his final life as Siddhartha Gautama. Soon. a doctrine of the Maitreya . he had spent many lives working towards Buddhahood.” or Trikaya. Mahayana Buddhism establishes the arhant as the goal for all believers.” that performed acts of incredible generosity.” began to assert itself. Buddhists believed that a second Buddha would come and purify the world.This idea of the bodhisattva was one of the most important innovations of Mahayana Buddhism.” who has learned the truth from others and has realized it as truth. or “worthy. called the Jataka or “Birth Stories. the Mahayanists completed the conversion of Buddhism from a philosophy to religion. but the manifestation of a universal. on his death. one who has awakened to the truth but keeps it secret. There are many forms of the Body of Bliss. While the Buddha was the highest goal. the Mahayanists invented two grades of Buddhist attainment below becoming a Buddha. An entire group of literature grew up around these previous lives of Buddha. or “being of wisdom. and compassion towards his fellow human beings. joy. spiritual being. So someone on earth was the Maitreya . or “Land of Pure Bliss.” Finally. In this. they also believed that the first Buddha prophesied this future Buddha. Finally. It could be a child playing in the street.
All of these are found in a scriptural collection called the Kangyur. being reincarnations of Buddha passing from one existence to another. and East Asian Buddhism.Tibetan Buddhism Tibetan Buddhism is one of three major forms of Buddhism. In some areas it has degenerated into a form of spirit worship. Mantrayâna. the free encyclopedia 4) Lamaism is the Tibetan religion of about 3 million Tibetans and 7 million Mongols and others. These are said to have been transmitted to Tibet beginning in the 7th century. The Dalai Lama is the equivalent of the Pope for them. based on the Chinese Buddhist canon. from which they spread to Mongolia and other Inner Asian lands from the 11th century. Tibetan Buddhist tradition claims continuity with the teachings of Sakyamuni Buddha in India. Vajrayana . Mahayana Buddhism 3) Vajrayâna Buddhism is also known as Tantric Buddhism. the principle and rule of the universe. Lamaism . the latter are orally-transmitted esoteric rituals or meditation practices. Most distinctively. It is sometimes called the Yellow Religion. which is the principle underlying the whole of the universe. The distinctive feature of Vajrayana Buddhism is ritual. Tibetan Buddhism forms part of a broader Mahayana tradition. in terms of regional culture as well as canonical language.Wikipedia. The former consist of the public teachings of a Buddha or bodhisattva. Vajrayana scriptures say that Vajrayana refers to one of three routes to enlightenment. An accompanying collection called the Tangyur consists of voluminous commentarial treatises. the other two being Hinayana and Mahayana. Lamaism is considered a corrupt form of Buddhism. One imporant principle is that such teachings cannot be understood. which is used as a substitute or alternative for the earlier abstract meditations. many of them unique to Tibet. A secondary leader is the Teshu Lama (or Panchen Lama). Like other forms of Buddhism. These two are regarded as ‘Living Buddhas’. without the guidance of a lama (“spiritual teacher” or “guru”). The other two would be Theravada. 36 . Vajrayana probably came into existence in the 6th or 7th century. Secret Mantra. the Tibetan canon includes not only sutras but also tantras. based on the Pali canon. and Nirvana became the transcendent joining with this universal soul. The period of Vajrayana Buddhism has been classified as the fifth or final period of Indian Buddhism. When one dies.emanation of the Body of Essence (dharmakaya ). Vajrayana is a complex and multifaceted system which evolved over several centuries and reveals much inconsistency and a variety of opinions. became synonymous with Nirvana . Its scriptures are called the Tantras. and ought not to be practiced. Together with East Asian Buddhism. Esoteric Buddhism and the Diamond Vehicle. while the term Vajrayana first came into evidence in the 8th century. It was a kind of universal soul. This Body of Essence. his successor is sought from among the baby boys born at the time the leader passed away because it is believed that the soul of the Buddha has only passed into another existence. Tantrayâna.
. its History and Literature. 1879-83.Wikipedia. 10C. Stede). Chinese and Mongolian. 1923. Kern. Fausboll Jâtaka. London. 1915. Buddhist Logic. Sein Leben. Buddhism. and at this point designated Vasubandhu as a Sautrantika (upholder of the sutras.Abhidharma-kosa of Vasubandu. called the Abhidharma-koúa-bhâsya.W. In it. Paris. 1881. Oldenberg. Tibetan Buddhism functioned as the official religion of Mongolia and Tibet prior to the rise of Communism. Besides Tibet. The central Conception of Buddhism and the meaning of the Word Dharma. the free encyclopedia 5) V. Berlin.The number of adherents of Tibetan Buddhism is estimated to be between ten and twenty million. Le dogma et le philosophie du Bouddhisme.. 1877-1897. Rhys Davids. editions and translations of Pali Text. Qing Dynasty. The conception of Buddhist Nirvana. French and Russian. The text is still widely studied by practitioners of both the Hinayana and Mahayana traditions Abhidharma-kosa . Vasubandhu wrote a commentary to his own work. 1927. L. 12) Abhidharma-koœa (the compendium of Abhidharma) is a key text in verse written in Sanskrit by Vasubandhu. However. and remains the state religion of Bhutan. Pali English Dictionary (in collaboration with Dr. The text was widely respected. 1930. later Sarvâstivâdin master Samghabhadra. Buddhist psychology (1914). Stcherbatsky.Buddhism (1912). L. Le nepal. 2 Vol. Sakya or Bouddhisme dans 9) 3. Nirvana. considered that he misrepresented their school in the process. as well as certain regions of the Himalayas with cultural affinities to Tibet. seine Gemeinde. 11) L.. It summarizes Sarvâstivâdin tenets in eight chapters with a total of around 600 verses.s. Tibet and the Far East. Buddhist India. Vinaya Pitaka. and modern translations have been made into English. Lçvi. and used by schools of Mahayana Buddhism in India. 1878. S. Buddhism.F. 1927.. One of several religions supported by the courts of the Mongol Empire. 1930. or The Treasure House of Knowledge. 1903. Rhys Davids. Buddha. Gotama the Man (1928) and Buddhist Origins (1931) H. H. 5 Vol. 7) 8) 2. 1925. rather than as an upholder of the Abhidharma. This commentary includes an additional chapter in prose refuting the idea of the “person” (pudgala) favoured by some Buddhists. Chos Mngon Pa Mdzod (Tibetan). 1923-1931 etc. 1896. de la Vallee poussin. Histoire du l’India(1901-1903) 6) T. he critiques the interpretations of the Sarvâstivâdins and others of the tenets he presented in that work.Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia 37 .A. W. Tibetan Buddhism is also a traditional religion of Mongolia. Th. is a Hinayana Buddhist text composed by Master Vasubandhu (Sanskrit). Other translations and commentaries exist in translations exist in Tibetan. 6. 10) 4. The Abhidharma-koœa and its commentary is composed of the following chapters: 1: The Dhâtus 2: The Indriyas 3: The World 4: Karma 5: The Latent Defilements 6: The Path and the Saints 7: The Knowledges 8: The Absorptions 9: Refutation of the Pudgala. Ancient translations of the Abhidharma-koúa were made into Chinese by Paramârtha (564-567 CE) and by Xuán Zàng (651-654 CE). Tibetan Buddhism . Manual of Indian buddhism(1896). la moral bouddhique.. The Abhidharma Kosha (Sanskrit). 1932. and Czarist Russia. seine Lehre. Slob Dpon Dbyig Gnyen (Tibetan) (350 AD). Vol.
Nanjio. 1959.13) A.M.C. L. with the partial restoration of the site to the management of the Maha Bodhi Society in 1949. Geography of Early Buddhism(1932). The History of Buddhist Thought. He was a pioneer in the revival of Buddhism in India after it had been virtually extinct there for several centuries. Bodhicarayavatara in Marathi and Gujarati. 1930. Dharmapala’s voluminous diaries have been 38 . To accomplish this. Converts were made mostly among the educated. History of Buddhism in Ceylon. the chief of the four ancient Buddhist holy sites. where the Buddha first taught.C.Buddhism.P. Buddhist Philosophy in India and ceylon. After a protracted struggle. 1937-1938. What the Buddha Taught. W. 1918. and Europe. Malalasekera. and he was the first Buddhist in modern times to preach the Dharma in three continents: Asia. As a result. Takakus. Chronology of the Pali Canon(1932). The Life of Buddha as legend and History. B. outlines of Mahâyâna. Buddha Dharma and Sangha. Prolegomena to a historical of Buddhist philosophy. Law. In 1891 Anagarika Dharmapala was on a pilgrimage to the recently restored Mahabodhi Temple.Suzuki. 1928.B. Chronology of the Pali Canon(1932). 1947.Das. G. 1907. Here he experienced a shock to find the temple in the hands of a Saivite priest.T. 1923. He was a great success and by his early thirties he was already a global figure. B. A Tibetan-English Dictionary. (1902).C. Kosambi. Studies in the Lankavatara Sutra. and this had the effect of raising Indian consciousness about Buddhism. B. One of its primary aims was the restoration to Buddhist control of the Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya.J. The Mahabodhi society at Colombo was founded in 1891 but its offices were soon moved to Calcutta the following year in 1892. 1883. 1927. Mahabodhi Movement in 1890s held the Muslim Rule in India responsible for the decay of Buddhism in India. E. Thomas.Law.J. A Catalogue of the Chinese traslation of the Buddhist Tripitaka. Thomas. J. the site of the Buddha’s parinibbana (physical death) at Kushinagar has once again become a major attraction for Burmese Buddhists. North America. 1930. He was a major reformer and revivalist of Sri Lankan Buddhism. Mahabodhi Society centers were set up in many Indian cities. Buddhacarita. Due to the efforts of Dharmapala. this was successful. The Life of Buddha as Legend and History. continuing to travel and give lectures and establish viharas around the world during the next forty years. Anagarika Dharmapala did not hesitate to lay the chief blame for the decline of Buddhism in India at the door of Muslim fanaticism. D. S. where Siddhartha Gautama-the Buddhaattained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya. India. 1) Anagarika Dharmapala (17 September 1864-29 April 1933) was a leading figure in initiating two outstanding features of Buddhism in the twentieth century. Dictionary of pali Proper names(two Vol).1933 B. the Buddha image transformed into a Hindu icon and Buddhists barred from worship. The History of Buddhist Thought. Among the most important of the temples he built was one at Sarnath. D. Geography of Early Buddhism(1932). he began an agitation movement. but also among some low caste Indians in the south. 14) S. Rahula. Pali Literature in Ceylon. 1956.C. barua. Essays in Zen Buddhism. History of Indian Logic. In 1893 Dharmapala was invited to attend the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago as a representative of “Southern Buddhism”-which was the term applied at that time to the Theravada. At the same time he concentrated on establishing schools and hospitals in Ceylon and building temples and viharas in India.. Asoka and his Inscription. as it was for many centuries previously. Nirvana and Buddhist Laymen(1933). The Essentials of Buddhist Philosophy. E. Nirvana and Buddhist laymen(1933). 1922. 1933. Ceylon lectures. Dharmapala initiated a lawsuit against the Brahmin priests who had held control of the site for centuries.1930.Vidyabhusan. Keith.
anti-institutional character.” It arose among the new. while de-emphasizing others. Buddhist modernists emphasize certain aspects of traditional Buddhism. 1960. http://en. it is in itself a protest against claims of Christian superiority. it is influenced by Protestant ideals such as freedom from religious institutions. 39 . “Its salient characteristic is the importance it assigns to the laity. Clarity and Insight (1984). creativity. The above was adapted from Sangharakshita. The World of Tibetan Buddhism(1995) etc. The yogacara School.. 24) 25) 26) Mother of Jumong. it consists of 152 sutras of medium length and in the Chinese translation of the lost Sanskrit version of 222 sutras. Chai-Shin Yu. Great Buddhists of the Twentieth Century. Buddhist faith and Sudden Enlightenment. First. Advice from Buddha Shakyamuni(1982). H. colonialism. The Caityakas. emphasis on meditation over devotional and ceremonial actions. The Haimavatas. Windhorse Publications 1996. and Christian missionary work aimed at weakening Buddhism. The Mahasangghikas. Madhyamagama (S). Opening the Eye of New Awareness (1985). emphasis on spontaneity. middle class centered in Colombo. which explains the 227 rules or precepts listed in the Patimokkha which are applicable to monks and nuns. L. Buddhist Thought in India. and often adapted by Asian Buddhists as a counter to claims of European or Christian superiority. The Founder of Silla which was one of the Three Kingdoms. The Sautrantikas or the Sankrantivadins. Early Buddhism and Christianity. The Vatsiputriyas. 23) The Tripitaka Koreana was originally carved in the 11th century at a temple on Ganghwa Island but now the wood-blocks of the Tripitaka koreana.1962. Kindness. 37. He is particularly concerned with presenting Buddhism as consistent with science. who was the Founder of Goguryeo. and he also wrote some memoirs. prajnaparamita literature. The Fourtheenth Dalai Lama. 18) 19) 20) Park. The Korean shamanistic tradition is probably originated from Siberia via Mongolia.’ coined by scholar Gananath Obeyesekere is often applied to Dharmapala’s form of Buddhism. Universal Responsibility and the Good Heart (1985). 22) Majjhima-Nikaya (Pali). The Dharmaguptikas. Second. The Madhyamika School. It is Protestant in two ways. consistency with (and anticipation of) modern science. the Buddhist texts are being kept in Haein-sa temple. freedom of conscience. p.Conze. usually influenced by European enlightenment thinking. Sung-bae. In Pali version. The Kasyapiyas. The bahusrutiyas. and intuition. and focus on individual interior experience.published.org/wiki/Anagarika_dahrmapala. and perhaps the paradigm example of Protestant Buddhism. literate. 16) 17) E. one of Three Kingdoms in the ancient Korean countries.H. with permission The term ‘Protestant Buddhism. rationality and de-emphasis of supernatural and mythological aspects. The Mahisasakas The Sarvastivadins. Suttavibhanga. 21) Vinaya-Pitaka. The main schools of Indian Buddhism are: The Sthaviravadins or Theravadins. The term ‘Buddhist modernism’ is used to describe forms of Buddhism suited the modern world. democratic. Dharmapala is an excellent example of an Asian Buddhist modernist. especially the theory of evolution. Buddhist Meditation.wikipedia. Some of the characteristics of Buddhist modernism are: importance of the laity as against the sangha. 1.
magistrate of Gumgwan Country during the reign of the Goryeo King Munjong(1046-1083). 19950 * Bhikkhu Nanamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi. Thus Have I Heard The Long Discourses of the Buddha translated. death and rebirth (i. the Direct Path to Realization. reincarnation) within Buddhism. 28) 29) Ki-baik Lee.The Long Discourses of the Buddha. Vaishnavism and other related religions. Bibliography English Books: 1. Sri Lanka. London. A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya. Mintz pp 305 1972 31) Samsara (Sanskrit: 88>0) is the cycle of birth. A New History of Korea. Asian Edition. “Samsara” can also refer to a general state of overt or subtle sufferings that occur in day to day life. Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea written by Ilyon. Sri * Lanka. A Translation of the 000000000000 Digha Nikaya. Wisdom Publication. Sri Lanka. Hinduism. and tribes known as Gaya. there are enough distinct features to refer to the practice as Mongolian Buddhism. but some of it based on fact. However. II. Ilyon says that this is a sketchy description taken from Garakguk-gi. 3. 1994. Maurice Walshe. * The Entrance to the Vinaya. The Connected Discourse of the Buddha. There was indeed an area called Garak on Korean coast in ancient times. Translated from the Pali Buddhist Publication Society. Satipatthana. Mahamakut 00000000000000Rajavidyalaya Press. 1995. Generals 40 . 2000. Wisdom Publications. 2. Buddhist Publication Society.e. Commentarial * Bhikkhu Nanmoli. * Bhikkhu Bodhi. Jainism. * * Ven. Boston. It consists mostly of the usual legends. A Translation of the Majjhima Nikaya. 30) Samguk Yusa( legend and history of the three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea). Bön. 2003. 1987. Analayo. Kandy.27). Sikhism. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero Treasury of Truth illustrated Dhammapada Singapore. by Somdet Phra 000000000000MahaSamana Chao Krom Phraya Vajirananavarorasa 10th 0000000000000Sangharaja of the Ratanakosin Era of Siam. The Path of Purification(Visuddhi Magga) by Bhadantacariya Buddhaghosa. written by Ilyon Translated by Tae-hung and Gratton K. I. Translated 0000000000000Buddhist 0Publication Society. The Middle Length Discourses of t he Buddha. Canonical * Maurice Walshe. a narrative by Munin. which is in many ways. Kandy. 1979. kandy. Colloquially. Buddhist Publication Society. Vinayamukha Vol. Mongolian Buddhism is often described as a part of Tibetan Buddhism. 1973.
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