HSB

HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG

General description

Issue C Year 2008 Page 1 of 20

Luftfahrt-Technisches Handbuch (LTH)

HSB
HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG
c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB). All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document

Fundamentals and Methods for Aeronautical Design and Analyses
11.11.2008, 14:59, page 1 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1.4.lyx

issued by

Overlay WS−YHSB001uk

Prepared:

Checked:

Date:

Dr. M. Schagerl

J. Ribke / J. Broede

27.08.2008

IASB

HSB
HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG

General description

Issue C Year 2008 Page 2 of 20

Application in Aircraft Design

Section
c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB). All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document

Milled frames

11.11.2008, 14:59, page 2 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1.4.lyx

Lower door frame shell

Chemically milled sheet

Doublers

Overlay WS−YHSB001uk

Prepared:

Checked:

Date:

Dr. M. Schagerl

J. Ribke / J. Broede

27.08.2008

IASB

Schagerl J. 14:59.2008 IASB c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB).08.2008. M. Broede 27.11.4. Confidential and proprietary document . All rights reserved. Ribke / J.HSB HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG General description Issue C Year 2008 Page 3 of 20 Application in Spacecraft Design Shell structures and tanks Ariane 4 11. page 3 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1.lyx Typical shell design: Sheet with riveted stringers and frames Overlay WS−YHSB001uk Prepared: Checked: Date: Dr.

All rights reserved. M.11. Ribke / J. 14:59. short and medium range aircraft Compressor rotor Turbine blade Segment of a vane ring Intermediate housing Overlay WS−YHSB001uk Prepared: Checked: Date: Dr.2008. Broede 27.2008 IASB c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB). Confidential and proprietary document Turbine rotor disc 11.08.HSB HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG General description Issue C Year 2008 Page 4 of 20 Application in Engine Design Engine (thrust 22000 − 33000 lbs). page 4 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1.4.lyx . Schagerl J.

Broede 27. Rotating control rod 5. Ribke / J.4. Standard rotor hub cap 8. Standard hub cap support Sandwich construction 7.2008 IASB . Swashplate 3. Schagerl J. Damper Inplane stiffener Main rotor without bearing Cross−sectional view of pitch control cuff and flexbeam Overlay WS−YHSB001uk Prepared: Checked: Date: Dr.2008. Confidential and proprietary document 11. Main rotor hub shaft 4.11. All rights reserved. page 5 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1. 14:59. M.lyx 1.08. Main rotor blade 2. Driving unit 6.HSB HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG General description Issue C Year 2008 Page 5 of 20 Application in Helicopter Design Multi−Purpose Helicopter Control cuff c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB).

Schagerl J.4.08. 14:59.HSB HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG General description Issue C Year 2008 Page 6 of 20 Application in Satellite Design X−Ray Satellite Supply unit Solar panel 11.11. Ribke / J. page 6 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1. Broede 27.lyx CFRP support structure for tank CFRP sandwich Flange Bolted joint Sandwich panel Payload unit Overlay WS−YHSB001uk Prepared: Checked: Date: Dr. Confidential and proprietary document . All rights reserved. M.2008 IASB c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB).2008.

Schagerl J. Ribke / J. All rights reserved.4.2008 IASB .lyx Nut design for high dynamic strength Example of a joint with a barrel nut Overlay WS−YHSB001uk Prepared: Checked: Date: Dr. M. page 7 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1.HSB HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG General description Issue C Year 2008 Page 7 of 20 Aeronautical Fasteners Selection of fasteners and bolts c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB).08. Confidential and proprietary document 11. 14:59.2008.11. Broede 27.

page 8 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1.2008 IASB c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB).11. Confidential and proprietary document 11.HSB HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG General description Issue C Year 2008 Page 8 of 20 Contents Definitions Materials Joints Static Analyses Static Stability Static Strength Fatigue and Damage Tolerance Vibrations Overlay WS−YHSB001uk Prepared: Checked: Date: Dr. Broede 27.4.lyx . All rights reserved. 14:59. M.2008. Ribke / J.08. Schagerl J.

Confidential and proprietary document 11. The IASB was founded on 25th November 1968 and consists of members from aeronautical industries. which is sponsored by the German Ministry of Defence. Institut für Faserverbundleichtbau und Adaptronik FRAUNHOFER INSTITUT LBF. Institut für Leichtbau und Kunststofftechnik The IASB is a member of the committee of the LTH (Luftfahrt-Technisches Handbuch).11. Aerospace Vehicles Division TU BRAUNSCHWEIG. the following institutions are members of the IASB: Authorities: Wehrtechnische Dienststelle für Luftfahrtzeuge. Institut für Allgemeinen Maschinenbau und Kunststofftechnik TU DARMSTADT. Fachgebiet Konstruktiver Leichtbau und Bauweisen TU DELFT.HSB HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG General description Issue C Year 2008 Page 9 of 20 1 INDUSTRIE-AUSSCHUSS STRUKTUR-BERECHNUNGSUNTERLAGEN (IASB) The ”Industrie-Ausschuss Struktur-Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB)” is a committee. Faculty of Aerospace Engineering TU DRESDEN. research and academic institutions and civil and military authorities.08.4. Currently. Musterprüfwesen für Luftfahrtgerät der Bundeswehr (WTD 61) Luftfahrt Bundesamt (LBA) Industries: AIRBUS DEUTSCHLAND GmbH EADS ASTRIUM . Institut für Flugzeugbau und Leichtbau TU CHEMNITZ.2008 IASB c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB). page 9 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1. Broede 27. Prepared: Checked: Date: Overlay WS−YHSB001uk Dr. M. Ribke / J.lyx . Schagerl J.SPACE TRANSPORTATION EADS MILITARY AIR SYSTEMS ELBE FLUGZEUGWERKE GmbH EUROCOPTER DEUTSCHLAND GmbH FATEC ENGINEERING FOKKER AESP GCT DESIGN ORGANISATION GmbH IABGmbH IMA DRESDEN GmbH LIEBHERR AEROSPACE LINDENBERG GmbH MT AEROSPACE AG MTU AERO ENGINES AG ROLLS ROYCE DEUTSCHLAND Ltd & CO KG RUAG AEROSPACE GmbH XTREMEAIR GmbH ZIM GmbH Institutions: DLR BRAUNSCHWEIG. which develops fundamentals and methods for the analysis of aeronautical structures and their application. All rights reserved. Institut für Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlässigkeit HAW HAMBURG. 14:59.2008. Department Fahrzeugtechnik und Flugzeugbau NLR.

either on web sites accessible via a member’s intranet or by DVD. e.1 HANDBUCH STRUKTUR-BERECHNUNG (HSB) General The IASB documents methods and procedures in the ”Handbuch Struktur-Berechnung (HSB)”.2 Responsibility Only the IASB is responsible for the contents of the HSB. The HSB is issued in electronic form.4. test procedures. material values. etc. Confidential and proprietary document The IASB decides all items by majority votes during the IASB meetings. All rights reserved. which generally take place three times each year. It is updated continuously. contents and consistency of the accepted HSB contributions • Publication of the analytical methods.g.11. Ribke / J. Broede 27. Schagerl J. 2.2008 IASB .HSB HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG General description Issue C Year 2008 Page 10 of 20 2 2.2008.3 Application The HSB is used for different disciplines.08. page 10 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1. 2.: • Acceptance or rejection of the proposed HSB contributions • Form. The IASB decides all relevant HSB items. 14:59. Recipients are identified by the issuing committee IASB. The content of this handbook is based on international and national agreements and requirements concerning aeronautics.g. M.: 11.lyx • Preliminary and final design of structural dimensions • Definition of required tests regarding the development / justification of structural components • Agreement of methods with different producers / suppliers • Evaluation of structural components concerning justification • Basis for the choice of materials • Basis for the qualification of materials for suppliers Overlay WS−YHSB001uk Prepared: Checked: Date: Dr. e. The HSB is not for sale and is intended only for the use of selected recipients. • Release of the agreed HSB contributions • Formal selection of HSB recipients c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB).

Although the focus lies on aeronautical topics the HSB can be generally applied to the analysis of lightweight structure components used by other industries. antennas. wing. rail vehicles.lyx 4 HSB CONTENT The technical contents of the HSB are organized by the chapters: • Chapter 00000: Definitions • Chapter 20000: Joints • Chapter 40000: Static Stability • Chapter 60000: Fatigue and Damage Tolerance • Chapter 10000: Materials • Chapter 30000: Static Analyses • Chapter 50000: Static Strength • Chapter 70000: Vibrations Overlay WS−YHSB001uk A brief description of the chapters including examples is given in the following paragraphs. etc. e. • Engine design: rotor. All decisions within the IASB are taken in agreement with the industries. • Satellite design: metallic and composite components.g. engine support.2008 IASB . universities. ”A320-Guidelines”) • are available for different international institutions • are the basis for specifications to be valid for suppliers and sub-contractors 11. Prepared: Checked: Date: Dr. 14:59. etc. the HSB is used for analyses of structural components in: • Aircraft design: fuselage. The contributions to the HSB • are in agreement with national and international methods and will be updated continuously • contain international requirements (e. FAR.11. which simplifies the procedure concerning evaluations and justifications of structural components. Thus it is guaranteed that all HSB contributions are accepted by the German authorities. automobiles. etc. stator. page 11 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1. • Spacecraft design: shell. Ribke / J. • Helicopter design: fuselage. Broede 27. rotor. etc.2008.g.HSB HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG General description Issue C Year 2008 Page 11 of 20 Particularly. M.08. institutes and authorities that are active IASB members.4. JAR) c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB). All rights reserved. Schagerl J. 3 HSB ACCEPTANCE The German military authority WTD61 and the German civil authority LBA are active members of the IASB. MIL. etc.g. Confidential and proprietary document • are the basis for corresponding requirements being used in different industries • are the basis for specific projects (e.

08.HSB HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG General description Issue C Year 2008 Page 12 of 20 4.11.1 Chapter 00000: Definitions Amongst other topics this chapter contains: • List of symbols to be used • Coordinate system • Atmosphere data • Internal pressure loads of transport aircraft • List of units to be used • Definition of sonic loads • Determination of section data • Inter. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document Overlay WS−YHSB001uk 11. c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB).4. Schagerl J. page 12 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1.and extrapolation • Regression analyses • Statistics Example: For the section given below the coordinate of the centre of shear xM is calculated provided that the moment of inertia Ix is known.lyx S = Gravity center M = Shear center Prepared: Checked: Date: Dr. Ribke / J. M. Broede 27.2008 IASB . By using given formulas it follows: Ix = 300600 mm4 and xM = −24. 14:59. 8 mm.2008.

forging. Confidential and proprietary document Stiffness Deformation Specific Mass Corrosion Fracture Toughness Temperature Value . plane stress coefficients. bar. Glare Product form: sheet Example: For metallic materials. Schagerl J. 14:59.4. Roving • Fibre-Metal-Laminates: ARALL. tube. All rights reserved. M. Ribke / J.lyx Furthermore. stiffness Overlay WS−YHSB001uk 11.08. Broede 27. steels. casting • Composites: carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics.11.2008. Prepared: Checked: Date: Dr. tempers and product forms. titanium alloys. page 13 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1. compression) elongation at failure density Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) plane strain. the following values are given for different thicknesses and orientations: Characteristic Static Strength Value tensile ultimate (tu) tensile yield (ty) compressive yield (cy) shear ultimate (su) bearing ultimate (bru) bearing yield (bry) E-Moduli (tension. extrusion. heat resistant alloys Product forms: sheet. Prepreg.HSB HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG General description Issue C Year 2008 Page 13 of 20 4.2 Chapter 10000: Materials Amongst other topics this chapter contains: • Metallic materials: aluminium alloys.2008 IASB c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB). plate. Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics Product forms: tape. general information is given concerning the optimum material choice.

Ribke / J. interference fit rivets. All rights reserved. page 14 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1.5 3.2008 IASB c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB). Confidential and proprietary document 11. Broede 27.0 2.4. M.08.11.8 6.4 3330 4020 4930 5450 7650 9520 Overlay WS−YHSB001uk Prepared: Checked: Date: Dr.0 4. From the given table the loads (in N) can be taken (sheet thickness t.0 4. blind rivets • Analyses of bolted joints • Allowable bolt forces • Strength of bolts and nuts • Analyses of the failure loads of metallic lugs Example: For a single-shear-joint made of the aluminium alloy 2024-T3 riveted by countersunk Lockbolt interference fit fasteners the static failure loads are to be determined.lyx . Schagerl J.3 Chapter 20000: Joints Amongst other topics this chapter contains: • Analytical evaluation of joints • Bearing strengths of non-removable joints • Interaction of shear and tension loads • Load-displacement behaviour of joints under shear loads • Analyses of bolted and riveted areas • Analyses of the rivet forces • Guideline for the evaluation of allowable rivet forces • Allowable rivet forces: solid rivets.2008. nominal diameter d): t mm 2.0 d (mm) 4.HSB HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG General description Issue C Year 2008 Page 14 of 20 4. 14:59.

deformations Example: Determination of the stress concentration factor of an infinite plate with two circular holes of different diameters under uniaxial normal stresses. Broede 27. Schagerl J.HSB HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG General description Issue C Year 2008 Page 15 of 20 4. riveted joints. stiffness. 14:59. page 15 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1. lugs • Load introduction problems: flange. Confidential and proprietary document 11. straight and curved beams.4 Chapter 30000: Static Analyses Amongst other topics this chapter contains: • One-dimensional systems: bars. plates. All rights reserved.11. M.08.4.lyx . applied remote stress σ Solution: The stress concentration factor α1 can be found from the diagram: Overlay WS−YHSB001uk Prepared: Checked: Date: Dr. Given: Geometry.2008. Ribke / J. shells • Statically undetermined systems • Notched components: stress concentration factors.2008 IASB c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB). joints • Composites: laminate theory • Temperature problems: evaluation of loads. circular rings • Two-dimensional systems: membranes.

width bs . ts . Confidential and proprietary document The buckling factor k depends on the data t.lyx Prepared: Checked: Date: Dr.4. height hs 3. Materials: E-Modulus of the sheet and the stiffeners E 4. hs and can be taken from given diagrams. bs . Overlay WS−YHSB001uk 11. pitch of the stiffeners b.08. All rights reserved. rivet diameter d 2. Schagerl J. 14:59. Ribke / J. Geometry of stiffeners: thickness ts . Loading: uniaxial compression Solution: The buckling stress is determined as σ = k· π2 · E · (t/b)2 2 12 · (1 − ν ) c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB). page 16 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1. Geometry of sheet: thickness t.2008 IASB . d. pitch of the rivets p. plates. p. Given: 1.5 Chapter 40000: Static Stability Amongst other topics this chapter contains: • Buckling of straight beams.HSB HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG General description Issue C Year 2008 Page 16 of 20 4. M. b. Broede 27.11.2008. shells • Stability of circular frames • Buckling of composites Example: The buckling stress σ of a plane sheet with riveted stiffeners is to be determined.

4. τg is located outside the interaction curve 11.08. one obtains the Reserve Factors: • RF > 1. τg is located inside the interaction curve • RF = 1. τg is located on the interaction curve • RF < 1. Plotting the values σg . Ribke / J. τg in the σ -τ -diagram. which describes the static strength under combined loads: (σ/σo )n + (τ /τo )m = 1 where σo is the normal stress corresponding to τ = 0 and τo is the shear stress corresponding to σ = 0. plates.HSB HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG General description Issue C Year 2008 Page 17 of 20 4. Broede 27. page 17 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1. M. The data σo . Confidential and proprietary document Interaction curves are given for different cases. if the point σg . Schagerl J.2008. Given: Applied compression stress σg and shear stress τg Solution: Interaction curve.2008 IASB .6 Chapter 50000: Static Strength Amongst other topics this chapter contains: • Interaction of static loads applied on beams • Static strength hypotheses • Plasticity of one-dimensional systems • Overcritical loads: Beams. Overlay WS−YHSB001uk Prepared: Checked: Date: Dr.lyx c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB). shells • Static strength of composites and sandwich designs • Evaluation of static strength tests Example: The static strength of a component loaded by compression and shear is to be determined. 14:59. if the point σg . if the point σg . τo .11. n and m are known from test results. All rights reserved.

39 C4 5. Ribke / J.g.6 11.4. .2008. FORMAN equation) – Residual strength performance (e. C4 as: Kt 2. Schagerl J.g. .lyx C2 − C1 σa − C1 1/C4 C1 MPa 38 23 C2 MPa 194 194 C3 4.1. 14:59. All rights reserved. page 18 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1. FEDDERSEN concept.08. Confidential and proprietary document .25 3. . Broede 27. R-CURVE concept) Example: The fatigue life N (in cycles) of a component made of 2024-T3 with a given Kt is to be determined for the applied stress amplitude σa = 60 MPa and a stress ratio R = 0.2008 IASB c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB).11. . Solution: From the WEIBULL equation log N = C3 · ln the data N follows using the data C1 . M.7 Chapter 60000: Fatigue and Damage Tolerance Amongst other topics this chapter contains: • Fatigue – HAIGH diagrams and S-N diagrams of notched specimens – WEIBULL parameters to describe the S-N curves – Information about the fatigue strength of riveted joints and lugs – Information about methods to enhance the fatigue life • Damage Tolerance – Stress intensity factors – Crack growth behaviour (e.HSB HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG General description Issue C Year 2008 Page 18 of 20 4.5 3.53 N cycles 183054 89687 Overlay WS−YHSB001uk Prepared: Checked: Date: Dr.63 4.

5 0.226 Data α0 = 1.8 Chapter 70000: Vibrations Amongst other topics this chapter contains: • Eigenmodes • Eigenfrequencies Example: The data i and αi for the calculation of the eigenfrequencies of a simple-clamped beam is to be determined. All rights reserved.2008. page 19 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1.HSB HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG General description Issue C Year 2008 Page 19 of 20 4.721 0.644 0.137 c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB).996 α0 = 14.11.2008 IASB .356 0.875 α0 = 4.132 lk 0. Solution: i and αi follow from the diagram: System Case 1 x/l Mode i=0 0.094 i=2 i=3 0.lyx Prepared: Checked: Date: Dr.08. Schagerl J. 14:59. Confidential and proprietary document i=0 0. Broede 27.854 α0 = 10.694 α0 = 7.073 i=4 Overlay WS−YHSB001uk 11. Ribke / J.499 0.4.277 0. M.

dilger@eads.guenther@eads. Ribke / J.com • Responsible Expert Chapter 40000 Prof. 14:59. Dr.08.de Overlay WS−YHSB001uk 11.com • Responsible Expert Chapter 30000 Georg Günther EADS Military Air Systems OPES4 georg.heine@airbus. Jürgen Broede IASB juergen.2008. All rights reserved.com c Industrie Ausschuss Struktur Berechnungsunterlagen (IASB). Ralf Cuntze IASB ralf_cuntze@t-online.volkmann@airbus.spaink@stork.2008 IASB .lyx Prepared: Checked: Date: Dr.dilger@eads.com • IASB Deputy Chairman Robert Dilger EADS Military Air Systems Fatigue & Damage Tolerance OPES14 robert.de • Responsible Expert Chapter 60000 Robert Dilger EADS Military Air Systems Fatigue & Damage Tolerance OPES14 robert.HSB HANDBUCH STRUKTUR BERECHNUNG General description Issue C Year 2008 Page 20 of 20 IASB CONTACTS For general information concerning the use of the HSB please contact the IASB via the: • IASB Chairman Dr. M.com • Responsible Expert Chapter 20000 Arthur Spaink Fokker AESP F/OESD arthur. Schagerl J.4.11. page 20 of 20 Source File: ~/newhsb/broschuere/english/BROSCH1-lyx-1.de • Responsible Expert Chapter 70000 Prof. Dr.broede@web.schagerl@airbus.com • Responsible Expert Chapter 10000 Günther Volkmann Airbus Deutschland GmbH Materials & Processes EDSWOG guenther.com For technical information concerning the application of HSB sheets contact the IASB via the: • Responsible Expert Chapter 00000 Christoph Heine Airbus Deutschland GmbH Structure Analysis Stress EDSASMG christoph. Confidential and proprietary document • Responsible Expert Chapter 50000 Dr. Broede 27. Ralf Cuntze IASB ralf_cuntze@t-online. Martin Schagerl Airbus Deutschland GmbH Structure Analysis Stress EDSASMG martin.

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