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MEMORANDUM REPORT NO. 1833

"UAERODYNAMIC

CHARACTERISTICS OF

OO

THE 7.62 MM NATO AMMUNITION M-59, M-80, M-61, M-62

)


ME

by
Maynard J. PiddO ngton

March 1967

This document is subject to special export controls and each transmittal to foreign governmnts or foreign nationals may be made only with prior approval of Commanding Officer, U.S. Arw Ballistic Research Laboratories, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

BALLISTIC RESEARCH LABORATORIES
ABIERDEEN PROVINGGROUND,:MARYL.AN•

1967,

Destroy this report when it is no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator.

The findings in this report are not to be construed as
an official Department of the Army position, unless

I a

6o designated by other authorized documents.

Maryland RDT&E Project No. Piddington Exterior Ballistics Laboratory This document is subject to special export controls and each transmittal to foreign governments or foreign nationals aay be made only with prior approval of Commanding Officer. U. IP0145CIA33D 3 A ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND. m-62 Maynard J..62 MM NATO AMM41U-ITIOD 1M-59. M-60. MARYLANDj . Aberdeen Proving Ground.BALLISTIC RESEARCH IMEMORANDUM REPORT NO. __ i I . Army Ballistic Research Laboratories. KAiRCHi ]967 LABORATORIES 1833 AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 7.S. M-61.

-1-62A-. aaid 1. N-Cl. March 1967 114d. AERODYNAP-. racer members appear to have sufficiently similar drag properties to be adequate ballistic about 600 meters.i REPORT NO. 1833 Aberdeen Proving Ground.B LL T I 3 CR 1ESI RC W T mAB0RAT0 LABORATORIR TE -BALLISTIC RESEARCH !4E-F-ANDU7.IC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 7.62 ••VDNATO AIIUNIUiTIONi "1-59. matches. in and discussion of the data obtained in the projectiles exhibited adeauate The gyroscopic and dynamic stability the regions of probable use. non-. the presentation in general.59 bail. -•SO. 1-62 UBS TRACT Tests have been conducted in the NATO family of ammunition tracer). the Free-Flight Aerodynamic Range on -. This report is these tests. while the tracer is not a match beyond i .-61 (14-80 ball.

... . .. . . . . . . .. ........ . ... .. ..... . .. .. ........ 3 7 9 . ..... .. . .. B. .. .... . .. . ... lMagnus Moment Derivative .... .. 3 I . . . . . RESULTS A............... . . ... .. .. .. .... .. ..... ...... . . .. . ...... .. . . . D. .. ... Drag 9 12 . .. .. .. ... .. .. . . . .. .. TEST . . .. .. . . .. I.. .... . .. C... . . .TABLE OF COE[TEIifT Page CT .... TI. .... . .. . . 22 .... . . . .... ..... ... REFERENCES APPEr{DIX .. .. .. . . . . . . .. .. ... 22 23 Normal Force Coefficient and Center of Pressure . . .. ...... . .. IPP ODUCTION . . . ... .. ...STF LIST O SYU9OLS i....... ........ . .... .. .. .. . ... . . 12 21 Stability . DISTRIBUTION LIST ...... .. .. . .... . . .. .. . . ...

71 ..ISST OF SYiMBOLS *iwu'bod). a Monent 1/2)p V"ýS Z Normnal NOL(1/2)p Force V 2 Sc Anegative C + Cý. twist V Misi r eloc-ity Drag Force C'.y diaDreter uf Prcject le q AnEgular velocity X C1 (Stal- 4ty factor) M 14ach T. St+atic NMoent 0 POi Miloment (1/2)PVWSS i CL -agnus M q ~ Damping M. in the direction of' rotate the minssieles nose about the velocity vector sp~n.uxmue r barrel. indicates 'hat the nmoment opposes tne argvlazr indictotes that the Magnus morment ic tr~jing to) veLoc-Lty and a positive C.

C:. . LIST OF SYMBOLS (Continued) CPN I I y a 6 4Mean x Center of pressure of the normal force Axial moment of inertia Transverse moment of inertia Angle of attack squared yaw Reference length (k = d 0.308 inch) Air density 8 f zr.-.

while the ball V-80 is about one-half caliber shorter Theis uas done tn coipliance witk 'IIPR NR-4-17.is need.I.S. A more accurate deternination of the physical dimensions should be obtained by measuring the projectiles after launch. the Air Proving Ground Center at the Eglin Air Force Base.S. tracer have similar boattailed afterbodies (the M-62 has a rounded base). The shapes of the four tyloes of projectiles are shown in The shapes depicted are a synthesis obtained from consideration of drawings cf the projectiles unfired projectiles. ArrQi proposed several uses for helicopter evealuation of such uses required more aero.arrJie data To fill t. for exmnrle. . recuested that the Ballizsic Research Laboratories (Bso) u deratae srark range tests with the four tj+es of effb'Tunition. the tracer. 1i** Applications of the data obtained have been reported. nwr-bers denote references which may be found on rae 23. and frcom physical measurements of actual I. armrament. INTRODUCTION The adoption of the 7.1-62 The four projectiles have the same ogival nose. 5845. Superscr-ic.t. to insure that adequate information was obtained tc evaluate a wide s nectrup of uses.62 rmmNATO infantry weapon series has led to the introduction of a new family of sn~all arms proje2ti]es: ball. TEST Figure 1. The alternate ball M-59 and the AP '. 9 . Florida. Frter and the U. the U. Project Nr. the projectile should be launched at standard velocity and then recovered Without dgaoe caused by the recovery system. for the projectiles than had previously been octained. BRL enlarged the basic prograf.I-b1 armor piercing. To d0 this. the 1i-890 and the :M-62 other apolications In addition to their use in the infantry rifle.'-61 appear to be identical in general exterior contour. "for the arumunition were proposed that involved more severe flight condiAir Force proolcsed the ceveliorent of a tions. 'C-ical physical properties are riven in Tna-e and all but the 1. II. Gatling-type gun for use in light aircraft and for fighters of the century class. the M-59 alternate ball.

Shapes and dimensions of I.05 71 --.767 .1.432 L•-rr .308 -" .175 9 3086 M-61 767 K -- .389 1. Figur"e 1.59 ".767 '06 ".322 -55 1!32 .ATO annmm~ition .297 3° 0 -F/M.259 05.108 " 20•• 65.326 "--1.

Cu (C.. Ii . Y..E21 2 H "¾ 07 '-4 -I-' H - C --C I C> I -i cc I \j.> 2 U> C. 2 C> C> C> C> (A C> ci U> ci -. I '--I '-1 11- -2 C 4' 0 'p * '--I PJ -Ct -- K V.[ tJ K- I (I .. X 0 11 .I t. 0-.

is noted that the experimental data for the M-62 were obtained in the same manner as for the other three types. where the drag is changing quite rapidly. The difference in the nature of the flow in the area of the wake on the two pictures should be noted. All data were computed in the usual manner 4 and are given in It Table II. M-80 firings were extended into the subsonic region. The Higher than normal velocities were obtained by using a Mann barrel but the muzzle velocity was limited to less than 3300 ft per sec because of extensive damage to the projectile above this velocity. A. All types have a knurled groove at about the same distance from the nose tip and the M-61 has a second beveled groove aft of the knurled one.than the other two. (At about Mach one. The projectiles were all tested in the BRL Aerodynamics 3 The M-l4 rifle was used to launch the rounds at 2850 ft per sec (standard muzzle velocity) and at velocities reduced to about 1200 ft per sec. plots of these calculations are presented in the Appendix. C RESULTS for each round is obtained by fitting the time-distance data to a cubic equation by a least squares process. A slight but undetermined drag decrease can be attributed to the thrust of the tracer. III. The normal twist of .-14 rifles is 1 turn in 12 inches and for the A I in !2 inch tuqst gun Mann barrel used it is 1 turn in 10 inches. may aZllw a slightly higher velocity before projectile damage is excessive. Drag The drag force coefficient. This difference in the wake flow accounts for the major decrease in drag when the tracer is burning. Figures 5 and 6 are shadowgraph pictures of the inert M-62 and the M-62 with tracer respectively. . 12 . Range. Photographs of each type of projectile are shown in Figures 2 through 6.

58 2.393 2.68 2.31 -5.9 1.1 -6.799 1 .372 .3 -4.9 .425 .36 2.803 .786 .50 2.34 1.316 2.5 . a C 1 + C H q C.7 3.30 .3 -5.20 1 .04 -.17 .14 2.7 2.'ropertiec '1-59 Range Rd.132 1. 02 -.2 6.8 .785 4.iL s -m_ Table IT.808 1.760 2.4 5.3 .72 -3.10 2.592 i 13 __ _ _ _ _ .16 1.131 11.7 2.19 6548 b462 6463 6490 6884 2.416 .267 6.0 10.813 1.52 1.795 1.322 . 04 -.I pa CN CP (inches from base) s 6549 2.04 .8 .8 9.67 -5.6 2.23 1.798 .820 .797 1.299 1.596 2.0 -2.57 2.15 .800 .300 .326 .0 -5. t (deg.410 2. 06 6901 6910 6907 1.6 2.0 -4.32 1.776 2.5 2.13 .8 2.48 2.18 .6 .536 2.72 2.3 .5 2.20 (881 6903 -6.16 .482 .2 3.41 2. Sumjniry v-f Aercdynj-nic.733 2.8 2.) f C 0 C1 .9 2.8 -6.323 .0 .8 .787 .5 3.47 1.

8 2.8 2.96 1.7 2.6 2.310 1.446 . 08 -.6 5.294 .5 -3.954 .5 -- -.641 . 1 (deg.464 2.6 2.5 2.98 2.2 .02 2.647 .30 2.695 1.634 .44 2.7 .330 .94 1 .08 .0 . 08 -.14 2.0 3.99 1L89 1.4 -- 3.22 2. Summary Of Aerodynamic Properties (Continued) M-80 Range Rd.8 2.3 4.88 1.1 4.867 1.) CD DL CM CM q + CM & CM l CN CP N (inches from base) .04 2.44 --.9 -3.03 -.658 .5 .6 -3.769 2.2 -4.6 3.6 2.1 4.402 1.4 2.2 4.940 1.92 1.70 114 .295 1.0 5.6 5.79 1 .80 1.516 2.3 4..476 .91 1.6 5.95 1.400 .05 .330 1.410 1..6 2..643 .626 .8 6. 06 .673 .6 7.6 -2.81 i.448 2.712 .737 1.87 1.649 . 03 -.445 2.5 2. 09 -- 2.03 -..86 1.6 2..33 3..80 1 .350 . 04 . 3.5 -3.290 .439 .Table II.35 2.744 2.0 2.6 .03 2.2 -1.8 -4.705 - s 6547 6546 6584 6583 6158 6159 6464 6491 6492 6494 6493 6543 6542 6530 6529 6528 6528 6528 6527 2.390 .4 5.689 .370 . 10 -.976 .615 1..445 .408 .648 ..3 -2.658 . 04 -.7 3.314 .97 1.5 2.7 2. 21 -.11 -- -3.08 2.04 .394 . 19 .659 .9 -2.00 1.82 - 2.646 .6 -3.93 1. .626 .77 1 .1 3.01 -.6 -2.6 -4.74 1.378 1.3 -2.8 -3.07 2.356 .001 .470 .309 .297 .946 3.

210 .635 5. ..91 1..4 .08 .0 10..565 .. 30 -.13 2.1 2..594 .8 14..36 1.14 1.65 2.284 ... .7 7. Sumnnari Of Aerodyalrn&i Properties (Continued) Sr.360 ..I-80 Range Rd. M 6 (deg.81 .606 .637 .529 2. 37 -- 1.0 .266 2. . b738 6740 6739 6740 6735 6736 ..18 1.2 13.. .02 2...5 8. 10 -- 2. .: 15 ' • fI i- .73 2.97 2..4 -- -.585 ... .192 .05 - 2.144 .74 I7 -.6 -- -..) C D CI M + CM CH a p Crl CP (inches from base) s 6737 .Table Hi.. 07 -- 1..11 2.364 .8 -- -.

42 1 .59 2.0 2.26 1.1 -4.14 .53 -5.1 3.14 .459 1 .3 -5. Summrary Of Aerodynajr ic Properties (Continued) M-61 Range Rd.36 2.35 1.09 .8 2.754 .732 .316 .725 1.7 3.09 .553 .788 2.4 -4.27 1 .520 2.03 2.45 2. 01 .769 .3 1.5 -5. M (deg.8 4.387 1.340 .767 .0 11.34 2.24 2.50 1 .6 4.786 .757 .30 I6i I1 .Table II.8 -5.0 7.608 2.1 -2.) CD C C + CM C P C CP (inches from base) .2 2.4 -6.48 2.753 2.2 8.7 .817 1 .16 -.62 2.483 .0 .24 2.15 .22 1.762 s 6553 6552 6460 6461 6899 6882 6905 6902 2.309 3.9 3.2 2.293 .412 .821 .9 10.380 .2 3.

731 1.423 1.1 2.8 I I I = 17i I .755 .1 3.808 .5 -4.6 -6.7 7. 2.917 1.54 1.336 .14 -.82 1.409 1.7 4.52 1.00 1.54 1.486 .06 C q -6.ThIne If.2 -6.823 2.24 . 20 -.5 -6.9 4. 06 -. Suziarary Of Aerodynamic Proper-ties (Continued) M -6 2 Range Rd.510 2. M CC (deg .3 7.94 1.7 -4.824 .854 1.340 .24 .0 -6.8 9.1 cpN (inches from base) .560 .2 3.3 12.9 2.769 .776 .252 .497 1.755 .0 -6. 37 C e1 a 2.7 2.0 -6.79 6551 6550 6458 6459 b900 6883 6906 6904 6913 2.52 1.68 1.849 2.6 + fI .340 .19 .368 .771 .0 3.8 3.81 1.844 3.18 2.90 2.26 2.463 .246 .14 .83 1.20 .7 2.779 . &t .1 5.) CM O .25 2.11.12 3.8 2.

-~aPC 2. j.M-9bl(M=2) Fig-ure 3.ItI F-igure 2.8) .8 Fiig-are £4.1-80 ball ('-2.

was possible to determnirýe Once the flow separation was established.ach number. C D 2' snral1bandfo rm- straiezht line fit of the C vs '1' data for a conztant V. also. reduced to zero yaw by the relationship: A + C CL =C D2 D D 0 i omlYotie The yaw drag coefficient.Ic flow separated. due ma~nly to a separation of flow about the body. 8) Figure 6. This was dorne on two '4-8C ro-unds. -By usinir the subsonic M-Qdata which had a wide variety of yaws and by close exanination of the 7photog-raphic plates it was possible to determirne at Twhat yaw llevel t.) CP is Then compute two dregs. CT) 2 is non-lin~ear with yaw.-~ N Figure 5.M2 ( tra:er (burning) it is necessary to divide the time-distance data i atoc t wo parts and. M-62 tracer (not burning) 04 = 2. it 19 . ThI-is D rea-aires several data cnoints at the same Mach number wit-h varying ariounts: of yaw. Very oft'en.

7 (> 3 deg) is plotted in Figures A-1 and A-2 of the Appendix as a function The curves of the M-59 and the M-80 projectiles in the for all practical purposes. about 1/2 caliber longer) is negligible. has a 10 percent higher drag. Since the drag of the two ball the drag due to bo y length (the M-59 being On the other hand.07 seconds). the drag For these three of Mach number. This represents about 200 in full feet of travel at standard muzzle velocity before the tracer is The upper curve is drawn through that portion of data for 20 . which has the same shape as the M-59. CD 2 for the M-59 and M-61 above separation was assumed to be the same as that for the M-80. at the indicated yaw levels are listed below. therefore. Evidently. supersonic region are. divided into several increments.0 (0 to 3 deg) 2. ammunition is about the same. The drag of the tracer round is much more complicated.7 (> 8 deg) C M-59 and M-61 6. Figure A-3. the m-61. each containing only three timing An Drag values were then computed for each increment.CD 2 below and above that value of yaw. example of such a drag computation for a single round is shown in The curve indicates a large change in drag in a relatively short period of time (about 0. 'wc curves These curves were obtained by close examination The data for each round were of the time-distance data for each round. the differences in drag are due either to body shape or to the phenomena of the flow about the projectile. operation. (i/rad2 The values Yaw Drag Coefficient M-80 6. are shown in Figure A-2. of the M-61 projectile is about 10 percent higher.0 (0 to 8 deg) 2. the nose and the boattail have identical shapes. observations. projectiles. this is due to the extra groove in the body which pyoduces a more highly disturbed flow. identical.

the gun) A round launched at a velocity of about 2850 ft have a drag which follows the upper curve in however. 1/2 seconds will the drag jumps back to the upper curve where it trajectory. The high 10 each round and are plotted versus Mach number in values at about M = 2. s. and will have very distance) large considerable time (therefore. will be required before the yaw will have a chance to become enough to have a degrading influence on the flight behavior. or to the the a serious handicap to the flight characteristics other projectiles. Caution should be exercised when computing the velocity his tory of the M-62 projectile.8 were obtained by using a rifle inch twist. (about 65 feet from When the tracer begins to burn. 21 kI S----~. the drag drops very rapidly to the bottom curve where it At this point (about 1 - remains until the tracer has burned out. remain throughout the remaining portion of its B. respectively. By the time subsonic velocities are reached. per sec will initially Figure A-2. Using the a good data at the end of the range for each round. + C1 CM a . for the other projectiles since they were the subsonic region would not present of the M-80..Consequently. as one would expect. Stability The overturning moment derivative.--=------~~--= __ ___------- - . are plotted versus Mach number in Figures a 'cthing u-nusual is evident in these curves.each round represented by the ignition phase (non-burning). moment derivatives. flight time).. possible dynamic instability riot known whether this occurs not launched subsonically.- - -- --- ~- -__ - - . they have similar trends. were obtained for Figure A-6.---- =-- . the bottom curve is approximation of the constant burning phase. projectile has already traveled about 800 meters nearly zero yaw. expected with a 1 in These values have been converted to those that could be with a 1 turn in 12 inches by multiplying by the from a rifle ratio of the twists squared. Weak dynamic instability in of the M-80 in An exception is the It is the subsonic region. C. Values of the gyroscopic stability factor. q . and the sum of the damping A-h and A-5.

these values are both larger than those higher. in Figure A-8. Magnus after launch.5 or slightly less. while the M-59 and M-61 (which from the M-80 by body length only) have about the same values. throughout stblt increases thogh s inrae its growth as the round The curve is a change in passes through Mach 1 due to a sudden drop in shows that the gyroscopic immediately C. a round launched at 2850 ft per sec. The shortest differ round (M-80) has almost no moment. The difference in M-59 and the M-6Also evident is evidnce in the difference in the fact tnat the effect of the tracer burning on these two terms is insignificant. N•ormal Force Coefficient and Center of Pressure C The normal force coefficient.25 at 70°F. for all is of the M1-80. Moment Derivative CM . in N . Figure A-7. i again in A-11. 22 . is is plotted versus Mach number given in Figures A-10 and drag between the CN and C? Figure A-9 and the center of pressure The cirves are well defined. will never be worse than it The Magnus moment derivative.Since the curves do not represent the in-fisght stability of the rounds. is pa All types behave roughly in stability the drag. an example of such a history for the M-80 is represents history shown in The curve iniia factor is The initial stability its entire flight. this moment D. plotted versus Mach number the same manner. but undergoes 1h 2. The M-62 values are still The Magnus probably due to the even longer body. four types goes negative at M = 1.

Braun. Murphy. "Free Flight Motion of Symmetric Missiles. 23 I - ~-~ - . February 195h. 4." JV. July 1965.R~EIFERENCES i." Ballistic Research Laboratories Technical Note 874. 233 .1. Kenneth Cobb. 10148. - 7. CRnge. Minigun•. "Physical Measurements of Projectiles." Aerydyna2iic Walter F. Charles H." July AS< Ballistic Research Laboratories Report No. 22. July 1958. Ballistic 3. Elizabeth R. "Gun Settings for Side Firing Aircraft 65-2. Dickinson. "The FrJ e Flight Research Laboratories Retort No.62 2.

[• "p..7 .! •4-:• •• .. : %j I APPEN DI X PLOTT•ED CURVES FOB EXPERIMENTAL DATA i 525 * .• . •-• "t-I • • ": • i . .• •:••K• .. • _ .• • • • 7 -• C . • ' .•:.. _•-: • • -.. • i•.'" • -•. .-.• •.7...• •r "[ • :5•[7.}" " . t•• -. . • • . % 7 - -..

6 .6 4 .0 It Figure A-i.5 M-80 (BALL) .5 M- 2.C 0 M.2 . Zero yaw drag coefficient vs mach number _21 .59(BALL) .3 1.0 2.4 J.1 0 .0 1.3 .5 3.

5 . Zero yaw drag coefficient vs mach number 28 .0 2.5 3.2 .0 M Figure A-2.1 1.CD o M-61 (ARMOR PIERCING) .4 WITHOUT TRACER .5 WITH TRACER 2.0 1.3 5i 0~~ 0 M-62 (TRACER) .6 .

C~I cci to 0 C~i Ij w~ co ir Z OD - m0 z 0 W 0 0 z a. tt) 0 L .

4 M-61 2.8 2.5 2.6 2.0 Figure A-4.0 1.0 rM-62 I 0 0 1.0 M 2.6 1.8 -M59 2.6j 2.4 2.8 1.8 .5 3. Overturning moment derivative vs mach number 30 .CM 0 2.

59 0I -6 -40 -20 0 -6 -4 -2 0 00 -26 M0. 000 I0 L- F0ueA5 apn~oetdrvtvsv 31 ahnme c .CMq+ CMOj M.

80 0 1. Stability factor vs mach number 32 .0 Figure A-6... 4 2 6 4 M..5 3.TWI..6S 6 M590 M59 1 12 in..0 1....5 2.0 M 2. TWIST 1: 10 in.ST 2 0 6 4 2 0 6 4 M-62 Op 0--0 M-61 .

+ + N cLi.84 ODI clI .82 . .

30 .2.CMpa M-59 0 0 =ZIP A 0 06 101.2.2 03 ~M-s Figure~0 A-8 anu moetdrvtvev ahnme .

0 Figure A-9.0 1.5 3. Normal force coefficient vs mach~ number 35 _ _ _ .CN 6 4o M-59 0 ------- 6 M-61 41 0 0 6 4 -V M-62 -0 2 0 .6 1.0 M 2.5 2.

I- z 0. 02 It) 0 I I .1-' u.I. z. N 00 CL) C3A too L-" ._. . o C 0- wE E o Inu E C.

CQC *1O WN w0 zI 0 C 30- E .

lnsaber I0. 11. Army Da11istic PResrearch Laboratories Unc-lassified MU AlE~rdeen Proving Ground.last.CIZNTRACT OR :RANT NO. OTIIF. Aberdeen Proving Ground arElaand. ORICINATOR'S I5ý. REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION U.-4 NATO Aý141UýITLCN M.62 ol report dand ~'.S. OAIGINATtNG ACTIVITY (Cotporaf &uthof) 241.9 report is the presentation and discuission of the data obtained in these tests. and 14'-61 tracer). SUPPLEMENTARY N~OTES 12.. o. 'Mayniard J. 2 04.Unclassified Security classificstion DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA. 1-61. Army Materiel Crrommand Wanhington. 1833 MatmaybomeatSied e. -EP'ORT DATE 75. SPONSORING MILITARV ACTIVITY {U. ABSTRA..C. FPf3T&E_ lP0145O 1A33D ~e~anunReport 9b.oI an~d 1indexing annotatio..*1f tep. DISTRISUTION *.. In general. 6.y odI. body of abst.-90. NOISI (An..1AN4W Unclassif e . TOT ýL NO."). i.-59. DD IF10M0473 ::PLAC.PORT NUP"EIR(IS b.-62AP. The non-tracer members appear to have sufficiently similar drag properties to be adequate ballistic matches. M..S. i~-62 4. U.1 t. C1&8.R & D (Socwai~y classification of ims. U.'rcsccp1_c and dynanic st~ability in the rec-iorns of probable use. mIust be onferd when tha. IA.:T Tests have been conducted in the Free-Fli ght Aerodynamic Range on the N~ATO faTn"ly of ammu-nition bal rM~ ball. M.' Cor~mmanding Officer.* Ifel"iu. DESCRIP TIV6 MOTCS (ni. Maryland2b AMRPORY TITLE AEPO0DYNAMI'_C CdHAACTERTSTICS OF THE 7.JECT NO.-5_. is subj~ct to special export controls and each transmittal to foreig-n governments or foreign nationals may be made only with prior approval o'. Army Ballistic Research Laboratories.KT o b:ftfw 1875.I dates) s. LadflSY) Piddington... OF PAGES . the projecti les exhibited adeq~uate Q. middle M110.. PRO.ifJldj I. while tte tracer is niot a match bey"ond about 600 meters. RZFOFIT Lio.AT9MENT This documrent. Au TIORISI (First neims. Tis-.N0PIlF :cn i06?.

KEY WORDS- LINK A --- LINK 9 WT ROLE T LINK K OLE C WT ROLE NATO Ammunition Exterior Ballistics Aerodynamic Characteristics Unclassi fied Secuoimtyo C~laomssitaLen~o .Unclassified Security Clegsificatlof ad.

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