vufOD;q&m ESifh jrwfynm

25

tqif h j rif h y nm
ausmif;oHk;pmtkyf jyKpkjcif;
a'gufwmausmfped f
uReaf wmfwYdk wuúov
dk af usmif;om;b0 (195-54)u ausmif;oH;k
pmtkyftrsm;pkrSm t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh a&;om;xm;ygonf/
(1952)ck?
uRefawmf 0dZÆmatmufwef; (JUNIOR B.A) wGif pdwfynmbmomwJG
,lc&hJ m prf;oyfrI pdwyf nm (EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY) twGuf
jy|mef;aom pmtkyrf mS tar&duefjynfaxmifp?k umvDz;dk eD;,m; wuúov
dk rf S
pdwyf nm ygarmu© (2)OD;jzpfonfh (POSTMAN & EGAN) ykpYd rf if;ESihf tD*if
wk\
Yd pmtkyf jzpfygonf/ xkd bmom&yfudk tar&duefjynfaxmifp?k udv
k AH ,
D m
wuúokdvfrS (Ph.D.)yg&*lbJGU&cJhol? uxduq&m a'gufwmvSoGifu
t*Fvdyfvkd oifMum; ykdYcsygonf/ taxGaxGpdwfynm (GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY) twGuf jy|mef; pmtkyr
f mS t*Fvyd pf w
d yf nmygarmu© pya&mhwf
(SPROTT)\ taxGaxG pdwy
f nmESihf tar&duefygarmu© 0k'0f ghof (WOOD
WORTH)ESihf t*Fvy
d f ygarmu© rm;uGpf (MARQUIS)wk(Yd 2)OD; yl;wJjG yKpo
k nfh
taxGaxG pdwfynm ausmif;oHk;pmtkyfwkdY jzpfMuygonf/ xkdbmom&yfukd
(xkpd Ofu) obm0wå ESihf pdwyf nmXme (DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY) ygarmu©? vef'efwuúokdvf (LONDON
UNIVERSITY)rS yg&*lbJGU& q&mBuD; a'gufwmvSbl;ukd,fwkdif t*Fvdyf
bmomjzifh oifMum;ykdYcsygonf/
uRefawmfwkdY enf;jyq&mjzpfonfh (1954)ckESpf vufaxmufuxdu
jzpfonfh (1957)ckEpS w
f w
Ydk iG v
f nf; txufyg t*Fvyd b
f mom jy|mef;pmtkyf
rsm;ukd oH;k pJu
G m t*Fvyd b
f momjzifyh if oifMum;ykcYd say;cJMh uygonf/ okaYd omf
xkdtcsdefu ausmif;om;tcsKdUu t*Fvdyfpmcufonf[k nnf;nLMuí

26

vufOD;q&m ESifh jrwfynm

wpfaMumif;? tdE,
d´ rS q&mrsm; a&;om;onfh tvG,v
f rf; (MADE EASY)
rSwfpkpmtkyfrsm;ukd tm;xm;vGef;onfwpfaMumif;wkdYaMumifh uRefawmfwkdY
q&mwynfhwpfpk? pdwfynmbmom&yfukd vG,fulonfh t*Fvdyfpmjzifh
a&;om; jyKpck MhJ uygonf/ rSwrf o
d rQ ajym&vQif wuúaA'bmom&yftwGuf
(A TEXT-BOOK OF MODERN LOGIC) ukd ygarmu©q&mBu;D a'gufwm
vSbl;ESifh uxduq&m au-tifum; (K.N.KAR)wkdY jyKpkMuygonf/
acwfopf pdwfynm ausmif;oHk;pmtkyf (MODERN GENERAL
PSYCHOLOGY)ukr
d l ygarmu©q&mBu;D a'gufwmvSoiG Ef iS hf vufaxmuf
uxdursm; jzpfMuonfh uRefawmfESifh q&mr a':jrifhjrifharwkdY t*Fvdyfvkd
jyKpkcJhMuygonf/
(1960)wpf 0 k d u f u rl taemuf w k d i f ; ynma&;avmuwG i f
pmtkyx
f w
k v
f Qif xkw/f rxkwv
f Qif jyKwf (PUBLISH OR PERISH) [laom
tqkdtrdefY acwfpm;aeygonf/ xkdpOfu taemufEkdifiHrsm; (txl;ojzifh
tar&duef jynfaxmifpk)wGif tqifhjrifhynm ausmif;oHk;pmtkyfrsm;ukd
olYxufig tNydKiftqkdif jyKpkaeMuygonf/ xkdokdYjyKpk&mwGif tcsKdUu
pmenf;enf; t½kyf? "mwfyHk rsm;rsm;? tcsKdUurl ukd,fykdift,ltqenf;enf;
olwumt,ltqrsm;rsm;jzifh a&;om;wwfMu&m jzwf? ñSy?f uyf ausmif;oH;k
pmtkyfrsm;[líyif tcsif;csif; avSmifajymifoa&mf a0zefwwfMuygonf/
uRefawmfwkdY yg&*lbJGU,lNyD; jrefrmjynfokdY jyefvmonfhtcsdef (1967)
ckESpfwGifum; ]]ynmavmu &moDOwkonf wpfrsKd;wpfzHk ajymif;vJcJhayNyD?
bmom&yf[lorQ jrefrmvkd oifMurnf}}[laom a<u;aMumfoHukd vufoHk;jyK
xm;NyDjzpf&m bmom&yfqkdif&m t*Fvdyfa0g[m&rsm;ukd jrefrmvkdjyefjcif;
(okdYr[kwf) toHvS,fjcif;? jrefrmbmomjzifh aqmif;yg;rsm;? pmwef;rsm;?
a&;om; zwfMum;jcif;? uReaf wmfwYdk jyKpx
k m;aom (MODERN GENERAL
PSYCHOLOGY) ukd ]]acwfopfpw
d yf nm}}trnfjzifh bmomjyefjcif; ponf
wkdY jyKvkyfum pmoifcef;wGifvnf; jrefrmvkdajymíyif oifMum;ydkYcscJhMu
ygonf/ ,if;okYd oifMum;umpwGif q&mwkYd uRr;f usirf rI &Sad o;íwpfaMumif;
jy|mef;pmtkyfrSmvnf; jrefrmrsm;u t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh jyKpkxm;onfh
ausmif;oHk; pmtkyfjzpfí wpfaMumif;? a0g[m&rsm;ukd toHvS,fí jzpfpOf

vufOD;q&m ESifh jrwfynm

27

jzpf&yfwu
Ydk dk jrefrmvkd jyefvnf&iS ;f jyaom ESpb
f momenf; (B1-2 IN GUAL
METHOD)ukd oH;k cJMh uygonf/
xkt
d csed u
f uReaf wmfwu
Ydk ,
dk w
f idk f tar&duefwiG f ausmif;aepOfu
awGUBuHKcHpm;cJh&aom ]]xkwfvQifxkwf? rxkwfvQifjyKwf}} (PUBLISH OR
PERISH) [laomtcsuu
f dk owdw&jzifh ausmif;oH;k pmtkyrf sm; jyKpck yhJ gonf/
uRefawmfwpfOD;wnf; jyKpkaom pmtkyf(2)tkyfrSm ]]acwfopfpdwfynm}}
('kw,
d wJ)G ESihf ]]acwfopfqufqaH &; pdwyf nm}}wkYd jzpfygonf/ xkt
d csed u
f rl
t*Fvyd b
f momjzifh &SNd y;D jzpfaom pmtkyw
f rYdk S aumif;Ek;d &m&mwku
Yd dk xkwEf w
k u
f m
oif½kd;ñTef;wrf;ESifh ukdufnDonfwkdYukd jrefrmbmomjyefqkdí pkaygif;wifjy
onfhoabmrQom jzpfayonf/ tmp&d, y&Hy&? q&mhq&mwkdY enf;vrf;
twkid ;f ]]jzwf-n§y-f uyf}}bmomjyef pkpnf;aygif;pyf a&;om;vrf;pOfudk vku
d f
em usifhoHk;cJhygonf/
okdYaomf usrf;ukd;awG NrdKifNrdKifqkdifqkdifjzifh orm;*kPfjy jyKpkxm;aom
ausmif;oHk;pmtkyfwpftkyfvnf; &Sdygao;onf/ xkdpmtkyfrSm ]]acwfNydKif
pdwyf nm *kdPf;uJGrsm;}}jzpfí xkdpOfu vufaxmufuxdu (,ck ygarmu©)
jzpf o l q&mr a':aX;aX;ES i f h yl ; wJ G a &;om;jcif ; jzpf y gonf / þwG i f
]]orm;*kPfjy}}[k qkd& jcif;rSm wynfhjzpfoltm; taMumif;t&mESifh tcsuf
tvufaygif;rsm;pGmukd &if;jrpfjzpfaom pmtkypf mwrf; *sme,ftapmifapmif
rS aumufEkwfpkpnf; wifjyapNyD; q&mjzpfolu wl&ma&G;xkwfí taMumif;
t&mvnf; us,jf yefeY ufepJ v
kH ifap? pmoifom;wkv
Yd nf; tvG,w
f ul em;vnf
ap[laom &nfrSef;csufjzifh jyKpkxm;aomaMumifh jzpfygonf/ txl;ojzifh
xkdtcsdefu taemufwkdif; tqifhjrifhausmif;oHk;pmtkyftcsKdUwGifom awGU&
wwfonfh ]]rSwpf yk g usr;f uk;d pm&if;}} (ANNOTATBD BIBLIO GRAPHY)
ukd wifjyxm;jcif;aMumifhvnf; ]]orm;*kPfjy}}oabm jzpfonf[k qkd&yg
onf/
,cktcg umvDzkd;eD;,m;jynfe,f zlvmwefaumvdyf (FULLER
TON COLLEGE) rS pdwfynm ygarmu© (2)OD; yl;wJGjyKpkxm;onfh ]]vlom;
zHGUNzdK;rI}} (HUMAN DEVELOPMENT) [laom ausmif;oHk;pmtkyfukd
awGU&onft
h cgwGirf S tqifjh rifyh nmausmif;oH;k pmtkyf jyKp&k mwGif ]]pepf

vufOD;q&m ESifh jrwfynm

28

pdppfrI}} (SYSTEM ANALYSIS) enf;ukd oHk;pJGygu ykdí xda&mufrI &SdEkdif
aMumif; odjrifvmygonf/ ]]pepf-pdppfrI}} [lonf pdwfynmq&mwkdY\
]]oif,jl cif;jzpfpOf}}rSmuJo
h yYkd if ]]vkt
d if}} (NEED) ESihf pwifNy;D ,if;vkt
d ifwYdk
ESifh ywfoufonfh ,lqcsufrsm; (ASSUMPTIONS) ESifh &nfrSef;csufrsm;
(OBJECTIVES)wkdYukd pkpnf;aygif;pyf aqG;aEG;um jyKvkyf&rnfh ]]jzpfpOf}}
(PROCESS)wkdYukd &Sif;vif; azmfjyjcif;jzpfygonf/ (yl;wJGygyHkukdMunfhyg/)
pmtkyfa&;ol ygarmu© (2)OD;\ t"du vkdtifqE´rSm ]]vlwkdY\
zHUG NzKd ;rI taMumif;ESiyhf wfoufí Ny;D jynfph akH om wuúov
dk o
f ;kH pmtkyw
f pftyk f
jyKpka&;yif jzpfygonf/ ,if;okdYjyKpk&mwGif t"duusaom ,lqcsufBuD; (5)
ck &Sdayonf/
ausmif;oHk;pmtkyfjyKpk&mwGif oHk;pJGonfh pepf - pdppfrI - yHkpH

jyefauR;rI?
jyKjyifp&m&Sdonfukd
jyKjyifjcif;


tuJjzwfrIrsm;?
(ausmif;om;rsm;? vkyfazmf
ukdifzufrsm;? q&mrsm;ESifh
pmzwfolrsm;xHrS
&&Sdonf/)




vkdtif


,lqcsufrsm;
(5)csuf


&nfrSef;csufrsm;
(10)csuf


jzpfpOf(3)&yf


vkdtifqE´ jynfh0jcif;

vufOD;q&m ESifh jrwfynm

29

,if;wkdYrSm (1)uav;b0ESifh ysKdazmf0ifb0wkdY taMumif;ukd avhvmjcif;jzifh
uREyfk o
f nf uREyfk w
f t
Ydk aMumif;ukd ykrd dk od&edS m;vnfEidk o
f nf/ (2) uav;wku
Yd dk
arG;jrLxdef;odrf;olrsm;onf xkd uav;wpfOD;csif;twGufom wm0ef&Sdonf
r[kw/f xku
d av;wkYd aemufq;kH Bu;D jyif;vm&rnfh vlt
Y zJUG tpnf;twGuv
f nf;
wm0ef&adS yonf/ (3) vly*k Kd¾ vw
f pfO;D csi;f pDonf ol\ pGr;f aqmif&nftm;vH;k
zHUG NzKd ;wk;d wufatmif BuKd ;yrf;vkyaf qmifz?Ydk tcGit
hf a&; tjynft
h 0 &Sad yonf/
(4) vltawmfrsm;rsm;wGif zHGUNzdK;atmif vkyfaqmifEkdifonfh pGrf;tifykef;
(POTENTIAL) tajrmuftjrm; &Sdonf/ (5) vlwkdY\ zHGUNzdK;rIukd pepfwus
avhvmí awGU&SdcsufwkdYukd rSefuefpGm toHk;csjcif;jzifh vlwpfOD;csif;twGuf
aomfvnf;aumif; vlt
Y zJUG tpnf;wpfcv
k ;kH twGuaf omfvnf;aumif; tusK;d
xl;rsm; &&SdEkdifayonf/
txufazmfjyyg ,lqcsufrsm;ukd taumif
txnfazmf&mwGif xm;&Sd&rnfh &nfrSef;csuf (10)ck ausmif;oHk;pmwpftkyf
&Sdayonf/ ,if;wkdYrSm (1) ukd,fhtaMumif;ukd,f jyKpk a &;rS m wu,f
ykdrkdod&Sdem;vnf&ef? (2) oifhrdbrsm;taMumif;ukd wrf;om pepfpdppfrIukd
ykrd o
dk &d dS em;vnf&ef? (3) oifo
h m;orD;rsm; taMumif; oH k ; pJ G í vk y f i ef ; uk d
ukd ykdrkd od&Sdem;vnf&ef? (4) vlwkdY\zHGUNzdK;rIESifh taumiftxnf azmf
ywfoufonfh tajccH owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ukd rnfqkdygu taumif;
f nf
jynfhjynfhpHkpHk wifjyEkdif&ef/ (5) vlwkdYzHGUNzdK;rIESifh xuftrGef jzpfEidk o
ywfoufonfh t,ltqrsm; okawoersm;ESifh rSwfapumrl odyfawmh
awGU&Sdcsuf &v'frsm;ukd azmfjy&ef/ (6) vlom;b0 rvG,fvSaom tvkyf
twG u f t"d u usí ta&;ygonf h ok a woe wpf c k ygwum;[k
ESifh oDtkd&DtcsKdUukd o½kyfjy aqG;aEG;&ef? (7) vlom; aumif;pGm oabmayguf
zHGUNzdK;rIESifh ywfoufonfh rEkóaA'? vlrIaA'ESifh rdygownf;/
ZD0aA' ponfh qufpyfrI&Sd&m bmom&yfrsm;\
avhvmawGU&SdcsufwkdYukd odrf;oGif; aygif;pyfaqG;aEG; azmfjy&ef? (8) zHGUNzdK;rI
pdwfynm (DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY)\ oifhb0
wpfoufwm aeYpOf vIy&f mS ;jyKrrl rI sm;tay: tusK;d oufa&mufyw
kH u
Ydk dk pOf;pm;
avhvm&ef? (9) a&SUokYd qufvufí avhvmvkpd w
d af y:atmif EI;d aqmfay;&efEiS hf

30

vufOD;q&m ESifh jrwfynm

(10) pmoifom; (okrYd [kw)f pmzwfow
l t
Ydk m; vlom;tusK;d twGuf 0efaqmif
rIvkyfief;rsm;wGif wufwuf<u<u yg0ifvkyfaqmifa&;twGuf tm;ay;&ef
[lí jzpfayonf/
txufazmfjyyg &nfrSef;csuf (10)&yfukd taumiftxnfazmf&m
wGif vkyfaqmif&rnfh jzpfpOf(3)&yf &Sdygonf/ ,if;wkdYrSm (1) vlom;
zHGUNzdK;rIESifh ywfoufonfh bmom&yfqkdif&m ½Iaxmifhaygif;pHkrS avhvmawGU&Sd
csufwkdYukd aqG;aEG;wifjyjcif;? (2) tjyKtrlqkdif&m zHGUNzdK;rIESifhywfoufonfh
b0yef;wkid f rsm;ukd taumiftxnfazmf&mwGif vkt
d yfonfh vrf;ñTerf rI sm;ukd
wifjyjcif;? (3) vlom;b0 oHo&m (LIFE CYCLE) tqifhwpfckpDESifh
ywfoufonfh okawoeawGU&Scd surf sm;ESihf vufawGUtoH;k csrrI sm;taMumif;
ukd &Sif;vif;azmfjyjcif;wkdY jzpfayonf/
,if;okdYaom jzpfpOfrsm;twkdif; jyKpkNyD;onfh taMumif;&yfwkdYukd
tuJjzwf&eftwGuf ausmif;om;rsm;? vkyfazmfukdifzufrsm;? q&mrsm;ESifh
pmzwf y&d o wf r sm;xH wif j y&rnf jzpf y gonf / ,if ; yk * ¾ d K vf r sm;u
(1)&nfrSef;csuf aygufajrmufonf? raygufajrmufonfukd vnf;aumif;?
(2) ,lqcsurf sm;\ jynf0h pHv
k ifrI &So
d nf r&So
d nfudk vnf;aumif;? (3) tajccH
vkt
d yfcsuu
f dk vH;k 0 OóHk jznfq
h nf;ay;Ekid rf I &So
d nf r&So
d nfudk vnf;aumif;?
(vlom;zHGUNzdK;rI ausmif;oHk;pmtkyfaumif;wpftkyf [kwf r[kwf) jyefauR;rI
(FEED BACK) ay;Eki
dv
f rd rhf nf jzpfonf/ jyefauR;rI (FEED BACK) [laom
a0g[m&rSm oif,ljcif;oDtkd&Dq&m (LEARNING THEORISTS) wkdY\
tm;jznfhrI (REIN FOR CEMENT) ukdyif &nfñTef;jcif; jzpfygonf/ ,if;
tm;jznfhrIonf (1) &nfrSef;csuftqifh? (2) ,lqcsuftqifhESifh (3)
vkdtiftqifh ponfhtqifh (3)qifhpvHk;ESifh tusKH;0ifayonf/ (yl;wJGyg
yHkpHrsm;wGif jrm;wkdY\ vrf;ñTef&mukd Munfhyg/)
txufazmfjyyg vkyfief;tqifhqifhtvkduf a&;om;jyKpkxm;aom
]]zHUG NzKd ;rIpw
d yf nm ausmif;oH;k pmtky\
f trnfrmS vlom;zHUG Nz;d rI? yk*v
¾ u
d zGUH NzKd ;rI
pdwfynmukd ynm&yfaygif;pHk ½IaxmifhrS csOf;uyfavhvmenf;}} (HUMAN
DEVELOPMENT - A - MULTI - DISPLINARY APPROACH TO
PSYCHOLOGY OF INDIVIDUAL GROWTH) [lí

jzpfygonf/ ,if;

vufOD;q&m ESifh jrwfynm

31

ausmif;oHk;pmtkyfwGif (1) ed'gef;? (2) ynm&yfaygif;pHk½Iaxmifhrsm;? (3)
b0yef;wkid rf sm;? (4) b0 oHo&m [lí tykdif;BuD; (4)ykdif;ESifh tcef;aygif;
(21)cef; yg0ifNyD; pmrsufESm (581) &Sdygonf/
uRefawmfhxHwGif&Sdaom pmtkyfrSm tzHk;yg;ESifhjzpfNyD; ]]txl;ay;ykdY
onfh BuKd wifaumfyD a&mif;&efr[kw}f } (SPECIAL ADVACE COPY NOT
FOR SALE) [k ½kdufESdyfxm;ygonf/ xkdpmtkyfonf uRefawmf pdwfynm
ygarmu© wm0ef xrf;aqmifaepOfu rdwaf qGjzpfaom puFmylrS xkwaf 0olu
]]a0zef tuJjzwfcsuf a&;ay;yg&ef}} arwåm&yfcpH mESit
hf wl vufaqmifay;ykYd
vmjcif; jzpfygonf/ tzHk;yg; jzpf&jcif;rSm þpmtkyfonf a&mif;wef;0if
r[kwaf o;/ oufqidk &f myk*Kd¾ vw
f EYdk iS hf aphpyfñEdS idI ;f qJ aumif;onfxufaumif;
atmif jyKjyifqJ jzpfaMumif; azmfjyonfh oauFwyif jzpfygonf/ xkdpOfu
uReaf wmf rnfuo
hJ Ydk rSwcf suaf y;Ny;D jyefMum;cJo
h nfurdk l rrSwrf ad wmhyg/ rnfoYdk
yifjzpfap ,ck jyefzwfonft
h cgwGirf S tqifjh rifyh nm ausmif;oH;k pmwpftyk f
jyKpak &;rSm wu,fwrf;om pepfppd pfru
I dk oH;k pJí
G vkyif ef;ukd taumiftxnf
azmfrnfqkdygu taumif;xuftrGef jzpfEkdifonf rSwfapumrl odyfawmh
rvG,v
f aS om tvkyw
f pfcyk gwum;[k aumif;pGmoabmaygufryd gownf;/
n

a'gufwmausmfpdef

32

vufOD;q&m ESifh jrwfynm

ynma&;
ynma&;...

[laom a0g[m&
OD ; aomif ; xG # f
OD;&SmazG / ]]OD;ynmBuDd;ygvm;/ rvmwm tawmfuav; MumoGm;NyDaemf/
ynma&; jyKjyifajymif;vJrIawGeJY ynma&; t&nftaoG;
jrifhrm;vmatmif aqmif&Gufae&vkdY tvkyfawGrsm;aew,f
xifw,f}}
OD;ynm / ]][kwyf gw,f OD;&SmazG/ OD;&SmazGBu;D awG;xifovkd tvkyaf wGrsm;
aewmwifrubl;/ tvkyfawG xyfaew,fAsm}}
OD;&SmazG / ]]tvkyfawG rsm;aewmeJY tvkyfawGxyfaewm rwlbl;vm;As/
bmuGmjcm;aevkdYvJ}}
OD;ynm / ]]uGmw,f OD;&SmazGa&U? uGmw,f/ tvkyfrsm;aew,fqkdwmu
tvkyfwpfck wm0efwpfckukd owfrSwfxm;wJh tcsdeftwGif;
aumif;aumif;rGefrGef acsmacsmarmarmeJY tcsdefrDNyD;pD;zkdY tJ'D
wm0ef&UJ p - v,f - qH;k umvoH;k yg;pvH;k rSm tifwu
dk t
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wpfcgwpf&H xrif;arh? [if;arh tdyaf &;ysucf NH y;D uk,
d w
f idk v
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wmvkyf? vkyfazmfukdifzufawGukd ñTefMum;oifhwm ñTefMum;?
BuD;Muyfoifhwm BuD;Muyf? pdppfoifhwm pdppf&eJY *sifajcvnf
atmif vkyif ef;tqifq
h ifah wG vufrvnfatmif vkyaf e&wmukd
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wmuawmh tJ'Dvkd tm;oGefcGefpkduf vkyfaewkef;rSmyJ tjcm;
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vufOD;q&m ESifh jrwfynm

33

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34

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vufOD;q&m ESifh jrwfynm

35

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f dk

36

vufOD;q&m ESifh jrwfynm
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Education) rodrom ynma&; (Incidental Education) ponf
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tuJjzwfwJh vkyfief;pOfukd qkdvkdwmyg/ orm;½kd;usr[kwfwJh
trSwfwrJh ynma&; (Informal Education)qkdwmuawmh
ausmif;oiform;½kd;us ynma&;rsKd;r[kwfbJ vlom;wpfOD;
taeeJY aeYpOfxad wGUaewJh vlU0ef;usirf S trSww
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ponfwkdY jzpfygw,f}}

vufOD;q&m ESifh jrwfynm

37

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vlBuD;awGxHrS om;orD;? wl? wlrrsm;u rodrom &,lwJh
ynma&;rsKd; jzpfygw,f/ ausmif;jyifyynma&; (Non - Formal
Education) uawmh pmoifausmif;? odyÜHaumvdyf? wuúokdvf
awGu twef;vku
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