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Pharmaceuticals
Alsoreferredtoasmedicine,medication ormedicament Anychemicalsubstanceintendedforuse inthemedicaldiagnosis,cure,treatment, orpreventionofdisease

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Jenner and the First Vaccine

"ifyouwanttomarryawomanwhowillneverbescarred bythepox,marryamilkmaid."

First Insulin

BestandBanting

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Protein biopharmaceuticals
2000to200965biopharmaceuticaldrugs gottheOKfromtheFDA 1990s39approvals 1980s13approvals (U.S.FoodandDrugAdministration)

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Insulin from Bacteria

Theproteinproductencoded bytheclonedgeneorthe insertisproducedbythehost cell.

What is Pharming?

Farm?Pharm? What?! MOOmmy!

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Pharming
Farmingandpharmaceuticals Transgenicanimals Producedrugsorotherproducts beneficialtohumans Secretedinmilk Alsoinblood,urine,seminalfluid,egg white Cow,goat,sheep,chicken,pigs,etc.

Transgenic Mammal

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Nuclear Transfer

Genetically Engineered Clones

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Advantages
Cellculturesrequireconstantmonitoring andsampling Fulfilltheneedforbulkproducts Lesscomplex Posttranslationalprocessinginmammals

Cost-Effective!
AviGenics comparison of production inputs and costs for monoclonal antibodies* using traditional cell culture versus using transgenic poultry or goats (1999)
Rawmaterialvolume(kg) Capitalequipmentcost,orcost peranimal(US$) Equipmentmaintenancecosts,or keepingcostperanimal(US$) Unitcostperprotein(US$per gram) TraditionalCell Culture 170,000 100Million 100,000 100 PoultryEggs 250 1,000 10 0.10to0.25 GoatMilk 21,000 10,000to 50,000 2,500 2to20

*100kgofrawmaterialperyear(Source:AviGenicswww.avigenics.com)

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After Dolly

PollyfactorIXforhemophiliaBdeficiency

Milk Queen

GeorgeandCharlieserumalbumintoextendbloodvolume(1998)

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Atryn: Make Your Blood Flow

Antithrombinfirsttobecommercialized(2009)

Ethical Issues and Concerns


Treatmentofanimals Integrationoftransgeneintobreeding population Birthdefects Animalrights Economic(industryacceptance) Religious

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Edible Vaccines

Sharmaetal.,1999.Transgenicplantsfortheproductionofediblevaccinesandantibodiesforimmunotherapy

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Edible Vaccines
Potatogeneticallyengineeredtoproduce partofthetoxinsecretedbytheE.coli, whichcausesdiarrhea Potatoesandbananasthatmightprotect againstNorwalkvirus,acommoncause ofdiarrhea Potatoesandtomatoesthatmightprotect againsthepatitisB

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