IEG 4030 Optical Communications

Part VI. Optical Networks
Professor Lian K. Chen
Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong lkchen@ie.cuhk.edu.hk

Prof. Lian K Chen

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Part VI. Optical Networks
• • • • • • • Lightwave System Evolution Undersea Transmission Systems Optical Network Hierarchy and Topologies Subscriber Loop Passive Optical Networks CATV systems LAN/WAN/MAN
– FDDI – SONET/SDH

• •

All-optical Multiaccess Network Network Management
– Protection and Restoration in Network Management

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Lightwave Systems
• Traditional Optical Fiber Transmission System
E
|

Low-Rate Data In E
|

Low-Rate Data Out

M U X

XMTR

REG RPTR

REG RPTR

RCVR

D M U X

Traditional Regenerated Transmission Line

DET

AMP

EQ TMG REC

DEC

AMP

LASER

Opto-Electronic Regenerative Repeater

E-Mux: electronic multiplexer E-DMUX: elecrtonic demultiplexer XMTR: transmitter REG: regenerator RPTR: repeater RCVR: receiver DET: detector AMP: amplifier EQ: equalizer TMG REC: timing recovery DEC: decision circuit

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Traditional Optical Fiber Transmission System
• • • • • • Single-channel operation Opto-Electronic TDM of synchronous data electronic regenerative repeaters 30-50km repeater spacing Distortion and noise do not accumulate Capacity upgrade requires higher-speed operation

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Optically amplified Fiber Transmission System
• • • • • • • Multi-channel WDM operation Data-rate and modulation-format transparent One optical amplifier (per fiber) supports many wavelength channels 80-140 km amplifier spacing Distortion and noise accumulate Graceful growth (upgrade) of channels Capacity upgrade by adding wavelength-multiplexed channels

Data In XMTR XMTR

λ1 λ2 λN O
|

XMTR
Prof. Lian K Chen

M U X

OA

OA

OA

O λ RCVR 2 | RCVR D M λ N U RCVR X
5

λ1

Data Out

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System Limitations
• Attenuation → system power budget – Solutions: optical amplifiers; coherent detection Dispersion → pulse broadening → intersymbol interference – Solutions: dispersion compensation - use dispersioncompensating fibers, dispersion-shifted fibers, pre-chirping; soliton (dispersion and nonlinear effect compensate each other) Polarization → polarization dependent gain/loss, polarization mode dispersion (PMD), polarization sensitive → power penalty – Solutions: polarization tracking+polarization controller to fix the polarization into components, polarization scrambling, polarization diversity, use polarization-maintaining fibers

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System Limitations
• Nonlinear effects → four-wave-mixing (FWM), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), stimulated Brilluoin scattering (SBS), self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM) → system degradation – Solutions: advanced modulation format, power control, phase modulation; frequency assignment Noises → reflection noise, phase noise, back-scattering, modal noise, mode partition noise, thermal noise, shot noise, amplifier beat noise, RIN, etc. → power penalty – Solutions: isolator can reduce some types of noises

• All impairments can be remedied by using forward error correction; electronic equalizer can also resolve dispersion problems
Prof. Lian K Chen Part 6 - Optical Netwoks 7

System Transmission Capacity
Bit Rate -Distance ( Gb/s km)
107 106 105 104 103 102 101 1 1970
Prof. Lian K Chen

WHAT’S NEXT ?? WDM + Optical Amplifiers Optical Amplifiers Coherent Detection 1.5μm Single-Frequency Laser 1.3μm SM Fiber 0.8μm MM Fiber
Second Generation First Generation Third Generation

Fourth Generation

1975

1980

1985

1990 Year

1995

2000

2005
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System Transmission Capacity Capacity Toward 25 Tbit/s
Higher Data Rate OC-48 OC-768 Closer Channel Spacing 100 GHz 12.5 GHz • Chromatic Dispersion • Fiber Nonlinearity • Polarization Mode Dispersion • Fiber Nonlinearity • Channel Xtalk • Available Components • L-band EDFAs • Raman Amplifiers • Novel Modulation Format • Polarization or bidirectional interleaving Wider Optical Bandwidth 10 nm 300 nm Higher Spectral Efficiency 0.05 Bits/Hz >1 Bits/Hz

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Undersea Transmission Systems
• Design Considerations
– – – – – – span distance data rate repeater/amplifier spacing fault tolerance, system monitoring/supervision, restoration, repair reliability in components: aging cost

• Leading supplier
– Tycom (formerly Tyco Submarine System) – KDD Submarine Cable Systems – Alcatel Submarine Networks
http://www.telegeography.com/products/map_cable/index.php
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Undersea Transmission Systems

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Undersea Transmission Systems

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Undersea Transmission Systems

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Undersea Transmission Systems

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Undersea Transmission Systems

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Undersea Transmission Systems

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Submarine cable systems

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Optical Networks
Transmission Aspects
• Dispersion • Power Budget • Non-linearity • Polarization, etc.

Network Management
• Fault Management • Configuration Management • Performance Management

Optical Networks
Multi-Access
• Network Topology • Node Architecture • Multiplexing Scheme • Media Access Protocol

Services/Applications
• Data/Voice • Video/Image • Interactive Multimedia • Internet/Web Access

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Optical Network Hierarchy

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Carrier Optical Networks in US

About 50,00 Route Miles Of Fiber Cable Prof. Lian K Chen

Backbone Fiber Routes in China
To Russia

Qiqihaer To Europe Yining Korla Hohhot Ruoqiang Yinchuan Golmud Xining Urumqi Baicheng Harbin Mudanjiang Changchun Fuxin Yanji Shenyang Chengde Zhangjiakou Qinhuangdao Dandong To North

Beijing

Tianjin Shijiazhuang Yulin Taiyuan Hengshui Lanzhou Zhengzhou Luoyang Jinan

Dalian

Korea

Qingdao Lianyungang Nanjing Wuhu

To South Korea

XiAn
Chengdu Lhasa Shashi Huaihua Guiyang Kunming Xingyi The Existing Over-Head Fiber Optic Cables The Existing Buried Fiber Optic Cables Gejiu Guilin Nanning Pingxiang To Southeast Asia Beihai Chongqing

Kaifeng Xiangfan Xinyang Hefei

To Japan

Shanghai
Huzhou Hangzhou FLAG

Wuhan

Jiujiang Changsha Nanchang Jianyang Hengyang Fuzhou Taipei

Guangzhou Shenzhen Huizhou

Hongkong

Zhanjiang Haikou

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Optical Networks
• Network Topologies

Ring

Bus

Tree

Star

Mesh

Multi-hop

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Network Types
• Network Types

Broadcast and Select Network
λ1,λ2,λ3 λ1,λ2'’,λ3’

Space Switches λ1 λ2 λ3 Dynamic Wavelength Routing Network

λ1’,λ2',λ3’

λ1’,λ2,λ3’’

λ1’’,λ2'’,λ3’’

λ1’’,λ2’,λ3

Static Wavelength Routing Network

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Broadcast and Select WDM Networks

Tunable receiver/ fixed transmitter

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Subscriber Loop
• Fiber-In-The-Loop (FITL) /Passive Optical Networks (PON)
RT
DLC EU

O E

Traditional Fiber Feeder (Digital Loop Carrier) ONU RT CO O E O E M E O U X Fiber To The Curb (Active Star)
Prof. Lian K Chen Part 6 - Optical Netwoks 25

EU

Subscriber Loop (contd.)
1 CO P O S N ONU O E EU

Fiber To The Curb (Passive Optical Network)

POS: Passive Optical Splitter RT: Remote Terminal EU: End-User

ONU: Optical Network Unit CO: Central Office

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Fiber-In-The-Loop (FITL)

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Okada, FSAN, 1988.

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Passive Optical Networks (PON)
Optical Network Terminal

Optical Line Terminal

Optical Network Unit Network Terminals
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PON Architecture
• At CO:
– Optical Line Terminal (OLT) generates downstream traffic on its own or takes the Sonet signal from a co-located Sonet XC. – OLT aggregates traffic from multiple customers sites using TDM to ensure no interference.

At Outside plant,
– passive optical splitters are used to split signal 2 to 32 branches using various topologies

At Customer premises
– PON terminates in Optical network unit (ONU), or a.k.a. Optical network terminations (ONT) – The ONU converts optical signal to specific types of bandwidth (e.g. 10/100 Mb/s Ethernet, ATM, or T1 voice and data) and passes it on to routers, PBX, switches. ONU also uses laser to send upstream traffic to CO.

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Evolution of Passive Optical Networks
APON
(155Mb/s-622Mb/s)

BPON
(155Mb/s-1.25Gb/s)

Downstream: 1550nm Upstream: 1310nm

EPON
(1.25Gb/s)

GPON
(1.25Gb/s-2.5Gb/s)

WDM PON
(1.25Gb/s-10Gb/s)

Downstream: 1550nm for video, 1490nm for data Upstream:

TDM-PON
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1310nm

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TDM-PON

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Upstream: Burst-Mode Transmission
ONU

OLT
ONU

ONU

• Each ONU has different propagation distance from the OLT • At the OLT, the receiver will see packets from ONUs with varying amplitudes and phases, also varying inter-packet time-gaps • For each packet:
• Require fast clock recovery to get the clock • Require fast peak detector to get the best threshold level

Burst-Mode Receivers
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Ethernet PON

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Major TDM-PON Technologies Summary

Characteristics
Standard Protocol Speed (Mbps) Span Number of split

BPON
ITU-T G.983 ATM D/S: 622/1244 U/S: 155/622 20km 32

EPON
IEEE 802.3ah Ethernet D/S: 1244 U/S: 1244 10km 16 nominal, 32 allowed

GPON
ITU-T G.984 ATM and Ethernet D/S: 1244/2488 U/S: 155/2488 20km 64

Ref: G Keiser, FTTX concept and application
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WDM-PON

Q: what are the pros and cons for WDM-PON, compared to TDM-PON?
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WDM-PON

• WDM-PON: Wavelength Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Network • use multiple wavelengths, each serves a certain group of users • higher capacity, future-proof
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Hybrid Fiber-Coax (HFC)
• • • To provide new interactive service, cable TV systems are gradually upgraded to HFC architecture. Cable modem is used to provide internet access (IEE802.14). Telephone service can be provided through VoIP.

Central Office

Fiber Node Fiber Down-link: 50-750MHz, @1.55μm Up-link: 5-40MHz, @1.3μm Coax Amplifier

200-1000 Homes

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CATV (Community Antenna TeleVision)
Trunk amplifier Headend Hub Hub

subscriber

Drop line subscriber

• • • •

Headend : distribution source; include programs received from satellite, local TV station, together with in-house production programs. Super-trunk : no fan-out, connection from headend to the hub. HUB : distribution node; requires high carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) ~52-56 dB. Subscriber : home users, required CNR ~ 35 dB
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Prof. Lian K Chen

Modulation format of CATV system
(1) AM-VSB (vestigial side-band) :
• simple modulation scheme • compatible to existing modulation format • requires high CNR limited power budget, unless high-power diodepump solid state laser (>20 dBm) with external modulation is used. • NTSC : 6MHz spacing, 4.2MHz VSB bandwidth

(2) FM : • easier to achieve since the required CNR ~16.5 dB. • requires more bandwidth (40MHz spacing, 30MHz bandwidth) • typically used in satellite broadcasting and by some CATV operators.

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Modulation format of CATV system (contd.)
(3) Digital :
– baseband – FSK and PSK - spectral efficiency not as good as baseband (0.5-1.0 bit/s/Hz), but easier channel tuning – QPSK - spectral efficiency (2.0 bit/s/Hz) – required large bit-rate (>100Mbit/s) if uncompressed – compression schemes - JPEG(ISO), MPEG(ISO), H.261(CCITT), …

Channel multiplexing scheme : SCM (subcarrier multiplexing)

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Distortion in CATV
• Sources of noise or distortion :
– transmitter - relative intensity noise (RIN), clipping noise, intermodulation. (RIN is very sensitive to reflection) – receiver noise - shot noise, thermal noise, circuit noise, APD noise.

Performance index : CNR (carrier-to-noise ratio) per channel ~ 52 dB CSO (composite-second-order distortion) ~ -65 dBc CTB (composite-triple-beat distortion) ~ -65 dBc

dBc: dB respect to carrier

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CNR calculation
1 (m ⋅ I dc ) 2 2 CNR = 2 2 ⋅ e ⋅ I dc ⋅ BW + 4 ⋅ k ⋅ T ⋅ BW ⋅ Ft / Req + RIN ⋅ I dc ⋅ BW

where m : modulation index per channel I dc : d.c. photo current BW : receiver bandwidth Ft: electronic preamp noise figure R eq: receiver equivalent resistance RIN: laser relative intensity noise The last term (laser intensity contribution) in the denominator is introduced since the noise becomes non-negligible when I dc is large. Note that the above CNR is per channel.

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CNR for analog modulation
Ex: Assume a laser with Pdc= 2mW, m= 0.01, RIN = -150 dB/Hz, BW = 4MHz,
Ft= 3, R eq= 75Ω, Ro= 1.0 mA/mW

Baseline (without distribution loss, fan-out, ….) CNR is
1 (0.01 ⋅1.0 ⋅ 2 ×10−3 ) 2 2 2 ⋅ e ⋅ (1.0 ⋅ 2 × 10 ) ⋅ 4 ×10 + 4 ⋅ k ⋅ T ⋅ 4 ×10 ⋅ 3 / 75 + 10
6 6 −3

CNR =

−150 10

⋅ (1.0 ⋅ 2 ×10−3 ) 2 ⋅ 4 ×106

Q : How to determine the modulation index? Q : When will shot noise/thermal noise/RIN noise dominate? Q : What are the effects when we change the value of m, loss, BW, RL, or RIN?
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Broadband Local Access
Several approaches • xDSL (digital subscriber line) by Telco (telephone company).
(http://www.adsl.com)

dedicated bandwidth (<10Mb/s)

• • •

Cable modem by CATV industry (http://www.cablemodem.com)
40Mb/s share bandwidth; low cost; reliability and security issues; need

FTTx (Fiber-to-the-x)
bring fiber close to residential building

Wirelss - LMDS (local multipoint distribution service) (+ WiFi, WiMax)
At 28 GHz with 1.3GHz bandwidth by FCC; fast deployment; inexpensive; limits by rain-fade;

• •

Powerline (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_line_communication) Satellite
wide-coverage; down link traffic only

Ref: Scientific America Oct. 1999.
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Internet Users Projection

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Optical Fiber Telecommunications V.B

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LAN/MAN
• Various network protocols by IEEE

and others • 802.11: wireless LAN (WLAN) • 802.12: 100 VG-Any LAN • 802.15: Wireless PAN (WPAN) • 802.15.1 bluetooth • 802.15.2 UWB • 802.15.4 ZigBee • 802.16: WiMax • 802.17: Resilient Packet Ring

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Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI),
ANSI X3T9.5
• • • • • • • dual counter-rotating token passing ring, one ring is the protection ring data rate: 100Mb/s, clock rate: 125Mb/s support 1000 physical connections (500 terminals) support a total fiber path length of 200km (100km dual ring) line coding: 4B5B frame format (packet) protocol: Timed -Token Rotation Protocol
– Ref: R. Jain, “Performance Analysis of FDDI Token Ring Networks: Effect of Parameters and Guidelines for Setting TTRT”, Computer Communications Review, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 264-275, 1990. Outer ring used for data

Inner ring for protection

MAC

MAC

MAC

B

A

B

A

B

A

A

B

A

B

A

B

MAC

MAC

MAC

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Fault-tolerance in FDDI
In case of a link failure, the dual rings will be automatically configured into a single ring as shown below:
MAC MAC B A MAC B A

failed station

station adjacent to failure loops back

B

A

A

B

A

B

A

B

MAC No Node Failure Station

MAC

MAC Node Failure Station

Bypass Switch

To Ring 1 To Ring 2 Prof. Lian K Chen Part 6 - Optical Netwoks

To Ring 1 To Ring 2 49

SONET and SDH
• • • • Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) ANSI T1.105.06 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) ITU-T G.957 SONET: North America standards, SDH: standards in Europe and Japan robust for transporting all types of voice, video and data services
SONET/SDH Signal Rates Rate (in MHz) 51.84 155.52 622.08 2488.32 9953.28 SONET Frame STS-1 STS-3 STS-12 STS-48 STS-192 SDH Frame STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64 Physical Signal OC-1 OC-3 OC-12 OC-48 OC-192 Capacity 28 DS1 84 DS1 336 DS1 1344 DS1 5376 DS1

STS: Synchronous Transport Signal Level (for SONET) STM: Synchronous Transport Module Level (for SDH) “SONET: now it's the standard optical network”, IEEE Communication Mag. Vo.40, no.5, 2002.
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SONET and SDH (contd.)
• direct synchronous multiplexing: individual tributary signals may be multiplexed, using Add-Drop Multiplexer (ADM) and Digital CrossConnect, directly into a higher rate SONET signal without intermediate stages of multiplexing → cost-effective, flexible telecommunications networking provides flexible signal transportation capabilities, capable of transporting all existing and future signals → can overlay to existing networks

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SONET network spans
Path: end-to-end; (path) Line: between transport nodes; (multiplex section) Section: between line regenerators (regenerator section)

LINE
TRIBUTARY SIGNALS SONET TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER

LINE SECTION SECTION SECTION
TRIBUTARY SIGNALS

SONET TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER SONET SONET DIGTIAL CROSS_CONNECT REGENERATOR SONET REGENERATOR

PATH

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SONET STS-1 Frame Format
STS-1 Synchronous Payload Envelope (SPE) (87 columns) 3 rows Section overhead 6rows Line overhead 3 columns Path Overhead (1 column)

• •

Frame rate: 8000 frames per second; 125μs per frame Line rate of STS-1

STS-1=(90 bytes/row)(9 rows/frame)(8 bits/byte)/(125 μ s/frame) =51.84 Mb/s
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SONET ring architecture
• SONET ring architecture
Integrated Timing System Clock Central Exchange Digital Cross Connect ADM Dual Ring ADM

DS1, E1, etc.

Terminal Multiplexer

ADM

Protection Ring

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Key features of WDM Network
• Simple Capacity upgrade
System capacity can be increased easily by adding more channels operating on different wavelength sufficient apart from the existing ones.

Transparency
Different modulation formats (analog AM, FM, PCM, … or digital ASK, FSK, PSK, QAM, …) on different channels.

Wavelength routing
Wavelength is used as the intermediate or final address for routing datagram. Wavelength selective devices such as WGR (wavelength grating router) or AWG (array waveguide grating) can be used as the router.

Wavelength switching
Wavelength-switched networks provide re-configurable network architecture on optical layer. Key components for implementing these networks include optical cross-connect, wavelength converter, wavelength router, and optical add-drop.

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Wavelength Routing Networks
• Broadcast-and-select networks are difficult to scale to wide-area networks
– no. of wavelength channel required – passive star couplers exhibit high insertion loss as the no. of ports increases.

Wavelength routing networks overcome the problems by wavelength reuse, wavelength conversion, and optical switching.
Station 1 Station 2

λ1 λ1

Wavelength reuse
λ2
Station 3 Prof. Lian K Chen Station 4 Part 6 - Optical Netwoks Station 5 56

All-Optical Multiaccess Networks
• “All-Optical” Networks
– transparent to multiple signal format and bit rate → facilitates upgrade and compatible with most existing electronics – reduce number of costly electrical interface (?) – manage the enormous capacity on the information highway – provide direct photonic access, add-drop and routing of broadband full wavelength chunk of information

“Multiaccess” Networks (don’t confuse with access network)
– efficient network resource sharing among network nodes – need multiplexing, routing and switching – techniques: SCMA, WDMA, TDMA, CDMA and their hybrids

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Design Considerations of Multiaccess Networks
• Design Considerations
– – – – – – architectures/topologies → network capacity and connectivity multi-access schemes and protocols→ network throughput and delay node complexity → cost all-optical processing vs. opto-electronic processing switching speed → multi-/demultiplexing, switching channel accessibility → device tunability (Tunable Transmitters-Tunable Receivers, Fixed Transmitters-Tunable Receivers or Tunable Transmitters-Fixed Receivers) – timing and synchronization – control signaling → network management – optical technology → dispersion, nonlinear effects, crosstalk, noise, …

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Network Management
• • • • Network management is essential to operate and maintain any networks. However attractive a technology might be, it can be deployed only if it can be managed. The cost of managing a large network typically dominates the cost of the equipment deployed in the network. For optical networks, certain factors such as transparency limit the number of parameters that can be monitored.

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Network Management Function
• • • • • • Configuration Management Performance Management Fault Management Security Management Accounting Management + Safety Management (optical power)
Fault management

Configuration management

Network Management

Accounting management

Performance management
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Security management
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Part 6 - Optical Netwoks

Network Management
Performance Management:
• • • measure and monitor the network performance such as network throughput, user response times, line utilization, signal quality, etc. ensure network can perform at acceptable level. gather data analyse data check for thresholds alarms if below threshold

Configuration Management:
• • monitor network and system configuration such as equipment inventory, topology, connection setup, etc. effects on network operation of hardware and software can be tackled and managed.

Accounting Management:
• • measure network utilization to regulate network usage of users, maximize fairness of network access usage validation, billing

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Network Management
Fault Management:
• • • fault detection generate alarms, fault isolation automatically fix/recover network problems (restoration) keep log of faults

Security Management:
• • control and monitor access to network resources prohibits information and resource access without appropriate authorization
Management System Network Management Protocols
NM agent NM database NM agent NM database

Network Element Prof. Lian K Chen Part 6 - Optical Netwoks

Network Element 62

Network Protection
• • In a network, each link carry data from different sources to different destination. Two ways to protect the traffic
(1) path switching - restoration is handled by the source and destination nodes of each individual stream (2) line switch - restoration is handled by the nodes at both ends of the failed link Line switching can be implemented by span protection and line protection
reroute path

(a) normal
connection

(b) path switching

x

(c) line switchingspan protection
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x

(c) line switching line protection
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x
63

Different Protection Techniques for Pointto-point Links
• • • 1+1 1:1 (only one fiber is on) 1:N
switch
Working fiber

switch

switch splitter switch

Working fiber • • •

switch

(a) 1+1

switch

Working fiber

switch switch

switch

Working fiber

switch

Low priority data

Protection fiber

(b) 1:1
Prof. Lian K Chen Part 6 - Optical Netwoks 64

switch

Protection fiber

(c) 1:N

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