Index IIR filters, see Infinite impulse response filters IL (instruction list), 690 Illegitimate errors, 10 Illusion of control

, 280 Illusion of correlation, 280 Imaginary axis crossings, 519, 521–522 Impedance(s), 38–45 computing, 40–41 definition of, 38 of distributed system, 67 electrical, 38 graphical determination of output, 54– 56 input / output, at operating point, 48 of lumped linear elements, 38 in measurements, 119–123 in series / parallel, 39–40 The ´ venin / Norton source equivalents, 44–45 transducer-matched, 57–58 transforming / gyrating, 41–43 Implementation phase (system design), 290–291 Improper rational functions, 326 Impulse, 35 Impulse response, 327–328 Incidental base rate, 279–280 Incremental algorithm, 426 Incremental encoders, 391 Independent energy storage elements, 316 Indexer modulators, 573, 574 Indirect NN control, 795 Inductive bridges, 112–114 Inductive storage element, 304 Inductors, 831, 832 Infinite impulse response (IIR) filters, 197 design of, 201–203 FIR vs., 206, 208 phase analysis of, 206 Information, central role of, 284–285 Information processing by humans and organizations, 278–282 Inherent integration: systems with, 660–666 systems with no, 659, 660 Inhomogeneity errors, service-induced, 144–147 Initial-value theorem, 326, 450, 463 In-line piston servomotors, 575, 577

889

In-memory storage, 222–224 Inner feedback loops, 645–651 alternative variables, 649, 650 derivatives of controlled variable, 646– 649 nonelectric, 650–651 Inner rotor–outer stator brushless dc motors, 552, 553 Inner stator–outer rotor brushless motors, 552, 553 Input, control system, 384 Input admittance, 120 Input impedance, 48, 103, 119, 120 Input–output analysis, 276 Input / output (I / O) form, 315–318 converting, to phase-variable form, 321 deriving the, 316–318 Input–output interactions, 34–37 Input / output (I / O) processors, 682 Inserted materials, law of, 140, 141 Instability meters, 180–182 Instantaneous utility, 808 Instruction list (IL), 690 Instrument Society of America (ISA), 3 Instrument statics, 3–31 calibration, 6–9 confidence limits on regression lines, 18–22 data amounts needed, 14–15 definitions used in, 4–6 determination of confidence limits on ␮, 17–18 distributions comparison, 29–31 error types, 10 goodness of fit, 15–16 means comparison, 27–29 probability density functions, 16–17 propagation of error or uncertainty, 10– 12 sampling, 9–10 statistical testing, 23–26 unbiased estimates, 9 uncertainty interval, 12–13 variability comparison, 24, 27 Integral absolute-error (IAE) criterion, 411, 493 Integral control, 401, 402 Integral gain, 402 Integral-of-time-mulitplied absolute-error (ITAE) criterion, 411, 490–493

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