This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
(A) Raw materials and purchased parts (B) Partially completed goods (C) Finished-goods inventories or merchandise (D) Replacement parts, tools, and suppliers (E) Goods-in-transit to warehouses or Goods In progress Inventory is a stock or store of goods. It includes raw materials or stock incoming suppliers. Types of Demand: 1) Dependent Demand These are items that are typically subassemblies or component parts that will be used in the production of a final or finished product. Subassemblies and component a part is derived from the number of finished units that will be produced. Example: Demand for wheels for new cars. 2) Independent Demand These are items that are the finished goods or other end items. These items are sold or at least shipped out rather than used in making another product. Functions of Inventory 1. To meet anticipated customer demand. These inventories are referred to as anticipation stocks because they are held to satisfy planned or expected demand. 2. To smooth production requirements. Firms that experience seasonal patterns in demand often build up inventories during off-season to meet overly high requirements during certain seasonal periods. Companies that process fresh fruits and vegetable deal with seasonal inventories 3. To decouple operations. The buffers permit other operations to continue temporarily while the problem is resolved. Firms have used buffers of raw materials to insulate production from disruptions in deliveries from suppliers, and finished goods inventory to buffer sales operations from manufacturing disruptions. 4. To protect against stock-outs. Delayed deliveries and unexpected increases in demand increase the risk of shortages. The risk of shortages can be reduced by holding safety stocks, which are stocks in excess of anticipated demand. 5. To take advantage of order cycles. Inventory storage enables a firm to buy and produce in economic lot sizes without having to try to match purchases or production with demand requirements in short run. 6. To hedge against price increase. The ability to store extra goods also allows a firm to take advantage of price discounts for large orders. 7. To permit operations. Production operations take a certain amount of time means that there will generally be some work-in-process inventory. Inadequate control of inventories Inadequate control of inventories can result into two categories: 1) Under stocking results in missed deliveries, lost sales, dissatisfied customers and production bottlenecks. 2) Overstocking unnecessarily ties up funds that might be more productive
Two Main Concerns of Inventory Management
c) The need to make a decision on order quantities at each review 2) Perpetual Inventory System (also known as a continual system). ordering costs. Specifically Decision maker tries to achieve a balance in stocking and Fundamental decision must be made related to the timing and size of orders Requirements for Effective Inventory Management To be effective. Advantage Orders for many items occur at the same time. A system to keep track of the inventory on the hand on order. reorder when the first is empty. which can result in economies in processing and shipping orders Disadvantages a) Lack of control between reviews. Knowledge of lead times and lead time variability. discounts stores. monthly) in order to decide how much to order of each item. and department stores. second Cost of ordering and carrying inventories. Objectives of Inventory Management To achieve satisfactory levels of customer service while keeping inventory costs within reasonable bounds. 3. 2. Two-bin-system method Is two containers of inventory. Reasonable estimates of inventory holding costs. so the system can provide information on the current level of inventory for each item.First Concern Level of customer service to have the right goods. management must have the following: 1. and at the right time. management can identify an economic order size. Advantages 1. b) The need to protect against shortages between review periods by carrying extra stock. Tracking System . in the right place. in sufficient quantities. Major users: Supermarkets. Inventory Counting Systems 1) Periodic System This is a physical count of items in inventory is made at periodic intervals (e. A reliable forecast of demand that includes an indication of possible forecast error. This keeps track of removals from inventory on a continuous basis. The added cost of record keeping. The fixed-order quantity. The control provided by the continuous monitoring of inventory withdrawals. Disadvantage 1. and shortage costs. 2. 5. the disadvantage is that the reorder card may not be turned in for a variety of reasons. 4.g. weekly. The advantage of this system is that there is no need to record each withdrawal from inventory. A classification system for inventory items.
subassemblies. 2. depreciation. 3. obsolescence. Annual demand requirements are known. inspecting goods upon arrival for quality and quantity. Cost includes interest. These include determining how much is needed.Universal Product Code (UPC) bar code printed on a label that has information about the item to which it is attached. the greater the need for additional stock to reduce the risk of a shortage between deliveries. There are quantity discounts. pilferage. which are withdrawn at instant rate over time. etc. spoilage. Each order is received in a single delivery. Inventory Cycles begins with the receipt of an order of Q units. Storage Cost is cost resulting when demand exceeds the supply of inventory on hand. deterioration. EOQ models identify the optimal order quantity in terms of minimizing the sum of certain annual costs that vary with order size. 6. Inventory Cost (Three Basic Costs) 1. bar codes attached to parts. and moving the goods to temporary storage. and similar costs ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY(EOQ) MODELS Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) is the order size that minimizes total cost. Holding or Carrying Cost is the costs to carry an item in inventory for a length of time usually a year. breakage. insurance. and finished goods greatly facilitate counting and monitoring activities. 4. Ordering Cost is cost of ordering and receiving inventory. When the quantity on the hand is just sufficient to satisfy demand during lead time. In manufacturing. 5. the greater the potential variability. Lead time does not vary. Developing EOQ Mathematical Model Assumption of the Basic EOQ Model 1. Demand is spread evenly throughout the year so that the demand rate is reasonably constant. Bar coding represents an important development for other sectors of business besides retailing. loss of customer goodwill. 3. Only one product is involved. Demand Forecast and Lead time Information Managers need to know the extent to which demand and lead time might vary. preparing invoices. an order for Q units is submitted to the supplier. . taxes. 2. late charges. These costs can include the opportunity cost of not making a sale.
Economic Production Quantity (EPQ) .
There are several methods of time-series analysis that can be used. The objective is to determine the general trend of sales -rising. the same sales forecasting methods can be applied. These are: Quantitative • Time Series Analysis. These are: • Surveys of consumers intentions • Direct sales information • Expert opinion • Test marketing • Leading indicators • Statistical analysis and extrapolation Methods of Sales Forecasting Whatever the firm is trying to predict. the same sales forecasting methods can be applied. or stagnant. Time Series Analysis Time series analysis uses evidence from past sales records to predict future sales patterns. For example if sales of ice creams double for a two week period. Whatever the firm is trying to predict. launches a copycat product’. falling. Again long term figures are used but now the objective is to examine the relationship between demand levels and economic activity. • Trend Analysis – this focuses on long term data. • Use of Market Research Data Qualitative • Delphi Technique • Brainstorming • Intuition Sales forecasting: quantitative 1. or whatever the circumstances envisaged. sales are measured on a monthly or weekly basis to examine the seasonality of demand. This method of analysis attempts to explain how unusual or extreme sales figures occur. • Seasonal Analysis – In this case. So firms might ask what ‘what will demand be if real incomes increase by 10%’ or ‘how much is demand likely to fall if competitor x. then could this be explained by weather conditions. or whatever the circumstances envisaged. What is the relationship between demand for the product or products and the stage in the economic or business cycle? • Random Factor Analysis. rather than an effective advertising campaign? Random Factor Analysis therefore attempts to provide explanations for unusual or abnormal statistics. • Cycle Analysis. There are both quantitative and qualitative forecasting methods. which has been collected over a number of years.Sales Forecasting Sales forecasting is the art or science of predicting future demand by anticipating what consumers are likely to do in a given set of circumstances. .
Below are monthly sales figures for Happy Valley Ice Cream for the year 2000. Use Of Market Research Data Surveys of consumer’s intentions This method of forecasting predicts the future by asking people directly what they intend to do in the future. 3 months. it might be reasonable to extrapolate from this that sales will continue to grow by 5% per year. The effect of the calculation of a 3 month moving average is to smooth out seasonal variations. and trying to study the relationship that may exist between the two. A firm may be examining 2 variables. This means that there must be an allowance made for bias. It is worth noting that results gained have to be adjusted for cultural bias. A simple example might be the amount spent on TV advertising for a product and sales correlation does not occur. year. The outer lines show possible variations from the simple trend extrapolation. These 2 methods of communication market data will provide a wide range of information. or take a rosy view of the future. They may ask consumers questions like ‘ do you intend to switch to digital TV in the next month. or ‘ in a years’ time do you expect to be better off. but the information received must be adjusted to fit in with the bigger picture. Moving Averages Another method of allowing for fluctuations in sales. Correlation Is there a link between firms advertising expenditure and sales? Is there a link between discounts to wholesales and orders? Correlation measures these sorts of relationships. as shown in the diagram below. whilst the British are somewhat more likely to be cautious Direct Sales Information Sales forces and direct sales workers are those ‘closest to the ground’. To show how this works we can use some sample figures. and possible marketing campaigns of competitors. or in the same financial situation’. we can allow for this. So. and secondly by encouraging the upward flow of information through the hierarchy. although showing a general trend of increase. 6 months. It is these groups that are most likely to be the first to notice developing trends. For example allowance must be made for economic circumstances. The results of these surveys allow firms to predict sales patterns across a wide variety of consumer durable goods.Trend Analysis and Extrapolation Once evidence has been gathered. if sales have grown steadily in the past at 5% a year. . Firstly. Direct sales information can be collected in 2 ways. e. or later’ . predicting a bleak future for sales so that they protect themselves. Based on past evidence we can build in factors such as the economic cycle. and also.g. sales people do have a habit of manipulating figures for their own benefit. by management requesting statistical predictions of future sales. the future can be predicted i. such as those caused by seasonality is to calculate moving averages. If sales. and they have the experience to spot market changes and shifts. for example the Italians tend to exaggerate their likely future expenditure. There are a number of large market research firms that are continually gathering information of this sort. 3. Extrapolation involves taking the past and extending it into the future.e. worse off.. sales can be forecasted. have fluctuated. We can also add the idea of probability to this prediction of the future.
In the early part of 2001. and if the response of the test marketing process is negative then changes can and are made to the movies. The response of the test market groups are used to judge if the in-house research. or within markets. and then the questionnaire is sent to them. or to a small section of the target market. then a further questionnaire is developed. and is sent to the same panel of experts. Responses to the questionnaire are summarised. are test marketed. To improve upon a simple gathering of expert opinion we can use the Delphi Technique is based on researching the views of a panel of experts. This time delay is referred to as a ‘time lag’. and whether adjustments need to be made to the product for sales forecasts to become achievable. before they are put on general release. A ‘delphi’ begins with the initial development of a questionnaire focusing on the problem. Leading Indicators Leading indicators are changes in the economy. Sales forecasting: qualitative The Delphi Technique. There are a number of advantages to using this method of market research. An increase in new build housing starts will indicate an increase in demand for furniture perhaps 6 months later. (by being shown to invited audiences). Each participant answers the questionnaire independently and returns it. Within the tourist industry a fall in demand for European package tours in January and February of one year. For example many movies. before the full release of the product. A panel of experts is selected. the fall in consumer confidence and demand in the USA was seen as likely to have an impact on UK exports in late 2001.Test Marketing Test marketing involves testing consumers’ response to a product. based on findings of first questionnaire. especially if a strong relationship has been proven in the past. that indicate a future effect on a firm’s own market. which can be used when needed. The following are weaknesses of the method • All depends on the content and structure of the questionnaires. Leading indicators can give strong short term indications of likely. The process is repeated until those who are investigating the issue feel positions in the expert group are firm and agreement on a topic is reached. • Participants have time to think through their ideas leading to a better quality of response • The Delphi method creates a record of the expert group’s responses and ideas. • Experts can reconsider their judgments after reading feedback from other members of the expert group • It is flexible enough to be used in a variety of situations and be applied to a range of complex problems. • It assumes that experts are willing to come to a consensus and allow their opinions to be altered by the views of other experts • Expert panels often lose members because of boredom. Test marketing can involve release in a limited geographical area. and so on. and opinions are applicable within the target market. and disillusionment with the process . near future fluctuations in sales levels. The members of the expert panel independently rate and priorities ideas included in the second questionnaire. may indicate an increase in demand for UK holidays later in the year.
The use of intuition is cheap. there is no excuse not to carry out test marketing exercises. This makes prediction of future sales trends much harder.• Monetary payments to the exerts may lead to bias in the results of the study • The method will more than likely require a substantial period of time to complete and can be costly in terms of the researcher’s time Brainstorming Brainstorming is a group technique for generating new. no judgments should be made of ideas. and trade organizations. suppliers. useful ideas and promoting creative thinking. or placed within immature markets. to give them an understanding of future potential – this can be referred to as using intuition or gut feeling. Brainstorming is most effective with groups of 6-12 people and works best with a varied group. Even if an experienced manager ‘feels it in their bones’. energy economists. market testing etc. consult specialists on long term weather forecasts. all of whom have opinions on future demand and expenditure patterns. Other experts to be consulted will include distributors. There are motor industry economists. Expert opinion There is a huge variety of expert opinion available on most industries. There are consultants who specialize in the motor industry. marketing and sales professionals often rely on their understanding and knowledge of other markets and products that may be similar in some way. In this sort of situation. and fast. Finally participants should not be afraid to "hitch hike" on others' ideas. There is less evidence. But gut feeling and experience should not be the only guide. affected by seasonal variations in sales. build on what has already been suggested. The basis of the brainstorm is ‘The Problem Statement’ This Problem Statement will be the single focus of discussions. Some firms. No need for data gathering. i. in internet marketing and so on. then the collection and examination of statistical evidence is much harder. in an attempt to predict sales of ice cream. Examples of problem statements might be ‘How can we improve our product range?’ or ‘What will be different about our market in five years time?’ The problem statement needs to be specific enough to help participants focus on the objectives of the session. During a brainstorm all ideas are welcome and there are no wrong answers. but it must be open enough to allow innovative thinking and it should not be biased so it favours a particular solution or excludes creative ideas. . During brainstorming. and political economists. and also more generalized opinion that may also be considered by firms trying to forecast the future. in food retailing. Intuition For products that are new to market. lager. or umbrellas. and the evidence there is less reliable.e. The brainstorm will work best if members are creative in their contributions and attempt to contribute a high quantity of ideas is a short amount of time. wholesalers.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.