LATHE MACHINE A lathe /ˈleɪð/ is a machine tool which rotates the workpiece on its axis to perform various operations

such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, or deformation, facing, turning, with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object which has symmetry about an axis of rotation. Lathes are used in woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, Thermal spraying/ parts reclamation, and glass-working. Lathes can be used to shape pottery, the best-known design being the potter's wheel. Most suitably equipped metalworking lathes can also be used to produce most solids of revolution, plane surfaces and screw threads or helices. Ornamental lathes can produce three-dimensional solids of incredible complexity. The material can be held in place by either one or two centers, at least one of which can be moved horizontally to accommodate varying material lengths. Other work-holding methods include clamping the work about the axis of rotation using a chuck or collet, or to a faceplate, using clamps or dogs.

A lathe may or may not have a stand (or legs), which sits on the floor and elevates the lathe bed to a working height. Some lathes are small and sit on a workbench or table, and do not have a stand. Almost all lathes have a bed, which is (almost always) a horizontal beam (althoughCNC lathes commonly have an inclined or vertical beam for a bed to ensure thatswarf, or chips, falls free of the bed). Woodturning lathes specialized for turning large bowls often have no bed or tail stock, merely a free-standing headstock and a cantilevered tool rest. At one end of the bed (almost always the left, as the operator faces the lathe) is a headstock. The headstock contains high-precision spinning bearings. Rotating within the bearings is a horizontal axle, with an axis parallel to the bed, called thespindle. Spindles are often hollow, and have exterior threads and/or an interiorMorse taper on the "inboard" (i.e., facing to the right / towards the bed) by which work-holding

In most modern lathes this power source is an integral electric motor. Its most common uses are to hold a hardened steel center. which is a flat piece that sits crosswise on the bed. The spindle is driven. and directly in line with the headstock spindle. and impart motion to the workpiece. Ascending vertically from the banjo is a tool-post. In woodturning. at the top of which is a horizontal toolrest. which provides 2 additional axes of motion. The counterpoint to the headstock is the tailstock. In metal spinning. and serves as a fulcrum against which tools may be levered into the workpiece. Various types of speed-changing mechanism achieve this. Spindles are powered. rotary and linear. There may or may not be a leadscrew. The barrel is hollow. but rather have banjos. and usually contains a taper to facilitate the gripping of various type of tooling. The position of a banjo can be adjusted by hand. sliding it to the required area. similar in net effect to the two-speed rear of a truck). which is used to support long thin shafts while turning. and can be cranked at right angles to the bed. to a cone pulley with back gear (which is essentially a low range. or beneath the headstock. as it can be positioned at any convenient point on the bed. no gearing is involved. or to hold drill bits for drilling axial holes in the work piece. either by foot power from a treadle and flywheel or by a belt or gear drive to a power source. facing away from the bed) end. which obviates cone pulleys or gears. which moves the cross-slide along the bed. which holds a cutting tool which removes material from the workpiece. the headstock often contains parts to convert the motor speed into various spindle speeds. concealed in the stand. the further pin ascends vertically from the tool rest. by undoing a locking nut. hand tools are braced against the tool rest and levered into the workpiece. Spindles may also have exterior threads and/or an interior taper at their "outboard" (i..accessories may be mounted to the spindle. Many other uses are possible. often either in the headstock. Sitting atop the cross slide is usually another slide called a compound rest. sometimes referred to as the loose head. Atop that sits a toolpost. from a cone pulley or step pulley.e. In addition to the spindle and its bearings. and/or may have a hand-wheel or other accessory mechanism on their outboard end. Woodturning and metal spinning lathes do not have cross-slides. The tail-stock contains a barrel which does not rotate. to an entire gear train similar to that of a manual-shift auto transmission. to the left of the headstock. but can slide in and out parallel to the axis of the bed.[2] Metalworking lathes have a carriage (comprising a saddle and apron) topped with a cross-slide. . which are flat pieces that sit crosswise on the bed. Some motors have electronic rheostat-type speed controls. and then re-locking it.

holes or pockets. Normally up to 85% of machining jobs will require a mill rather than a lathe. pockets . Most milling is done using what are called "end mills" that look much like a drill bit except they are capable of cutting on the sides as well as on the end. In essence. boring and surfacing. Unlike a lathe that spins the material.Milling Machine The function of a vertical milling machine The milling machine is the workhorse of the machine shop. drilling. a mill holds the material firmly while the part is moved across a spinning tool or the spinning tool is brought down into the part. The third axis is provided by a vertical spindle (Z-axis) that moves up and down. a vertical mill is like a drill press except it is fitted with sturdy bearings capable of handling side as well as end loads. The part is moved very accurately by means of a table that can be controlled in two directions (X-axis = left/right and Y-axis=in/out). profiling. They are held in an end mill holder and can cut slots. The mill can be used for milling slots.

they are very inexpensive to replace. Manual machines are fitted with a standard on/off locking lever. For larger surfaces a "fly cutter" is used.and Y-axis handwheels.001" or . If or when they wear out. The mill table moves left and right (X-axis) on top of the saddle. this locking lever locks against the saddle nut to prevent unwanted movement of the Z-axis during machining operations. Headstock Saddle—The saddle on the vertical column that moves the headstock (Z-Axis) up and down by means of a leadscrew and handwheel. Mill Column—The steel dovetailed column that is held to the mill column base and supports the Z-axis saddle and headstock. Tommy Bars—Round steel bars used to tighten and loosen chucks and other spindle accessories. This function is available as an option on any manual mill as well. They are driven by handwheels marked in . chuck or clamps and moved under the milling cutter using the X. Leadscrew Locking Lever—Located on the back side of the vertical column. Spindle—The spindle is inside the headstock and is driven with a belt running from the motor pulley to a pulley on the rear end of the spindle shaft. (Not to be used to hold end mills!) Mill Table—Parts are fixed to the table using a vise. Sometimes called "Spindle Bars. make another mill and rotary table. Mill Base—The solid base that has the dovetail for the saddle to move in and out on and to which the mill column is attached. It is held in place in the #1 Morse taper with the drawbolt. As side-to-side "slop" develops on an axis. The parts of a mill and what they do (See photo above) Variable Speed Control Knob—Controls motor speed from 0 to 2800 RPM Headstock—Contains the spindle in two preloaded ball bearings. Leadscrew—The threaded screws that move the table left/right and in/out as well as the vertical axis up and down." . a mill with a rotary table is the minimum combination of tooling required to reproduce itself: that is. A special washer locates in on center in the spindle hole. Mill Saddle—The mill saddle slides in and out (Y-axis) on the mill base. The nose of the spindle is treaded on the outside to receive chucks and tapered on the inside to receive other accessories.or flat surfaces. These allow the machine to always be kept as tight as the operator desires. #1 Morse Arbor—The arbor screws into the back of the drill chuck so it can be used in the headstock. (P/N 4017U inch or 4117U metric) Gibs—Tapered plastic gibs are used on each dovetailed axis to take up wear as it occurs. A mill with a rotary table is a powerful combination. Drill Chuck—Used to hold drill bits for drilling holes. The 4th axis of a milling machine is the rotary axis (called the A-axis) provided by an optional rotary table.01 mm increments. It is a single-pointed tool that spins in a large arc and is brought across the surface of the part to flatten it. They are slightly wedge shaped. Technically. the gib lock is loosened and the gib is pushed a little further into the gap. Drawbolt—Goes through the hole in the spindle to draw chucks and other accessories into the headstock taper inside the spindle. taking up the play. CNC machines are fitted with an adjustable locking lever that can be used to control backlash in the Z-axis. A drill chuck can be used for holding drill bits.

A second slot is also provided to locate the headstock at 90° for horizontal milling. The "High Torque" position (closest to the headstock) gears it about 4:1 for lower speed but more torque when needed for heavy cuts. It is optional on 5000-series mills. The looser the fit of the threads.Y-axis Locking Screw—A thumbscrew on the side of the base that keeps the saddle from moving in and out when tightened. it is the amount you can turn the handwheel in the reverse direction before movement occurs on an axis. When you stop and change directions. Backlash is the pause in travel when changing direction of rotation of any threaded crew.25" further out from the saddle to increase the "throat" distance (distance between cutter and column). . the screw turns a slight amount while the thread picks up the other side and begins to move the nut in the other direction. Backlash Locks—The lock works like tightening two nuts against each other on a threaded shaft to reduce play in the threads. Removing this key and rotating the headstock allows bevels to be cut at any angle. Because both sides of the thread don't rub on the nut at the same time (they would quickly wear out). standard on 5400-series mills and not needed on 2000-series mills because the ram can be used to adjust this distance. Headstock Spacer Block—Moves the headstock 1. one surface is pulling or pushing the nut when the screw is turned. V-belt—A Kevlar-reinforced Urethane belt that drives the spindle through the pulleys. An adjustment is provided on the X.. 2-position Pulley—The normal (rear) position gears the motor down about 2:1 for a maximum speed of about 2800 RPM. An approximate angle scale is laser engraved into the saddle for reference. it is simply a physical reality that must be taken into account when machining. the more "backlash" occurs. You adjust to a known or acceptable amount using the locks and then remove it from the machining operation by always approaching your cut from the same direction with the backlash already eliminated before the cut begins. Alignment Key—A precision ground key that fits in a slot in the column saddle to keep the headstock aligned straight up and down.and Y-axes to reduce the leadscrew backlash. Backlash is not a "fault" of a machine. X-axis Locking Screw—A screw that goes through the barrel lock on the front of the saddle to lock the table in place during machining operations where movement is not required or desired. In essence.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful