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Part III. Photodiode and Receiver
Professor Lian K. Chen
Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong lkchen@ie.cuhk.edu.hk
Prof. Lian K Chen
Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver
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Outline
• • • • Photodiode
– pn, pin, APD
Quantum Efficiency and Responsivity Noises in Photodiode
– Shot Noise, Thermal Noise, Gain Noise
Receiver Performance
– SignaltoNoise Ratio – BitErrorRate
• •
Receiver sensitivity and Noiseequivalent power (NEP) Optical Receiver
– high impedance, low impedance, and transimpedance receiver frontend
Ref: [Keiser Ch6 and Ch7.1, 7.2, 7.4, 7.5 ][Agrawal Ch4]
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Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver
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Performance requirement
• • • • • • • high sensitivity (at 1.3 and 1.55 μm for telecommunication) high conversion efficiency (P I) fast response (multiGHz) high fidelity (linearity, dynamic range) low noise (low dark current, leakage current) temperature stability cost
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Types of common Photodetectors
• • • • • • • pn diode PIN diode used for optical communication avalanche photodiode (APD) schottkybarrier diode (MetalSemiconductorMetal) photo conductor photo transistor photonmultiplier
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PN Diode
• • PN junction operates in reversedbias voltage When an incident photon has energy > bandgap energy, an electronhole pair (photocarrier) can be generated. The carriers are separated by the electric field in the depletion region and collect by the reversebias junction. photocurrent Iphoto is generated.
n Depletion region p
V+
•
hν
Ec Eg Ev
+
E
barrier potential Prof. Lian K Chen Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver 5






+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
PN Diode
(3) (2) (1) (2) (3)
P
N
Region (1) : depletion region, electrons & holes swept by E (electric field)  drift current (fast) Region (2) : hole and electrons diffuse randomly towards depletion region  diffusion current (slow) Region (3) : far away from depletion region (useless) Diode response is fastest if electron/hole pairs generate mainly in depletion region.
Prof. Lian K Chen Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver 6
Transit time
• Usually receivers are operated in strong reversebiased region, thus
– create strong electric field E in the depletion region increase drift velocity v. – increase the width, w, of depletion region increase the photon absorption.
•
smaller junction capacitance: C= εA/w ε : the permittivity of the semiconductor A: layer area Transit time tr=w/v where v is the drift velocity, a function of E. v↑ and w ↑, then tr ↑↓ ?
Longer width
•
tradeoff : E increases
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Response Time
• Response time of photodiode is determined by
carrier transit time (fast) carrier diffusion time (slow) RC time constant Avalanche build up time (only for APD)
•
Bandwidth (due to transit time):
B≈
•
0.44 0.44Vsat = tr w
1 ⎛ ⎞ or = if RC constant dominant ⎟ ⎜ 2πRC ⎝ ⎠
Carrier drift velocity is a function of
1) materials (GaAs, InGaAsP,......) 2) Electric field E
•
Velocity value saturates at high E (due to collision with host lattice).
Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver 8
Prof. Lian K Chen
Cutoff wavelength
cutoff wavelength : λc
When the incident photon wavelength is longer than a certain wavelength λc, the photon energy is < Eg. Photon cannot be absorbed.
hc λc = Eg
hν Ec Eg Ev
or
1.24 λc (in μ m) = Eg (in eV )
λc : Si:1.06 μm, GaAs 0.87 μm, and Ge:1.6 μm.
Note: Twophoton or threephoton absorption are possible, but with very small probability. (e.g. check out the threephoton lasing at http://optics.org/article/news/8/2/14 )
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The photocurrent
The current generated at photodiode is given by
I = I photo + I dark I photo = Pinc (1 − Re )(1 − e
where Iphoto:photocurrent Idark:dark current Pinc:incident optical power Re : Reflection αs: absorption coefficient. w : absorption depth q : electron charge (=1.6 x 1019 C) h :Planck’s constant (=6.625 x 1034 J⋅s) ν : optical frequency
−α s w
q ) hν
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The absorption coefficient
• • • •
α ∼104 /cm 1.55 μm  In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As(III − V), Ge(IV) 1.3 μm)  In 0.7 Ga 0.3 As 0.64 P 0.36 (IIIV) 0.85 μm  Si or GaAs
• Sharp cutoff wavelength for direct bandgap material
Q: Can Si be used for 1550nm optical signal detection?
Prof. Lian K Chen Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver 11
Quantum Efficiency and Responsivity
q Photocurrent: I p = Prec (1 − Re ) 1 − e hν η = (1 − Re ) 1 − e −α s w Define Quantum efficiency :
−α s w
(
)
(
)
η=
and Thus,
Responsivity: Ro =
ηq hν
Prec (hν )
Ip q
Unit: A/W
I p = Prec Ro
Note: Ro is wavelengthdependent. Below λc, Ro increases as λ increases. Example: A InGaAs detector has an energy bandgap=0.73eV and η=60% for 1.3 μm optical signal. The responsivity is Ro=0.6(1.609×1019) λ /(6.6256×1034 ⋅ 3×108)= 0.63 (A/W). The cutoff wavelength=1.24/Eg=1.70 μm.
Prof. Lian K Chen Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver 12
PIN Photodiode
• A PIN diode is a PN junction with an intrinsic (undoped or lightlydoped) layer sandwiched between the PN layers
increase the width of the depletion region
•
Advantages of PIN:
1. Increasing the width of the depletion region, w:  most carriers can be transported by drift process  increases the photon capturing area. 2. w ↑ the junction capacitance ↓ RC constant ↓ (bandwidth ↑ )
P
+
I
hν

N
However, transit time increases as w increases. Common practice:
Prof. Lian K Chen
1
αs
<w<
2
αs
13
Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver
Characteristics of PIN Photodiodes
Parameter Wavelength Responsivity Quantum efficiency Dark current Rise time Bandwidth Bias voltage
Symbol
Unit μm A/W % nA ns GHz V
Si 0.41.1 0.40.6 7590 110 0.51 0.30.6 50100
Ge 0.81.8 0.50.7 5055 50500 0.10.5 0.53 610
InGaAs 1.01.7 0.60.9 6070 120 0.050.5 15 56
λ
Ro
η
Id Tr B Vb
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APD and pin photodiode
SiO2
hν
n p p+
guard ring(n) SiO2
p+
Metal contact
Depletion region
Depletion region
n n+
Metal contact
Avalanche photodiode
pn photodiode
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Avalanche Photodiode (APD)
• • APD is similar to PIN diode; except that its reversebiased voltage is high enough (≥ 100Volt) to create photocurrent gain. The gain process is due to impact ionization of carriers with lattice atoms.
Minimum field required for impact ionization Electric field
n+ region
n+ p
Multiplication region
Multiplication
Photon carrier hν p+ region
Depletion region
π
p+
•
Separate absorption and multiplication (SAM) structure → localize the multiplication process in a narrow region and separate from absorption region → more efficient
Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver 16
Prof. Lian K Chen
Impact Ionization of APD
Impact ionization
n+ region
• a single primary electron (hole), generated through absorption of a photon, creates Photon carrier hν many secondary electrons and holes p+ region impact ionization coefficients: αe (electrons), αh (holes) • ionization probability per unit length (cm1) αe1 : average distance between ionization for electrons. αh1 : average distance between ionization for holes. • When E (electric field) increases and temperature decreases, αe and αh increase. • Ionization ratio : kA=αh/αe (typical values are 0.01 to 100)
(1) if kA<< 1, most of the ionization is achieved by electrons. (2) if kA>> 1, most of the ionization is achieved by holes.
• Multiplication factor: M(kA) (if kA =1, M
Prof. Lian K Chen
∞
avalanche breakdown)
17
Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver
Pros and cons of APD
• Pros:
– provides gain on photocurrent generation
• Cons:
– – – – fabrication difficulties (complex structure, high cost) multiplication process (random) gives additional noise high bias voltages (100400 volts) temperature dependence of device (can be compensated by feedback control)
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Characteristics of Avalanche Photodiode
Parameter Wavelength Responsivity APD gain kAfactor Dark current Rise time Bandwidth Bias voltage
Symbol
Unit μm A/W nA ns GHz V
Si 0.41.1 80130 100500 0.020.05 0.11 0.12 0.21.0 200250
Ge 0.81.8 330 50200 0.71.0 50500 0.50.8 0.47 2040
InGaAs 1.01.7 520 1040 0.50.7 15 0.10.5 13 2030
λ
Ro M kA Id Tr B Vb
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Noise in Photodetectors
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Noise in Photodetectors – shot noise
Shot Noise
•
n n exp(− n ) Probability of receiving n photons in time interval τ is p (n) = n! where n is the mean value of n.
For a certain quantum efficiency η at the photodetector, the mean number of photoelectron generated ( m ) is m = η n Mean photocurrent generated is i p = ⎜
Photon arrivals are discrete and random in nature → Poisson distributed
•
•
⎛q⎞ ⎟m ⎝τ ⎠
;
Variance: σ
2 i
Since both n and m are Poisson distributed,
2
2 σm = m
⎛q⎞ 2 =⎜ ⎟ σm ⎝τ ⎠
2
q: electron charge since B =
⎛q⎞ ⎛ q ⎞⎛ q ⎞ ⎛ q ⎞ Thus, σ i2 = ⎜ ⎟ m = ⎜ ⎟⎜ m ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ i p = 2qi p B ⎝τ ⎠ ⎝ τ ⎠⎝ τ ⎠ ⎝ τ ⎠
Shot noise
σ i2 = 2qi p B
1 2τ (B: bandwidth)
In the presence of dark current iD of the PN junction ⇒
Prof. Lian K Chen Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver
σ i2 = 2q(i p + iD )B
21
Noise in Photodetectors – thermal noise
Thermal Noise
• also called Johnson noise or Nyquist noise • at a certain temperature, electrons move randomly in any conductor • random thermal motion of electrons in a resistor ⇒ fluctuating current even with no applied voltage bias, thermal noise still exists • Thermal noise
2 σT =
4k B TB Req
where kB is the Boltzmann constant (1.38×1023 J/K), T is the operating temperature in Kelvin scale, Req is the equivalent receiver resistance.
• In the presence of FET preamplifier,
2 σT =
4k B TFt B Req
where Ft is the amplifier noise figure (Ft represents the factor by which thermal noise is enhanced by various resistors used in the preamplifier)
Prof. Lian K Chen Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver 22
Noise in Photodetectors – APD Gain noise
• • • the impact ionization process is random → generation of multiplied photoelectrons is also random → additionally contributed to shot noise multiplication factor, M, is also a random variable Shot noise in APD:
where FA is the excess noise factor of APD with
Excess Noise Factor FA
σ i2 = 2q(i p + iD )M FA B
2
100
50
20
kA=1 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.05 0.02
10
FA = k A M + (1 − k A )(2 − 1 / M )
assume kA << 1
5
0.01 0.005 0
2
•
If kA=0, FA is at most 2 and nearly independent of APD gain M at high M
1 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500
APD Gain M
e.g. For Si APD with kA=~0.1, M=100 FA=11.8 mean detected photocurrent increases 100 times. noise increases by a factor of 11.8. 23
Prof. Lian K Chen
Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver
SignaltoNoise Ratio (SNR)
• SNR is an important parameter to evaluate the performance of a photodetector
Signal photocurrent
SNR =
2q(i p + iD )FA M B + 2qiL B + 4kBTBF / Req t
2
M i p2
2
=
2q(Ro Prec + iD )FA M B + 2qiL B + 4kBTBF / Req t
2
(MR P )
o rec
2
Shot/Gain noise
Thermal noise
where ip is the mean generated photocurrent, iD is the dark current, iL is the surface dark/leakage current, M is the mean APD gain, FA is the excess noise factor of the APD, Ro is the responsivity, *For PIN photodiode, M =1, FA=1 Prec is the mean received optical power, *If no FET preamplifier is used, Ft=1 B is the receiver bandwidth, Ft is the noise figure of the FET preamplifier, Req is the equivalent receiver circuit resistance, T is the operating temperature (in Kelvin scale), kB is the Boltzmann constant (1.38×1023 J/K), q is the electric charge (1.609×1019 C)
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SignaltoNoise Ratio (SNR)
Example: For InGaAs PIN diode with the following parameters: incident power 300nW @1300 nm, ID=4 nA, η=0.65, RL=1000 Ω and negligible leakage current. If the receiver has bandwidth 20MHz, the signal and noises are Ip=RoP=(ηq/hν)P=0.205 μA σs2=2 q Ip M2 B FA =1.32×1018 A2 σD2 =2 q ID M2 B FA =2.57×1020 A2 σth2= 4 kBTB/RL =3.31×1016 A2 at T=27oC Example: For a PIN photodiode with a load resistance of 1 kΩ without FET preamplifier. The quantum efficiency at 1550 nm is 0.8 and the receiver bandwidth is 500MHz. The operating temperature is 27oC. η qλ Responsivity Ro = =1.0 hc If the detected power is 30dBm, i.e. Prec= 1 μW, and with B=500MHz, Req=1 kΩ, T=300K, and Ro=1.0 Use SNR =
Prof. Lian K Chen
(R P )
o rec
2
2qRo Prec B + 4k B TB / Req
⇒ SNR = 118.47 =20.74 dB
25
Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver
Optimal APD Gain
• Increase in APD gain does not guarantee better SNR performance • There exists an optimum APD gain (Mopt) to achieve the maximum SNR • Recall: SNR =
2 q (R o Prec + i D )F A M B + 4 k B TBF t / R eq
(M R P )
o rec 2
2
Substitute FA = k A M + (1 − k A )(2 − 1 / M ) and differentiate SNR w. r. t. M
d (SNR ) =0 dM
Note that
⇒
k A M opt + (1 − k A )M opt =
3
4k B TFt qReq (Ro Prec + i D )
Prec ↑ ⇒ Mopt ↓
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Optimal APD Gain
For example, if Ro=1, iD=2 nA, kA=0.8, B=500MHz, T=300K, Ft=2, Req=1kΩ.
18 16 14 65 70
SNR (dB)
12 10 8 6 4 2 20 40 60 80 100
SNR (dB)
60
Prec = 40dBm
55
Prec =0dBm
50
45 20 40 60 80 100
APD Gain, M
APD Gain, M
At high Prec, the optimum APD gain, Mopt =1 ⇒ APD even worsen the SNR ⇒ use PIN photodetector At low Prec , the optimum APD gain, Mopt >1 ⇒ APD can improve the SNR ⇒ use APD photodetector
Prof. Lian K Chen Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver 27
BitErrorRate (BER)
Probability of detection error: Pe = P (1) i P (0 1) + P (0) i P (1 0)
V
0
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Decision and BER
Gaussian approximation : Assume the output is a Gaussian random variable with mean V for "1" bit and 0 for "0" bit. If P(1)=P(0)=0.5 and assume σ1=σ0=σ, the BER is given by
1⎡ ⎛ V Pe= ⎢1 erf ⎜ 2⎣ ⎝ 2 2σ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦
where
erf( x) =
2
π
∫
x
0
e − y dy
2
Note that Pe only depends on V/σ, which is related to the SNR as (S/N)dB=20 log (V/σ) .
Prof. Lian K Chen Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver 29
Decision and BER (contd.)
• • To have BER=109 v/σ=12.
More generally, if "0" bit amplitude is not 0,
1⎡ ⎛ Q ⎞⎤ Pe= ⎢1erf ⎜ ⎟⎥ 2⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦
where Q is defined as Q = •
vth − voff
σ off
=
von − vth
σ on
von, voff, and vth are the mean amplitude of "1" bit, "0" bit, and the threshold, respectively. Q≈ 6 for BER=109 or ≈7 for BER=1012 (Need to find the optimum threshold value)
• •
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Receiver sensitivity and NEP
Receiver sensitivity : the required minimum average (One and Zero Bit) incident optical power or energy to achieve a desired BER (typical value=109) at a specific bitrate.
Typical value (@1550nm) 2.5 Gbit/s : ~ 24dBm for for PIN and 32dBm for APD receivers. 10 Gbit/s : ~ 21dBm for PIN and 27dBm for APD
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Noise Equivalent Power NEP
Noise Equivalent Power (NEP): the optical signal power required to generate a photocurrent that is equal to the total noise at the detector for given wavelength and within a bandwidth of 1 Hz.
R0 P = [2q ( I p + I d ) Be ]1/ 2 P 1/ Be 2 1 [2q ( I p + I d )]1/ 2 R0
assume shot noise dominant
NEP=
=
Be =1Hz
(unit: W Hz 1/2 )
Ex. A Si pin photodiode has an NEP of 1x1013 WHz1/2. What is the optical power needed for an SNR=1 if the the bandwidth is operating at 1 GHz?
1/ P =NEP ⋅ Be 2 =(1013 W Hz 1/2 )(109 Hz)1/2 = 3.16 nW
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Typical optical communication link
Data In Laser Driver LD Fiber Post Amp. Timing / Data Recovery Data Out PD PreAmp. AGC
Components Detectors (Photodiode PD) Preamplifier Postamplifier Automatic Gain Control (AGC) Timing and Data Recovery
Functions Convert hν to e1st amplification brings μV to mV (incoming signal ~ 30 dBm, 1A/W) 2nd amplification brings mV to a usable range of a few V Fixes the gain / dynamic range Retrieval of data and timing (for digital)
Q: Why two Amp and what is the function of timing/data recovery?
Prof. Lian K Chen Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver 33
Receiver Frontend (Preamplifier)*
• Front end of a receiver consists of a photodiode followed by a preamplifier. • Design of the frontend requires tradeoff between speed and sensitivity. • Three types of frontend: – low impedance frontend (LZ) – high impedance frontend (HZ) – transimpedance frontend (TZ) (1). Low impedance frontend (LZ) low impedance bias resistor, e.g. 50 Ω, into a low impedance amplifier simple but with limited sensitivity (large thermal noise)
Ip
RL
CT
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Receiver Frontend (Preamplifier)*
(2). High impedance frontend (HZ) – noise is reduced by using high bias resistor and amplifier with high input impedance improve the receiver sensitivity. – smaller bandwidth (large RC constant) – need equalizer to compensate the high frequency cutoff due to large RC constant. (integrationanddifferentiation). – smaller dynamic range (easier to saturate the receiver). – the need of equalizer implies more adjustment to optimize (required special adjustment for each unit)
Ip
RL
CT
For examples: Si bipolar preamp or GaAs MESFET are used for high frequency (>~ GHz) and Si MOSFET or JFET preamp are used for low frequency (<50MHz). Prof. Lian K Chen Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver 35
Receiver Frontend (Preamplifier)*
(3). Transimpedance frontend (TZ) (utilizing a negative feedback resistor Rf) – provide improved dynamic range over HZ. – bandwidth is improved by G times over the high impedance frontend for the same RL and CT. – however, gain at the low frequency is also reduced by G → less likely to have saturation. – no or little equalization is needed.
Rf
B≤ G 2π R f CT
4k BTBFt Rf
36
Ip
RL
CT
G
σ T2 =
Prof. Lian K Chen
Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver
Analog receiver
For digital communication For analog communication performance index : BER performance index : SNR
P (mW)
Amplitude Modulation :
P = P0 [1 + m s (t )]
where P0 is the received DC optical power and m is the optical modulation index. s(t) is the analog modulation signal. For AM modulation, the DC portion does not carry information.
Prof. Lian K Chen
Po Ith I (mA)
Ps
IS IDC
37
Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver
Analog Receivers
Example: s(t)=cos(ωt), m=Ps/Po. The modulation index in electrical domain is given by
P (mW)
P(t ) = Po [1 + ms (t )]
Ps
Po Ith I (mA)
me=Is/(IDCIth)
If the PI curve is a straight line (linear), then m=me For analog AM modulation, the SNR is
IDC
2 1 m M ip 2 SNR = 2 2 q (i p + i D )F A M B + 2 qi L B + 4 k B TBF t / Req
IS
(
)
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Optical Receiver Products
• Bookham: http://www.bookham.com/common/receiver_lines.cfm
2.5G APD Rx:
http://www.bookham.com/datasheets/receivers/ATM2400C.cfm (file) • JDSU: http://www.jdsu.com/products/opticalcommunications/products/detectorsreceivers.html
Photodiode, PIN/TIA, 1310/1550 nm, 2.5 Gb/s, ROSA
http://www.jdsu.com/productliterature/plslr00l23cx_ds_cc_ae.pdf
Prof. Lian K Chen
Part 3  Photodioe and Receiver
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