I N C O R P O R AT I N G f i s h far m ing t e c h no l og y

July | August 2013 Fine particle filtration in aquaculture

International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058

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Fine particle filtration in aquaculture
by Katie Adema, journalist, Waterco Ltd, Australia quaculture is the fastest growing animal production industry in the world; almost every region is experiencing rapid growth in the farming of fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Worth over AUD$200 billion globally, the aquaculture industry has been growing at a faster rate than the world’s population for the past five decades, resulting in a very competitive marketplace today. Such dramatic growth in the aquaculture industry has driven trends in filtration and oxygenation techniques forward to focus on high efficiency systems which offer fine particle filtration. This is due to the realisation that systems chosen purely for their low cost may not necessarily deliver profitable results. The health and growth of your fish depend greatly upon the filtration and oxygenation of the water in which they live. Therefore, it is vital you invest in a quality


system so you can produce large, healthy fish as quickly as possible to increase your profit margin. “The filtration for aquaculture is very different to anything else, as you are filtering totally different material which is much larger in mass – such as pond weed, fish food and fish waste,” says Bryan Goh, director, Waterco Ltd, Australia, an international manufacturer, which produces a range of filtration solutions for commercial and domestic systems. Those using closed systems have taken particularly to recirculating filtration systems, which entail the same water being recirculated an infinite number of times after being properly filtered and slightly topped up to make up for the water which is lost through evaporation. Fine particles are defined as particulate matter that is 2.5 microns or less in diameter; therefore, they can be left behind by some filtration systems that are not designed to capture particles that small.

Fine particle filtration is important for three reasons: 1. The amount of waste that fish produce can quickly destroy water clarity and reduce the amount of oxygen the fish can absorb, which in turn lowers their growth rate. The quicker this waste is removed; less oxygen will be used by the bacteria that are breaking it down 2. Substances that are toxic to fish in small quantities, such as ammonia and nitrite, need to be removed quickly before they use up a great deal of the oxygen in the water and impact on the health of your fish 3. Large amounts of feed can also introduce waste into the water and encourage bacteria growth, which eat up the oxygen supply that your fish need; adequate filtration addresses this issue

Types of filtration
The movement towards fine particle filtration has resulted in a few particular types of filtration and waste removal systems being favoured in the aquaculture industry. These include screens, gravitational settling, sand and bead filters, flotation/foam fractionation and centrifuges. Gravitational settling, also known as sedimentation, is a waste removal system that depends on the different densities of the water and waste particles drawing the waste particles down and out of the tank. However, waste particles in aquaculture are usually only slightly denser than the water and so can take time to settle. Faster separation is achieved when the density is vastly different; most aquaculture systems use 15-20 minute retention times for waste.

Filter screens
Filter screens are a form of mechanical waste removal. Opening sizes can vary from
18 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | July-August 2013

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FEATURE FOCUS | PROBIOTICS “This means stocking rates can be several millimeters to less than 0.001 micron. Fine filtration systems, such as microscreen increased, with subsequent improved proWaterco’s ® probiotic commercial duction. MultiCyclones in fish 9: culture drum filters which are already commonly on carcass table effects of Hydroyeast aquaculture® probiotic on carcass table 8: effects of Hydroyeast aquaculture MultiCyclone composition of adult male O. niloticus composition of adult female O. niloticus on the used in aquaculture, typically require much systems are best deployed system return pump prior to, say, bag larger filter screens and/or higher pressures to % on dry matter basis % on dry matter basis or cartridge polishing filters on the DM operate effectively than a screen treat. DM CP with larger ee ash eC treat. CP ee ash eC way back to the fish tank. ” openings.
at the start of the experiment 25.3 at the start of the experiment 24.3

at the end of the experiment at the of the experiment Centrifuges and hydro clones are growing Sand or bead filters can be start either in popularity as they cross from domestic use fixed bed and particle bed filters that cont1 24.8a 58.9a 25.2a 15.9c 570.4a t5 20.9b 53.9c 26.8a 19.1a 557.7b into commercial use. Cylindrical in shape, the t2 20.6b 58.1a 23.8b sist of a box filled with sand or another 18.1b 552.9b t6 22.4a 60.2a 24.1b 15.7b 566.9a mechanism rotates the central chamber very particulate material. To achieve fine part3 18.2c 55.4b 24.3ab 20.3a 541.8c t7 17.1d 55.7b 25.7a 18.5a 557.6b rapidly, forcing waste particles that are denser ticle filtration, the filter medium should t4 17.9c 55.5b 24.8ab 19.7a 547.5bc t8 18.4c 55.6bc 25.7a 18.6a 559.9b than the water to the sides of the cylinder. A be very fine grain and may also need to ± Se 0.19 0.55 0.37 0.35 2.21 ± Se 0.09 0.50 0.44 0.29 2.54 layer of water from the outer rim is then taken be pressurised. Water passes through the P- value 0.0001 0.003 0.123 fixed 0.0001 0.0001 P- value 0.0001 0.0001 0.015 0.0001 0.070 out, which removes most of the particles with bed either in a downward direction it, leaving the clean water in the centre to be or and are upward direction (down and Means in the same column having different small letters significantly Meansflow in the same column having different small letters are significantly put back into the aquaculture system. up flow), and waste particles are removed differ (P ≤ 0.05). DM: Dry matter (%); CP: Crude protein (%); EE: Ether differ (P ≤ 0.05). DM: Dry matter (%); CP: Crude protein (%); EE: Ether extract EC: Energy content (Kcal/100 g), calculated according to extract (%); EC: Energy content (Kcal/100 g), calculated according to Bruce (%); Atkinson, aquaculture design and by the sand/beads. The size of particles NRC (1993); SE: Standard Error NRC (1993); SE: Standard Error sales manager, Aquasonic, Australia, says cenremoved depends on the size of the filter trifugal solutions such as Waterco’s new medium, flow rate and waste characterisrange of MultiCyclone filters can allow you to tics. A sand/bead filter may need frequent T3 (10 g Hydroyeast Aquaculture®/Kg diet), and females within all treatments concerning, these results ash content increased significantly in increase stocking rates. backwashing if waste is very concentrated. which were gave significantly (P ≤ 0.05) final feed and nutrients utilization parameters may T3 and T4 compared with T2 and the control “The link between feed rates and body weight, AWG, RGR, ADG and SGR be due to the differences in sexes, metabolism, T1. Generally, proximate chemical analysis of the MultiCyclones is fairly obvious for fish culture Floatation or foam than the control (T1). But, no significant (P physiological responses and sexual behaviours whole fish body at the start, revealed higher DM, systems,” says Atkinson. “With the addition fractionation EE and EC than in the end of the experiment, ≥ 0.05) differences between T2 and T3 for of fish during this stage of life. of the MultiCyclone, more efficient mechaniFloatation or foam fractionation is a but CP and ash were lower at the start than at final weight, AWG and ADG, as well as in SR cal filtration takes place and hence greater form of chemical filtration; this type of the end of the experiment. among all treatments. Fish carcass composition volumes of feed can be introduced without filtration is able to retrieve very fine Female Male system fouling caused by organic deposition particles from an aquaculture sysAdult female O. niloticus fed the 5 g Female Proximate chemical analysis of the whole and bacterial proliferation. tem, and is consequently already Data of growth performance parameters adult male O. niloticus body at the start and at Hydroyeast Aquaculture®/kg diet (T6) of adult females O. niloticus revealed that the end of the T7 (10 g Hydroyeast Aquaculture®/Kg diet) experiment is was the best treatment followed by T6 (5 summarized in g Hydroyeast Aquaculture®/Kg diet), which Table 8. These were gave significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased data indicated final body weight, AWG, RGR, ADG and that there were SGR than T8 (15 g Hydroyeast Aquaculture®/ significant (P ≤ Kg diet) and the control (T5). However, no 0.05) increases International Aquafeed has teamed up with gets fish into shape significant (P ≥ 0.05) effects in SR among all of DM and EC www.lurestore.com to offer our readers a 15% discount content in the treatments (Table 5). The world’s finest brass-based fishing lures control group manufactured by hand in New Zealand (T1) compared Feed and nutrients utilization Your order will be processed and dispatched from our with the dietary Male production unit within 24 hours of Results of feed nutrients utilization param- inclusion eters of adult males O. niloticus were shown Hydroyeast in Table 6, whereas T4 gave the highest Aquaculture® significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased FE, PER and (T2, T3 and T4), the best FCR followed by T2 compared with but CP content the control (T1) and T3. In contrast, PPV or was increased EU increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in T1 significantly (P ≤ followed by T2 compared with T3 and T4. 0.05) in T1 or T2 However, no significant (P ≥ 0.05) differ- than the T3 and ences in FI among all treatments. T4. However, Reduces deformities in larvae and fry Female an unclear trend LARVIVA ProStart™ is the first early weaning Adult females' O. niloticus fed 10 g was observed in diet with a unique probiotic approved by the ® Hydroyeast Aquaculture /kg diet (T7) EE, where the European Food Safety Authorities for its showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in increasing in EE documented effect in reducing the occurrence FI, FE, PER and the best FCR followed by fish content was not of vertebral deformities in fish larvae and fry. fed 5 g Hydroyeast Aquaculture®/kg diet (T6) significant in T1 compared with the control (T1). However, compared with O&J Højtryk A/S Phone: +45 75 14 22 55 Place your order today at T3 and T4 and treatment 6 gave Fax: significantly ≤ 0.05) Ørnevej 1, DK-6705 +45 82 28 (P 91 41 www.biomar.com significant as increase of PPV and EU among all treatments Esbjerg Ø mail: info@oj-hojtryk.dk CVR.: 73 66 86 11 with A & AJ Gilbert Fishing Tackle, New Zealand compared (Table 7). Generally, the differences between males T2. In contrast, of

Centrifuges and hydro clones



Sand or bead filters







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July-August 2013 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 19

FEATURE cies, oxygen saturation levels were shown to have a positive effect on the growth and feed conversion ratio at 80 percent and 120 percent saturation. “The conclusion was that the oxygen saturation levels have a positive effect on growth and feed conversion ratios of fish, and in the case of Atlantic halibut, the growth rate is higher when the oxygen level is between 80 percent and 120 percent.” The correct combination of oxygen, fresh water and food is essential for fish production, and maintaining water oxygen levels is a careful balancing act. Waterco’s specially created Oxygen Cone allows the oxygen levels in water to be managed more effectively for higher quantities of fish per volume of water. The industry standard for most species of fish is up to 50 kg of stock to 1,000 litres of water; with an oxygen cone, you can increase your productivity and stocking rates. Oxygen cones inject oxygen into the water delivery line and into the fish culture tanks. The Oxygen Cone is shaped to optimise the saturation of gases in water - up to 100 percent. Water and oxygen enter at the top of the cone at relatively high speed and then the stream of water pushes the oxygen bubbles down until they completely dissolve. “Several studies have investigated the relationship between oxygen saturation and fish food intake,” says Atkinson “In 1976, Randolph and Clemens found that feeding patterns of channel catfish varied with temperature and oxygen availability. When the oxygen content drops below 59 percent, a fish starts to lose its appetite. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) appetite is reduced when oxygen saturation falls below approximately 60 percent.” “From these studies, using varied species it can be concluded that by increasing oxygen saturation with the use of a saturation vessel such as a Waterco Oxygen Cone, the farmer can increase his production significantly and save on food costs as well because of improved feed conversion ratios.”

In focus: koi ponds
Although koi ponds are most commonly used as an aesthetic addition to a backyard, they rely on a delicate balance of filtration and oxygenation to keep the fish healthy, just like a tank used for commercial aquaculture. The large amount of waste these fast growing fish produce also makes them a good example of the importance of fine particle filtration and oxygen saturation. A koi pond usually requires both a mechanical filter and a biological filter to maintain water clarity and fish health. A turnover rate of at least 1.5 times per hour will ensure good circulation, aeration and filtration. “In many cases, large pre-filter systems are required, such as vortex chambers and/or sieves as well as a main filtration system that in many cases is used both as a mechanical as well as a biological filter. This literally traps the solid wastes and removes them from the water flow and provides a large surface area to support the growth of beneficial bacteria that breaks down pollutants in the water,” explains Bryan Goh, director, Waterco, Australia. “Such filters can be single or multimedia chambers as well as bead filters. The filtration system is not only designed based on the volume of water but also the quantity and size of fish, anticipated feeding cycles and the amount of fish waste.” Filtration needs to be backed up with adequate oxygen saturation levels, delivered by oxygen cones, water plants and/or aeration. One thousand litres of water saturated with oxygen at 8 parts per million contains only 8 grams of dissolved oxygen. The health of koi fish is compromised when oxygen levels fall below 6 ppm, something that 10 kg of fish which consume about three grams of oxygen per hour can bring about in about 40 minutes without the help of adequate filtration and oxygenation. and when the bubbles reach the surface and are removed, so are the waste particles. It’s a simple, inexpensive form of filtration that can also remove dissolved pollutants from the water. This removal mechanism is particularly effective in saltwater applications, as formation of fine bubbles is much easier than in fresh water applications. It is quite common in aquaculture to use a combination of different filtration and waste removal systems to achieve optimum water quality.

Oxygen cones

used widely. It takes advantage of the surface tension and charges at the air/water interface, using bubbles to capture dissolved and very fine particle matter. In this system, an air stone in the bottom of a vertical pipe produces bubbles. As they rise through the pipe they collect dissolved minerals from the bulk liquid,

Oxygen concentration is worth mentioning in relation to fine particle filtration because the bacteria that break down fish waste and leftover feed use up a great deal of oxygen, which is paramount to fish health and growth. The longer this waste is left in the water, the smaller it becomes as it is broken down, causing it to be very difficult to remove. Therefore, this waste needs to be removed as quickly and as effectively as possible by your filtration system, which needs to be equipped to handle very small particles of waste. After filtration, an oxygen cone can be used to restore oxygen saturation to optimum levels. “Oxygen cones have the ability to increase O² levels in fish culture systems, with increased levels of O² being of great benefit to fish health in general,” says Atkinson. “In experiments carried out on halibut spe-

More InforMatIon:
Waterco Ltd Tel: +44 1795 521733 Email: info@waterco.eu Website: www.waterco.eu Aquasonic P/L Aquaculture Supplies Tel: +61 2 6586 4933 Email: aquaculture@aquasonic.com.au Website: www.aquasonic.com.au

20 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | July-August 2013



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Maintaining ingredient quality in extruded feeds

Fine particle filtration in aquaculture

Effect of probiotic, Hydroyeast Aquaculture
– as growth promoter for adult Nile tilapia

– channel catfish

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