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July | August 2013 Chelated minerals in aquaculture

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FEATURE

Chelated minerals in aquaculture
by A Rodriguez, i Lopez, E Sujka, S De la Cuesta, C Lopez, R Nieto, Liptosa technical team, Spain

T

race minerals found in mammals and birds are very important in the metabolism of the aquaculture species. The inclusion of trace mineral in aquafeeds is a guarantee to reach a good level of growth and development.

Contribution and bioavailability of minerals in aquaculture

The main functions we have to highlight are the essential role in the skeleton and soft tissues involved in nerve transmission, as well as in the maintenance of pressure and regulation of blood pH. They are part of many enzymes, vitamins, hormones and act as enzyme activators. Trace minerals act by modulating the immune system and are essential in preventing deficiency and pathological diseases of different kinds. The mineral requirements in aquaculture species are well defined, although in recent years much research has been done on the way to provide them. Fish are able to absorb minerals from the environment through the gills, although they need a nutritional mineral supplement in the diet. Traditionally, the mineral supplementation has been carried out by the intake of inorganic minerals. In the last few decades it has been shown that interactions between different minerals, when added inorganically, greatly hinder absorption. This effect has been traditionally compensated by increasing mineral doses. However, this increase of inclusion levels has lead to negative effects on the environment. The use of organic minerals (chelated minerals), with better absorption and lower interaction problems, allows us to meet the needs of the aquaculture species without overdosing diets, avoiding environmental problems, maximizing growth, and lowering the inclusion cost.

The contribution of minerals to fish and shrimp farming comes from feed ingredients, as well as from the contribution provided by the mineral concealer and the absorption ability, through the skin and gills, of those minerals dissolved in water. Mineral requirements differ among species of fresh water and seawater, due to the different capacity to absorb minerals from water, which is caused by the different osmotic pressure in both groups. In aquafeed, minerals usually are added to the feed in an inorganic form, combined with other chemical elements, such as carbonates, phosphates, sulfates and oxides. Chelation - an effective solution In this embodiment, the inorganic mineral to increase the bioavailability absorption doesn’t show a high efficiency. Chelation is a process which occurs natuA high percentage of minerals are not rally in the body of living creatures. As clear absorbed in the intestine. When they inter- examples of chelation we have hemoglobin act with other elements, they do not reach with iron, chlorophyll with manganese, or the bloodstream to go to the different cobalt with vitamin B12, which allows the organs and tissues. mineral (metal), in an inorganic form, to be The absorption efficiency of inorganic minerals in aquaculture is at an average/lower level, below 20 percent. For this reason, in animal nutrition there is a tendency to incorporate high amounts of minerals, to ensure the real needs of the organism. It is important to infrared spectrophotometry of a Zn glycinate stress that the pres22 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | July-August 2013

ence of certain substances in the diet such as phytate, or high calcium or phosphorus content, also decrease mineral absorption capacity. In herbivorous fish species, whose diets have a high percentage of vegetable raw materials, it is necessary to provide a higher amount of minerals an inorganic form, given the high phytate content. The bioavailability of minerals is also conditioned by the digestibility of feed, the particle size, the synergistic or antagonistic interactions, health status of the fish, the species, and the chemical state of the mineral (Watanabe et al. 1997).

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FEATURE transformed to an organic form, increasing availability. Inorganic minerals are chelated in the intestine, in order to enable their transport across the intestinal wall. Aquaculture nutrition, like in mammal and bird nutrition, found an alternative in the chelation process, which is a very effective alternative to greatly increase the absorption of essential minerals. Chelation is a highly effective technology for the protection of inorganic minerals, and currently is a widespread practice in animal nutrition. It allows essential minerals to be managed more rationally, increasing their bioavailability. This also helps avoid excretion into als with methionate began to be produced. Subsequently, in 2003 proteinate chelation started and by 2006 the EU approved Glycinates chelation. Glycine, due to its high protein content, allows a very strong link with the mineral, allowing the preparation of chelated minerals, characterised by its high stability and bioavailability. The body's ability to absorb single amino acids is very high. Glycine is the most efficient amino acid because of its easy absorption into the intestinal wall, due to its low molecular weight. Glycine added to the diet can protect the body against endotoxins and can face the shock caused by bleeding. It also reduces liver damage induced by hepatotoxic drugs and acts against inflammation by reducing cytokine formation. The stability coefficient of chelated minerals to assess absorption ability must be in the range of 4-5. Glycinate provides a better stability coefficient than methionates; for example the stability constant of zinc glycinate is 5.26 compared to the 4.38 of zinc methionine. The stability coefficient of iron glycinate is about 10.0 versus 9.1 from iron methionate. Infrared spectrophotometry is the technique used to evaluate the quality of chelation and therefore its bioavailability.

ADDITIVES FOR AQUACULTURE SOLUTIONS

NUTRACEUTICALS AND PHYTOBIOTICS FOR AQUACULTURE Growth promoters Anti-parasites Attractants Hepatoprotectors Antioxidants Detoxifiers Chelated minerals

Zinc deficiency in salmon the environment due to lack of absorption and contributes positively to reduce environmental pollution. Minerals, by default or excess of absorption may be harmful to health. The interaction between chelated minerals is much lower than the one that occurs when minerals are presented on inorganic form. In turn, inorganic minerals act on B vitamins, enabling oxidation. An example of mineral interaction is the one that takes place between the iron and zinc. It has been shown that a mineral chelate could be up to four times more bioavailable when is presented inorganically. Therefore, chelation becomes a very useful process for optimizing diets, according to the needs, either in isolation or in a chelated mineral complex, specifically formulated for a target species.

Amino acid chelated minerals
It is very important to highlight that although amino acids are not the only chelating agents used, the organic minerals with the greatest bioavailability are amino acid chelated minerals. The amino acid molecule acts as a protection of mineral interactions with the substances present in the gastric juice. Chelates of molecular weight below 800 dalton, are capable of crossing the membranes of the intestinal cells without being hydrolyzed in the lumen. However, chelates bigger than dipeptides, cannot be transported efficiently and end up being hydrolyzed in the gut. During the 1990s the first chelated miner-

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FEATURE • Stable in different pH ranges • Stable at high temperatures • Low molecular weight, less than 200 Dalton, which ease an absorption level close to 100 percent • No interaction with other substances, macrominerales or microminerals from the diet, favouring its absorption into the intestinal lumen • Chelation doesn´t have an ionizable neutral charge, so it’s less reactive • It is not pollutant due to its high degree of absorption • It doesn’t provide flavour to the feed, but it’s more palatable than inorganic minerals

Contribution to sustainability
In the aquaculture sector there is growing sustainability commitment to achieve cleaner and environmentally friendly production. The global demand for aquaculture species increases every year due to the increasing demand for animal protein worldwide. Fish farms have increased their degree of specialization and efficiency greatly, so the time invested in the development of the production cycle and the cost of feed, plays a key role on the profitability of the companies. Thanks to the efforts in genetic improvement, some aquaculture species exhibit a high level of development, showing a high growth potential and feed efficiency. On the other hand, other aquaculture species should go deeper into the genetic improvement with the aim of optimizing their production and preserve the environment. The addition of chelated minerals to the diet allow us to provide certain amounts of minerals according to the needs of the fish. Chelated minerals provide greater bioavailability and produce lower excretion rates in comparison with inorganic minerals. A balanced diet is one that incorporates a greater diversity of ingredients with a compensatory effect between them. From an environmental point of view, the best diet is one that provides a higher degree of digestibility. Mineral bioavailability within a diet is a factor to be considered, because of supplementation can be reduced threefold with respect to the contributions in inorganic form. As a final conclusion we can say that in aquaculture nutrition, the benefit provided by the use of chelated minerals in the diet must be taken into account, to allow a more bioavailable and balanced contribution.

Importance of minerals Zn and Fe in aquaculture
Zinc and iron also play an important role in fish and shrimp metabolism. Zinc requirements are estimated between 15-40 mg / kg, and iron between 30-170 mg / kg of diet, depending on the specie. (Watanabe et al. (1988). Hilton (1989) Lall (1989) and Steffens (1989). Zinc is an essential mineral as it is a component of a large number of metalloenzymes such as carbonic anhydrase, which is involved in the transport of carbon dioxide in the blood, and the alkaline phosphatase. In turn, it acts as cofactor in many enzymatic processes involved in the metabolism of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Also, it has been reported its role in the synthesis of RNA and DNA, as well as in proteins, hormones, in processes of wound healing, and anti stress effect. Zinc deficiencies in fish diets cause poor growth, poor appetite, blindness, developmental problems in the skeleton, with smaller vertebrae, and bone matrix with a lower hardness. Zinc deficiency reduces the digestibility of proteins and carbohydrates, probably due to poor activity of the enzyme carboxypeptidase (Ogino and Yang, 1978). Abnormalities in the skin and fins due to zinc deficiencies have also been reported. Iron, like zinc, is an essential component of many enzymes and various enzymatic systems. It is an essential component of hemoglobin and myoglobin and is a key factor in the transport of oxygen within the body. Iron content in fish is relatively low compared with that of vertebrates (Van

Dijk et 1975) although at gill level, absorption also occurs. This takes place in the intestinal mucosa is where iron content is higher. The extended iron deficiency in fish causes anemia and poor growth, as well as an increasing sensitivity to infections. The major contribution of the iron in fish comes from the diet, due to the low concentration of iron in farm water (NRC 1993). Iron is one of the minerals involved in lipid oxidation processes. Ferric salts catalyze the formation of hydroperoxides and free radicals, providing a free radical in presence of unsaturated fatty acids and oxygen (Chvapil et al., 1974, Lee et al., 1981, Fujimoto et al., 1982). The supply of chelated iron in the diet, at a much lower dose than those reported in inorganic form (due to its higher bioavailability), is a good choice for the development of aquaculture diets with a high content of lipids and pigments, and for preventing oxidative processes. Replacement practices of animal raw materials by those of plant origin cause significant variations in the content provided by trace minerals. The addition of chelated minerals provides a balance to the replacement of raw materials, and allows effective corrections in the diet.

Iron and zinc glycinates
The chelation with one or two molecules of glycine has shown a great impact on aquaculture due to the following advantages: • No interaction with other compounds in the intestine
24 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | July-August 2013

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