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I Analysis
I
1
Second Edition
ChuKia Wang
Professor of Civil Engineering The University of Wisconsin
Kurt F. Wendt Library For more information about this document contact the Reference Desk at Wendt Library (askwendt@engr.wisc.edu) or 2620696
International Textbook Company

An
Ink$ Publisher
Scranton, Pennsylvania
785 7 5
AlAbdulla. Chapters 13 through 16 treat the direct element method as opposed to the longer but more fundamental approach in previous chapters. C . Messrs. the author acknowledges his deep appreciation. O n e must note. Wang Madison. Chapter 19 is important to the student because the method of attack is applicable t o the inversion of all large matrices in triband form. Wisconsin March. it may be used at all levels of education." Several former and present graduate students have ably assisted in developing the computer programs associated with the added chapters. Chapters 17 and 18 are conceptionally important for educational purpose in that tearing of structural systems may be effected through matrix condensation. computer methods are. Naik. Jaafar K . They are of interest to practitioners when large frames are to be analyzed on small computers. Alain H. 1970 vii . T h e powerful displacement method is easy to teach a n d appeals to the student in that he learns easily too. Teachers would have the choice for apportionment of class time in variable combinations. while the twelve chapters in the original edition are retained intact except for corrections of minor errors. indeed. Tarun R . and MingTa King. undergraduate o r graduate.I Preface to Second I Edition In this second edition seven new chapters are added. Crucial are the degrees of complexity of the structures being analyzed and the manner in which the analyst is trained to assure the correctness of the computer output. that this textbook deals only with formulation and. K. methods of using "the big slide rule. Industrial users would naturally favor the direct element computer programs. Peyrot. In this sense. however. T o D r . with omission of o n e o r the other as extremes. as such. Reference t o tall building frame analysis is only incidental.
a typical onesemester undergraduate course should probably include only Chapters 1 through 7 and Appendices A through E.I Preface to First I Edition ' The purpose of this textbook is t o provide material for an introductory course in which the fundamentals of formulating conventional methods of structural analysis in matrix notations are developed and illustrated with numerical examples. It may be expected. a t the University of Michigan during the . Students entering this study should have the background of a traditional course in structural analysis. stability. Basic knowledge of computer programming is needed t o apply o r modify the computer programs provided. for typical procedures treated in the body of the text. this seems t o be the expedient in introducing matrix structural analysis t o those without a formal preparation in matrix algebra. in engineering education. A typical onesemester graduate course may cover Chapters 1 through 10 and Appendices A through H . Acknowledgment is due T h e F o r d Foundation for its award which permitted the author t o participate in its project in the use of computers. At T h e University of Wisconsin. which includes both statically determinate and indeterminate structures. are listed in the appendices in order t o achieve flexibility in that the course may be conducted without access t o computer usage. Computer programs in the F O R T R A N language. and secondorder analysis of framed structures. Experience in teaching this subject since 1958 has shown that students can best learn the "whys" by working with longhand matrix operations in simple problems. Inasmuch as matrices are mainly used in this narrow sense in structural analysis. that the subject matter may soon be compacted and offered a t more popular levels. Definitions of matrix operations are made only through analogy with those in systems of linear equations. Until such a time as undergraduate students become better prepared in computer science a n d matrix algebra. a secondsemester graduate course includes material in Chapters 1 1 and 12. however. with its major coverage in the computer methods o f dynamic.
1966 . The author wishes to thank especially his daughter Helen for her able assistance in typing the manuscript and in making valuable suggestions. Wisconsin May. Madison. to the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation for its support enabling the author to devote several summers t o research in some advanced aspects of this subject. and t o the National Science Foundation and the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation for their partial support o f the University o f Wisconsin Computing Center.x Preface to First Edition summer o f 1961. which has provided computer time.
. Reversible Systems of Linear Equations.. Check for ' Correctness.. T h e External Stiffness Matrix K Versus the External Flexibility Matrix 6. T h e C r o u t Method. Check for Correctness. Exercise. ... . chapter Matrix Multiplication....... 1 chapter 4 The Displacement Method of ContinuousBeam Analysis. Exercises. 34 Introduction.. Derxi . 58 Degree of Freedom in Rotation.. . T h e Statics Matrix A ..... Exercise... The Member Stiffness Matrix S ... ... . Numerical Examples. .. Some Properties of Matrices. Exercise. T h e Method of Joints.. Exercise. Effect of Initial Elongations.. . and Transposition ... . Efl'ect of Support Settlements. . . I I I Statically Determinate Trusses. . Forward Elimination and Back Substitution. .... Exercises.. Physical Meaning of the A Matrix of a Statically Determinate Truss. Exercises. Exercises. T h e Statics Matrix A and the Deformation Matrix B of a Truss. Matrix Multiplication.... Matrix Notation. ... The GaussJordan Method. chapter 3 The Displacement Method of Truss Analysis.. 2 I Analysis of Statically Determinate Trusses by the Method of Joints .. T h e Member StilTness Matrix...... T h e Deformation Matrix B.... T h e Pjinciple of Virtual Work.. . External Action Versus Internal Resistance.. Exercises...1 chapter Contents 1 I 1 Elimination of Intermediate Variables in T w o Systems of Linear Equations. Inversion.. Matrix Transposition.. T h e Unit Matrix.. .. T h e Statics Matrix and the Deformation Matrix. Derivation of the Displacement Method.... Matrix Inversion.
. The Degree of Indeterminacy... .. . . . T h e External JointMoment Matrix... Analysis of a ContinuousGable Frame. . Exercises.. Numerical Examples.. .. Numerical Examples. . Analysis of a Vierendeel Truss.. . . . The Degree of Freedom. . Analysis of a TallBuilding Frame.. . 74 Numerical Ex 6 DisplacementMethod Analysis of Rigid Fmmes with Single Degree of Freedom i n Sidesway. . . . T h e Deformation Matrix. The Statics Matrix. Check for Correctness. chapter I Rigid Frames Without Sidesway. The Member Flexibility Matrices.. Analysis of a High Tower. . . . Numerical Examples.... . Numerical ExamplesComputer Solution. ample.. Derivation of the Force Method of ContinuousBeam and RigidFrame Analysis.. 156 General Description..... . . T h e JointDisplacement Diagram. . Exercises. . . . .. The Principle of Virtual Work. . . . The Matrix Equations 6f'Deformation. The Matrix Equations of Statics. . .. The Total Degree of Freedom. 139 9 The Force Method of ContinuousBeam and RigidFrame Analysis . The Total Degree of Freedom. . chapter 8 The Force Method Versus the Displacement Method... . chapter I The Force Method of Truss Analysis . . Exercises. . .. T h e Matrix Equations of Statics a n d Deformation. chapter 1 DisplacementMethod Analysis of Rigid Frames Without Sidesway. Nunierical ExamplesConventional MomentArea Solution. . 83 Degree of Freedom in Sidesway. T h e Displacement Mcthod. . The Member Flexibility Matrix... .. 116 The Displacement Method. Numerical Examples.. . . The Degree of Indeterminacy.. .. . . The Basis Determinate Truss. The Redundant InternalForce Method. . Check for Correctness.xii Contents ivation o f the Displacement Method. The ExternalForce Matrix.. Check for Correctness. . . Derivation of the Force Method of Truss Analysis. . ... Numerical ExamplesMatrix Solution.. . Check for Correctness. Exercises. chapter 7 DisplacementMethod Analysis of Rigid Frames w i t h Multiple Degree of Freedom in Sidesway. Exercises. The Basic Determinate Rigid Frame.
Extension t o Space Trusses. .263 General Introduction. .. . . . . .. S . . . .. EtTect of Axial Deformation in M u l t i s ~ o r y Frames.. .. . . . . .. .258 General Introduction. . Check for Correctness. . T h e Displacement M e t h o d . . ' General Description. T h e A . 182 General Introduction. T h e A . .. . chapter 15 Direct Element Method of Plane Grid Analysis. . . Orientation of M e m b e r Longitudinal Axis. . . . . . Numerical Examples. . . chapter 14 Direct Element Method of Rigid Frame Analysis. . . . .. Exercises. Stiffness Matrix of a Member with Internal Hinge a t O n e End. T h e C o m p u t e r Program. chapter 16 Direct Element Method of Space Rigid Frame Analysis. . .. . Internal Forces a n d Reactions. . . . . . Numerical Examples. Orientation of Member Transverse Axes. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . C o n t i n u o u s Beam Simply Supported o n Flexible Columns. . Limit Analysis by the Step Procedure. .. . . . . . chapter 11 Limit Analysis of Rigid Frames by the Displacement Method . . . . . T h e Direct Element Method. Hinge K o t a t ~ o n s . . . . a n d B Matrices of a M e m b e r in a Plane G r i d . . . . . . . . . T h e Displacement Method. . . . .. . . T h e C o m p u t e r Program. . . . . . . . . S . . . . . Numerical Example. . . . Check for Correctness.236 General Description.199 . Local a n d G l o b a l Degrees of Freedom. . . T h e A S A Matrix ~ of 3 M e m b e r In a Truss. . chapter 12 The Displacement Method of PlaneGrid Analysis.. .. . . RigidFrame Towers with Diagonals. . 251 D~rect Element Method.. a n d B Matrices of a Member In a Rigid Frame. . Building the A S A Matrix. T h e Local A S A ~ ~a t r i x . ~ Computing the Internal Forces. . . . . . . . .268 Definition of a Space Rigid F r a m e . . . . . . . chapter 13 I 1 Direct Element Method of Truss Analysis .Contents chapter 10 The Displacement Method of CompositeStructure Analysis .
. . . . . . . . . . 393 Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Rigid Frame Analysis b y M e t h o d of Parts. . . . . . . . 325 Displacement M e t h o d of ContinuousBeam a n d RigidFrame Analysis. . . . Computer Space Usage. . . . . . . 328 Force M e t h o d of Truss Analysis. The Stiffness Submatrix A on the Main Diagonal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Numerical Example. . . 292 Numerical Introduction. . . . 363 Direct Element M e t h o d of Plane G r i d A n a l y s i s . 300 General Introduction. . . . . . . . 372 Truss Analysis b y M e t h o d of Parts. . . . . . . . . . . . . Regular Tall Building Frames. . . . . . . . . . 3 18 Truss Analysis b y the M e t h o d of Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computing the Output. . . 346 Limit Analysis of Rigid Frames . . Method of Parts. . . . . . . . . . 387 Tall B u i l d i n g Frame Analysis. . . . . . . . chapter 18 Rigid Frame Analysis b y M e t h o d of Parts . . Condensation o f the ForceDisplacement Equation of the Principal Part. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Direct Element M e t h o d of Rigid Frame Analysis. . . . . appendices A B C D E FORTRAN Programs . . . Triband Elimination Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interior and Connecting Joints. . . . . . . . . 368 Direct Element M e t h o d of Space Rigid Frame Analysis. . . . . . 19 Tall Building Frame Analysis b y Triband Elimination M e t h o d . . . . . . . 333 Force M e t h o d of ContinuousBeam a n d RigidFrame Analysis . . . . . . 3 16 M a t r i x Inversion . . . . chapter Matrix of a Member in a Rigid Frame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 1 Displacement M e t h o d of CompositeStructure Analysis . . Example in Truss Analysis. 35 1 Direct Element M e t h o d of Truss Analysis . . . . . . . . 283 Introduction. The A S A Examples. . The Stiffness Submatrix B above the Main Diagonal. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1 5 M a t r i x Multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 Displacement M e t h o d o f Truss Analysis. . . . . . Principal Parts: Connecting Members. . . . . . . . .xiv chapter Contents 17 I I Truss Analysis b y M e t h o d o f Parts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . End Moment Expressions. .
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