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The 5th International Conference on Asia-Pacific Library and Information Education and Practice

Issues and Challenges of the Information Professions in the Digital Age

July 10-12, 2013


Pullman Khon Kaen Raja Orchid Hotel Khon Kaen City, Thailand

Proceedings

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Table of Contents
1. Use of ICT by Visually Impaired Students in Indian University Libraries: A Study .............................. 1 Priya R Pillai 4. Information Literacy Competency in Research Process among Trainees of Malaysian Teacher Education Institute .................................................................................................................. 18 Siri Sena bin Baba Hamid and Mohd Sharif Mohd Saad 5. Designing Information Services Strategically: Experiences of TCSs Information Resource Centre ................................................................................................................................... 31 Dhanashree Date and Uday Ambre 6. Comparative Analysis of Writing Styles of Biology Textbooks in Junior-High and High Schools ......................................................................................................................................... 42 Takuma Asaishi 7. Study of Electronic Journal Reading Behaviour of Academic Social Scientists in Taiwan and China ................................................................................................................................. 54 Mei-Ling Wang, Xi-Ming Xiao and Qinghua Zhu 8. A Study of the Importance and Feasibility of Performance Indicators for Academic Libraries in Taiwan ............................................................................................................... 73 Hao-Ren Ke, Yi-Syuan Wang, Hsin-Ju Tsai and Yi-Chen Liu 9. Purchasing Power of Medical and Health Libraries in the Philippines in acquiring online databases ................................................................................................................... 85 Joenabie A. Encanto 10. Consortia and Resource Sharing among University Libraries in Bangladesh ................................. 97 Ms. Shohana Nowrin and Md. Shiful Islam 11. Chronological Observation of Japanese Schoolchildren's Book Reports ...................................... 109 Sachiko KUMA and Kyo KAGEURA 12. Learning Support in College Libraries in Japan toward Learning Commons ................................ 124 Saori Donkai and Chieko Mizoue 13. Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities Research Collaboration: with a focus on LIS .................... 132 Husriati Hussain and Kiran Kaur 15. Content Analysis of Khon Kaen University Theses on The Elderly ............................................... 146 Prasopporn Yuphin Brown and Poranee Sirichote 16. Marketing of Academic Library Services through Social Networking Sites: Implications of Electronic Word-Of-Mouth ................................................................................................................................... 155 Md. Abul Kalam Siddike, Kiran Kaur and M Nasiruddin Munshi 17. Awareness of Using Library Web 2.0 Services Among Malaysian Youth ..................................... 169 Mohd Ismail Abidin, Kiran Kaur and Mohd Ab Malek bin Md Shah 18. Use of Social Networking Sites: Facebook Group as a Learning Management System ............... 183 Md. Abul Kalam Siddike, Md. Shiful Islam and Hasanul Banna 19. Global Trends in LIS Education: An International Comparison of Graduate-Level LIS Programs ...................................................................................................................................... 198 Makiko Miwa, Shizuko Miyahara, Yumiko Kasai and Hiroya Takeuchi 20. Survey on Practice and Experience of University Students Task Management: Case of University of Tsukuba, Japan ................................................................................................ 211 Ryoko Fukuzawa, Hideo Joho and Tetsuya Maeshiro

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Table of Contents
21. Development of Collaborative Digital Library for Secondary School Students in Thailand ........... 225 Suparp Kanyacome, Smarn Loipha and Somchai Numprasertchai 22. Teaching Intellectual Freedom in Japan and North America: Analyzing Japanese Focus Group Interviews ...................................................................................................................... 232 Noriko Asato 23. Categories of Friends on Social Networking Sites: An Exploratory Study..................................... 244 Xingang Zhang, Qijie Gao, Christopher S.G. Khoo and Amos Wu 24. Developing a Framework for Analyzing Organizational Stories ................................................... 260 Lin-Ping Lee, Hong-Wang Liu, Dong-Min Shi, Christopher S.G. Khoo and Natalie Pang 25. Citation Analysis of the Availability of Conference Proceedings Cited in Doctoral Dissertations ......................................................................................................................... 272 Emi Ishita, Yukiko Watanabe, Naoya Mitani, Miki Horiuchi, Yuiko Higa, Takako Oda, and et al. 26. Application of SMS Technology for Library Services: A case study of Google SMS Channel ...... 283 Suresh Balutagi and Mallikarjun Angadi 27. Exploring the Development of the Museum Artifacts Knowledge Management System: A Case Study at the National Palace Museum ................................................................................... 294 Shu-Hui Chang and Mei-Ling Wang 28. A Study on the Perceptions of Librarians and Staff on the Impact of Technology on the Organization and Personnel of Selected Academic Libraries in CALABARZON, Philippines ....... 324 Efren Jr Macanlalay Torres 29. Adequacy of Knowledge and Attitude Towards Information Technology of Student Library Users at Selected Colleges and Universities in CALABARZON ............................................. 345 Ma. Lindie D. Masalinto, Josefa G. Carrillo, Ma. Xenia Z. Bitera, Consuelo Obillo and Rufo S Calixtro Jr. 30. An Empirical Study of Housewives Information Practice in Taiwan.............................................. 351 Nei-Ching Yeh 31. Assessing Training Needs of LIS Professionals in University Libraries of Punjab and Islamabad .................................................................................................................................... 363 Rubina Bhatti and Muhammad Nadeem 32. Communities Of Practice: Nurturing The Knowledge Sharing Environment ................................. 378 Geeta Albert, Mohd. Sharif Mohd.Saad and Ng Wai Peng 33. The Development for Value Creation Strategies of Rajabhat University Libraries ........................ 393 Anansak Phuangok, Lampang Manmart and Kanyarat Kwiecien 34. Impact of ICT in Libraries of Teachers Training Institutions: A Study ........................................... 399 Shilpa S. Waghchoure and Hindurao S. Waydande 35. The University of Hawaii Library and Information Science Program as a Pacific Bridge: Strategic Planning for the Asia - Pacific Future................................................................................... 415 Andrew B. Wertheimer 36. Impact of ICT on College Libraries in India ................................................................................... 426 Shivshankar Ghumre 37. Librarians! Arise And Awake To Establish Your Identity .............................................................. 432 A.Manoharan, M.Nagarajan and B.Kanagavel

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Table of Contents
38. Library Consortia in India for Networking & Resource Sharing ..................................................... 438 Shivshankar Ghumre and Subhash P Chavan 39. Mentoring in Libraries and Information Organisation, the Catalogue Librarian Perspectives ........ 444 M. A. Bello and Y. Mansor 40. Problems and Prospects of LIS Students & Professionals in India: an Overview ......................... 461 T.S.Seethalakshmi, E.M.Manimala and R.Abarna 41. Search by Image through the WWW: An Additional Tool for Information Retrieval ...................... 467 Paul Nieuwenhuysen 42. Skater, Slider, Shuffler and Starter: Modeling Academic Librarians Social Media Presence Using Personas .................................................................................................................. 477 Niusha Zohoorian-Fooladi and A. Abrizah 43. Staff Retention in Indonesian Libraries (Case Study School Librarians at Surabaya, East Java) ........................................................................................................................................... 493 Endang Fitriyah Mannan 44. There and Back Again: Is There a Need for GLAM Education?.................................................... 502 Katherine Howard 45. The Difference and Relationship Analysis of Competencies, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: A Conceptual Framework for Empirical Assessment of Indicators of Job Performance ................................................................................................................................ 512 Asad khan, Mohamad Noorman Masrek and Fuziah Mohamad Nadzar 47. Development of Intangible Cultural Heritage Knowledge Framework for Ontology Construction ........................................................................................................................................ 528 Wirapong Chansanam and Kulthida Tuamsuk 48. Expert System Development Using Case-Based Reasoning: A Case of Thai Military Intelligence.......................................................................................................................................... 536 Pratya Areekul, Kulthida Tuamsuk and Wanida Kan-arkard 49. How Long are You Looking at an Ad Banner?: An Exploration into Fixation Duration on YouTube Clips .................................................................................................................................... 547 Chatpong Tangmanee 50. Digital Library Services@Indian Institute of Science: a Special Reference to J.R.D. Tata Memorial Library Bangalore ........................................................................................................ 557 Pitty Nagarjuna, Krishna Murthy Muniyappa and M. Surulinathi 51. An Ontology Modeling for Drought Management Information System .......................................... 572 Nattapong Kaewboonma, Kulthida Tuamsuk and Marut Buranarach 52. Designing Online Collaborative Learning Activities to Enhance Student Experience in Distance Education ............................................................................................................................ 582 Lyn Hay and Bob Pymm 53. A Study of the Curriculum of Indonesias Existing Five Graduate LIS Programs .......................... 595 L.Sulistyo-Basuki 54. Academic Libraries in the 21st Century in the Asian Region ........................................................ 611 Sujin Butdisuwan and E. Rama Reddy

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Table of Contents
55. Education; A Vital Principle for Digital Library Development in Iran Iranian Academic Librarians and LIS Educators Viewpoints ............................................................... 621 Behrooz Rasuli and Nader Naghshineh 56. Standardizing Government Hospital Libraries: Where Are We Now? ........................................... 638 Ma. Lindie D. Masalinto, Leonor N. Tiu, Elena A.Salinas, Jose Romano O. Jalop and Elizabeth D. Malabanan 58. The Necessity of Information Literacy Education to Learners of ODL for Being a Lifelong Learner in i-society ............................................................................................................................. 650 Faezeh Delghandi 60. Challenges in LIS education in India ............................................................................................. 655 Chetan Sudhakar Sonawane 61. Information Technology and Communication: A Discourse Analysis ............................................ 669 Pongsak Sangkhapinyo and Chollabhat Vongprasert 62. Information Literacy Integration in Learning and Teaching of the Social Studies, Religion and Culture Courses at Primary School Level .................................................................................... 674 Krongkaew Kingsawat, Kanyarat Kwiecien and Kulthida Tuamsuk 63. Universiti Sains Malaysia Research Publication: A Bibliometric Study ......................................... 684 Mohd Ikhwan Ismail, Mohd Kamal Mohd Napiah and Abd Halim Ismail 64. Learning Styles: Factors Affecting Information Behavior of Thai youth ......................................... 697 Jutharat Changthong, Lampang Manmart and ChollabhasVongprasert 65. HR activities in NISCAIR, DRTC and NASSCOM (India).............................................................. 708 Sangita Gupta and Leela Dhar Mangi 66. State University Library Strategies to Support Education and Research in Indonesia Universities in Terms of Strategic Leadership..................................................................................... 723 Nove E. Variant Anna and Endang Fitriyah Mannan 67. Internationalisation of Library and Information Science Education: Adopting Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) in Indian Universities with special reference to Library and Information Science in Mizoram University. ........................................................................................................... 733 Pravakar Rath and Moorttimatee Samantaray 68. ICT Literacy among LIS Professionals of Higher Educational Institutions in Pondicherry, India ... 740 R. Sevukan 69. The Implementation of Record Managers Roles in Engineering Faculty of University of Indonesia (FTUI) ................................................................................................................................. 754 Dyah Puspitasari SriRahayu 70. Implementation of Library Automation in Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Library: A Case Study ........... 763 Indumati Samantaray 71. Social Networking Status Among Iranian MLIS Students ............................................................. 772 Maryam Sarrafzadeh and Soheila Alavi 72. Development of a Policy on National Information Infrastructure for Disabilities in Thailand: Perspectives of Policy Makers and Disability Leaders ........................................................................ 786 Pathamakorn Netayawijit, Kulthida Tuamsuk and Kanyarat Kwiecien 73. Role of E-Books as important electronic resources in Digital Environment................................... 796 Subarna K. Das

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Table of Contents
74. Integrating Risk and Records Management for the Sustainability of Biotechnology Organizations ...................................................................................................................................... 803 Azman Mat Isa, Adnan Jamaludin and Ap Azli Bunawan 75. Impact of PACUCOA Level III Accreditation on the Library Services Value of UPHSL ................. 811 Elizabeth D. Malabanan, Ma. Lindie D. Masalinto, Remedios Dela Rosa, Leonor N. Tiu and Elena A.Salinas 76. Digital Archives and Metadata Critical Infrastructure to Keep our Community Memory Safe for the Future ..................................................................................................................................... 824 Shigeo Sugimoto 77. Training Needs Analysis of School Librarians in India .................................................................. 839 Chennupati K. Ramaiah and A.L. Moorthy AUTHORS S BIOGRAPHIES.. 847 AUTHORS INDEX......878

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Education; A Vital Principle for Digital Library Development in Iran Iranian Academic Librarians and LIS Educators Viewpoints
Behrooz Rasuli*
Department of Library and Information Science, Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology No 1090, Enghelab Ave., Felestin St., Tehran, Iran; P. O. Box: 13185-1371 Rasuli9@gmail.com

Nader Naghshineh
Faculty of Library and Information Science, University of Tehran Faculty of Library and Information Science, University of Tehran, Enghelab Ave., 16 Azar St, Tehran, Iran Nnaghsh@ut.ac.ir

ABSTRACT
As a result of the changing nature of LIS and increase in digital information, Education of DL has become imperative to the LIS curriculum; curriculum development is the first important step in educating digital librarians to work in digital library environments. Despite the importance and necessity of DL, very little surveys about a dedicated DL education programme have been done on the international level to date. The main purpose of this study is to examine viewpoints of Iranian academic librarians and Library and Information Science educators about a dedicated digital library education programme, as well as solicited proposed courses. This study was conducted using survey methodology via an online questionnaire. Expert sampling of educators and Snowball sampling of librarians was used. Finally, 66 academic librarians and 45 educators contributed to the study. Responses were analyzed by descriptive statistics (for closed questions) and a content analysis (for open questions). Results show that the current LIS education curriculum in Iran doesnt sufficiently teach LIS students and librarians DL principles and concepts; in addition, about 80% of librarians and 82% of educators are in favour of a dedicated DL education programme. This study provide the empirical data for design a DL dedicated programme or some courses on digital libraries at Iranian LIS departments, specially at the new founded Library and Information Science faculty in Iran. DL management, digital preservation, digitization, DL architecture, and metadata will be the key elements in DL education. Research of this kind has not been carried out before at Iran. LIS discipline requires DL education to keep up with new developments in the IT fields. The current approach in the Iranian LIS curriculum is not appropriate to
*

Corresponding Author

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fulfill this need and should be changed from a static to a dynamic approach. The absence of a stand-alone core course on DLs in the current LIS curriculum indicates that the Iranian LIS programmes has not paid attention to this issue yet, although, some studies have emphasized on this need. This paper can fills the research gap between theory and practice of Iranian digital librarianship, as well as helps LIS departments to establish DL programme or courses at their curriculum. Keywords: Digital Libraries, Library and Information Science, curriculum, Iran

1. INTRODUCTION
Since the advent of libraries, they have been used to preserve, organize, and disseminate knowledge and information. The importance of these institutions increased with the invention of printing and the increase of publications; in addition, professionals- we know them as Librarians nowadays- were employed. Therefore, a discipline formed in universities to educate Librarians. The famous German Librarian, Walter Schuermeyer (at the 13th Documentation Conference, Copenhagen, 1935) states: "Perhaps one day we will see our reading rooms deserted and in their place a room without people in which books requested by telephone are displayed, which the users read in their homes using television" (Buckland, 1992, p. 27). In the 1960s, some futurists such as Licklider, in their writings pointed to libraries that will be very modern and due to changes in technology period and they process and access differently in the future (Saracevic & Dalbello, 2001). With the amazing development of the Web, Libraries are faced with a challenge. The web is a resource that is larger and more accessible than libraries; therefore, its popularity is increasing day by day. Moreover, digital libraries have found their place on the web. With the potential to organize knowledge, DLs have separated themselves from other web resources. Although, current different societies produce a vast amount of information daily, and the need for quality organized information is inevitable; so it seems digital library can address this need perfectly (Yang, Wildemuth, Pomerantz, Oh, & Fox, 2009). The number of launched digital libraries is strongly growing (Wang, 2003). And as it was expected, research on this subject increased dramatically before 2000s. Indeed, there are several related surveys, technical, and project activity reports, project results, conference and journal papers, guides, and books about digital libraries (Koulouris & Kapidakis, 2012). On the other hand, the number of traditional librarian jobs is decreasing and librarians today need a combination of skills and capabilities to work in the environment of modern library. Traditional librarians were dealing with printed documents- far removed from the demands of the digitally and networked environment. As Myburgh explains, the time has come to change the printed document approach to information management (Myburgh, 2003). One of the principles of DL development is acceptance of change; we must accept the paradigm has changed (McCray & Gallagher, 2001). Professional librarians are crucial elements in the successful development of digital libraries. Paying attention to the governing approach in association with human resource management in traditional libraries, it can be said that such an approach in DLs seems to be necessary because the dynamic, changing, competitive environment has multiplied, considering specialized staff and managing their skills and competences (Isfandiari-Moghadam & Bayat, 2007). As a result of the changing nature of library and information science (LIS) and increase in digital information,
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Education of DL has become imperative to the LIS curriculum; curriculum development is the first important step in educating digital librarians to work in digital library environments (Choi & Rasmussen, 2006). Schools of LIS need more emphasis on an interdisciplinary educational approach. In order to enhance the LIS student skills necessary to work in current digital environments, DL education should be considered as an important issue in the interdisciplinary education of LIS (Coleman, 2002). More recently, some LIS schools have focused on specialized education programs, providing advanced certificates in "digital librarianship" beyond the first professional degree. Others have focused on integrating education for digital librarianship into the general LIS professional degree education program. A few have pursued programs of education that are independent of the first professional LIS education degree. North America and Europe present patterns of education that represent all three approaches. The first LIS department in Iran was founded in 1966. Analysis of Iranian LIS curriculum found them to be severally lacking in flexibility. Although, DL education started in 1990s in some countries, Iran has not yet to dedicate any stand-alone DL programme- even stand-alone DL course. However, none of related DLs studies specially address DL education in Iran as well as DL curriculum or DL skills and knowledge. While special focus on education for such librarians who design, administer, and maintain digital libraries in Iran is needed. Therefore, we can try to solve this issue by establish a dedicated DL programme. Nevertheless, LIS students will undoubtedly need such skills in the future. Hence, it is important to understand if and how the future generations of LIS professionals learn about DLs through their LIS studies. Is there a need to establish a dedicated DL programme in Iran? What are the skills, elements, and knowledge required to a dedicated DL programme as well as to work in a DL environment in Iran? These two questions are the main questions that this study tries to answer. Furthermore, we need to empirical data to establish a powerful programme to education of digital libraries, which this paper tries to prepare such data. The Main Objectives of this study are to 1) examine the status of digital libraries education in those Iranian universities that offer Library and Information Science programmes; 2) study of this issue that how much we need to digital libraries education in theory and practice; and 3) find those key skills that we need to develop and manage a digital library in Iran.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Despite the importance and necessity of DL, very little surveys of a dedicated DL education programme have been done on the international level to date. However, such study has never been done on the national level. While, there are numerous related surveys that address other dimensions of digital libraries, many of them have pointed the need of DL education. Anyway, study on the digital library education issues have been begun by Spink and Cool (1999), Saracevic and Dalbello (2001), and Liu (2004), fundamentally. But in a broader view, several researchers have recently stressed the need for expanding DL education. Most of those who have reviewed and studied this subject have visualized the necessary set of skills mastered by the digital librarians. For example, Spink and Cool (1999) focus on LIS schools that would offer DL education courses. They suggested curriculum courses such as digital acquisition, digital preservation, information retrieval systems, search engines, database architecture, and
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so on. In 2001, a similar study was conducted by Saracevic and Dalbello. The major aim of their paper was to present results from a survey on the state of DL education in academic institutions. They concluded that just 32% of DL courses are independent and the rest (68%) of them integrated in to other courses. Also they identified four broad areas of application in the general domain of digital library education (tools, environments, objects, and combined) (Saracevic & Dalbello, 2001). Tennant pointed to a shortage of digital librarians in the current age, and explains why librarians should be familiar with IT and DL (Tennant, 2002). In 2004, Lius study showed that 42 institutions in the world offer at least a course related to DL. Most of these courses are offered at the MA and PhD levels and have been in the USA and Europe. According to Weech (2005) the number of courses on DLs taught in schools of LIS in the U.S. has more than doubled in the past four years. He noted that because of the growth of the digital library community, we need for restructuring library and information science education programs to support the need for digital librarians. Also, his paper examines the curricular trends for digital librarianship and analyzes the skills seen as desirable for librarians to have as they expand services and resources to electronic sources in the digital age (Weech, 2005). Bawden and et al, (2005) analyzed the content of LIS programmes in Slovenia and United Kingdom. Choi and Rasmussen, in 2006, in a study entitled What Is Needed to Educate Future Digital Librarians suggested some courses to educate DLs. Mansouri and pashootanizade (2007) identified some skills and courses that should be included in in-service education for the librarians in the new age. Required skills for the librarians in a digital environment included, professional skills (operational literacy, academic leteracy, information literacy, cultural literacy, and global Awareness) and individual skills (intelligence, creativity, power of risk, responsibility, and social relationship) (Amoozeshe Zemne Khedmat ... (In-Service Education for Librarians in the New Age), 2007). Ma, O'Brien, and Clegg (2008) conducted a study to compare some international DL courses structure. The results showed that DL module-based credit weighting varies from 13% to 63% (excluding project or dissertation work). In her study, Howard (2009) studied the viewpoint of Australian LIS educators and practitioners working in academic libraries about whether or not there is a need for an educational programme to be tailored solely for the digital library environment. According to this study 40% of practitioners and about 40% of LIS educators agreed with this programme, and 28% of practitioners and 27% of educators did not agree. She specified some models and courses for a DL educational programme also (Howard, 2009). Ahmad Bakeri (2009) identified eight countries (India, Indonesia, China, South Korea, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Thailand) that are offering independent digital library courses through their academic institutions. According his study, there is something missing for DL in Asia comparing global level. Although, he found that there is a relationship between levels of ICT development in a country with the willingness to offer digital library education (Education for digital libraries in Asian countries, 2009). Furthermore, Baros paper should be noted here. The main purpose of his paper was to bring to light the state of digital library education in library schools in Africa, and the readiness of library schools to produce future digital librarians. Results from the survey revealed that only 20 (of 45) library schools offer courses specifically related to DLs (Baro, 2010). Nonthacumjane (2011) through a paper presents the key skills and competencies of a new generation of LIS professionals. In her study, she gives an introductory background of the digital era which impacts on the changes occurring in libraries, a review of the literatures on skills and knowledge of LIS professionals working in a
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digital era and related researches, and finally, she presents the image of the new generation of LIS professionals. She concluded that Due to digitization of the knowledge-based society, libraries are faced with many kinds of changes with regard to technological aspects, user and learning behaviors, and social aspects. All have major impacts on the roles, competencies, skills and knowledge of LIS professionals (Nonthacumjane, 2011). Haji Hashim and Abdul Aziz (2012) outline some requirement skills for digital librarians, and then they call the greatest research to understand how roles and responsibilities change in the digital environment. They noted that in the digital world, libraries and librarians do not work in isolation and the library staff should be trained to cope with new challenges (Preparing librarians for digital future, 2012). Generally, we can categorize the literature into (a) those that propose the skills and elements which digital librarians should have, and (b) those that examine the LIS curriculum in terms of understand that how LIS programmes treat with DLE. While, the subject of DLE has been started at 1990s, but most studies have been done at current decade. Although, of them are about U.S. and Europe, and there is a few literature about Asia. Despite of the important of DLE in LIS education, there is no any empirical data in Iran- even Middle East countries- about the subject. The importance of DLE for DL development and for the new generations of LIS professionals is another matter that most of the related studies have pointed to. Indeed, there have been a small number of studies related to the Iranian Library and Information Science (LIS) curricula over the years. However, the most of national studies related to LIS education recommended necessary changes in current curriculum (Lozum-e Baznegari Dar .... (Need to revise LIS Curriculum Regards to New LIS Skills), 2006; Fattahi R. , 2005; Jowkar & Hamdipour, 2001; Amouzeshe Ketabdari va Elme Etela'at dar Iran ... (Education of Librarianship and Information Science in Iran: Contraindications and Solutions), 2011; Hayati, 2004; Amoozeshe Ketabdari va Etela'resani ... (LIS Education in Iran Still Remains Stagnant), 2008; Amoozeshe Zemne Khedmat ... (In-Service Education for Librarians in the New Age), 2007; Dayani, 2000).

3. STATUS OF DL EDUCATION IN IRANIAN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCEINCE CURRICULUM


Formal education of LIS began in second half of 19th century with the efforts of Melvil Dewey. In 1887, Dewey founded first LIS School at University of Colombia and became its administrator himself. Afterwards, some LIS schools were established in UK, Canada, India, Japan, and other countries (Mortezaie & Naghshineh, A comparative case study of graduate courses in library and information studies in the UK, USA, India and Iran: lessons for Iranian LIS professional, 2002). Almost seven decades after the founding of the first LIS School in the USA, in 1966 the first LIS department was launched the help of foreign librarians at the University of Tehran (UT) in Iran, offering MA degree. Two years later, a BA programme in LIS was first offered at UT and Tabriz University. Then, other Iranian large universities, such as the University of Shiraz, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, the university of Isfahan, Tarbiat Modares University, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tarbiat Moallem University, Islamic Azad University, Alzahra University, and others began to offer LIS education. 24 LIS department (at the Associate, BA, MA, PhD levels) have been offered since 1999 (Kiani-e Khuzestani, 2003). LIS education programmes offered by two ministries in Iran, the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology (MSRT) and the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MHME). The Ministry of Health and Medical Education offered Medical Library and
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Information Sciences programme at BSc. (Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Deputy Ministry for Education, 2012) and MSc. degrees (Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Deputy Ministry for Education, 2012). The Council for Education in Medical Basic Science, Public Health, and Post Graduate at the MHME has just accepted accredited courses at PhD degree (Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Deputy Ministry for Education, 2012), but this programme has not lunch yet in the certain universities. According new LIS programmes (Ministry of Science, Research and Technology [of Iran]. Humanities Science group, 2012), however, there is a LIS programme at associate and BA degree (Library and Information Science), four LIS programmes (Library and Information Science, Archival Studies, Scientometrics, and Encyclopediography) at MA degree, and a LIS programme at PhD degree (Library and Information Science) in Iranian LIS education system. Indeed, Library and Information Science programme at the MA degree included 4 minors, such as, Academic Libraries, School Libraries, Public Libraries, and Information Science. These new changes in LIS programmes and curriculum have just happened in recent years. At the other hand, the title of the discipline has just changed from Library and Information Science to Knowledge and Information Science in Iranian universities and research institutes at the second half of 2012. To date, Iranian LIS education has passed through three periods. The first (1966-1979) was the formation period of LIS education in Iran. In the second period (1979-1988) was marked by political unrest, academic chaos, and Cultural Revolution. LIS, social science, and humanities departments were grappling with various issues. The third period began in 1988 and has continued to date; and it was the revival of this discipline. After the Cultural Revolution, a centralized programming system was enforced by the former Ministry of Culture and Higher Education (current Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology) in the Iranian academic education system. This ministry was responsible for curriculum development (Mortezaie, Tahsilat-e Takmili-e (Graduate courses in library and information studies in the UK, USA, India and Iran: A comparative case study), 2001). Studies conducted on LIS curriculum in Iran (Mortezaie, Tahsilat-e Takmili-e (Graduate courses in library and information studies in the UK, USA, India and Iran: A comparative case study), 2001; Fattahi R. , 2005; Fattahi R. e., 2006; Barnameye Amuzesh-e (LIS curriculum should be Revised), 2008) show that there is a poor flexibility in Iranian LIS curriculum compared with curriculum development in other countries. Lack of flexibility might damage the LIS education programme as well as job opportunities for LIS graduates in Iran. Through a content analysis of LIS curriculum (published on the website of the Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology, 2012; and the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, 2012) and some LIS department websites (including the website of the LIS department at UT, the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad LIS website, and Alzahra University LIS website), no stand-alone DL education core course was found to date. There is just a stand-alone DL education non-core course that is offered in the new MSc. curriculum (last revised: May 30, 2010) at the MHME. Indeed, some Iranian LIS educators, such as Fattahi (Fattahi R. , 2005) and Fadaei (Fadaei, 2009), in their suggested curriculum- to the MSRT- have dedicated an independent course to DL education. However, we can encounter some DL related courses in current curricula; for example, BA degree courses include: Computer Cataloging, Database Design, Usage of Internet in the Libraries, Applied Programming, Introduction to Information Systems, Introduction to Multimedia Resources, the Web and Databases Searching, and Information Technology (IT); MA degree courses include: Information Technology
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and Systems, Information Retrieval, Data Processing, and Introduction to Computer Systems; and PhD degree courses include: Computer Programmes and Languages, Information Retrieval Systems, Database management, Communications and Cybernetic, Advanced Information Systems Searching, and Information Systems Design and Evaluation. Mohsenzadeh and Isfandyari-Moghaddam (2011) have expressed the main finding in a study entitled Perceptions of library staff regarding challenges of developing digital libraries: The case of an Iranian university, that It was found that the most important difficulties are the lack of suitable equipment and untrained personnel (i.e. a lack of sufficient training programmes). They think that founding a DL education programme would have the potential to remove some difficulties in DL development in Iran. In addition, only 20% of their study population had participated in DL workshops and the rest werent familiar with DL concepts (Mohsenzadeh & Isfandiari-Moghadam, 2011). However, there are many studies and papers that emphasized on revising LIS curriculum in Iran. These studies, regards to evolving libraries environments and emerging new kinds of libraries (i.e. digital libraries), have noted that in the new environment we need new skills and knowledge (Lozum-e Baznegari Dar .... (Need to revise LIS Curriculum Regards to New LIS Skills), 2006; Fattahi R. , 2005; Jowkar & Hamdipour, 2001; Amouzeshe Ketabdari va Elme Etela'at dar Iran ... (Education of Librarianship and Information Science in Iran: Contraindications and Solutions), 2011; Hayati, 2004; Amoozeshe Ketabdari va Etela'resani ... (LIS Education in Iran Still Remains Stagnant), 2008; Amoozeshe Zemne Khedmat ... (In-Service Education for Librarians in the New Age), 2007; Dayani, 2000; Didgahe Jame'ye Ketabdari ... (Viewpoint of Library and Information Science Society about the Change in Content, Education, and the Title of LIS), 2010). Furthermore, in recent years some studies have tried to examine the inclusion of different subjects in LIS curriculum in Iran (Rasuli & Naghshineh, Staff Training to offering Library Services for Visually Impaired Users: Viewpoints of Special Librarians and LIS Educators in Iran, In press; Tarahiye Dorehaye Amoozeshi ... (Planing Academic Educational Course for Manuscripts), 2008).

4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This study has run at the early of 2012 using a survey methodology by an online questionnaire (www.docs.google.com). The study population included academic librarian in 7 Iranian large universities and LIS educators across Iran. Expert sampling of educators and Snowball sampling of librarians was used. Finally, 66 academic librarians and 45 educators contributed to the study. Because the study was conducted at the national level, an online questionnaire was recognized as suitable tool for data collection. The questionnaire was designed in two forms (one for educators and another for librarians). Howard (2009) has already measured the validity and reliability of these questionnaires (a pilot plan contributed additional to the Howard questionnaire). Questionnaires included both open and closed questions, so, two methodologies for responses analysis were used. Descriptive statistics were applied to quantitative data and closed questions. And a content analysis was used for qualitative data and open questions. These questionnaires include 4 sections: the first was the introduction which includes such questions as: purpose of study, study scope, and a DL definition (the definition that submitted by Digital Library Federation [available at: http://www.diglib.org/]); the
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second was Demography which includes such questions as: gender, age, region, field, and years of experience; the third was Digital Library Education which includes such questions as: How much attention is paid to DL in current the LIS curriculum?, Is there a need for dedicated DL education programme?; and the fourth was DL education programme courses. Offered curriculum in these questionnaires derived from following cases: Howard (2009) questionnaire; Certificate of Advanced Study in Digital Libraries (The Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign); CAS in Digital Libraries (School of Information Studies, Syracuse University). These courses were offered to Respondents in 20 categories and each category was to be rated as either Highly Suitable, Suitable or Less Suitable. However, the quantitative data of this study was analyzed by MS Excel 2007 software package.

5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 5.1. Data Analysis: Demography


By this consideration that number of female practitioners is more than number of male practitioners, 44 respondents of study population were female (67%) and 22 respondents of them were male (33%) (Figure 1). Various studies in Iran have found the same results about employed librarians in Iranian academic and public libraries (Rasuli, A Survey on Relationship between QWL with Job Satisfaction and Stress among Public Librarians in Tehran: A Comparative Study, 2012, p. 87). The respondents age range was mostly in 30-39 (30 respondents, 45%), and then 20-29 (19 respondents, 29%), 40-49 (14 respondents, 21%), 50-59 (3 respondents, 5%), whilst the 60+ group attracted no response (Figure 3).
0% 0% 0% 0%

33%

Female Male
67% 58%

42%

Female Male

Figure1.Genderdistributionof librarians

Figure2.GenderdistributionofLIS Educators

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30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2029 3039 4049 5059 60

20 15 10 5 0 2029 3039 4049 5059 60

Figure 3. Age distribution of librarians

Figure 4. Age distribution of LIS Educators

At the other hand, 19 respondents of educators were female (42%) and 26 respondents of them were male (58%) (Figure 2). The frequent educators age division was 40-49 (17 respondents, 38%), and then 30-39 (14 respondents, 31%), 50-59 (8 respondents, 18%), 20-29 (5 respondents, 11%), and 60 attracted only 1 educator (2%) (Figure 5). Indeed, LIS educators who responded to the questionnaire were experienced in cataloguing, research methodology, acquisition, scientometrics and information behavior, information retrieval, library administration, IT, etc. LIS educators and librarians Years of experience can be seen in following figure (figure 5). According to the figure most of the research sample of librarians has had enough experience to answer to the questionnaire. Whereas LIS curriculum have not changed until recent three years (at BA, MA, and PhD programmes), its be anticipated that most of the librarians have had a same educational programmes. However, the adoption of new graduated employed librarians with IT is more than the old ones, likely. Although, all of the respondents have graduated in MSRTs programmes. In Addition, According to the figure, most of research sample of LIS educators has had 115 years of experience in LIS education. Hence, it could be expected that they are aware of LIS programme and curriculum, and understand educational needs and trends in Iran.
25 20 20 15 10 5 0 0 Under1 Year 25Years 610Years 1115Years 1620Years Over21 Years 5 5 14 13 10 15 11 7 7 4 Librarians LISEducators

Figure 3: LIS Educators and Librarians Years of experience

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5.2. Data Analysis: DL Education


In response to this question that how much did you familiar with DL through current Iranian LIS curriculum, the majority of librarians had selected Very low (20 respondents, 30%), Below average recorded 17 (26%) respondents, 14 respondents had selected Average (21%), Above average recorded 13 respondents (20%), and only 2 librarians had selected Very high (3%). Hence, about 80% of librarians have thought that current curriculum cant offer appropriate skills and knowledge to LIS students. So, its clear that educational policy makers should think about new changes in LIS curriculum according to current and new trends in the discipline. At the other hand, the most of educators think that current LIS curriculum can introduce the students with DLs Below average (20 respondents, 44%), with 13 (29%) responses recorded for Average, 9 (20%) responses recorded for Very low, 2 (4%) responses recorded for Above average, and Very high attracted only one response (2%). While about 20% of librarians have thought the current LIS curriculum can provide enough DL knowledge and skills, only about 6% of educators have thought so. This difference, probably, arises when LIS educators looking at the LIS courses syllabus, while they embed new trends in their courses themselves. The responses to next question that Do you think there is a need for a dedicated Digital Library education programme in Iran? Why yes/why not? were summarized into the categories Yes (53 responses, 80%), and No (13 responses, 20%); while, as academic librarians, the most of educators felt that we have need for this dedicated Digital Library education programme in Iran (37 respondents, 82%); while only 8 (18%) educators didnt agree with establishing this programme. Librarians that supported this programme, to explain their selection had stated that, in terms of keep pace with technology developments, the need to understanding longrange networks, databases concepts, and IT, we need to this programme; in addition, during recent years attention to digital resources has been increased, and digital libraries are the road ahead for librarianship. For example, one respondent stated: It is necessary, for these reasons: 1. Current conditions (rapid ICT developments) increase the importance of understanding DL concepts; 2. Information needs and behaviors of users have changed; 3. To keep up with IT developments; define new services and redefine current services. (Respondent #6) And another noted: Because of technology developments and changing in information access, we need to have a dedicated Digital Library education programme. (Respondent #8) Some of them explain that because of the lack of a unified definition on DL, the programme can help librarians in this situation; for instance: Each librarian or organization has a different understanding on digital library and its concepts. (Respondent #17) Those librarians who didnt agree with this programme, felt that it be included as part of current LIS education programme. Some of them have mentioned that there are no appropriate infrastructures (such as: educational spaces, faculty members, educational facilities, experienced educators) to launch this programme in the country. One of them stated that: No, there is no need, I think it can be integrated in LIS current programme and there is no need to separate it. (Respondent #13)
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I think there are no professional educators to educate this subject. (Respondent #57) Perhaps, one of the main reasons of those who had not agreed with such programme is the extensiveness and existence of various LIS programmes and minors. But, with the rapid grow and specialization in academic research areas, we need to establish new programmes to keep up-to-date with new changes in science and technology (S&T). Educational board and facilities, however, is another one main reason of this group; but we have to start DLE sooner or later. What is clear is that there is the need to learning new skills and knowledge in the digital age. According to those educators who agreed with the programme, function changing in libraries- from traditional to digital-, in addition, changing of information carrier and inevitable road ahead of the libraries, we need to establish such programme certainly. For example, one of them noted: Yes, for these reasons: 1. DLs is the inevitable future of current libraries; 2. The world is moving towards digitizing; 3. New information and communication technologies required the understanding of DLs. (Respondent #4) And another stated: Changing of library functions and faced with new challenges of new digital competitors, and also, changing of information carrier are causes to launch a new programme. (Respondent #29) Some educators said Yes, because of new required library skills in LIS, getting old of current LIS curriculum, and to keep up with international LIS programme. While, those educators who responded No thought that current LIS curriculum can offer an understanding on DL to the student and this subject can be offered in an independent course. For instance: I dont agree with this programme, but I think that DL concepts should be considered in most of LIS course. (Respondent #11)

5.3. Courses for DL education programme


In this section we offer a 20 categories list to respondents, they ranked these categories by Highly Desirable, Desirable or Less Desirable. The responses can be seen in Table 1. According to the practitioners, Information Literacy, DL management, DL Architecture, Information Retrieval, and Digital Preservation are five significant elements in DLE. Comparing to the U.S. and Europe literature, some subjects (such as, Metadata and Legal Issues) have lesser importance in DLE here. Copyright and other legal issues are so important, especially in the digital environment, to establish and maintain a digital library (Intellectual property rights for digital library and hypertext publishing systems: an analysis of Xanadu, 1991). It seems, Due to the low importance of legal issues in current LIS curriculum in Iran, LIS student and librarians are not well-aware of this subject; while it is unavoidable to make digital libraries as commercially viable as the print industries have been (Intellectual property rights for digital library and hypertext publishing systems: an analysis of Xanadu, 1991). Metadata is another subject that has great importance in DLE, while the practitioners dont think so! The reason of this selection could be this issue that because of lack of digital librarians in Iran, metadata related jobs performed by IT and Computer Science graduates, mostly.

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Table 1. Digital Library Curricula courses: Academic librarians perspectives (sorted by Highly Suitable)
Categories Information Literacy DL Management (e.g. planning and implementing (project management), human resources, marketing, (quality, evaluation DL Architecture (e.g. application software, protocols ((OAI-PMH etc), interoperability Information Retrieval (e.g. Semantic web, natural language processing, ranking algorithms) Digital Preservation (e.g. OCR, Text encoding standards, strategic issues (selection, policy making (etc.), web archiving Information Architecture (e.g. structural design, (organizing and labeling of websites, intranets Indexing and Abstracting Services Social issues of DLs (e.g. computer literacy, cultural biases such as language, ethics and equality the digital divide) (Digital Objects (e.g. file formats, migration Technology of digital libraries (e.g. XML, XSLT, Database modeling, SQL) Information and Knowledge Management Telecommunications and Networks Management Multimedia Digitization (e.g. conversion of analogue to digital) Legal Issues (e.g. copyright, contract law, Digital Rights Management) Metadata (e.g. Dublin Core, METS, PREMIS, folksonomies) Web design and maintenance (e.g. application of markup languages, CSS, Information Architecture principles) Programming Languages (e.g. Java, C++, Visual Basic) Digital Repositories (e.g. Open Access) DL origins and history (e.g. conceptual frameworks, models and theories) Less Desirable 6 60 4 4 6 5 2 7 3 3 7 7 2 4 11 9 5 13 7 4 Highly Desirable 18 20 22 22 21 22 26 22 27 29 26 26 31 32 26 29 33 28 38 50 Desirabl e 42 40 40 40 39 39 38 37 36 34 33 33 33 30 29 28 28 25 21 12

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Some of librarians had suggested courses, for example, one of them has suggested DL design standards (Respondent #66). At the other hand, LIS educators have picked the DL Management as the suitable element for DL education. The responses of educators can be seen in Table 2. Table 2. Digital Library Curricula courses: LIS educators perspectives (sorted by Highly Suitable)
Categories DL Management (e.g. planning and implementing (project management), human resources, marketing, quality, evaluation) Digital Preservation (e.g. OCR, Text encoding standards, strategic issues (selection, policy making etc.), web archiving) Digitization (e.g. conversion of analogue to digital) DL Architecture (e.g. application software, protocols (OAIPMH etc), interoperability) Metadata (e.g. Dublin Core, METS, PREMIS, folksonomies) Information Retrieval (e.g. Semantic web, natural language processing, ranking algorithms) Information Architecture (e.g. structural design, organizing and labeling of websites, intranets) Digital Objects (e.g. file formats, migration) Technology of digital libraries (e.g. XML, XSLT, Database modeling, SQL) Information and Knowledge Management Digital Repositories (e.g. Open Access) Web design and maintenance (e.g. application of markup languages, CSS, Information Architecture principles) Social issues of DLs (e.g. computer literacy, cultural biases such as language, ethics and equality the digital divide) Legal Issues (e.g. copyright, contract law, Digital Rights (Management) Indexing and Abstracting Services Multimedia DL origins and history (e.g. conceptual frameworks, models and theories) Information Literacy Telecommunications and Networks Management Programming Languages (e.g. Java, C++, Visual Basic) Less Desirable 0 Desirable Highly Desirable 37

1 1 2 2 0 1 1 1 4 1 4 3 3 5 5 4 6 8 12

10 15 15 15 18 17 17 17 14 18 16 18 18 18 20 26 22 20 21

34 29 28 28 27 27 27 27 27 26 25 24 24 22 20 19 17 17 12

According to the educators, DL management, Digital Preservation, Digitization, DL Architecture, and Metadata are five significant elements in DLE. Regards to the gap
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between theory and practice, there is a significant gap about Information Literacy and Digitization categories. While the educators well-understood about Metadata, Legal Issues remain poor in their sight yet. Generally, it seems the technical aspect of digital library education in the educators view is stronger than the librarians. However, the two groups have a same opinion about the DL Origins and History and Programming Languages categories. The comparison of two tables (librarians and educators) could help us to extract appropriate elements to DLE that included theory and practice. Although, offered curriculum for DLE should be revised at certain periods; because the technology and digital world is a dynamic environment, so the educational curriculum in such environments must be adapted to new changes.

6. Conclusion
Special knowledge is a key item in professionalism framework that the professionals should have, and having some skills is not sufficient element to work as a professional in any field (Freidson, 2001). However, the special knowledge that is obtained from academic education is necessary for digital library professionals. Furthermore, such education can improve digital libraries development and is a vital component to live librarians at the digital age; and to share DLs knowledge and skills to next generations, we have to educate new digital library educators. Indeed, Education is based on four fundamental elements; environment, learner, educators and what are to be learnt (curriculum) (Ashman, and Conway, 1997, 124). Required skills for digital library concepts are very complex and rapidly changing. These skills need a different educational philosophy that is more related to a structuralism approach. Conducted studies in around the world and at different times have stressed the need for digital library education. LIS discipline requires DL education to keep up with new developments in the IT fields. The current approach in the Iranian LIS curriculum is not appropriate to fulfill this need and should be changed from a static to a dynamic approach. The absence of a standalone core course on DLs in the current LIS curriculum indicates that the Iranian LIS programmes has not paid attention to this issue yet, although, some studies have emphasized on this need. Responses of librarians (80% agreed) and educators (82% agreed) show an absolute necessary need for establishing DLE. Although, LIS educators (theory) have more bent on digital libraries education than the librarians (practice). Therefore, the LIS discipline in Iran should include such a programme as soon as possible. Suggested courses in this paper would enable the LIS students to work in a DL environment; this would also help Iranian LIS to achieve international standards. There is very little extant empirical data available which would allow a comparison with current study. The Howard (2009) research and also Mohsenzadeh and IsfandyariMoghaddam (2011), for example, support the results of this study. Other studies in the field, thought, have found such results that we have to update educational content align to new requirements and demands. Before all, revision of the LIS programmes and curriculum should be considered as a normal and significant process in Iran. LIS educators need to work with researchers and practitioners in digital libraries to help develop an appropriate curriculum. According to the findings, DL skills and knowledge conceptual, semantic, syntactic and technical aspects- should be embedding in DL related courses. Having now
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obtained that empirical data, the next step of using this information to define DLE requirements and curricula inclusions which would best facilitate the development of DL skills and knowledge can now be undertaken in Iran. However, the result of the study can change the attitudes of LIS programme policymakers in Iran toward DLs, and increase attention to this subject so pertaining to the launching of the first LIS faculty in Iran. Indeed, these results might be practical for national professional bodies, which might be expected to be able to adapt DLE to their educational programs. While, because of cultural and social issues, the result of this research may not be useful to other regions, but comparative studies can open new windows to digital library education at the worldwide. Although, the problem of the appropriate DL educational board for DLE will remain unsolved, another study might examine this problem.

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