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By Dan-Simion Grecu, Deva, Romania
We *ill djscuss here a verl little known aspect ofposta.L history. namely that ofproofing (examining, censoring) the images depicted on the plcture postcards. We have only a feu'primary bibliographical refbrences written on the subject, and they are all based on the afiicles ofthe late Mircea Telegulr. However nothing has been written on the details, legislation, and different periods involved. This will be largely described in the author's catalogue on 'Censorship and connected areas during 1930-1964' (this when it is in a satisfactory fbrm - the final date ofissuance ofthis document isn't yet that clear) r

Mirc$ Telcgut, Dennis Watson - Ro,?d,idl' aen{)tship af t'ost Caftl Piclr/r. S.P.A Joumal 1982 - 1983. pag. Mi rcea Tlegu1 - Ro/ra,{ ia'., Cen rat.\hip of Postcatd P;./,/e.r, R?S nr l/1983,p 7. as $ellas the respecljve chapicrs of d]e both Teleg t-Tlielk caralogues of 1987 and 199j.
Ronanian Poslal Hislorl Bullelin ?001: 1.12 (Whole No +l)


This catalogue will contain a great amount ofregulation lnformation (Laws, Decrees, archival notes, etc), but unfo.tunatell' it will be ali in the Romanian language. The task oftranslating more than 150 A4 pages ofpure text (nearly hallofthe catalogue's estimated number ofpages) is well beyond the author's abilities) Therefore, for foreign readers. a series ofafiicles will be published (in RPIIB and in IITe Getnan AG llt tdbtief) in order to glve the essentlals for a better understanding of the different covered areas (postal & press censorship, but a.lso prison 1nail, intemment camps, refugees, deponees, lorced labor camps, etc ) As lar as the Picture Postcard (PPC) censoring is concerned, here are some ofthe basic lbcts:

The first knol\'n examples ofcensoring the PPC images are {iom the '30's, possibly related to the Picture Postcotil's Monopollt Law (issued with the Decree no 4390/l93l,publishedrnMOr no l2 1 l9:12). u'hich stated:


slhnit their

Wfurnl5 dq:s lblla\,)tn,q the publtshtng a-fthit LcDr, dll namiachrers. dtpasit'aties and sellets art ob!igetl to PPC.I lbt.frxnhng vith d 2 Lei Ctlnue Stamp.
V,!r!t de

The Law (which wasn't generally lollowed) didn't explicitly rei'er to imate censoring, however as a result ofthis \{onopoly La,,r al1 the pri\ate-made PPCs (specially those issued for fund-raising purposes) had to bear the approval ofthe local authoritles (Prefects'




ar..bal orln !5ni$lll rl' rl.lror ^ll1lrterr!1 locisre l,lo. atci]?gJ{

or Police Chlef Commissioners). Usually this approval was printed with the postcard itself(see lig 1, the upper prinred text Aom the postcard's back reads Vizul de noi: Prelectlll :ud.: Seen b) us: the Prefecl (t thc ca nl, plus his signature), however cases when it was stamped on each postcards rvith rubber hand cancels are also knorvn (always followed by the signature ofthe Prefect or Police Chiel).
Durlng the WW2 the lvlilitary Censorship asked to have the control over the images ofthe PPCS offered for sale, in order to avoid tlie insertion olsecret const.uctions or military details The regulation lor this sitLration has not yet been found, however this can be deducted fiom the Order no. 3:105A,/ l4 11 19,12 ofthe Central Nlilitary Censorship towards all the Prefectures ofthe country:
One notices that in commerce there are PPC, which are prejLrdicing Propaganda interests. by virtue of using inadequate images or poor technical execlLtion. We ask you to order your subordioate ofEces to give a 'good fbr printing'visa for PPCs, but only foliowing the individual approval from the Propaganda Direction ofthe Ministry ofNational Propaganda. The Ministry visa will be put on the same sample alreadv stamped by the usual censoring services.

Occasionally one can lind in 1942 'samples' ofthese PPC submitted to approval, bearing the censor marking ofthe local Censoring Office.

Period 1 (M.rch - ? 19,t3)i The Local Censorship.

: Monitorul Oficiai (The Omciel Gazelle). r The 'Prefect togedrer with tle iustitution again from 1990


PrefecllLra l{ere at the head ofeach coun0 (department) uotil the



Romanian Postal Histor] Bulletin 2003; i,l:2 (Who1e No.



seems that all previous measures were unsatisfactory, thetelore a special regulation was issued in

Nlarch 1943, which is the beginning ofthe PPC censorship properly. This was issued under the mask of a new'Nlonopoly Law' (taking into account that the old Regulation of 1932 had had no practical effect), but this time \!ith clear indication of image censorship. This was Law -tvo. 170 fot the Picturc Postcdld's Monolrol)) (issued with the Decree no 740 / 20.3 1943, published in M O no. 68 / 22.3.1943):

I Ihe

LIinistry ofNdtional Ptopaganda I J Aft III A comm \1ion .fltnned by a delegate of the Minisnr- of Natjancll, a delegdte of theMini!ty ofNatxnai Culntre dnd a clelegate ofthe Ndttonal TraveLlint Olfice, wjLl Llacide ltpon the PPC| sunabiho^Jbt printing I J Art ,'. The naniilctlu ers. depovtaties anrl teLler': ofPPCt are obLiged to subnit far stantPing. dt thc NationaL Senice o-fCen:;orshtp neat lhe ilinist\, ofNalional Propagancla, ar, in llle cattnlry, al the catnty Prcfecturer.hithin 3A cl':!!t franr the clale ol tssuing oJ this Deuee Ldtt. dll lhe PP(:! in theit posse\jok. The aboye dltthoutte.\ vtll reJect /rom sktntpthg lhe PPCs .-hiclt are injttrtous lo lhe sxlte interest!. the subnilletl PPCsttcrybesolcl du ng 3 ]nontht. bqinninghith lhe d!:tte alissting afthis Decrce Law
So. the stamped PPC could be sold between 22 3-22.6.1943.In ptactice. this limitation was difficult lollow, as. lbr example. ln the county ofHunedoara the deadline.for submitting the PPCs at the

Bht ta print anLl sell picnlre postcarch


ary kind

[ ]

is d nonopol! aJ the stne.




Prefecture (at room 3). was 22.4.19:13, so one month a11er the publishing TaLing into account the period asked lor examining and stamping all the thousands ofPPCs. one can imagine that the 3-month term was insufficient From the circulated items we can find that PPCS stamped llith 'Prefecture' markings were in trafiic as lale as 1944, even 1945, so one or more extensions ofthe original period were surely issued, but they are unknown to me up to now.

ln all the Romanian counties the censoing occured through the \{ilitary Press Censoring Of}lces near
each Prelecture (these Ofilces were established in January 1934. hopefully we r.vill discuss the Press

Censorship later on). This was acknovvledged by stamping one ofthe Prelecture markings on the back (or. more rarely, on the fiont. see Fig. 17) ofthe PPC Here are some examples (this isn't a complete list ) ofthe types ofmarkings used during this period:

{ifl$) \ -'
<.,/ The


\\ nc3

Fig. 1


is generaLly 'Prefectura jud(etului) ...' (PreJeclurc aJ Corlr,'... ), more rarely with indlcations as CENZLIRAT (cea.rored) and Biroul Cenzurei (Cer.torihip Bureatr), BIROUL


M.O.N.T. (/?e 'Mobili.tation and Tei-titari.l Oryanis.ttion Bareaz)- Serv(iciul) Administativ (,re Administtcti|e Seflice), all these bureaus and sen'ices were part ofPrefecture's structure. Early date of
use: March 19,11

Romanian Posd lIl$ory Bullehn 200.1t


(Whole No.


The marking ofthe right is the only one, which fully identifies the basis lor the PPC ceisorship, and is the only one specific for PPC Censorship only (all others also being commonly used by the Press Censorship). Its text is: CENZURA PRISEI SIBIU / $TAIIPILAT / conf. D.L. Nr. / 11011913 (= the Pret" Censo$hip Sibiu / StdtnpeLl t accorditg ta the Decree-Lan No. 7I0,' I9l3) As lar as Transnistria is concerned" we can see examples ofstamped PPCs f'rom January 1943 (so, two months belbre the Decree-Law 740 was issued), suggesting that there were special regulations lbr lhis province, as yet unknou'n The censorship occurred by the Directia Construcliilor (= Constnrctions l)irectir'r) near the Govemment ofTransnistria, using the marking shown in {ig 7

6 J


;;;:;; \S

Period 2 (19,13 - l9:14): the Central Censorship in Bucharest.

:Ihe National Propaganda N{inlstry's Decree no 2I2.5 1943 (published lnM O. no l0s,75.l94i) modified the 'Monopol! Law', restricting the right to eramine and to approve the postcards samples onlv to a central organ!" Comisiunea cirfilor pottde ilustrate (: 7he a'ommissnn fot Piclute Postcal ds). which had to receive the PPCs fiom all around the country (with the exception of Bucovina and Bessarabia, see below). The task was huge, as results from the Report No. 981 / 7 8 1943 ofMihai Antonescu, National Propaganda Nlinister. which gives some interesting figures It is said there that sone 10 miliion PPCs were submitted to the Commlssior for stamping. the operation itselfbeing conducted wlth personnel (mostly specially hired) lrom the PTT General Direction, Ministry ofNational Propaganda and N{inistry of National Culture Inordrtopayall these employees for this huge lvork, the Minister suggested the establishment ofa 1 Leu fee for each stamped (censored) postcard, to be paid by the postcard editors or sellers to a National Propaganda Ministry account open at the Nationa-l Saving House (CEC) This happened with the Lat' no. 572.forthe estdblishme tofthe 1 Lea fee on the picturc postca s ofany kind, admittedfor sale (issued with the Decree of Law no. 2419 / 3 1.8. 1943).
seems that an exception occurred for the postcards examined in Bucovina, which was organized as 'Govemment'; here thls task \'"as accomplished by a Serviciu al cenzurei (= Cer.totship Service) rear the Propaganda Inspectorate ofthe Bucovina Government (this being established by the Decision no. 716iP/I6.I0 1942 ofthe Ministry ofPropaganda, published inM.O no.26.1 / 10.11.1912):


BeginningvithI14.1912,thePropagandLlRegonallnspectaratefurtheprcvinceolBucotinaiteslablished, \tith it.\ seat in Cetnntfi.

Probably a similar regulation existed also for Bessarabja (the other 'Government'), horvever it hasn't vet heen lound

Ronanian Postal History Bulletin 200i; l4:2 (Who1e No 41)

The PPC Censorship during April-June 19'13 (1"'Period) was marked in Buco\,ina with the usual 'Prefectura' markings (examples known fiom Suceava and CAmpuiung Moldovenesc); fufiher, specific markings ofthe new Censorship Services are kno\r,n only from June 1943 up to 1944: three types (on1y one shorvn in frg. 8) u'ith similar texls, reading Guvernimintul Provinciei Bucovina / Seniciul Cenzurei (: Censotship Sen,ice ,'

Gavet nent af Prc\'i

ce Bucavikai)


A further step occurred in early 194:1, when the Bucharest Commission also started to re-examine all the ah ead), .tl4npeLlPPcs (so, those censored in 19'13 at the Prel'ecture or local Censorship Senices levels and not yet sold, with the exception ofthose liom Bucovina and. probably, Bessarabia); this is confirmed by the Address no. I157 / 26 2 194.1 ofthe Hunedoara Prelecture sent to all the police stations of the county

a) b)

7he re\erre al ?PC.t which \rerc dlrcad) stamped b) PrefectLres or lacal Cen.roting senices have to be reevnuneel h\, tlte Cotnm$tian anLl \tr!tnpe(1\,ji1 the Cahltnisston markng, thetelbre lheir ot|ners vill senLl imixecliatelJ, the PPCs ta the Prcfccnrc, whicl1vill -fariad llrcn ta the (-amtnsslon f)t erointnanan LlnLl


etc bltwhich arc nat stanped ht the PreJictu'e are n be stnt cltrcctl): ,p wtjl Ntdtch I"' 1l9111 ta he addt ess: I'he Conmitsion for fie I'ictv e Ponca :.t MollapoL!. aent.l Post al|ice Specictl Qftice Bucuresh I BtlclttettL In ddditio to thts packdge. one hd, to qttickb ndil to the lblb\ttng adtlres.:: ll he Conission.lbr the Pitntrp Porttantr Moliopob, B ar4 L.lJclit Cataryilt Boltle,-ad Na. 31. dlso a recejpt conlirnt g lhe palment ofa I Leu (CEC) to the accouht No. .fte lbr each approwcl PPC. tht\ fee hill he sent lo the NationdlSaving House 1 5 0 5 7, dcca dt ng the Decree oJ l,Ltw No. 2 1 1 9, 1 9 1 3. The etlttors. depositdie!. scllen etc. al PPCs.thofLtiled to tltbmit their PPCs stlnples elLtring rhe legal .leacltine for elantnng, arc snll allawed rc .b &is through thc lacal (press) cen.\oring olficcs \tith d uellfounded Ltppltcotian shawing the rcasanslbt not rcspondilg 1n li te. fhcse (rypllcduant logelhet iith fue PPC sanplcs hill be rheh Jbrv,.tkled unnedidteb, b, the locdl censonng ser,-ice ta the Canmislionj the Picturc Postcads lllanapor, BuclLre$i, Lascdr Catrgiu Baulevatd, No 31.
The r.seDc (.'l'.{)prorc.l Dpes kept in baokstores, tohacco shopt.

The postmark used by the central Commission ofBucharest has a specific shape, see fig 9, \a'ith the text: NIONOPOLUL CARTILOR POSTALE ILUSTRATE (: 1ra Manopot) oJ Picturc Po:ttccrds). Early date ofuse January 1944 (1ate date ofcirculation Maich 19,+6).

Period 3 (1945 - lvlarch 1946): the Nlinistrv ofPropasanda Censorship. Nothing ls kno$'n about possible modifications after August 1944, excepl that the Ministry ofNational Propaganda changed it s narne ta Minislr)) o.f Ptopttg.t da (Ministerul Propagandei). The new Ministry was responsible for Press Censorship as well the PPC Censorship, and the; authority may have been based on the same regulations as above (the rectangular marking can be found on items until March 1946, ofcourse this tells nothing about the time when the postcaJd was in {bct stamped, only !,"hen it circulatedi

Romanim Postal History Bullclin 2003; 1.1:2 (wtlole No. +l)

Etght Pt opaganLla Regio'dls (Regionale de Propagardl) were formed Aom 15. L 1945 !'vith the Decision no 1,153/10.8 1945 of the Minlstry olPropaganda (M O no 183 / 14.8.1945), each assigning more counties, as lollows:

"o. 23.3. 19,15. published in

T:lhle lResional Brr$ov

' ey 6e Lor,


Jot Establishing of the Mi inry of Propagahda (issued *ith the Decree of M.O no. 69 / 2.1.3.t915).


no. 8859

Cornties , Odorhei Trci Scrune, Ciuc Ilfov, V1a$ca, Teleorma.n, Plaho\'a, Dambovila, Buzdu, Ialomita- Coostania, Clui. Satu Mare. Somes. Sa1aj. Nnsiud Turda- N,lurcs. Bihor Maramures Doli. Gort. Romanati. Mehedinti. Vilcea. Arees. Olt. Cor,Irlui. Tutova, Tecuci, Filciu. Putna, Briila. Tulcea. R.lrnnicu Sdmt. Ia$i- Boto$rd, Dorohoi, Baia. Cimpuhrng. Rddduli, Suceava, Neanl, Rotna4
Sibju. Alba. Temala N{arc. Tenuva Mici. Fiqiras Calas. Severin. s. Huncdoara. Aiad

Clui Craiova G. ati




Each Regtona/ Senice of \Nasheadedby Regionttl propdgdndd carlncik)r.r (Consilieri jn Romanian), helped by Prcpogand.t secrctaties. As u'e can see, communist terminolog)' starts lrom nou' on to be imposed on Romanian institutions These Propag.mda Reglor?a1s (in the 8 main to$'ns) or 'Consilierate' (one in each county) organized also the Press & PPC Censorship They used appropriate markings with the text: Nlinisterul Propagandei and with the Royal Arms in the middle. However, due to the short period of time ofexistence ofthis Ministry ofPropaganda and probably due lo the teclxicai problems. only very feu' ofthe censor markings were changed to the new name. Usuall], the old rectangular marking ofFig. 9 was kept in use (therefore the old mark can be found on mail until earl1, 1946, when it lvas replaced by a variety of "Ministry of Information' markings, see belo*) I know a single exzunple ofa N{inisterul Propagandi marking liom Deva, circulated late in Oct 1948, with the text ROILANLA. * IIINISTERUL PROPAGANDEI / REGIONALA SIBIU /... DEVA, however the imprint is poor and cannot be reproduced here (to note that the assignment to the 'Regionala' Sibiu and not Timigoara- was specific ro the 4* Period, nor ro the ? (see Tables 1 and 2)


Period 4 (March


Februany 1949): the


oI Information Censorship.

The new Ministry was organized through the Law 130 / 5.3.1946 regurding the transforntation of the Ministry of Propaganda into the Mihistry of Information, its otganization andfurcriolr (issued with the Decree oflaw 709 / 1.3 1946. published in NI O. no. 54 I 5 .3 .1946). In the structure ofthis Ministry, the Press Censorship \,vas performed by the Directiunea Prcsei (Pres.t Dircctior) and the Postcard's censorhip by the Direc(iunea Cultlutaltr (Cuhtfte Dirccdor). its duties being stipulated by the 10d'article ofthe Law. The 171h article gives details upon the teritorial executive organs: there \\erc 14'Regianal Sel},lcer^' (each with more counties assigned, the main town ofeach county giving its name to the resp eclive ' Sub-centet' . 'Itspectolqte' , etc). These were:

Romanian Postal Histo$ Bullelin 2003; 1.1:2 (Whoie








Cotrnl;es {main towns in brackets /Bdc.irl. Neant (Piatra Neaml). Ronan (Roman), Puha (Foc$ari) Bragor' (Bra1or,l, Ciuc (Micrcurea Cruc), Trei Scaune (Sfentlr Gheorghe)- Fagira!

aFisiras) Vlasca (Ciurgio, Ialomila (Cdldrasi). Constanta (Constdtl!e). Ilfov /Brcuefli. Cllri (lllri). Stlaj (Zaliu). Turda (Turda) Da\ (('tanva),Gatj \Tirgu Jiu), Vdlcea (Rimnicu Valcea), Romanali (Caracal), Craio\.a Nlchodinti (Tumu Sevcni). Co\,rrlld 1c./1alr, Tecuci (Tecuci). Tutove (Birlad), Tlrlcea (TLrlcea). Briila Gaia!r (Briila) lasi Iat1 .".tt. vaslui (VaslLi). Filciu (Hu$i). BotoFani (ilotoFni).. Dorohoi (Dorohoi). Oradea Bihor . Satu Mare (Satu N,lare). N'lammure$ (S ) Pitesti I Arqes ftteJlil. OLt (SLaLina). NlusceL (Cimpulung). Teleormar (Tumu N{iguleie) I Dembo\'i!a (Tirgoviite). Prahor,a fPloieyl, BuznLr (Buziu), Rinnicu-Sirat PLoiegi I (Riornicu Sarra0. rSibiu/S'lbrrrl,TimalaMare(Sighifoara).TamayaNlicn(Blal).Alba(Albalulia), i Huncdoara (Deva). I Suceava /&,.edvdl. Baia (Filticeni)- Cimpulurq (Cimpuluns), R*idduli (R'ldauti) Tarcu N,lurcs Mures lTtiretr Murey). Bistnra N-dsdud (Bistrila). Odorirei (Odorhei) Tinisoara T\n$ lTjtniroa] a). Catas (Lueoi). Selerin (Oravilc) Arad (Arad)
Bucuresti Clrri

The new Nlinlstry (u'hich lasted nearly three years) had the time to manufacture and use a variety


appropdate markings for all 'cultural distdct (at Regional or County level). u'ith texts indicating the owner's reporting relationship: for the regional seats" the indication is 'Regionala...'. fot the counties it can be'Sub-Centrul...', 'Inspectoratul,..' or, more rarely'Secretariatul...' or 'Consilieratul.,,' (this narne came liom the 'cultulal' councilors near each 'cuhural distict'). Some examples (again, thls is not a complete listl): MINISTERUL l:{ !'ORNIATIILOR SUBCtrNTRUL / R.P.R. / BaiaNlarc; llfin isterul Informatiilor / Regionala Timi$oa.a / Su bcentrul Arld (see also Fig. 1i for a similar marklng of'Sub-centrul' Sfentu Gheorghe liom 'Regionala' Braqor); NIINISTERUL INFORMATIILOR / L\SPtrCT(ORATUL) / JUD(trTEAN) / CONSTANTA (see aLso fig 1 1 for a similar marking ofOdorhei Inspectorate); Regionala lnformaliilor Craiova / Secretariatul RValceai Min(isterul) Informatii(lor) / Cons(ilierrtul) Cult(ural) / JUD. CIUC (Fig. l2), or. sjmpLy MIN(ISTERUL) INF(ORMATIILOR) IA$l (see Fig. l4), etc The headqLlafter of Bucharesl's Regional used another oval mirking $'ith the text: NIINISTERUL DIFORIIATIILoR / DIR(ICTIA) CULTUR{L.{ (Fig. l5), vcry frequently seen on postcards This entire ,{'h period is very fich in term ofmarkings, each 'culturai district' used from 1 to 3 (at least) different markings, in a period oftime from March 1946 up to July 1950 and even later on (to remember again that allthe 'last dates' have little reievance, as a postcard could be u'ritten and posted a long time, months or even years, after it was purchased)


lr!o.cruc tig t2




ls, '8\r1/ "

9t d -dl


Fig l5

Romrnian Poslal Hislory Bullelrn 2003; 14:2 (Whole No.


The round markings r.rsually had (up to December 1947) ihe Roval Coat of Arms in the middle, but after the King's (compulsory) abdication, flom January 1948, these arms were erased from the markings, so one can flnd trvo sub-types ofmarkings. with and without the Royal Arms (see 13, rrhere the arms were not perfectly erased, versus fig. 10 where thejob was 'well done')


One can see the situation when postcards, censored during J" period (during the war) but not sold and therefore still found in bookshops, etc, had to be re examined during the communist years ofthe 4d period, see an example in fig 16



16: dorble emtninatian. Jiftt duing the trff (l:t perioct) ',rith a n.rkinB belonging to Pte.fecnoa Tdndr.t Marc (ieli) an(t lhe secanct. du"ing.l'h pcnoti nttu thc otal narling qfRuchdrest s RegionaL cultt cl clistrict (riChr.

Period 5 (19.19): the Ministrv of Arts & Information Censorship,

The end ofN4inistry oflnformation came withthe Decree 6l.fot the org.nization of the Minttry af d lD:fathtcttiotl ofthe Popular Republic o:f Rotnclnid (.pnblished inM.O no 42119.21949) The Press & Postcard censoring u'as now performed by a unique depaltment 'Direclia Presei !i Tipiriturilor' (= Pti ed votks a d Press Direction) This Ministry was shorllived, however some markings were then manufactured (but with the majority ofthe markings from zld'period kept in use), examples: R. P R. * Ministerul Arrelor gi lnformaliilor / Consilieratul Cultural Bratov ( 1949), R.l R * N,linisterul Anelor Informatiilor Timi$-Torontal (1955). The list ofRegional and county 5i districts (each was ca11ed now 'Consilierat Cultural') is not klown yet, but it could be similar to Table


/ ?


Period 6 (1949...1r the Ministry ofArts Censorship.

Soon- the Decree 64 \{as abrogated by the , ccree nr'. 211 for lhe vo nsforming of the Minist y of Arls unl Information into the Llinistry of Arts (published in B.O+ no. l2 23 5 1 949). From norv on. 'Dlreclja Presei !i Tipiriturilor' was translormed into Direc(ia Generali a Presei $i Tipiriturilor IDGPTI ( General Ditectiotl for Ptess d17d Pn tedvorks), directly under to the Minisrerial Council

ofRPR (this $'as the equivalent ofthe Government). DGPT took all the tasks ofpress censorship (including, as a secondary task nou', the control ofpostcards editing).

No specific marking is klown from this period, the previous markings remained in use, and can be seen on circulated postcards as late as December 1955. But trom the '50's all the publishing houses (including those issuing postcards) came under strict goven'ment control and the censorship was done before issuing theprinting avis, so it was no longer necessary to examine and remark the already edited

Bulcti ul Official. lhe


name ofthe Official Glrzette

Romflian Poslal


Bulletin 200i: l.l:2 (Whole No. 41)

DGPT was renamed in 1975 as 'Comitetul pentru Presi $i Tipititttt'i' (: Commillee far Prcss a Ll Printed \ta*s), directly under the Central Committee ofthe Communist Parly (press censorship was one ofthe pillars for the communist repression!). which was finally oficially disbanded in 1977- when the term 'censorship' disappeared from the omcial communist terminology. but the intent ltself (doubied b,v a much more efiicient 'auto-censorship') lasted theoretically until 1939 and practicaliy (in sporadlc outbursts) even a lew lears later



ri *

Sopplmentart, image (fig. l7): a postcard ofBra$ov, markcd on th.3 front $ith the maiking offig.3. Note thal. seen to date. only the PrcIictures ofBrasov and Deva applicd the marking on the front ofthe postcard (as seemed logical considedng the aims ofthe censoring process), all the rest put the narkings on ihe postcard's back.

fiom ths naterial

Ronanjan Postal History Bulletin 2003; 11:2 (whole No.