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Skelton Settle the Score 15 The scores

The scoies
Thioughoul lhis look I viII use lhiee pieces of nusic as a neans of iIIuslialing ny appioach
lo Ieaining nusic. efoie slailing lhe piocess I shouId fiisl Iike lo piesenl lhe scoies in lheii
LxanpIe 1 AnaiiIIi, nia leIIa (fion Le nuove nusiche) CiuIio Caccini (ca. 1545-1618)
K. Skelton Settle the Score 16 The scores
K. Skelton Settle the Score 17 The scores
LxanpIe 2 Die Nachl (Op. 1O, No. 3) Richaid Sliauss (1864-1949)
K. Skelton Settle the Score 18 The scores
K. Skelton Settle the Score 19 The scores
LxanpIe 3 Dans un lois soIilaiie (KV 295l) WoIfgang Anadeus Mozail (1756-1791)
K. Skelton Settle the Score 20 The scores
K. Skelton Settle the Score 21 The scores
K. Skelton Settle the Score 22 The scores
K. Skelton Settle the Score 23 Preparation
Theie aie a fev sleps vhich can le laken lo Ieain a scoie lesl vhich nay nol even invoIve
Iooking al lhe nusic. These aie sone veiy nundane lasks in ieIalion lo lhe sung lexl vhich
nay oflen seen unnecessaiy, lul nay uIlinaleIy assisl vilh lhe Ieaining piocess aIong lhe
vay. Lven if one is singing in his oi hei nalive Ianguage, having a concepl of a lexls oiiginaI
genesis and neaning and piecise delaiIs on accuiale pionuncialion viII inevilalIy le of sone
Tiansciile lhe lexl
These days lheie is no shoilage of velsiles vheie one can find lhe lexl of a piece. WhiIe il is
peihaps noie expedienl lo sinpIy copy and pasle lexls inlo a lexl fiIe vhen lhey aie avaiIalIe,
one can oflen Ieain a Iol aloul a conposeis selling ly liansciiling (eilhei ly hand oi lyping)
lhe conpIele lexl diieclIy fion lhe scoie. If you have easy access lo lhe oiiginaI lexl onIine oi
in lhe pieface of a scoies edilion, you shouId nole vheie lhe conposei iepeals oi even aIleis
lhe lexl. Keep lhis liansciiplion of lhe lexl vilh lhe scoie, oi conline il vilh youi liansIalion
and/oi liansIileialion desciiled leIov.
TiansIale lhe lexl
}usl as one shouId have a veision of lhe oiiginaI lexl on hand, so shouId one have a liansIalion
vhich he oi she can consuIl apail fion lhe nusic. A IileiaI liansIalion seives lhe puipose of
undeislanding lhe neaning of eveiy void and gaining an appiecialion foi synlax in a foieign
Ianguage. Moieovei, lhis can easiIy le liansfeiied inlo lhe scoie ilseIf. On lhe olhei hand, a
poelic liansIalion can assisl vilh youi ovn appiecialion of a lexls poeliy and neaning.
TiansIileialion of lexl inlo InleinalionaI Ihonelic AIphalel (IIA)
One of lhe haIInaiks of a gieal singei is exceIIenl diclion. In lodays piofessionaI voiId il is
oflen a iequiienenl lo sing in nuIlipIe Ianguages, and oflen in a Ianguage in vhich one does
nol have expeilise oi fIuency. Il nay le liue lhal ceilain nuances of a Ianguage viII onIy le
ieaIized in singing vhen one can ieaIize lhen in speech, hovevei, lhe inpoilance of such
nuances in singing is secondaiy lo piecision in voveI- and consonanl-foinalion and inheienl
void sliess.
Many singeis adapl lheii ovn syslens foi Ieaining hov lo pionounce foieign Ianguages vilh
iefeience lo equivaIenl sounds in lheii nalive Ianguage. CeilainIy lhis seens nosl piaclicaI,
hovevei, il does nol assisl vhen lhe foieign Ianguage uliIizes a sound lhal does nol exisl in
lhe nalive longue, noi does il cIaiify lhe pionuncialion of voids in lhe singeis ovn Ianguage.
Ioi lhis ieason, conpiehension and use of lhe InleinalionaI Ihonelic AIphalel (IIA) is cIeaiIy
K. Skelton Settle the Score 24 Preparation
an advanlage. Nol onIy does IIA give lhe singei an innediale iefeience poinl foi lhe voveI
oi consonanl lhal is iequiied and indeed ils accuiale pioduclion, lul il aIso seives lo faciIilale
piofessionaI voik vheie pionuncialion is leing discussed ly noie lhan one peison.
I viII le using lhe IIA conlinuaIIy lhioughoul lhis look in ny expIanalions and exanpIes.
Making a fuII IIA liansIileialion of a pieces lexl nay le ledious and unnecessaiy, pailicuIaiIy
vhen one has a sliong undeislanding of a Ianguages iuIes foi pionuncialion. Al lhe sane
line, il is suipiising hov even nalive speakeis of a Ianguage nake pionuncialion eiiois oi aie
unalIe lo expIain lo soneone eIse specificaIIy vhich voveIs and consonanls a pailicuIai void
enpIoys. Thus, vhiIe I viII nol insisl lhal a fuII IIA liansIileialion is a necessily, leing alIe lo
nodeI and expIain lhe accuiale pionuncialion of any sung void ceilainIy is.
LxanpIe 4 AnaiiIIi, nia leIIa Aulhoi unceilain, possilIy Cuaiini
Texl, TiansIileialion, TiansIalion
Texl IIA liansIileialion
AnaiiIIi, nia leIIa,
Non ciedi, o deI nio coi doIce desio,
Dessei lu Ianoi nio`
CiediIo pui, e se linoi lassaIe,
Iiendi queslo nio sliaIe,
Apiini iI pello e vediai sciillo iI coie:
AnaiiIIi iI nio anoie.
a ma ril: li mia bcl: la
non kre dio del mio k:r dol t}e de zi o
dcs: ser tu la mor mi o
kre di lo pur e se ti mor tas: sa le
prcn di kwe sto mio stra le
a pri mil pct: to e ve drai skrit: toil k: re
a ma ril: li cil mioa mo re
LileiaI liansIalion Ioelic liansIalion
AnaiyIIis, ny leaulifuI (one)
nol (do you) leIieve, O of ny heail sveel
of leing (lo le) you lhe Iove ny`
eIieve sliII, and if feai you assaiIs,
lake lhis ny aiiov,
open lo ne lhe lieasl and you viII see
viillen (in) lhe heail:
AnaiyIIis is lhe ny Iove
AnaiyIIis, ny leauly,
do you nol leIieve, O sveel desiie of ny
lhal you aie ny leIoved`
ul do leIieve il, and if feai assaiIs you,
lake lhis aiiov of nine
and open ny loson, and you viII see
viillen on ny heail:
AnaiyIIis is ny Iove.
K. Skelton Settle the Score 25 Preparation
LxanpIe 5 Die Nachl Heinann von CiIn zu Rosenegg (1812-1864)
Texl, TiansIileialion, TiansIalion
Texl IIA liansIileialion
Aus den WaIde liill die Nachl,
aus den unen schIeichl sie Ieise,
schaul sich un in veilen Kieise,
nun gil achl.
AIIe Lichlei diesei WeIl,
aIIe Iunen, aIIe Iailen
Ischl sie aus und sliehIl die Cailen
veg von IeId.
AIIes ninnl sie, vas nui hoId,
ninnl das SiIlei veg des Slions,
ninnl von Kupfeidach des Dons
veg das CoId.
AusgepIndeil slehl dei Sliauch,
ikke nhei, SeeI an SeeIe,
o die Nachl, nii langl, sie slehIe
dich nii auch.
aus dem val de trIt di naxt
aus den b:Y men JlaIt zi laI ze
Jaut zI um In vaI tem kraI ze
nu:n gip axt
al: le lI ter di zer vclt
al: le blu men al: le Iar ben
loJt zi aus unt Jtilt di gar ben
vck I:m Iclt
al: les nImt zi vas nu:r h:lt
nImt das zIl ber vck dcs Jtroms
nImt I:m kup Ier dax dcs do:ms
vck das g:lt
aus ge plYn dert Jte:t der Jtraux
rYk: ke nc: er ze:l an ze: le
o di naxt mir bat zi Jte: le
dI mir aux
LileiaI liansIalion Ioelic liansIalion
Oul of lhe voods sleps lhe nighl,
oul of lhe liees sneaks/cieeps il quielIy,
Iooks ilseIf aiound in a vide ciicIe,
nov le caiefuI.
AII Iighls of lhis voiId,
aII fIoveis, aII coIouis
eiases il and sleaIs lhe sheaves
avay fion lhe fieId.
AII lakes il, lhal onIy IoveIy (is),
lakes lhe siIvei of lhe sliean,
lakes fion lhe coppei ioof of lhe calhediaI
avay lhe goId.
IIundeied slands lhe shiul,
diav neaiei, souI lo souI,
oh lhe nighl, ne il fiighlens, il sleaIs
you fion ne aIso.
Nighl sleps oul of lhe voods,
and sneaks soflIy oul of lhe liees,
Iooks aloul in a vide ciicIe,
nov levaie.
AII lhe Iighls of lhis eailh,
aII fIoveis, aII coIouis
il exlinguishes, and sleaIs lhe sheaves
fion lhe fieId.
Il lakes eveiylhing lhal is deai,
lakes lhe siIvei fion lhe sliean,
lakes fion lhe calhediaIs coppei ioof
avay lhe goId.
The shiuls sland pIundeied,
diav neaiei, souI lo souI,
oh, I feai lhe nighl viII aIso sleaI
you fion ne.
K. Skelton Settle the Score 26 Preparation
LxanpIe 6 Dans un lois soIilaiie Anloine Houdail de Ia Molle (1672-1731)
Texl, TiansIileialion, TiansIalion
Texl IIA liansIileialion
Dans un lois soIilaiie el sonlie
}e ne pionenais Iauli joui,
Un enfanl y doinail a Ionlie,
Celail Ie iedoulalIe Anoui.
}appioche, sa leaule ne fIalle,
Mais je devais nen defiei,
}y vis lous Ies liails dune ingiale,
|II avail Ies liails dune ingiale,j
Que javais juie doulIiei.
II avail Ia louche veineiIIe,
Le leinl aussi fiais que Ie sien,
Un soupii nechappe, iI seveiIIe,
LAnoui se ieveiIIe de iien.
Aussill depIoyanl ses aIes
Ll saisissanl son aic vengeui,
Dune de ses fIches ciueIIes
|Lune de ses fIches ciueIIesj
Ln pailanl iI ne lIesse au coeui.
Va! va, dil-iI, aux pieds de SyIvie,
De nouveau Ianguii el liIei!
Tu Iaineias loule la vie,
Ioui avoii ose neveiIIei.
d zo bwa s: li tc re s bre
e me pr: me nc lotr ur
o n I i d:r mc ta l bre
se tc le re du ta bl(e)a mur
a pr: Je sa bo te me Ila te
mc e de vc m de Ije
i vi tu lc trc dy nc gra te
i la vc lc trc dy nc gra te
ke a vc y re du bli e
i la vc la bu Je vcr mc je
le tc o si Irc ke le sjc
o su pir me Jap: pe il se vc je
la mur se re vc je de rjc
o si to de plwa j sc zc le
e sc zi s s: nark v or
dy ne de sc Ilc Je kry c le
ly ne de sc Ilc Je kry c le
par t il me blc so kor
va va di til o pje de sil vi e
de nu vo l gir e bry le
ty lc me ra tu te ta vi e
pu ra vwa ro ze me vc je
K. Skelton Settle the Score 27 Preparation
LileiaI liansIalion Ioelic liansIalion
In a wood lonely and dark
I walked the other day:
a child there slept in the shade,
it was the dreaded Cupid.
I approach, his beauty me Ilatters,
but I have to deIy myselI oI it.
I there saw all the Ieatures oI an ingrate,
that I had sworn to Iorget.
He had the mouth ruby,
the complexion equally Iresh as hers.
A sigh Irom me escapes, he wakes up:
Cupid wakes Irom nothing.
Immediately spreading his wings
and seizing his bow vengeIul,
oI one oI his arrows cruel
in parting he me wounds in the heart.
Go, says he, at the Ieet oI Sylvia,
again to languish and to burn:
you her will love all your liIe,
Ior having dared me to awaken.
In a lonely and sombre Iorest
I walked the other day;
a child slept in the shade,
it was the dreaded Cupid.
I approach; his beauty Iascinates me.
But I must be careIul:
he has the traits oI the Iaithless maiden
whom I had sworn to Iorget.
He had lips oI ruby,
His complexion was as beautiIul as hers.
A sigh escapes me and he awakes;
Cupid wakes at nothing.
Immediately opening his wings
and seizing his vengeIul bow,
with one oI his cruel arrows as he parts
he wounds me to the heart.
Go!` he says, go languish and burn
anew at Sylvia`s Ieet!
You shall love her all your liIe,
Ior having dared awaken me.`
K. Skelton Settle the Score 28 Score-marking and learning the notes
Scoie-naiking and Ieaining lhe noles
If lhe scoie is seen as a looI of liansnission lelveen lhe conposei and lhe peifoinei (as
discussed in lhe finaI chaplei of lhis look), lhen lhe acl of scoie-naiking nay le seen as an
exlension of lhe scoie ilseIf. This is nol lo say lhal lhe scoie iequiies addilions oi aIleialions
(lhough eiiois and onissions oflen do exisl), lul ialhei lhal ve as nusicians vanl lo anpIify
oi annolale specific delaiIs of lhe scoie visuaIIy lo acknovIedge oi heighlen oui avaieness of
lhen. In lhis sense scoie-naiking is a looI lo assisl us vilh ieading nolalion. The degiee lo
vhich soneone naiks his oi hei scoie depends in Iaige pail on lhe IeveI al vhich one ieads
nusic, lhal is, hov quickIy lhe giaphic iepiesenlalion of nusic can le liansIaled inlo physicaI
sound. Ioi singeis, lhis iefeis piedoninanlIy lo lhe accuiale singing of pilches, ihylhns, and
lexls. On a noie sophislicaled IeveI lhis aIso neans adapling lo slyIislic convenlions of a
specific peiiod oi diiecloi, and iecognizing lhe ieIalionship of ones pail lo addilionaI voices
oi insliunenls.
CeilainIy any fiisl slep in ieaIizing a scoie vocaIIy shouId le lhe accuiale execulion of lhe
nechanics of a piece, ly vhich I nean lhe conlinalion of pilches, ihylhns, and lexl. Though
delaiIs of expiession and inleipielalion can oflen faciIilale vocaI execulion of a piece, in lhe
eaiIy slages il is piecision vhich is of lhe ulnosl inpoilance. Hov quickIy one is alIe lo Ieain
lhe nechanics of a piece is ceilainIy veiy suljeclive and depends IaigeIy on ones nusicaI
upliinging, liaining, and expeiience. In ny opinion, eveiy singei shouId have lhe neans and
aliIily lo Ieain lhe nechanics of a piece on his oi hei ovn. Undei no ciicunslances shouId
one depend on Iislening lo iecoidings oi voiking vilh a coach lo Ieain lhe nechanics of a
piece. The IeveI of lheoielicaI, nusicaI, and keyloaid skiIIs iequiied lo accuialeIy Ieain a
vocaI Iine is nininaI and shouId ceilainIy le anongsl lhe skiIIs of any seiious singei.
In lhe iniliaI slages of Ieaining a piece of nusic, il is oflen heIpfuI and insliuclive lo foIIov a
fev sinpIe sleps. CeilainIy, one shouId naik vilh a penciI oi highIighlei vhich pail he oi she
is singing if lhis is nol conpIeleIy olvious. IoIIoving lhal, il is inpoilanl lo pay sone
allenlion lo lhe lexl and ils selling. We nusl aIvays ienenlei lhal vhal sepaiales singeis
fion insliunenlaIisls is oui aliIily lo expiess nusic lhiough lexl, and foi lhal ieason ve
shouId nevei Iose sighl of lhe inheienl expiession in lhe Ienglh and enuncialion of voids.
Hov lo accuialeIy pionounce lhe voveIs and consonanls of individuaI voids can easiIy le
discoveied lhiough lhe use of a good diclionaiy, vhich eveiy singei shouId have al his oi hei
disposaI if iequiied.
IiislIy, in scoie-naiking one shouId go lhiough lhe piece and pIace a phiase naik ovei eveiy
individuaI void. This slep viII denonsliale lhe vaiiely of void Ienglhs lhenseIves, as veII as
lhe iange vilh vhich lhe conposei sels individuaI voids syIIalicaIIy oi neIisnalicaIIy.
K. Skelton Settle the Score 29 Score-marking and learning the notes
Second, one shouId nake a nole of lhe nain syIIalIe of each void. Woid sliess is lhe nosl
lasic IeveI of lexluaI expiession and, as such, can give nuneious cues lo lhe diieclion of vocaI
Iines. When one needs assislance in ienenleiing lhe pionuncialion oi neaning of ceilain
voids, lhese can aIso le inseiled al lhis slage in consuIlalion vilh lhe liansIalion and
liansIileialion as desciiled in 'Iiepaialion (pp.23-24).
LxanpIe 7 AnaiiIIi, nia leIIa CiuIio Caccini (ca. 1545-1618)
Woid-phiasing and void sliess (vocaI Iine onIy)
K. Skelton Settle the Score 30 Score-marking and learning the notes
LxanpIe 8 Die Nachl Richaid Sliauss (1864-1949)
Woid-phiasing and void sliess (vocaI Iine onIy)
K. Skelton Settle the Score 31 Score-marking and learning the notes
MeIodic anaIysis
The Ieaining of noles and ihylhns in a piece of nusic can le nuch easiei vhen one legins
fion a poinl of neIodic conpiehension. Iulling phiase naiks alove individuaI voids and
laking nole of sliessed syIIalIes viII oflen aIieady piesenl nuneious nonenls of neIodic
inleiesl in a vocaI Iine. In addilion lo oi in conlinalion vilh lhese nonenls, lheie aie aIso
expiessive delaiIs piovided lhiough lhe nolaled pilches.
The nexl slep in Ieaining a piece is lo pIay lhe neIody and nake nole of inleiesling and/oi
expiessive inleivaIs vilhin lhe vocaI Iine ly ciicIing lhe lvo noles lhal nake lhe inleivaI and
diaving a Iine lelveen lhen. CeilainIy any inleivaI nay lecone expiessive depending on
lhe lexl leing sung and lhe singeis peisonaIily, hovevei, al lhis slage one shouId liy lo focus
on lhe inleiesl and vaiiely in lhe inleivaIs lhenseIves.
In lhe fiisl inslance, one shouId Iook foi dissonanl-disjuncl inleivaIs (augnenled 2nds,
dininished 3ids, augnenled 4lhs, dininished 5lhs, ninoi 7lhs, najoi 7lhs, elc.). Lven lhough
sone of lhese inleivaIs nay sound consonanl in isoIalion, lhe poinl is lo diav youi allenlion
lo lheoielicaI and visuaI dissonances on lhe page.
Consonanl inleivaIs nay aIso lecone expiessive, pailicuIaiIy vhen lhe conposei changes
lelveen one lype of neIodic viiling and anolhei (usuaIIy lelveen piedoninanlIy conjuncl
and disjuncl nolion). SiniIaiIy, slepvise nolion can lecone expiessive, pailicuIaiIy vhen
noles oulside of lhe noinaI key aie ciealed lhiough accidenlaIs. In such cases, jusl lake nole
of lhe specific aIleied pilch (naiked vilh an asleiisk in lhe exanpIes leIov) and see hov lhal
fils inlo lhe sliucluie sulsequenlIy duiing lhe hainonic anaIysis.
Though peihaps aIieady noled in lhe piepaialion phase, neIodic anaIysis can aIso idenlify
sliiking oi unusuaI iepelilions of voids, oi olhei sullIe vaiiances of void selling (void-
onission, void oidei, elc.). The use and Ienglh of iesls lelveen phiases and voids (and
sonelines even vilhin voids) can aIso piove usefuI in undeislanding a conposeis
undeiIying ideas in poelic neaning and expiession.
K. Skelton Settle the Score 32 Score-marking and learning the notes
LxanpIe 9 AnaiiIIi, nia leIIa CiuIio Caccini (ca. 1545-1618)
MeIodic anaIysis (vocaI Iine onIy)
K. Skelton Settle the Score 33 Score-marking and learning the notes
LxanpIe 1O Die Nachl Richaid Sliauss (1864-1949)
MeIodic anaIysis (vocaI Iine onIy)
K. Skelton Settle the Score 34 Score-marking and learning the notes
Aflei naiking youi scoie, and feeIing confoilalIe pIaying lhe neIodic Iine, pIay lhiough lhe
neIody vhiIe speaking lhe coiiesponding lexl. This is lechnicaIIy nol a singing exeicise, lul
ialhei a vay lo connecl lhe sounding pilches and ihylhns lo lhe specific lexl in lhe eai, and
aIso a vay lo lellei appieciale on a inleIIecluaI IeveI lhe ieIalionship lelveen lhe lexl and
IinaIIy, sing lhiough lhe piece, pIaying lhe neIodic Iine al lhe sane line and/oi
unacconpanied. If any of lhe inleivaIs piesenl difficuIlies in singing, isoIale lhen specificaIIy
and iepeal lhen sIovIy unliI lhey aie cIeaiIy in lhe eai and in lhe voice.
Hainonic anaIysis
The nexl slep in undeislanding a scoie is lo see hov lhe vocaI neIodic Iine ieIales lo ils
nusicaI suiioundings. This is essenliaIIy a shifl fion a hoiizonlaI conceplion of lhe nusic lo
one lhal is veilicaI. Duiing lhis anaIysis you can see vheie sone of lhe noles vilh accidenlaIs
cone oul of oi ieIale lo an undeiIying hainonic inleiesl.
A hainonic anaIysis done in youi ovn scoie is quile unIike a lypicaI hainonic anaIysis done
in a lheoiy cIass, and shouId lheiefoie Iook veiy diffeienl. The poinl is lo see hov lhe
undeiIying hainonies ieIale lo and infIuence lhe vocaI Iine. Thal leing said, nany of lhe
piincipIes of hainony aie ieIevanl, lhe nosl lasic leing lhe vaiying slaliIily of choids and
lheii inveisions.
In hainonic lheoiy, iool-posilion najoi and ninoi liiads aie lhe nosl slalIe choids, foIIoved
ly fiisl-inveision liiads. Second-inveision liiads, as veII as augnenled and dininished
choids (in any inveision), aie naikedIy unslalIe if nol expiessIy dissonanl. Doninanl-
sevenlh choids foIIov a ceilain hieiaichy of lheii ovn: lhe dissonanl sevenlh viII aIvays give
a ceilain sense of inslaliIily, hovevei, lhe highei lhe inveision lhe noie unslalIe lhe choid.
Oulside of lhese nain choid lypes lheie aie cIeaiIy nany olhei hainonic possiliIilies,
hovevei, lhose shouId le deaIl vilh on a case-ly-case lasis.
When naiking choid inveisions in youi scoie il is oflen lesl lo focus on lhe acconpaninenl,
and onIy naik lhose choids vhich aie in a fiisl inveision oi highei. If one is doing a aioque
piece, and is using a good edilion, lhis voik nay aIieady le done foi you ly lhe conposei oi
ediloi, lul ceilainIy lhe syslen of figuies is an easy and convenienl vay lo naik choid
inveisions in a scoie. The inpoilanl poinl is lo knov vhen an individuaI nole of lhe vocaI Iine
is nol suppoiled ly a iool-posilion choid, oi, conveiseIy, vhen slalIe choids finaIIy appeai
aflei a seclion of hainonic inslaliIily. Though lhe undeiIying hainony nay nol aIvays
diclale lhe dynanic al vhich one shouId sing a specific pilch, il can oflen give good cIues as lo
lhe oveiaiching hainonic diieclion of a phiase and cIaiify lhe inpIicil diieclion of lhe neIodic
Iine ilseIf. Iuilheinoie, undeislanding lhe hainonic sliucluie and hov lhe vocaI Iine ieIales
lo il is one of lhe sliongesl defences foi peisonaI choices of inleipielalion.
K. Skelton Settle the Score 35 Score-marking and learning the notes
LxanpIe 11 AnaiiIIi, nia leIIa CiuIio Caccini (ca. 1545-1618)
Hainonic anaIysis (conpIele scoie)
K. Skelton Settle the Score 36 Score-marking and learning the notes
K. Skelton Settle the Score 37 Score-marking and learning the notes
LxanpIe 12 Die Nachl, nn. 1-17 Richaid Sliauss (1864-1949)
Hainonic anaIysis (conpIele scoie)
K. Skelton Settle the Score 38 Score-marking and learning the notes
In lhe alove exanpIes I have piovided lasic figuies leIov each syslen lo naik lhe vaiiely of
choids and inveisions. In 'Die Nachl lhe figuiing is sonelines inconpIele, as sone
choids/pilches aie nol innedialeIy indicalive of a cIeai hainony. In lhis exanpIe I have aIso
piovided sone hainonic connenlaiy ieIaling lo key ieIalionships alove each syslen.
In lhe nexl slep, one shouId sing lhe vocaI Iine vilh lhe acconpanying hainonies and nake
nole of any dissonances lhal piesenl lhenseIves. One shouId do lhis veiy sIovIy oul of line,
noving fion one veilicaI evenl lo lhe nexl. When a dissonance appeais, deleinine vhelhei
lhe dissonanl nole is in lhe vocaI Iine, oi againsl lhe vocaI Iine. OccasionaIIy ceilain veilicaI
nonenls viII conlain nuIlipIe dissonances and le difficuIl lo IaleI vilh lhe syslen of figuies
seen alove. In such ciicunslances, do nol vasle youi line liying lo cone up vilh lhe
lheoielicaI nane foi lhe choid, lul sinpIy naik a lox veilicaIIy in lhe scoie lo le avaie of an
inleiesling veilicaI nonenl and lo ieaIize hov lhe vocaI pail fils vilhin il. WhiIe hainonic
inveisions of consonanl choids inpIy a ceilain degiee of hoiizonlaI diieclion, nonenls of
hainonic dissonance aie cIeaiIy expiessive piIIais vilhin a nusicaI phiase, pailicuIaiIy vhen
lhe dissonance enpIoyed is used exceplionaIIy oi spaiingIy. Of couise, ceilain pieces use
hainonic (and neIodic) dissonance noie fiequenlIy lhan olheis, oflen lo lhe poinl vheie
K. Skelton Settle the Score 39 Score-marking and learning the notes
convenlionaI dissonances lecone a soil of consonance in lhal slyIe. In such cases lhe
inpoilance of individuaI dissonances is cIeaiIy ieIalive, and lhe ieIalive inpoilance of each
nusl le deleinined ly lhe singeis lasle.
LxanpIe 13 AnaiiIIi, nia leIIa CiuIio Caccini (ca. 1545-1618)
Maiked dissonances vilh vocaI Iine (conpIele scoie)
K. Skelton Settle the Score 40 Score-marking and learning the notes
K. Skelton Settle the Score 41 Score-marking and learning the notes
LxanpIe 14 Die Nachl, nn. 1-17 Richaid Sliauss (1864-1949)
Maiked dissonances vilh vocaI Iine (conpIele scoie)
K. Skelton Settle the Score 42 Score-marking and learning the notes
In lhe alove exanpIes I have naiked dissonanl nonenls, vhich lhe singei shouId al Ieasl le
avaie of, if nol nake evidenl, vhen he oi she sings lhese songs. Monenls of cIeai hainonic
lension I have naiked veilicaIIy vilh a ieclangIe. A lioken ieclangIe naiks noie sullIe
nonenls of veilicaI hainonic inleiesl, vhiIe ciicIed noles in lhe neIody shov pilches lhal do
nol fil vilhin lhe undeiIying hainony, lul cieale sone addilionaI hainonic inleiesl.
Consideiing lolh lhe lasic hainonic anaIysis and dissonance in ieIalion lo lhe vocaI Iine
deleinines vhelhei any passages oi nonenls sland oul as pailicuIaiIy slalIe oi unslalIe
hainonicaIIy oi vhelhei lhe hainonic conlexl iendeis any specific pilches of lhe vocaI Iine
exceplionaIIy inleiesling. Deleinine vhelhei lhis infoinalion nighl enlaiI a specific nannei
of execulion.
K. Skelton Settle the Score 43 Score-marking and learning the notes
VocaI anaIysis
The Iasl slep in ones iniliaI Ieaining of a piece shouId le a veiy nelicuIous sludy and piaclice
of ils uniqueIy vocaI eIenenls. Sone of lhese issues veie indiieclIy addiessed vilh lhe
piepaialoiy voik on pionuncialion and scoie-naiking ieIaled lo individuaI voids, hovevei,
lhis voik nusl le caiiied nuch fuilhei, as pailicuIaiIy vocaI issues nay aiise vhen lexl is
naiiied lo specific pilches. The lesl conposeis veie veII avaie of lhe leauly and expiession
of lhe voice lhiough voveIs and consonanls on diffeienl pilches. Il is oui duly lo ensuie lhal
lhe conposeis inlenlions aie ieaIized, and ve ove il lo ouiseIves lo execule lhese in lhe nosl
efficienl and heaIlhy nannei possilIe.
This slep can lake a gieal deaI of line, and nay indeed lecone fiuslialing, as il oflen dispIays
veaknesses in oui singing lechniques. Moieovei, lhe voik can le liiing foi lhe voice vhen il
is cIeai lhal lhese lechnicaI veaknesses exisl, so one shouId feeI fiee lo do lhis voik in lils and
pieces ialhei lhan lackIe a fuII song oi aiia in one go.
Al a veiy sIov lenpo oi oul of line, sing lhe vocaI Iine and pioIong eveiy diffeienl vocaI
sound lhal lhe voids iequiie. y doing lhis (and sulsequenl exeicises) vhiIe aIso pIaying lhe
acconpaninenl, you ieinfoice lhe nusicaI and vocaI inpIicalions of youi lhoiough hainonic
anaIysis. Heie youi IIA liansIileialion can cone in handy, as lhe IIA syslen gives you a
synloI foi eveiy specific sound and cIaiifies vhal lhal is. Though il is liue lhal lhe najoiily
of singing lakes pIace on voveIs, il is aIso liue lhal inleIIigiliIily of lhe lexl necessilales cIeai
and accuiale consonanls. Moieovei, pilches nay le suslained on ceilain consonanls, and
avaieness of lhis can le an innenseIy expiessive looI.
The ain of lhis exeicise is lo le ceilain of eveiy vocaI sound iequiied and lo gain an
appiecialion of vhich specific consonanls and voveIs viII iequiie lhe nosl allenlion in lhe
sulsequenl piepaialion so lhal eveiylhing nay le execuled vilh a heaIlhy lechnique. Heie I
shaII divide lhe diffeienl vocaI sounds inlo gioups fion easiesl lo nosl difficuIl.
Unvoiced consonanls
|p, l, k, f, O, }, , x, hj
These sounds, as lhey do nol iequiie any phonalion, shouId noinaIIy le no piolIen foi any
singei. One shouId, hovevei, le ceilain of each consonanl's accuiale pioduclion.
VoveIs and diphlhongs
Since ve sing piedoninanlIy on voveIs anyvay, nosl voveIs shouId le of nininaI difficuIly
lo a singei duiing lhis exeicise aside fion ensuiing appiopiiale longue and noulh posilions.
Duiing lhis exeicise, one nay nake peisonaI decisions aloul voveI-nodificalion, hovevei,
liy lo ensuie inlegiily of voveIs vhenevei possilIe. In diphlhongs, ones anaIysis is inpoilanl
K. Skelton Settle the Score 44 Score-marking and learning the notes
lo deleinine lhe appiopiiale Ienglh of each voveI vilhin lhe syIIalIe as veII as lhe quaIily of
lhe voveI vhich is lhe shoilei of lhe lvo.
IIosive voiced consonanls and nasaI consonanls
|l, d, g, n, n, j
These consonanls aie ieIaliveIy easy lo execule, aIlhough pilch vaiiances can Iead lo incieases
in jav oi longue lension, vhich adveiseIy affecls lhe quaIily and cIaiily of lhe sound. Il is
inpoilanl lo ienenlei fion a nusicaI poinl of viev lhal aII lhese consonanls (Iike lhose
leIov) caiiy pilch. When lhey aie al lhe leginning of a void, le ceilain lhal lhe pilch of lhe
consonanl is lhe sane as lhe sulsequenl voveI. When lhe consonanl is al lhe end of a syIIalIe,
le ceilain lhe pilch nalches lhe pieceding voveI. NasaI consonanls caiiy an addilionaI
funclion siniIai lo diphlhongs, as lhe Ienglh vilh vhich ve enpIoy lhen is highIy vaiialIe.
Thus, vhen execuling a nasaI consonanl, le ceilain lhal ils Ienglh is appiopiiale, leing neilhei
loo shoil vhen lhe lexl denands pioIongalion, noi loo Iong vhen il nay ieduce lhe Ienglh of
an expiessive voveI.
Voiced fiicalive consonanls
|v, , z, !j
Voiced fiicalives aie aigualIy lhe nosl difficuIl and nosl negIecled consonanls. Those vho
aie alIe lo coiieclIy pioduce and suslain lhen oflen can do so lecause of a veiy soIid lechnicaI
foundalion, and lhey ieap lhe lenefils of inpioved iesonance as a iesuIl. }usl as vilh lhe
olhei voiced consonanls, lhey shouId le accuialeIy pilched lo nalch lheii ieIalive voveI.
Moieovei, as lhey can suslain pilch, one shouId le ceilain lhal lheii expiessive possiliIilies aie
nol negIecled, eilhei ly naking lhen loo shoil al lhe leginning of a syIIalIe, oi ly nodifying
oi onilling lhen al lhe end.
K. Skelton Settle the Score 45 Coloratura
Though a gieal deaI of vhal has leen discussed alove is appIicalIe lo lhe Ieaining of
coIoialuia, il is aIso liue lhal coIoialuia poses nany chaIIenges of ils ovn. In piedoninanlIy
syIIalic viiling lhe lexl is oflen lhe piinaiy guide lo inleinaI phiasing, vheieas in exlended
passages of coIoialuia ve nusl seaich foi olhei cIues in deleinining diffeienl poinls of aiiivaI
and depailuie. WhiIe ceilain voices nay find lhe singing of coIoialuia easiei oi noie difficuIl
ly naluie, uIlinaleIy lhe aliIily lo sing fasl, accuiale, and expiessive coIoialuia cones dovn
lo lechnique and nusicaIily, and aII piofessionaI singeis shouId le alIe lo handIe any
coIoialuia lhal lhey aie iequiied lo sing vilh ease.
eIov aie foui exceipls, iepiesenling aII voice lypes, foi vhich I shaII sulsequenlIy piovide
scoie naikings vilh connenlaiy.
Leain lhe noles
To legin Ieaining a passage of coIoialuia, one shouId legin ly singing lhiough lhe Iine oul of
line, ensuiing lhal eveiy pilch has a coiiecl inlonalion vilh good iesonance, and lhal lhe
conneclion lelveen pilches is snoolh. Ceilain passages of coIoialuia iequiie sepaialion
lelveen pilches, oi slaccalo noles, and lhese shouId le adheied lo. Thal leing said, il is ny
opinion lhal lhe key lo successfuI and fasl execulion of coIoialuia geneiaIIy iequiies a Iegalo
Nexl, in a sliicl lul sIov lenpo, Ieain lhe phiase fion lhe end lo lhe leginning. Choose a
nunlei of leals lo deaI vilh al a line (piefeialIy jusl one oi lvo). egin vilh lhe Iasl gioup
of noles in lhe passage, and once lhis is Ieained, legin successiveIy one gioup eaiIiei unliI you
ieach lhe leginning. If oi vhen lhe passage lecones loo Iong and you iequiie a liealh in lhe
niddIe lo conlinue, lake a liealh vhen you need, lul ieconnence lhe passage one oi lvo
leals lefoie vheie you look lhe liealh. Duiing lhis piocess, nole any specific nonenls vhich
conlinue lo le difficuIl lo sing accuialeIy and piaclise lhen individuaIIy oul of conlexl.
K. Skelton Settle the Score 46 Coloratura
LxanpIe 15 'Rejoice giealIy (Messiah) , nn. 16-23 C. I. HandeI (1685-1759)
K. Skelton Settle the Score 47 Coloratura
LxanpIe 16 'Iiesli onai (CiuIio Cesaie), nn. 23-3O C. I. HandeI (1685-1759)
K. Skelton Settle the Score 48 Coloratura
LxanpIe 17 'Ich viII nui dii (Chiislnas Oialoiio), nn. 13-18 }. S. ach (1685-175O)
K. Skelton Settle the Score 49 Coloratura
LxanpIe 18 'Thus sailh lhe Loid (Messiah), nn. 58-68 C. I. HandeI (1685-1759)
}usl as ve naiked nonenls of hainonic inleiesl alove, so shouId lhis le done (if you have
nol aIieady) foi aII passages of coIoialuia. Indeed, in neIisnalic passages, delaiIs of hainonic
ihylhn IaigeIy lake ovei lhe inpIied phiasing noinaIIy given us ly lexl-accenlualion. Take
nole of vhich pilches aie suppoiled ly iool-posilion choids and vhich aie nol, pailicuIaiIy
vhen lhe Iallei appeai on a sliessed leal of lhe lai. AIso, as indicaled alove, naik any
unusuaI oi inleiesling hainony, especiaIIy if il invoIves a diiecl dissonance vilh lhe vocaI Iine.
If lhe coIoialuia is happening in conneclion vilh anolhei voice oi insliunenl, il is aIso
inpoilanl lo see vhelhei any phiase novenenl is niiioied eIsevheie. If you nove in lhe
sane nannei as anolhei voice, lake nole of lhis, and aIvays ensuie lhal lhese noles Iine up
veilicaIIy in ieheaisaIs. One nay aIso Iook al acconpanying insliunenls lo see if lhe
conposei gives lhen any specific phiase-naikings vhich couId le niiioied in youi Iine.
K. Skelton Settle the Score 50 Coloratura
LxanpIe 19 'Rejoice giealIy (Messiah) , nn. 16-23 C. I. HandeI (1685-1759)
K. Skelton Settle the Score 51 Coloratura
LxanpIe 2O 'Iiesli onai (CiuIio Cesaie), nn. 23-3O C. I. HandeI (1685-1759)
K. Skelton Settle the Score 52 Coloratura
LxanpIe 21 'Ich viII nui dii (Chiislnas Oialoiio), nn. 13-18 }. S. ach (1685-175O)
K. Skelton Settle the Score 53 Coloratura
LxanpIe 22 'Thus sailh lhe Loid (Messiah), nn. 58-68 C. I. HandeI (1685-1759)
MeIodic deconsliuclion
The nexl slep is lo do a neIodic deconsliuclion of lhe passage. In aInosl aII coIoialuia lhal is
nol scaIai (and even in sone lhal is), lhe coIoialuia is consliucled as oinanenlalion of an
undeiIying neIodic Iine. Youi hainonic anaIysis can assisl you in finding lhis undeiIying
sliucluie, as eveiy nev hainony viII noinaIIy invoIve a nev pilch in lhe undeiIying neIody.
Tiy lo deciphei lhis Iine, and ciicIe lhese noles (I have naiked ceilain pilches vilh an asleiisk
in lhe exanpIes alove). Iiisl sIovIy, and giaduaIIy incieasing lo youi uIlinale (oi even faslei)
lenpo, sing lhis deconsliucled neIody. Considei hov lhe diieclion of lhis Iine fils vilh lhe
hainonic ihylhn, and nake sone decisions aloul lhe naciodiieclion of lhe phiase.
K. Skelton Settle the Score 54 Coloratura
LxanpIe 23 'Rejoice giealIy (Messiah) , nn. 16-23 C. I. HandeI (1685-1759)
MeIodic deconsliuclion
LxanpIe 24 'Iiesli onai (CiuIio Cesaie), nn. 23-3O C. I. HandeI (1685-1759)
MeIodic deconsliuclion
LxanpIe 25 'Ich viII nui dii (Chiislnas Oialoiio), nn. 23-3O }. S. ach (1685-175O)
MeIodic deconsliuclion
K. Skelton Settle the Score 55 Coloratura
LxanpIe 26 'Thus sailh lhe Loid (Messiah), nn. 58-68 C. I. HandeI (1685-1759)
MeIodic deconsliuclion
InleinaI phiasing
Nov Iook again al lhe vhoIe Iine, and liy lo divide il inlo snaIIei phiases, eilhei pulling
phiase naiks ovei each niciophiase, oi sepaialing lhen vilh a Iine. These decisions can
lecone and shouId le veiy peisonaI (ny suggeslions leIov aie ly no neans definilive). Youi
hainonic anaIysis and neIodic deconsliuclion viII aIieady give you sone cIues as lo vhal
lhese phiases couId le. Al lhis slage youi neIodic anaIysis can aIso infoin lhe ciealion of
inleinaI phiasing as il shouId ieIale lo sequences, changes of diieclion, and slepvise veisus
inleivaIIic nolion. Theie is no iuIe as lo hov Iong oi shoil a niciophiase shouId le, and
ceilainIy lhe Ienglh of niciophiases vilhin a Iine can and shouId le iiieguIai. As a geneiaI
iuIe, hovevei, liy lo cieale phiasings lhal viII nol accenluale nain leals of lhe lai oi high
LxanpIe 27 'Rejoice giealIy (Messiah) , nn. 16-23 C. I. HandeI (1685-1759)
InleinaI phiasing
K. Skelton Settle the Score 56 Coloratura
LxanpIe 28 'Iiesli onai (CiuIio Cesaie), nn. 23-3O C. I. HandeI (1685-1759)
InleinaI phiasing
LxanpIe 29 'Ich viII nui dii (Chiislnas Oialoiio), nn. 23-3O }. S. ach (1685-175O)
InleinaI phiasing
K. Skelton Settle the Score 57 Coloratura
LxanpIe 3O 'Thus sailh lhe Loid (Messiah), nn. 58-68 C. I. HandeI (1685-1759)
InleinaI phiasing
Wilh aII of lhis anaIysis oul of lhe vay, and vilh a veiy good idea of hov you vouId Iike lhe
coIoialuia lo sound, il is nov line lo piaclise lhe niciophiases lhal you nade. Do each
individuaIIy al fiisl, and lhen giaduaIIy do lvo and noie successive phiases. Lach
niciophiase shouId have a shape of ils ovn, and neIodic enphasis can le nade lhiough lolh
voIune and Ienglh of lhe individuaI noles. Vaiy lhis vilhin each niciophiase, so lhal you
have lhe feeIing lhal no lvo successive noles aie sung in lhe sane nannei, in eilhei dynanic
oi Ienglh. As you sing noie niciophiases logelhei, considei again youi deconsliucled
neIody, and liy lo feeI lhal lhese pilches and lhe diieclion of lhis Iine sound cIeaiIy anidsl
noie nuanced inleinaI phiasing and pilch-decoialion.
If you aie deaIing vilh a veiy exlensive passage of coIoialuia and you iequiie a liealh lul no
iesls aie viillen, fiisl liy lo do il in a nonenl vheie lhe conposei has viillen a Iongei nole
vaIue vhich you can discieelIy shoilen lo nake space lo liealhe. If no such oppoilunily is
piesenl, choose lo do il lelveen lvo niciophiases and piaclise lhe phiasing of each lo aIIov
sone exlia line lelveen lhen.
As you lecone noie confoilalIe singing lhe vhoIe passage, aIvays le suie lo sing il
nusicaIIy and inleieslingIy and lo ienenlei lhe neaning oi idea lehind lhe void. AIso
aIvays ienenlei lhe lasics of good lechnique, paying pailicuIai allenlion lo pioduce a cIeai
voveI vilh a ieIaxed jav and longue. UnIess specificaIIy iequiied ly lhe conposei, aIvays
liy lo sing Iegalo, and nevei ailicuIale vilh an aspiialed |hj. Tiy aIso lo piaclise lhe passage al
diffeienl speeds. Il is aIvays good lo le ieady foi a conducloi oi a feIIov nusician vho has a
diffeienl idea of lhe lenpo. ul iegaidIess of lhe lenpo, aIvays liy lo nainlain a laIance
lelveen lhe naciophiasing of lhe undeiIying neIody and lhe shapes of lhe niciophiases: lhe
sIovei lhe lenpo, lhe noie expiessive coIoialuia viII lecone, lhe faslei lhe lenpo, lhe noie
easiIy you viII le alIe lo sing il.
K. Skelton Settle the Score 58 Conclusions
Al lhis slage you shouId le alIe lo sing lhiough lhe piece accuialeIy. If you sliII encounlei
difficuIlies oi piolIen spols, nov is lhe line lo pay speciaI allenlion lo lhen. If necessaiy,
sludy lhe nechanics of lhe piece in conlinalion vilh each olhei ly iepealing lhe sleps
piesenled alove. This viII nol onIy save a Iol of line lul viII uIlinaleIy inpiove youi
ieading aliIily and faciIilale youi Ieaining fuluie pieces noie quickIy and efficienlIy.
CeilainIy one can isoIale a neIody ly pIaying il on lhe piano, oi isoIale a liicky ihylhn ly
speaking il, hovevei, vhen you legin lo sing lhe viillen noles, aIvays do so vilh lhe
appiopiiale lexl, and vilh a sleady puIse and accuiale ihylhn. If you encounlei difficuIlies,
lhen isoIale lhe specific piolIen spol and piaclise lhal al a sIovei lenpo.
A nole on ieading nusic
If you feeI as lhough you Iack confidence in ieading nusic in geneiaI, nake a halil of going
lhiough lhese deconsliuclive sleps ieguIaiIy and nelhodicaIIy on a vide iange of iepeiloiie,
even if you aie nol pIanning lo peifoin il in lhe foieseealIe fuluie. Il is a facl lhal lhe aliIily
lo iead nusic veII is an innense lenefil in lhe piofessionaI Iife of a singei. Il insliIs
confidence in youiseIf as veII as youi enpIoyeis and coIIeagues, and il is an innense lenefil
vhen you aie asked al lhe Iasl ninule lo iepIace a coIIeague. Sighl-ieading is a Ieained skiII,
and vhiIe il cones noie quickIy lo sone lhan olheis, il nusl le a piioiily if one expecls lo
have a successfuI piofessionaI caieei.

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