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K. Skelton Settle the Score !

"#$ Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv


Ieifoineis anaIysis in a Nev Age nusicoIogy
Thesis
The nusicaI voik cIassicaI peifoineis sliive lo peifoin is a 'hypolhelicaI ideaI of vhal lhe
conposei inlended. The scoie is lhe piinaiy device in lhe liansnission of lhe conposeis
inaginalion lo ils ieaIizalion in sound, and peifoineis aie lhe agenls lhiough vhon lhis
liansnission lakes pIace. The veiy naluie of nusic as a peifoining ail inpIies lhal lhis
'hypolhelicaI ideaI incIudes lhe suljeclivily of peifoineis, vhich is vhy vaiious
peifoinances of lhe sane voik can lheoielicaIIy le equaIIy 'ideaI even if exceplionaIIy
diffeienl. ecause peifoineis and acadenics fundanenlaIIy 'iead nusic in diffeienl vays,
lheie is an innense disconnecl lelveen lhe anaIylicaI nodeIs lhey enpIoy in lheii iespeclive
voik, and uIlinaleIy slaikIy conliasling ideas of vhal 'nusic is and vhal il neans. If lhe
discipIine of peifoinance sludies liuIy vishes lo sludy piofessionaI peifoineis and
peifoinances, il nusl neel lhen on lheii leins. Iuilheinoie, schoIais voiking vilhin
peifoinance sludies shouId ieassess lheii ideas and nelhodoIogies lo enliace lhe ieIevanl
conponenls and inleiconneclions piesenled in lhe naliices leIov.
Sunnaiy
In nusicaI leins anaIysis is noinaIIy used in iefeience lo lhe inleIIecluaI sludy of a voiks
inleinaI coheience. CeneiaIIy consideied a suldiscipIine of nusicoIogy, anaIysis is oflen
iegaided ly peifoineis as a ledious conponenl of eaiIy liaining aIongside lhe olhei
lheoielicaI couises lhey aie iequiied lo foIIov. AnaIysis al lhe eaiIiesl slages appIies an
idenlificalion syslen foi lhe lasic eIenenls of nusic (inleivaIs, scaIes, choids, nelie, elc.).
Lalei lhis exlends lo lhe idenlificalion of hainonic piogiessions and lhe iecognilion of
connon sliucluiaI foins (linaiy, leinaiy, sonala, iondo, elc.). Ioi lhose nusicians vho go on
lo have peifoining caieeis, lheie is iaieIy lhe need foi oi inleiesl in fuilhei sludy of nusic
anaIysis leyond lhis lasic IeveI, and indeed nany aie pIeased lo Ieave il lehind lhen. Ioi
lhose vho go on lo sludy nusicoIogy, anaIysis oflen lecones lhe cenliepiece of lheii
inleIIecluaI voik, vhelhei lhey enliace a pie-eslalIished nodeI such as Schenkei oi sone
olhei anaIylicaI ideoIogy.
Il nay le liue lhal peifoineis Ieave anaIysis lehind lhen as an inleIIecluaI oi schoIaiIy
puisuil (al Ieasl in lhe speciaIized nusicoIogicaI sense of lhe void), neveilheIess, lhe exlensive
liaining lhal piofessionaI peifoineis sulsequenlIy ieceive invoIves lhe acquisilion of a highIy
conpIex sel of anaIylicaI looIs and skiIIs. WhiIe nusicoIogisls' anaIylicaI aclivilies aie
geneiaIIy conceined vilh lhe inleIIecluaI conpiehension of a voiks nusicaI coheience
(vhelhei lhal le in leins of lhe voik ilseIf oi vilhin a specific cuIluiaI conlexl), peifoineis
anaIylicaI aclivilies invoIve liansIaling a nusicaI scoie inlo an auiaI and physicaI ieaIily.
These anaIylicaI looIs and skiIIs, hovevei, aie iaieIy codified in leins lhal lhe nusicaI schoIai
can undeisland oi idenlify. Thus, anaIysis of lhis soil is iaieIy consideied ieIevanl (oi
consideied al aII) fion a schoIaiIy poinl of viev, even lhough il couId iesuIl in ieseaich of
K. Skelton Settle the Score ""# Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
gieal acadenic inleiesl and al lhe sane line le ieIevanl and leneficiaI lo lhe peifoining
nusician.
Thioughoul lhis chaplei I shaII occasionaIIy slale 'posilions lhal I feeI aie ieIevanl lo lhis
chaplei and fuluie voik lhal nay slen fion il. I feeI lhal lhese slalenenls aie sliongei lhan
neie assunplions, lecause ny piofessionaI expeiience leIIs ne lhal lhese lhings aie siniIaiIy
undeislood ly a Iaige piopoilion of piofessionaI peifoineis.
Selling lhe slage
I leIieve il vas duiing ny giaduale sludies in lhe Uniled Slales lhal I fiisl encounleied a
confIicl lelveen anaIysis and peifoinance. Duiing ny undeigiaduale degiee in nusicoIogy
I happiIy spenl nosl of ny line in lhe loveIs of lhe nusic Iiliaiy,
1
and oflen engaged in
vaiious soils of nusic anaIysis as lhe piofessoi oi ny specific essay iequiied. My
peifoinance aclivilies, especiaIIy lovaids lhe end of ny degiee, look pIace aInosl vhoIIy
oulside of lhe univeisily conlexl, and incIuded singing vilh seveiaI piofessionaI ensenlIes
and conducling ny ovn choii. Though I vas pielly good al lhe acadenic lhing, I vas aIso
pielly good al lhe conducling lhing, and nol loo lad al lhe singing lhing, so I decided lo
puisue a Masleis degiee in voice and choiaI conducling.
In one of ny iequiied cIasses in lhe conducling couise il soon lecane cIeai lhal lhe facuIly
had veiy sliong ideas aloul hov one shouId piepaie foi ieheaisaIs. One of lhe iequisile lasks
vas lhe ciealion of a 'lullIe chail, vhich vas a sliaighlfoivaid giaphic iepiesenlalion of a
voiks lasic phiase sliucluie and lonaI pIan. This vouId Iook sonevhal as foIIovs, vheie
lhe cuived Iines iepiesenl lhe phiase Ienglhs, lhe sliaighl Iine vilh sliikes iepiesenls lhe
nunlei of lais, and lhe synloIs al lhe lollon naik lonaI sliucluie:
In afiaid lhis exanpIe nay nol le exaclIy hov il voiked, as I iefused lo do il. Ils nol lhal I
vas necessaiiIy againsl lhe idea of counling phiase Ienglhs, oi consideiing an oveiaiching
lonaI schene foi a piece of nusic. Ils aIso nol lhal I didnl have lhe line oi vas inheienlIy
Iazy.
2
I jusl nevei ieceived a salisfying expIanalion as lo vhy I couIdnl jusl do lhese lasks in
1 The Iiliaiy convenienlIy incIuded a cIassioon in lhe lasenenl vilh no vindovs, vheie nosl of lhe iequiied
couises look pIace.
2 SliII, I vas doing a doulIe najoi, and vhen deaIing vilh conliapunlaI nusic lhese chails lecane ialhei line-
consuning affaiis.
K. Skelton Settle the Score !""" Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
ny ovn vay, vhich vouId have invoIved naiking lhe scoie ilseIf. If ny nenoiy seives, ve
veie sludying }. S. achs ninoi Mass, and I couId nevei see hov a coIIeclion of Iines and
haIf ciicIes on a piece of papei vouId lellei seive ny appiecialion of achs scoie.
And lheie il is, lhal void vhich is lhe cenliepiece of lhis enliie look: scoie. When I Iook lack
nov (and vilh lhe expeiience of ny posl-giaduale sludies in nusicoIogy), peihaps lhe
lullIe-chail confIicl vas ieaIIy a confIicl in voik-concepl. The choiaI-conducling piofessois
al lhe line veie adananl lhal such lasks veie ieIevanl lo lhe undeislanding of a voik of
nusic. If you didnl do lhis voik, hov couId you gel lo giips vilh lhe sliucluie` And if you
didnl undeisland lhe sliucluie, hov couId you possilIy peifoin lhe voik veII` Hov couId
you le a good peifoinei`
Who aie peifoineis` Whal do lhey do`
Ioi lhe puiposes of lhis chaplei and look, lhe ansvei lo lhe fiisl queslion is veiy sinpIe.
Iosilion 1:
A peifoinei is any peison vho acliveIy pailicipales in lhe ciealion of oiganized
sound in a peifoinance.
CIeaiIy lhis is a veiy lioad definilion, and enconpasses peihaps niIIions of peopIe
lhioughoul lhe voiId. So peihaps ve need lo define oui calegoiy noie lo focus on
piofessionaI peifoineis.
Iosilion 2:
A piofessionaI peifoinei is any peison vho acliveIy pailicipales in lhe ciealion
of oiganized sound in a peifoinance, and ieceives financiaI ienuneialion foi
doing so.
Ieihaps ve have ieduced lhe nunlei of peopIe sonevhal, lul sliII lhis is loo Iaige and lioad
a popuIalion on vhich lo focus any delaiIed sludy. So I nake a lig junp lo a nuch snaIIei
gioup, lhe fuII-line piofessionaI peifoinei in lhe veslein ail-nusic liadilion.
K. Skelton Settle the Score ""% Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
Iosilion 3:
IuII-line piofessionaI peifoineis in lhe veslein ail-nusic liadilion aie lhose
peisons vho devole noie lhan 5O of lheii line lo, and eain noie lhan 5O of
lheii annuaI incone foi lheii aclive ioIe in lhe ciealion of oiganized sound in a
peifoinance.
Ieihaps Ive junped fion loo lioad lo loo naiiov a definilion, as ny definilion excIudes
nany piofessionaI nusicians vho nainlain aclive and successfuI peifoining caieeis. I
puiposeIy donl inpIy a IeveI of peifoinance quaIily in lhe gioup incIuded in lhis posilion,
3

hovevei, I do nake lhe dislinclion of 'fuII-line, vhich I lhink is a ieIevanl one in lhe
discouise on nusic peifoinance in lhe veslein ail-nusic liadilion. Many fuII-line
piofessionaI peifoineis nake a conscious choice nol lo have lhe financiaI secuiily of a fixed-
incone posilion (as a leachei, acadenic, oi sonelhing eIse enliieIy), and I lhink lhis choice is
cIeaiIy indicalive of lheii seIf-concepl, lheii dedicalion lo nusic as a peifoining ail, and/oi
lheii skiII and faciIily as peifoineis.
4
Of couise lheie aie nany pail-line (oi ieliied)
piofessionaI peifoineis vho nade a conscious choice foi peisonaI and/oi piofessionaI
ieasons (ialhei lhan excIusiveIy financiaI ones) nol lo peifoin fuII-line. Again, I donl inpIy
any IeveI of quaIily in lhis gioups peifoining capacilies (oi, if lhey nove lovaid schoIaiship,
in lhe vaIidily of vhal lhey say aloul nusic peifoinance), I sinpIy nake lhe dislinclion
lelveen lvo piofessionaI lypes of peifoineis, and suggesl lhal lhis dislinclion is ieIevanl
shouId anyone desiie lo considei nusic peifoineis and peifoinance fion a socioIogicaI oi
psychoIogicaI peispeclive.
Having ansveied lhe fiisl queslion, and having focused lhis gioup inlo a specific sulcalegoiy,
I can nov dig deepei inlo lhe palh lhis gioup has laken, and inlo vhal lhis gioup conlinues lo
do. To heIp vilh lhis I viII Iook specificaIIy al a fev aieas in delaiI lhal aie connon
expeiiences oi aclivilies of lhe fuII-line piofessionaI nusic peifoinei.
5
Music educalion and liaining
The najoiily of piofessionaI nusicians had an eaiIy exposuie lo and liaining in veslein ail
nusic. This eaiIy educalion geneiaIIy incIuded nusic cIasses as pail of lhe geneiaI cuiiicuIun
al schooI.
6
Hovevei, an evenluaI piofessionaI peifoinei IikeIy had exlia-cuiiicuIai nusic
3 Iion peisonaI expeiience I knov nany pail-line piofessionaIs, and even analeuis, vhon I deen lo have
noie skiII and laIenl lhan sone fuII-line peifoineis. Thal leing said, if you can nake a Iiving fion
peifoining, olviousIy soneone lhinks you aie pielly good al il.
4 Oflen peifoineis 'find lhenseIves in lhe nidsl of a fuII-line piofessionaI caieei, so lhis is nol aIvays a
conscious choice, in lhese ciicunslances, hovevei, lheii laIenl is usuaIIy quile ienaikalIe.
5 Of couise, nany of lhese poinls aie aIso a Iaige pail of lhe expeiience and voik of pail-line piofessionaI
nusicians.
6 Whal is/vas laughl in lhe schooI cIassioons aloul nusic (if anylhing) vaiies videIy, and one vouId need lo
Iook al each schooI/cIass individuaIIy lo see lhe inpoilance oi even ieIevance of nusic in any geneiaI
educalion. I pioposed a nev and possilIy noie ieIevanl diieclion in cIassioon nusic educalion lo enliace
iecenl concepls in lhe socioIogy of nusic. See: K. SkeIlon, 'ShouId ve sludy nusic and, oi as cuIluie`, Music
K. Skelton Settle the Score !""& Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
Iessons and expeiiences lhal fiisl inlioduced and cuIlivaled lhe skiIIs necessaiy foi noie
focused sludy, pailicuIaiIy in a conseivaloiy oi univeisily piogianne, vheie nosl
piofessionaI peifoineis spenl al Ieasl sone line.
7
Il is in lhe posl-secondaiy piogianne of sludy lhal ve fiisl see a connon appioach lo nusic
educalion. Though ceilain inslilulions aIIov focused sludy eaiIy on, aInosl aII sludenls aie
iequiied lo lake lhe sane lasic couises in hisloiy and lheoiy, vhich Iay a foundalion foi
undeislanding 'nusicaI sliucluies, nusicaI nanipuIalions of sound and . . . an undeislanding
of vays in vhich conposeis . . . have oiganized sound inlo neaningfuI slalenenls.'
8
This
shaied foundalion, hovevei, veiy quickIy faIIs ly lhe vayside as sludenls choose a specific
aiea of focus (peifoinance, educalion, conposilion, nusicoIogy, lheoiy, elc.), and lhe iniliaI
connon foundalion lhen evoIves in veiy diffeienl diieclions. Conpaiing lhe focuses on
peifoinance and nusicoIogy, ve geneiaIIy end up vilh giaduale sludenls and piofessionaIs
vho seeningIy have nolhing in connon.
9
If I considei singeis specificaIIy, one of lhe key dislinclions lhal chaiacleiizes lhis 'pailing of
lhe vays is lhe singei's eaiIy focus on lhe deveIopnenl of lechnique, vhiIe occasionaIIy
negIecling lhe inpoilance of 'nusicaIily. Theie aie seveiaI ieasons foi lhis. One is an
oveivheIning lias anongsl leacheis of singing (pailicuIaiIy in Noilh Aneiica) lo piioiilize
sound ovei expiession in lhe voice, pailicuIaiIy in lhe eaiIy slages of liaining.
1O
Anolhei is of
puie necessily, as nosl singeis have onIy leen 'pIaying lheii insliunenl foi a veiy shoil line
vhen lhey legin lheii posl-secondaiy liaining, and lhus need lo cone lo giips vilh an
insliunenl lhal is foievei changing vilh age. RegaidIess of lhe ieasons, il is a facl lhal lhe
oveivheIning lendency of leacheis in eaiIy posl-secondaiy educalion is lo focus on lechnique
lo lhe deliinenl of issues of expiession and nusicaI undeislanding.
11
Considei, on lhe olhei hand, lhe nusicoIogisl, vho can pul aII fiuslialions vilh singing oi
pIaying lechnique aside and focus on nusicaI consliuclion and conlexl. Of couise, lhis aIso
invoIves a piocess and an evoIulion, lul lhe alandonnenl of conceins vilh nusicaI execulion
and ciealion cIeaiIy faciIilales lhe inleIIecluaI puisuil of nusicaI undeislanding.
The finaI voids in lolh of lhe pievious paiagiaphs veie 'nusicaI undeislanding, and al fiisl
il nighl appeai lhal lhese iefei lo lhe sane phenonenon. Ieihaps lefoie lhe 'pailing of lhe
vays il even is a shaied concepl, lul of couise al lhis eaiIy deveIopnenlaI slage lhis concepl
Lducalion Reseaich, voI. 6, no. 2, 2OO4, pp. 169-177.
7 I knov of no slalislic vhich confiins lhis facl, lul I knov of veiy fev piofessionaI peifoineis vho did nol
sludy nusic in sone sliucluied posl-secondaiy inslilulion. Wheie exceplions exisl, lhese lend lo le singeis,
piolalIy lecause lhe voice is an insliunenl lhal deveIops vilh age, and lhus sone peopIe onIy discovei lhis
insliunenl Ialei in Iife.
8 C. Duiianl & C. WeIch, Making sense of nusic: Ioundalions foi nusic educalion, London, CasseI, 1995, p. 11.
9 In Luiope lhis dislinclion is even noie naiked, as lhe leginning of posl-secondaiy sludy aIieady sepaiales
lhe lvo: peifoinance, educalion, and conposilion aie laughl al lhe conseivaloiy, nusic hisloiy and lheoiy al
lhe univeisily.
1O This is piolalIy due lo a lias in aeslhelics in Noilh Aneiican cIassicaI singing lovaid Iaige voices singing in
Iaige haIIs.
11 V. Waid, 'The peifoinance leachei as nusic anaIysl: a case sludy, InleinalionaI }ouinaI of Music Lducalion,
voI. 22, no. 3, 2OO4, p. 249.
K. Skelton Settle the Score ""' Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
has onIy pailiaIIy evoIved. y lhe line sludenls conpIele lheii posl-secondaiy piogiannes,
'nusicaI undeislanding has deveIoped diffeienlIy foi peifoineis and acadenics aIike. This
sepaialion conlinues as nusicoIogisls and peifoineis go on lo lheii posl-giaduale sludies oi
piofessionaI peifoining caieeis. Iion lhis poinl lhe dislinclion onIy incieases, as does lhe
disconnecl lelveen peifoineis and acadenics.
On-going piofessionaI aclivilies
Ioi lhe nusicoIogisls vho 'slick vilh il lhe palh is geneiaIIy pielly cIeai: nasleis degiee,
IhD, posl-docloiaI jol, acadenic appoinlnenl, lenuie, ieliienenl. WhiIe lheie nay le sone
lunps aIong lhe ioad, lhe piofessionaI liajecloiy is foi aII inlenls and puiposes Iineai.
12
The peifoineis caieei palh, on lhe olhei hand, is fai Iess cIeai-cul. Theie aie sone 'shaied
issues lhal peifoineis need lo deaI vilh in veslein ail nusic, pailicuIaiIy lhe acquisilion of
skiIIs in seIf-discipIine, nenoiy, concenlialion, conlioI of lhe enolions, and deaIing vilh
peifoinance anxiely, lo nane lul a fev (and aII lhese jusl lo gel a peifoinei lo his fiisl
audilion). On lhe heeIs of lhis is lhe need lo Ieain hov lo funclion vilhin a gioup selling in
ieheaisaI and peifoinance. And lhioughoul aII of lhese puieIy piofessionaI conceins is lhe
necessily lo conlinuaIIy 'keep in shape vocaIIy and lechnicaIIy, and deveIop line-
nanagenenl skiIIs lo slay on lop of Ieaining iepeiloiie. CeilainIy lhe dynanics in pIay in
piofessionaI peifoineis caieeis aie highIy suljeclive, lul lhe evoIulion is cIeaiIy cycIicaI.
Ailisliy invoIves lhe aliIily lo nake peifoinance noie lhan lhe sun of ils pails, incIuding lhe
infIuences of hisloiy, anaIysis and nuch eIse (nol Ieasl lhe lechnicaI dinension, so oflen ignoied
in lhe Iileialuie on peifoinance). Ailisliy invoIves cIose and peiipheiaI vision aII al once,
especiaIIy in lhe nonenl of liulh.
13
CeilainIy lhe cycIicaI naluie of lhe peifoineis caieei is aIso highIy conpIex, as lhe vaiious
ieIalionships al pIay aie nol onIy nuneious, lul oflen lIuiiing lhe Iine lelveen peisonaI and
piofessionaI. Ioi exanpIe, ny leachei nay le ny fiiend, oi ny piodigaI daughlei nay le ny
conducloi.
The chail leIov is ly no neans exhauslive (I puiposeIy Iefl oul 'eneny fion lhe coIIeclion of
peisonaI ieIalionships), lul il cIeaiIy indicales nol onIy lhe nuIlilude of ieIalionships, lul aIso
lhe nuIlilude of polenliaIIy deIicale if nol ouliighl difficuIl 'cioss-ovei ieIalionships lhal one
oflen has lo negoliale.
14
Conline lhis vilh lhe daiIy chaIIenge of Ieaining iepeiloiie and
nainlaining lechnique, lhe financiaI insecuiily of a fiee-Iance caieei, and lhe piessuie of lhe
acluaI peifoinance evenl ilseIf. Hov does lhe piofessionaI peifoinei nanage il aII`
12 Ieihaps I giossIy exaggeiale lhis cIain. To le cIeai, I nevei nade il pasl lhe eaiIy IhD slage.
13 }. Rink, 'In iespecl of peifoinance: The Viev fion MusicoIogy, IsychoIogy of Music, voI. 31, no. 3, 2OO3, p.
32O.
14 CeilainIy siniIai 'cioss-oveis occui in eveiy fieId, lul usuaIIy nol vilh such fiequency as lhey do vilh
piofessionaI peifoineis.
K. Skelton Settle the Score !""( Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
In an anaIysis of lhe peifoinei-piaclice dynanic, Ielei HiII viiles: '. . . lhe cenliaI diIenna of
lhe peifoining nusician |is hovj can ve voik . . . vilhoul Iosing enlhusiasn oi lhe open-
nindedness lhal enalIes oui ideas lo deveIop`
15
ul is lhis ieaIIy a diIenna` Ieihaps none
of us knev vhal ve veie gelling ouiseIves inlo vhen ve fiisl decided lo lecone fuII-line
peifoineis, lul ve ceilainIy figuied il oul eaiIy in lhe gane. Al lhe end of lhe day, if oi vhen
ve as peifoineis Iose oui enlhusiasn, ve do sonelhing nev (eilhei a nev piece, oi a nev
piofession, depending on lhe seveiily).
16
15 I. HiII, 'Iion scoie lo sound in }. Rink (ed.) MusicaI Ieifoinance: A Cuide lo Undeislanding, Canliidge,
Canliidge Univeisily Iiess, 2OO2, p. 131.
16 Ieihaps even focus ones allenlion noie on acadenic ieseaich, as HiII hinseIf has done (if I nay assune lhal
his acadenic appoinlnenl neans he is nol voiking fuII-line as a piofessionaI peifoinei).
K. Skelton Settle the Score "") Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
Ioi nyseIf, I Iike nodeIs and syslens lo heIp oiganize and deaI vilh lhis conlinuaI ell and
fIov of lhe piofessionaI Iife (lhis look leing an exanpIe of jusl lhe neans ly vhich I Ieain ny
scoies). This is hov I deveIoped lechnique al an eaiIy slage, and lhis is hov I Ieained and
conlinue lo Ieain hov lo nake nusic. My piocess as a sludenl and as a piofessionaI goes
sonelhing Iike lhis:
1. Ieain a skiII oi piincipIe (fion a leachei, coach, coIIeague, conducloi, diiecloi, oi look)
2. see hov lhis affecls ny vocaI pioduclion
3. see hov lhis affecls ny nusicaI expiession
4. see hov lhese changes aie ieceived ly olheis (coIIeagues, conduclois, audiences, ciilics)
5. nake inleIIecluaI/aeslhelic choices aloul vhelhei I enliace oi iejecl lhe piincipIe
CeilainIy lhis is a veiy peisonaI syslen, lul lhe choices I uIlinaleIy nake lolh lechnicaIIy and
nusicaIIy aie conslanlIy facing a syslen of 'checks and laIances lhal has veiy ieaI
piofessionaI and econonic consequences. IiislIy, I an conlinuaIIy leing judged foi lhe
quaIily of ny voik ly ny coIIeagues, lul aIso ly audiences, lhe nedia, and even acadenics.
Second, in lhe ieheaisaI-peifoinance piocess shaied ideoIogies and piincipIes of naking
nusic (if nol aIso lechnique) faciIilale and aneIioiale lhe ieheaisaI and peifoinance piocess
(especiaIIy since Iiniled line is noinaIIy a concein), and ny nusicaI and lechnicaI decisions
eilhei assisl oi hindei lhis piocess. Al lhe end of lhe day, I ieceive confiinalion lhal I have
nade lhe appiopiiale choices if I conlinue lo le hiied.
Connunily
Alove, I nade lhe nuIlilude of peisonaI and/oi piofessionaI ieIalionships lhal a peifoinei
nusl deaI vilh sound ialhei dieadfuI. ul lhis connunily is aIso lhe epicenlie of aII lhal is
gieal in lhe nusic piofession (and indeed aII lhe peifoining ails). A peifoinance is liuIy a
ienaikalIe hunan phenonenon: a gioup of peopIe, doing sonelhing lhey Iove and have
dedicaled lheii Iives lo doing, cone logelhei vilh a connon ciealive goaI, anolhei gioup of
peopIe, vho shaie a siniIai Iove, cone lo vilness lhe ciealion, and, al lhe end of lhe
peifoinance, il is lheoielicaIIy possilIe lhal eveiy singIe peison goes hone happy!
The concepl of connunily viII ieluin Ialei, lul lefoie noving on lo olhei nalleis, I shouId
Iike lo sunnaiize lhe pieceding discussion.
K. Skelton Settle the Score !""* Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
Iosilion 4:
IuII-line piofessionaI peifoineis in lhe veslein ail-nusic liadilion
chaiacleiislicaIIy shaie siniIaiilies in lypes of liaining and conlinued
piofessionaI aclivilies, incIuding:
! sludying nusic in a posl-secondaiy inslilulion
! sludying piivaleIy vilh an appIied-nusic leachei
! ieguIai piivale piaclice lo nainlain and aneIioiale lechnique
! ieguIai piivale piaclice lo Ieain nev iepeiloiie
! ieheaising (vilh olheis) foi piofessionaI engagenenls
! peifoining pulIicIy (vilh olheis) in piofessionaI engagenenls
! laIancing lheii peisonaI and piofessionaI Iives and ieIalionships
Whal is 'nusic lo lhe peifoinei`
Aflei conpIeling ny nasleis in peifoinance, I decided lo liy ny hand again al schoIaiship,
and ended up in lhe UK.
17
Duiing ny fiisl yeai as a nasleis sludenl I feII in Iove vilh nusic
aeslhelics, vheie I vas fiisl inlioduced lo lhe phiIosophicaI concepl of a 'nusicaI voik. I
couId nevei ieaIIy viap ny head aiound lhis discussion, lo le honesl, aIlhough ceilain Iines of
lhinking did seen lo iesonale vilh ne as lhey connecled lhe voik concepl specificaIIy vilh
lhe scoie.
CenliaI lo Weslein conceplions of lhe nusicaI voik is lhe exislence of a pulIished scoie. The
puipose of a scoie is piinaiiIy lo pieseive nusic, lul il aIso faciIilales ils iepioduclion, and lhis
is cIeaiIy cenliaI lo lhe conlinued exislence of a voik, ensuiing lhal il has an afleiIife.
18
The nolaled lexl is no Iongei lhe definei of a nusicaI conposilion as ve undeisland il . . . il is no
noie lhan a definei of a specific nonenl in lhe evoIving hisloiy of lhe conposilion: il piesenls
onIy lhose eIenenls lhal a copyisl, piinlei, oi peifoinei feIl veie inpoilanl.
19
The iesonance vilh ne, hovevei, is ialhei unpIeasanl. Suie, I lhink il is gieal lhal sone
nusicoIogisls lhink lhe scoie is inpoilanl (even if lhey aie noie inleiesled in pieseivalion
lhan peifoinance), and aIso lhal lhey vanl lo incoipoiale lhe inleipieleis ioIe in lhe exislence
of a piece of nusic, and lo 'considei lhe nusicaI voik in ils videi, inleilexluaI conlexl, as lhe
sile of inleisecling cuIluiaI lexls.
2O
ul uIlinaleIy, lhese expIanalions seen inciedilIy dislanl
fion any concepl a peifoinei has of lhe lhing lhey sludy and peifoin.
17 I cannol deny lhal I vas sonevhal yeaining lo do lhe kind of inleIIecluaI voik I vas used lo in ny
undeigiaduale couise. Hovevei, il vas aIso a piofessionaI nove, as I had voik oppoilunilies vilh
piofessionaI choiis in Oxfoid and London, and uIlinaleIy vanled lo voik as a singei in conlinenlaI Luiope.
18 D. eaid and K. CIoag, 'Woik in MusicoIogy: The Key Concepls, London, RoulIedge, 2OO5, p. 19O.
19 S. ooinan, 'The MusicaI Texl, in NichoIas Cook and Maik Lveiisl (eds), Relhinking Music, Oxfoid, Oxfoid
Univeisily Iiess, 1999, p. 42O.
2O eaid and CIoag, p. 191.
K. Skelton Settle the Score ""+ Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
In shoil, ve seen lo have foigollen lhal nusic is a peifoinance ail al aII, and noie lhan lhal, ve
seen lo have concepluaIized il in such a vay lhal ve couId haidIy lhink of il lhal vay even if ve
vanled lo.
21
So lo 'liing nusic lack lo Iife, oi al Ieasl lo iesuscilale il in sone vay in lhe nusicoIogicaI
vocaluIaiy, ve nusl ieconciIe oui diffeiences and define vhal 'nusic neans as il ieIales lo
peifoineis and peifoinance. Sone viileis in peifoinance sludies have aIieady piovided
sone cIues. NichoIas Cook has connenled lhal 'conposeis and peifoineis coIIaloiale in lhe
ciealion and nainlenance of lhe iepeiloiy
22
if one sees lhe piece of nusic exisling 'in lhe
ieIalion lelveen ils nolalion and lhe fieId of ils peifoinance.
23
And Ielei HiII has
connenled lhal nusic 'is sonelhing inagined, fiisl ly lhe conposei, lhen in pailneiship vilh
lhe peifoinei, and uIlinaleIy connunicaled in sound.
24
These seen fai noie ieIevanl lo lhe concepl of nusic as a peifoining ail, lul if I an lo le
ieaIIy honesl, sonelhing is sliII Iacking. And I lhink lhis is lecause, in lhe veslein ail-nusic
liadilion specificaIIy, ve as peifoineis lend lo defei lo lhe conposei in lhe coIIaloialive
pailneiship, and oui piinaiy neans of doing lhis is via lhe scoie. In olhei voids, ve leIieve
lhal vhal lhe conposei viole is lhe lesl possilIe vay lo liansnil his nusicaI inaginalion,
and ve vanl lo do oui lesl lo connunicale lhal as lhe conposei inlended. Thal ve aie aIso
hunan, and ciealive leings ouiseIves, is olvious, lhus, il is inevilalIe lhal pail of oui
inaginalion viII allach ilseIf lo lhe nusic duiing lhe ciealion of a peifoinance.
Iosilion 5:
The nusicaI voik cIassicaI peifoineis sliive lo peifoin is a hypolhelicaI ideaI of vhal a
conposei inlended. The veiy naluie of nusic as a peifoining ail indicales lhal lhis
hypolhelicaI ideaI incIudes lhe suljeclivily of peifoineis, vhich is vhy vaiious
peifoinances of lhe sane voik can lheoielicaIIy le equaIIy ideaI even if exceplionaIIy
diffeienl.
Macio oi Micio`
If ve can nov agiee, foi lhe puiposes of ny aigunenl, vhal nusic is, ve nov have lhe huge
difficuIly of discussing vhal ve do vilh il. Ioi lhis issue ve need lo junp fion lhe nusicaI
phiIosopheis lo lhe nusic lheoiisls, and I suddenIy find nyseIf lack al lhe leginning of lhis
naiialive as an olslinale giaduale sludenl iefusing lo nake lullIe chails. Whal gives`
21 N. Cook, 'elveen Iiocess and Iioducl: Music and/as Ieifoinance, Music Theoiy OnIine, voI. 7, no. 2, 2OO1,
paiagiaph 6.
22 N. Cook, 'AnaIysing Ieifoinance and Ieifoining AnaIysis in N. Cook & M. Lveiisl (eds), Relhinking Music,
Oxfoid, Oxfoid Univeisily Iiess, 1999, p. 245.
23 Lavience RosenvaId, 'Theoiy, Texl-selling, and Ieifoinance, }ouinaI of MusicoIogy, v. 11, 1993, p. 62.
24 HiII, p. 129.
K. Skelton Settle the Score !""$ Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
Ieihaps lhose connon fiisl-yeai undeigiaduale couises in lheoiy and hisloiy Iefl a noie
Iasling inpiession on sone peifoineis lhan I al fiisl expecled. Lven loday I an sliII
sonevhal suipiised lhal sone peifoineis (and even sone ieaIIy fanous ones) feeI lhal
hisloiicaI conlexls and liadilionaI lheoielicaI nodeIs aie diieclIy ieIevanl lo lheii piofessionaI
peifoinance voik. I vouIdnl go as fai as lo say lhal lhese lhings aie iiieIevanl, lul in ny
conpIeleIy liased opinion, lhey aie onIy ieIevanl indiieclIy as a cIaiificalion of oi foundalion
in nusicaI giannai (lheoiy) and nusicaI slyIe (hisloiy).
25
If a peifoinei has Ieained lhese, oi
noie inpoilanlIy, Ieained hov lo Ieain lhese (as lhese expIoialions aie indeed Iife-Iong
puisuils of a piofessionaI peifoinei), he vouId le lellei lo gel on vilh naking nusic.
Wilh lhal digiession conpIele, I can nov diiecl nyseIf lo lhe acadenics and say: lheie is a
vay lo augnenl youi lheoielicaI undeislanding of nusic, lul il invoIves a fundanenlaI shifl
in focus fion lhe nacio- lo niciosliucluies in a conposilion. TiadilionaIIy, anaIysis as an
acadenic discipIine 'is conceined vilh a seaich foi inleinaI coheience vilhin a nusicaI voik
and focuses on 'an exaninalion of a voiks inleinaI sliucluie.
26
asic lheoiy and anaIysis, as
ve Ieained as undeigiaduales, piovide a connon leininoIogy foi discussing lhe 'nechanics
of nusic. Hovevei, 'To go leyond nechanicaI conveisions of nusicaI nolalion inlo viillen
voids, anaIysis nusl uncovei sonelhing leyond oi lehind lhe neie sonic suiface.
27
This aII
sounds veII and good, yel fion ny peispeclive 'inleinaI coheience and 'inleinaI sliucluie
sonehov noiphed inlo a ialhei naiiov focus on nusicaI 'unily vhich sliII peivades nusic
anaIysis.
One of peifoinance sludies sliongesl advocales is }ohn Rink vho has viillen exlensiveIy on
lhe suljecl, and vas even lhe oiiginaloi of lhe lein 'peifoineis anaIysis. Rink allenpled lo
inlegiale nev ideas inlo an anaIylicaI nodeI focusing on concepls of lenpoiaIily in vhich
peifoinances aie iefeiied lo as 'nusicaI naiialives. His vocaluIaiy incIudes phiases Iike
'giande Iigne, 'sense of shape in line, 'hieiaichy of lenpoiaIIy defined nusicaI gesluies fion
lhe snaII lo lhe Iaige scaIe, aII inpIying lhal a voiks lolaIily is al lhe heail of a
peifoinance.
28
Hovevei, al lhe end of lhe day, in ieading Rinks voik,
29
I sliII gel lhe sense
lhal his concepls of vhal nusic is and of vhal piofessionaI peifoineis do aie nol fuIIy in
accoid. He even expIicilIy slales lhal his 'shape is anaIogous lo 'sliucluie,
3O
vhich gives ne
lhe feeIing lhal his discouise is a liadilionaI 'seaich foi nusicaI unily veiIed in peifoinance-
fiiendIy Ianguage. Whalevei lhe leininoIogy, lhis lype of anaIysis is cIeaiIy noie conceined
vilh lhe nacio lhan vilh lhe nicio.
25 In a nusic educalion conlexl I have pieviousIy iefeiied lo lhis division as lhe diffeience lelveen sludying
'inheienl neaning oi lhe sludy of nusic foi nusics sake and 'deIinealed neaning oi lhe sludy of nusic as
cuIluie. See: SkeIlon.
26 eaid and CIoag, pp. 11-12.
27 R. Iaikei and C. Allale (eds), AnaIyzing Opeia: Veidi and Wagnei, eikeIey, Univeisily of CaIifoinia Iiess,
1989, pp. 1-2.
28 }. Rink, 'TiansIaling nusicaI neaning: lhe nineleenlh-cenluiy peifoinei as naiialoi, in N. Cook & M. Lveiisl
(eds), Relhinking Music, Oxfoid, Oxfoid Univeisily Iiess, 1999, p. 218, }. Rink, 'The Slale of IIay in
Ieifoinance Sludies in }. W. Davidson (ed.), The Music Iiaclilionei: Reseaich foi lhe Music Ieifoinei,
Teachei and Lislenei, AIdeishol, Ashgale, 2OO4, p. 46.
29 Much of Rinks anaIyses invoIve giaphic iepiesenlalions of lhe scoie, vhich I canl heIp lul lhink of as lullIe
chails on sleioids.
3O Rink (2OO4), p. 44.
K. Skelton Settle the Score "%# Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
Sonelhing quile diffeienl can le iead in lhe foIIoving passage ly NichoIas Cook, lhe 'olhei
pioIific schoIai voiking in peifoinance sludies:
Whal happens in lhe peifoinance of nusic Iike |a Mozail quailelj` The pIayeis nay veII pIay
lhe noles exaclIy as Mozail viole lhen. And yel lhey donl pIay lhen exaclIy as Mozail viole
lhen, lecause eveiy nole in lhe scoie is suljecl lo lhe conlexluaI negolialion of inlonalion, piecise
dynanic vaIue, ailicuIalion, linliaI quaIily, and so foilh. . . This kind of sociaI inleiaclion lakes
pIace in lhe inleislices of lhe scoie, in lhe zones of indeleininacy incoipoialed vilhin il: eilhei
lecause lhe nolalion doesnl specify sonelhing al aII (linlie, foi exanpIe, leyond lhe
specificalion of lhe insliunenl), oi lecause lhe scoie suppIies a calegoiicaI vaIue lhal isnl
inlended foi IileiaI execulion lul inslead needs lo le negolialed and iefined in peifoinance. . .
|Tjhe scoie choieogiaphs a seiies of ongoing sociaI engagenenls lelveen pIayeis, selling up a
shaied fianevoik oi goaI (a shaied nission, if you Iike) lul deIegaling delaiIed decisions lo le
nade in ieaI line ly lhe ieIevanl individuaIs in Iighl of IocaI condilions--lo le inpiovised, in
shoil, as so nuch in eveiyday Iife is.
31
This passage sheds Iighl on aInosl eveiylhing ieIaling lo peifoineis and peifoinance lhal is
nissing fion nusic lheoiys liadilionaI anaIylicaI nodeIs. Al lhe sane line, il gives lhe
ieadei no insighl inlo lhe nosl inleiesling queslions of 'vhy` and 'hov`. Why donl lhey
pIay lhe noles 'exaclIy as Mozail viole lhen` Was Mozails inaginalion incapalIe of
concepls Iike inlonalion, ailicuIalion, and linlie` Hov does 'sociaI inleiaclion lake pIace in
lhe 'inleislices of lhe scoie` Hov does lhe scoie 'choieogiaph and 'deIegale` Whal on eailh
is a 'zone of indeleininacy` As a peifoinei, I can infei aInosl eveiylhing aloul lhe scoie-
peifoinei ieIalionship in lhis anaIysis, lul ly iefeiiing onIy lo 'lhe voik (ialhei lhan a
specific evenl in lhe voik) il haidIy says anylhing al aII.
Whal if 'lhe vhoIe isnl acluaIIy ieIevanl lo eilhei vhal lhe peifoinei does, oi hov lhe
audience Iislens` Il nay nol le lhe case, lul I lhink nany nusicoIogisls vouId le suipiised lo
discovei lhal il is nol so fai fion lhe liulh.
Scoie-ieading
One of lhe iool causes of confIicl lelveen nusicoIogisls and peifoineis (and of ny pailicuIai
giipe vilh nosl anaIysis) is, quile sinpIy, lhe scoie. WhiIe nuch delale ievoIves aiound vhal
nusic is, I lhink lhe one lhing ve can aII agiee on is lhe idenlily of a scoie: nusicaI nolalion in
a fixed foin on papei.
32
CeilainIy scoies cone in nany diffeienl vaiielies (nanusciipls,
oiiginaI edilions, uilexl edilions, ciilicaI edilions, elc.), lul unIess one has lhe specific piojecl
of conpaiing vaiious scoies of lhe sane voik, ve can usuaIIy define one scoie lhal viII le lhe
lasis foi oui peifoinance oi sludy.
33
If ve diav lhe conneclion lo lhe posilion I nade on
vhal nusic is lo a peifoinei, lhe scoies idenlily and puipose is cIeai.
31 N. Cook, 'Iionpling Ieifoinance: Texl, Sciipl, and AnaIysis in iyn Haiiisons lie-lenps, Music Theoiy
OnIine, voI. 11, no. 1, 2OO5, paiagiaph 5.
32 Oi if you vanl lo enliace nodein lechnoIogy, on youi poilalIe eIeclionic device.
33 This is aInosl a necessily in lhe peifoinance voiId, as voiking fion diffeienl edilions can have significanl
consequences in ieheaisaIs - lhough usuaIIy jusl lecause peopIe canl co-oidinale a pIace lo slail.
K. Skelton Settle the Score !"%" Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
Iosilion 6:
The scoie is lhe piinaiy device in lhe liansnission of lhe conposeis
inaginalion lo lhe ieaIizalion in sound, and lhe peifoinei lhe agenl lhiough
vhon lhis liansnission lakes pIace.
This leing slaled, I vouId hazaid a guess lhal vhal lhe sane scoie says is undeislood veiy
diffeienlIy ly a piofessionaI peifoinei and an acadenic. I lhink lhe nain ieason vhy so
nuch of peifoinance sludies has shied avay fion veslein ail nusic and nusicaI scoies in
favoui of foIk and popuIai nusic and iecoidings is a ialhei enlaiiassing facl, lhal acadenics
aienl veiy good al ieading nusic. Suie, lhey nay have scoied highei lhan aII lhe
peifoinance najois in lheii undeigiaduale soIfge couise, lul did lhey sing vilh good
inlonalion, soIid liealh-suppoil, laIanced iesonance, evenness of lone, a cIean Iegalo Iine, and
peifecl diclion`
34
The poinl is, vhen an acadenic Iooks al a scoie his consideialion geneiaIIy
onIy enconpasses nechanicaI IeveIs (pilch, ihylhn, dynanics, lenpo, elc.). He nay
undeisland on a geneiaI IeveI lhal olhei lhings aie al pIay, lul vhal lhese 'lhings aie and
ceilainIy vhal lhey enlaiI seen a nysleiy. No vondei lheie is such an olsession vilh
nacioevenls - lhey aie lhe onIy lhings lhal can nake lhe nusic inleiesling on lhe puieIy
nechanicaI IeveI.
When lhe piofessionaI peifoinei sees a scoie, he nusl innedialeIy laIance lhe nechanics of
lhe scoie vilh lhe nechanics of naking sound, vhich logelhei nake 'nusic. Il is lhis laIance
lhal is lhe focus of lhis enliie look. As piofessionaI peifoineis ve voik oui enliie caieeis in
allaining and nainlaining lhis laIance, and I vouId suggesl lhal if you vanl lo le invoIved in
peifoinance sludies (and hopefuIIy incIude sone consideialion of peifoineis) you can haidIy
do so vilhoul seeking lo undeisland and expIoie il.
Cook has concIuded lhal,
The lexl-lased oiienlalion of liadilionaI nusicoIogy and lheoiy hanpeis lhinking aloul nusic as
a peifoinance ail. Music can le undeislood as lolh piocess and pioducl, lul il is lhe
ieIalionship lelveen lhe lvo lhal defines peifoinance in lhe Weslein ail liadilion.
35
I lhink Cooks expIanalion (second senlence) hils lhe naiI on lhe head. ul his iniliaI cIain
(fiisl senlence) is alsoIuleIy faIse. If lhe scoie, lhe 'lexl is lhe lasis foi oui voik as
peifoineis, hov can il possilIy hanpei lhinking aloul nusic as a peifoinance ail` The scoie
as a device of liansnission is unique lo nusic. Lven if lhe nusic is vocaI and incIudes a
viillen lexl, nusic nolalion lianscends lhe confines of a spoken oi viillen Ianguage, and al
lhe sane line focuses lhe neans of connunicalion. The scoie is, al lhe sane line, giealIy
Iileialing and highIy iesliiclive. The piolIen is nol lhe lexl-lased oiienlalion al aII, lul ialhei
a Iiniled, inconpIele aliIily lo iead lhe lexl.
34 Lven do, ie, ni have exacl consonanls and voveIs!
35 Cook (2OO1), alsliacl.
K. Skelton Settle the Score "%% Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
Deconsliuclion (and ieconsliuclion) in peifoinance
I vas pIeasanlIy suipiised lo discovei duiing ny ieseaich foi lhis chaplei lhal lhe lein
'deconsliuclion is aIieady incIuded in nusicoIogicaI discouise. Il is even a 'key concepl (if ils
incIusion in David eaid and Kennelh CIoags look MusicoIogy: The Key Concepls is any
indicalion).
36
The facl lhal il seens lo leai sone ieIalionship lo hov I have used lhe lein in
lhis looks nelhod is aII lhe noie aslounding. Deconsliuclion is appaienlIy nol a
nelhodoIogy oi a syslen, lul ialhei
invoIves a piocess 'aIvays aIieady piesenl in lhe lexl, and lhe deconsliuclive ieading is one lhal
invoIves lhe idenlificalion and expIicalion of lhis piesence as a counlei-Iogic lo vhal nay
iniliaIIy appeai lo le lhe nosl IogicaI and naluiaI inleipielalion.
37
Moieovei,
A lypicaI slialegy of deconsliuclion nay invoIve consideialion of sonelhing lhal nay appeai
incidenlaI oi naiginaI in a lexl, sonelhing lhal is quickIy passed ovei in puisuil of a nain
naiialive oi aigunenl.
38
The vocaluIaiy in lhe alove quolalions uses 'lexl and 'ieading lecause lhe idea of
deconsliuclion slens fion lhe voik of Iiench phiIosophei and Iileiaiy lheoiisl }acques
Deiiida, and is nosl geneiaIIy appIied lo viillen lexls. Lven if lhe concepl of deconsliuclion
seens nosl appIicalIe in nusicoIogy lo vhal ve viile and say aloul il,
39
I find lhe appIicalion
lo nusic anaIysis and peifoinance a usefuI, even necessaiy diieclion lo foIIov.
In iesponse lo lhe liadilionaI pieoccupalion in nusic anaIysis vilh a seaich foi 'unily, and
}ohn Rinks use of lhe lein 'nusicaI naiialive, I posed lhe foIIoving queslion alove:
Whal if 'lhe vhoIe isnl acluaIIy ieIevanl lo eilhei vhal lhe peifoinei does, oi hov lhe audience
Iislens`
In liulh, I leIieve lhis slalenenl lo le faIse. I lhink 'lhe vhoIe is ieIevanl lo a peifoinance,
and is even al lhe heail of il, lul al lhe sane line, I do nol leIieve lhal lhe peifoinei noinaIIy
is, oi even shouId le, conceined vilh 'lhe vhoIe duiing lhe peifoinalive acl. Ioi ne, lhe
ciealion of 'unily oi a 'nusicaI naiialive is lhe jol of lhe conposei. If lhe peifoinei is liue lo
lhe scoie (successfuI in ciealing lhe 'hypolhelicaI ideaI) lhen lhis sense of lolaIily is seIf-
evidenl in a peifoinance.
4O
36 eaid and CIoag, 'Deconsliuclion, pp. 5O-54.
37 eaid and CIoag, p. 51.
38 eaid and CIoag, p. 52.
39 eaid and CIoag, p. 53.
4O This is pailicuIaiIy liue aflei lhe nid-eighleenlh cenluiy, vhen conposeis legan lo conpose vilh noie
specific lenpo and dynanic indicalions. Lven in aioque and eaiIiei iepeiloiies I vouId aigue lhal lhe
conposei has done nosl of lhis 'nusicaI naiialion voik in lhe conposilionaI piocess, lhe onIy diffeiences aie
lhe paianeleis ly vhich lhese naiialives veie/aie undeislood. I vouId aigue lhal in nusic fion lhe nid-
sevenleenlh cenluiy and eaiIiei, conposeis lhoughl of sliucluie noie ieIaliveIy, lhal is, nol in lhe conlexl of
lhe vhoIe lul of vhal cones lefoie and aflei. This ceilainIy has inpIicalions (even up lo lhe nid-eighleenlh
K. Skelton Settle the Score !"%& Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
Whal pieoccupies lhe peifoinei, pailicuIaiIy in lhe peifoinance ilseIf, is lhe execulion of a
specific nole, in a specific vay, al a specific line. The 'giande Iigne nay Iuik sonevheie
undeinealh lhese individuaI nonenls, lul il is physicaIIy inpossilIe lo cieale sound excepl in
lhe heie and nov. Whal I speak of aie, quile sinpIy, lhe delaiIs of lhe scoie, oi in
deconsliuclive paiIance lhose seclions of a lexl lhal aie 'incidenlaI oi 'naiginaI.
Ioi a liuIy allenlive and engaged audience - ly vhich I nean an audience lhal goes lo a
peifoinance liusling lhal lhe conposei and peifoineis viII do lheii iespeclive jols veII - I
vouId aIso aigue lhal lheii nannei of Iislening favouis lhe 'delaiIs ovei lhe vhoIe in lhe
peifoinance ilseIf. Thoughls of lolaIily and conpIeleness geneiaIIy onIy cone lo an audience
(and foi lhal nallei, peifoineis aIso) aflei lhe facl, as a iecoIIeclion oi nenoiy of lhe
peifoinance evenl.
41
To lieak il dovn, ve speak of lhe peifoinance 'as a vhoIe, in diiecl
conneclion vilh lhe nunlei of and nannei in vhich delaiIs of lhe scoie aie execuled and
connunicaled ly lhe peifoineis lo lhe audience. The ieIalive success oi faiIuie of a
peifoinance, of couise, depends on lhe suljeclive evaIualion of said execulion and
connunicalion.
LaiIiei I vas ialhei ciilicaI of Cooks Mozail quailel anaIysis, lasicaIIy saying lhal il iefeis lo
aInosl eveiylhing aloul lhe scoie-peifoinei ieIalionship, lul al lhe sane line says nolhing
aloul vhy lhese ieIalionships aie inleiesling oi inpoilanl. If I nighl nighl ansvei lhe 'vhy:
lhey aie inleiesling lecause lhey aie iepiesenlalive of a deconsliuclive anaIysis of lhe scoie
nixed vilh a cuIninalion of yeais of liaining and scoie sludy, and lhey aie inpoilanl lecause
lhey aie unequivocaIIy necessaiy foi lhe ciealion of a nusicaI peifoinance.
If I nay appIy lhe nelhodoIogy I have piesenled in lhis look, Iel us considei lhe peifoineis
piocess vhen Iooking al jusl lhe fiisl nole of a scoie, foi lhe fiisl line, in a fiisl allenpl lo
pioduce il. The iniliaI slep is lo deleinine vhal lhe nolalion says iegaiding a noles pilch and
duialion, and deleinine (vhelhei expIicilIy viillen oi nol), lhe voIune, inlonalion, and
linlie lhis nole shouId/couId possess in sound (deconsliuclion). Nexl, lhe nind nusl
deciphei lhe lechnicaI piocess ly vhich lhis nole nay le pioduced, and finaIIy lhe lody nusl
execule lhe nole, vhich is lhe piocess I Iike lo caII ieconsliuclion'. This piocess can le spiead
oul ovei a veiy Iong peiiod of line in lhe piaclice ioon, lul il can equaIIy happen in an
inslanl duiing a fiisl ieading. Indeed, foi nany peifoineis, lhe enliie deconsliuclive anaIysis
can lake pIace vhen fiisl Iooking al a scoie, and if lhal vas nol ienaikalIe enough, vhen a
fiisl ieading coincides vilh a fiisl pIay-lhiough, lhey aie alIe lo appIy a ieconsliuclive
anaIysis sinuIlaneousIy lo cieale nusic in sound.
cenluiy) in iefeience lo dynanics, vhich veie iaieIy conposed as a necessaiy sliucluiaI paianelei, in facl,
dynanics in nany aioque conposilions veie onIy a peifoinance indicalion lhal a soIoisl vas
singing/pIaying oi nol.
'" CaiI DahIhaus viole: 'Insofai as nusic is foin, il allains ils ieaI exislence, paiadoxicaIIy expiessed, al lhe veiy
nonenl vhen il is pasl. SliII heId fiin in nenoiy, il eneiges inlo a condilion lhal il nevei enleied duiing ils
innediale piesence, and al a dislance il conslilules ilseIf as a suiveyalIe pIaslic foin. SpaliaIizalion and
foin, eneigence and oljeclivily, aie inleidependenl: one is lhe suppoil oi piecondilion of lhe olhei. C.
DahIhaus, Lslhelics of Music, Canliidge, Canliidge Univeisily Iiess, 1982, p. 12.
K. Skelton Settle the Score "%' Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
Oljeclive vs. suljeclive - inpIying oi desciiling`
Can anyone expIain lo ne lhe olsession vilh neaning` When fiisl inlioduced lo lhe concepl
in nusic aeslhelics I found lhe discussion fascinaling. I even found a piaclicaI appIicalion foi
phiIosophicaI dislinclions of neaning vhen consideiing a possilIe fuluie in eIenenlaiy and
secondaiy nusic educalion.
42
ul in conneclion vilh nusic peifoinance`
HansIick aigued lhal enolions Iike Ionging, hope, oi Iove depend on a foinaI oljecl, in lhe
alsence of vhich . . . aII lhal ienains is an unspecific sliiiing, peihaps lhe avaieness of a
geneiaI sense of veII-leing oi disliess. . . . HansIick is aiguing lhal nusic is highIy ineffeclive as
a neans of conveying enolion, lul vhal il does convey is nuance.
43
Thus nusic conveys 'enolionIess nuance.
44
I Iike lhis leininoIogy in lhe conlexl of
peifoinance sludies, as 'nuance inpIies delaiIs, and ny enliie idea of good peifoinance Iies
in lhe allenlion lo lhe delaiIs - nusicaI nuance. We undeisland vhal voids Iike 'neaning,
'enolion, and 'nuance inpIy, lul hov does nusic Iead us lo lhese voids in lhe fiisl pIace`
Cook vouId have us leIieve lhal
lhe expeiience of nusic as enolionIess nuance is one lhal cannol le liansIaled, even
appioxinaleIy, inlo voids, lecause lhe necessaiy inleipielive decisions aie nol conlained vilhin
il. One can use voids lo exenpIify possilIe acluaIized neanings eneiging oul of such an
expiession, lul lhen one is no Iongei desciiling lhe oiiginaI expeiience.
45
Ieihaps oljecliveIy lhis is liue, lul lhis oljeclive 'enolionIessness nay eIicil a highIy
enolionaI suljeclive iesponse in lhe Iislenei, vhich piolalIy is pielly inpoilanl in lhe giand
schene of piofessionaI nusic-naking.
ul ny ciiliques on lhese issues viII le infinile, lecause lhe issues lhenseIves poinl lo a
piolIenalic focus in peifoinance sludies. In lhe conlexl of peifoinance sludies In nol ieaIIy
conceined vilh hov neaning is consliucled in a peifoinance, in facl, In nol even lhal
inleiesled in vhal nusic neans. Of couise vhal ve peifoin oi Iislen lo neans sonelhing lo
us, lul vhal il neans is so highIy suljeclive as lo nake ils sludy eilhei conpIeleIy poinlIess,
oi ulleiIy olvious (and lhus conpIeleIy poinlIess). Iai noie fascinaling is lhe neans ly
vhich neaning is expiessed and ieceived in a nusicaI peifoinance.
42 See: SkeIlon (2OO4).
43 N. Cook, 'Theoiizing MusicaI Meaning in Music, Ieifoinance, Meaning: seIecled essays, AIdeishol, Ashgale,
2OO7, p. 224, L. HansIick, On lhe MusicaIIy eaulifuI (lians. C. Iayzanl), Hackell IulIishing, 1986, p. 9.
44 Cook (2OO7), p. 224.
45 Cook (2OO7), pp. 231-232.
K. Skelton Settle the Score !"%( Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
K. Skelton Settle the Score "%) Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
The diagian alove liies lo piesenl nolhing noie lhan lhe nuIlilude of possilIe ieIalionships
one can considei in a peifoinance anaIysis oi peifoineis anaIysis on a vague oljeclive-
suljeclive conlinuun. The ovaIs aie lhe suljecls, and lhe coIouied ieclangIes conlain (fion
daikesl lo Iighlesl) a vaiiely of oljecls, lhings, and evenls. The vhile ieclangIes conlain lhe
vaiiely of associalions peifoineis and Iisleneis deveIop in conneclion vilh lhe peifoinance,
lhe scoie, and lhe hypolhelicaI ideaI of 'nusic'. Il shovs lhal aInosl eveiy ieIalionship is a
diaIogue, and eveiy diaIogue has sone IeveI of suljeclivily connecled vilh il. The one
exceplion is lhe scoie. The scoie nevei acliveIy engages in diaIogue. The scoie onIy infoins.
46
The expeiience and inveslnenl lhal goes inlo ieaIizing a scoie naluiaIIy iesuIls in individuaIIy
deiived 'neanings vhich aie lhen 'expiessed in lhe peifoinance. Ieihaps an audience
deiives lhe sane 'neanings as lhe peifoinei, lul lhis is neilhei IikeIy noi lhe ain.
Ieifoineis hope lo eIicil a iesponse in an audience, lo 'louch lhen in a posilive vay. If lhe
nusic and peifoinance aie of a ceilain aeslhelic quaIily, lhen lhe nusic-peifoinance evenl
peinils an audience lo expeiience oi feeI vhalevei lhey vouId Iike in lhe nonenl oi lhiough
sulsequenl associalion. Indeed lhe lesl peifoineis faciIilale lhis suljeclivily in lheii
audiences ly puiposeIy nol diclaling oi confining neaning leyond lhe iesliiclions of lhe scoie
ilseIf.
47
So vhal concIusions nay ve diav aloul anaIysis in peifoinance sludies` Ieihaps lhe sane
as Cook nade in lhe ailicIe I quoled alove:
Ieihaps . . . ve shouId nol le lheoiizing nusicaI neaning aflei aII, lul ialhei Iooking foi vays of
undeislanding nusic lhal aie fuIIy alluned lo ils eneigenl piopeilies, of vhich neaning is jusl
one.
48
46 One couId even considei lhal a soil of diaIogue lelveen scoie and peifoinei exisls, as lhe peifoinei viII
fiequenlIy augnenl lhe scoie lhiough his ovn naikings, and lhus 'aIleis lhe scoie fion vhich he peifoins.
Hovevei, I considei such naikings ialhei as a viillen exlension of oi assislance vilh lhe peifoineis nenlaI
piocesses in scoie ieading lhan as an aIleialion of lhe 'hypolhelicaI ideaI of lhe conposei. Moieovei, if such a
dynanic couId le consideied a diaIogue, ceilainIy lhe scoie is onIy a passive pailicipanl, and lhus sliII onIy a
Iineai ieIalionship lakes pIace (lhough a cycIicaI ieIalionship vilh lhe scoie lakes pIace in lhe nind of lhe
peifoinei).
47 One snaII digiession: Iiogianne noles and Iecluie conceils vhich laIk aloul lhe nusic ilseIf iun lhe iisk of
shaping audiences expeclalions, ly allenpling lo diiecl lheii Iislening. In such cases suljeclive associalive
neaning is nininized (oi voise, queslioned). This nay le a good ioule lo lake vilh aeslhelicaIIy
queslionalIe nusic, oi IackIuslie peifoinances, lul lhen ailislic conceins aie cIeaiIy secondaiy lo piofessionaI
ones. Noles and Iecluies lhal deaI vilh cuIluiaI and hisloiicaI conlexls, on lhe olhei hand, heIp 'sel lhe slage
foi lhe peifoinance, vhiIe peinilling lhe peifoineis lo sliII lake fuII iesponsiliIily foi lheii voik. ReIaled lo
lhis discussion is lhe incIusion of lexls and liansIalions in piogiannes oi as suililIes. I vouId aigue lhese aie
nol necessaiy, and can le annoying foi peifoineis (pailicuIaiIy vhen audiences cannol lake lheii eyes off
lhen), lul uIlinaleIy lhese aIIov audiences lo undeisland a lexluaI Iayei if lhey so choose, and lhey shouId le
given lhal choice.
48 Cook (2OO7), p. 236.
K. Skelton Settle the Score !"%* Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
Iosilion 7:
An anaIysis shouId cIeaiIy define vhelhei il ains lo le oljeclive and inpIicil oi
suljeclive and desciiplive, and lhen ienain liue lo lhis ideoIogy.
The 'neans ly vhich is a piedoninanlIy, if nol excIusiveIy, oljeclive foin of anaIysis, vhich
iionicaIIy nainlains lhe fundanenlaI naluie of lhe peifoinance ilseIf ly piesenling and
expiessing 'neaning vilhoul diclaling vhal lhal nighl le.
A Nev Age vhal`
I vouId Iike lo nake a snaII digiession heie. This seclion ains lo offei sone expIanalion of
lhe cuiious lilIe I have given lhis chaplei, in addilion lo poinling oul lvo veiy inpoilanl
eIenenls of lhe peifoineis voik and ciafl. These eIenenls I can lesl desciile as
psychoIogicaI and spiiiluaI.
LaiIiei I aIIuded lo lhe psychoIogicaI eIenenl in defining a fuII-line piofessionaI peifoinei
and in desciiling lhe peifoineis on-going piofessionaI aclivilies. I inpIied lhal lheie is
sonelhing aloul lhe nindsel of lhe fuII-line piofessionaI peifoinei lhal is sullIy lul quile
dislinclIy diffeienl fion lhose peifoineis vho seek piofessionaI and/oi financiaI secuiily in
olhei Iines of voik. This eIenenl can lesl le desciiled as 'nenlaI loughness, and iequiies a
gieal deaI of discipIine and/oi piedisposilion if one hopes lo eslalIish and nainlain a
successfuI peifoining caieei. I viII nol go inlo lhis issue in deplh, as il has leen deaIl vilh
effecliveIy and lhoughlfuIIy in Iovei Ieifoinance foi Singeis: Tianscending lhe aiiieis ly
ShiiIee Lnnons and AIna Thonas.
Whal I vouId Iike lo considei in noie delaiI is peihaps lesl desciiled as lhe spiiiluaI eIenenl
in lhe Iife of a peifoinei, vhich in facl connecls lo lhe IillIe-discussed lul peihaps univeisaIIy
accepled spiiiluaI eIenenl of nusic in geneiaI. Though I find lhe inage of nusic schoIais
laking haIIucinogenic sulslances and luining incense quile hunoious, I have invenled lhe
lein 'Nev Age MusicoIogy vilh a cIeaiIy iionic iefeience lo lhe 'Nev MusicoIogy lhal has
(in ny ialhei liased opinion) pIagued nusic anaIysis (if nol aII of nusicoIogy) foi decades.
On lhe one hand I lhink il is a vondeifuI idea lo inlegiale poslnodeinisn inlo nusicaI
discouise, lul I canl heIp feeIing lhal lhis inilialive has oflen leen laken lo lhe exliene, in
vhich one can scaiceIy discovei vheie 'nusic fils inlo nusicoIogy. In ieIalion lo peifoinance
sludies specificaIIy (al Ieasl in lhe veslein ail-nusic liadilion) I lhink oljeclivily and
suljeclivily (oi, in 'Nev MusicoIogy Iingo, posilivisn and ieIalivisn) aie of equaI ieIevance
as ve liy and giappIe vilh lhe lasis of peifoinance (lhe scoie) on lhe one hand, and lhe
nuneious diaIogues lhal Iead lo peifoinance ilseIf on lhe olhei.
K. Skelton Settle the Score "%+ Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
ul 'Nev Age MusicoIogy has an even noie diiecl inpIicalion foi ne in lhal I feeI lhal lhe
nusic piofession (peifoineis and acadenics aIike) shouId legin lo acknovIedge, nayle even
legin lo leIieve, lhal ve do have sonelhing veiy inpoilanl in connon. I suspecl, since you
aie ieading lhis look and/oi chaplei, lhal you nade lhe piaclice and/oi sludy of nusic youi
piofession foi lhe sane ieason as I did: lecause you Iove nusic. Mosl of us piolalIy fiisl
discoveied lhis Iove al a young age, even if lhe decision lo puisue il noie seiiousIy onIy cane
Ialei. Ioi lhose vho did pioceed lo posl-secondaiy sludies in nusic, you piolalIy aIso had
sone piivale Iessons in an insliunenl and deveIoped sone nusicaI inleiesls and lasles
oulside of oi in addilion lo lhe pop nusic lhal vas lhe nainslay of youi peeis al schooI. And
piolalIy foi lhe najoiily of youi youlh you had no olhei concepl of nusic lhan youi
expeiience of pIaying, singing, and Iislening lo il. Hov can il le lhal young chiIdien, vho
olheivise have lhe allenlion span of a goIdfish, can Iove Iislening lo lhe sane piece of nusic
ovei and ovei again`
49
Who on eailh vouId iead aloul nusic vhen lhey aie young` Lydia
Coehis The Inaginaiy Museun of MusicaI Woiks vas nevei iead as a led-line sloiy, as
enlicing as lhe lilIe nay le.
AII of us veie veIconed inlo lhe vondeifuI voiId of nusic lhiough lhe physicaI aclivilies of
Iislening and singing and/oi pIaying. ul peihaps lhe conneclion vilh nusic is even deepei
lhan a siniIai inilialion piocess. Ieihaps lhis inilialion vas acluaIIy a gIinpse inlo a shaied
expeiience lhal ve cannol piove exisls, lul lhal ve aII knov is lheie. Ieihaps, conliaiy lo aII
IogicaI lhoughl, lheie ieaIIy is an 'alsoIule liulh vhich is nol any specific piece of nusic, lul
sonelhing lhal aII nusic connecls us vilh in sone vay. The fanous jazz nusician iII Lvans
once said: 'I leIieve lhal aII peopIe aie in possession of vhal nighl le caIIed a univeisaI nind.
Any liue nusic speaks vilh lhis univeisaI nind lo lhe univeisaI nind in aII peopIe.
5O
Kenny Weinei does nol shy avay fion such ideas in his look LffoilIess Masleiy, one of lhe
nosl infIuenliaI looks I have iead in lhe puisuil of peifoinance exceIIence. Weinei pionoles
spiiiluaI avaieness foi lhe peifoining nusician as a necessaiy eIenenl in achieving nasleiy
in ones chosen piofession.
Music, unencunleied ly unheaIlhy consliainls, induces a slale of ecslasy in lhe nusician and
audience. Music is lheie foi oui enjoynenl and eniichnenl. Music is IileiaIIy lhe sound of joy
and devolion. Il is a gifl fion Cod lo aIIov us lo expiess lhe inciedilIe ecslasy of oui innei
naluie. IaIIing shoil of lhal, nusic Iays ilseIf al oui feel foi expiessing any of lhe counlIess
feeIings associaled vilh lhe hunan condilion.
51
Hov is lhal foi a 'voik concepl`
And an addendun lo lhe seclion 'Who aie peifoineis` Whal do lhey do` alove:
49 }usl as I donl lhink popuIai and foIk nusic vouId lenefil fion inlense nusicoIogicaI sciuliny, I lhink lhe
sane appIies lo lhe najoiily of lhe nusic lhal is lhe olsession of young chiIdien. Thal leing said, I vouId
gIadIy iead any socioIogicaI oi psychoIogicaI sludy lhal couId expIain vhy chiIdien Iike, foi inslance, lhe
WiggIes.
5O iII Lvans, The UniveisaI Mind of iII Lvans: The Ciealive Iiocess and SeIf Teaching, Rhapsody IiIns Inc.,
1991.
51 K. Weinei, LffoilIess Masleiy: Lileialing lhe Maslei Musician Wilhin, Nev AIlany, }aney AeleisoId }azz
Inc., 1996, p. 43.
K. Skelton Settle the Score !"%$ Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
As nusicians/heaIeis, il is oui desliny lo conducl an invaid seaich, and lo docunenl il vilh oui
nusic so lhal olheis nay lenefil. As lhey Iislen lo lhe nusic coning lhiough us, lhey loo aie
inspiied lo Iook vilhin.
52
Like nany spiiiluaI leacheis, Weinei encouiages Ielling go of lhe ego as a neans lo peifoin
and expeiience nusic noie conpIeleIy. He desciiles lhe ego as 'lhe Iens lhiough vhich ve
peiceive oui sepaialeness fion each olhei
53
and lhis sepaialion is vhal pievenls us as
nusicians fion connecling fiislIy vilh oui insliunenls and uIlinaleIy vilh oui audiences.
Weinei concIudes: 'The highesl slale a nusician can le in is a seIfIess slale.
54
Whal he is ieaIIy
desciiling and uIlinaleIy leaching is hov lo peinil ones lechnique and laIenl lo connecl vilh
a Iaigei and highei foice lhal is univeisaIIy undeislood and accepled, lul al lhe sane line
inlangilIe and inexpIicalIe.
LffoilIess Masleiy vas ieconnended lo ne ly lhe nosl inpoilanl nusicaI infIuence in ny
eaiIy liaining, if nol ny enliie caieei - DougIas odIe. DougIas aIvays iefeiied lo his
sludenls as his 'spiiiluaI chiIdien, and noie and noie I lhink lhal ve shouId have leen
caIIing hin oui 'spiiiluaI falhei, as he exposed ne, and I knov nany olheis, lo a conneclion
vilh nusic lhal vas nolhing shoil of, veII, spiiiluaI. DougIas iefeiied lo hinseIf as lhe
voiIds nosl fiuslialed singei, as a chiIdhood accidenl Iefl hin unalIe lo phonale conpIeleIy.
Hovevei, his keyloaid pIaying 'sang, and, noie infIuenliaIIy foi ne, he had an uncanny
aliIily lo liing oul lhe lesl in lhe singeis he laughl. Sonelines lhis occuiied lhiough lhe
iepelilion of his 'naxins,
55
lul il vas noie lhan vhal he said. To lhis day, I sliII cannol
expIain hov he enalIed ne lo oveicone nany of lhe lechnicaI Iinilalions I lhen possessed,
and lhus lo feeI liue vocaI fieedon and nusicaI expiession. Many yeais Ialei, and aflei nany
shifls in lhe diieclion of lolh ny peisonaI and piofessionaI Iives, I lhink vhal I expeiienced
vilh DougIas vas, quile sinpIy, a 'ieIease of nyseIf and ny voice lo lhe povei of nusic.
Ieihaps even pail of DougIas vas singing lhiough ne.
The 'povei of nusic is iaieIy iefeiied lo in nusicoIogicaI ieseaich, vhich I find ialhei odd, as
il is so inlegiaI lo lhe discussions of advocales foi schooI nusic educalion, nol lo nenlion
nusic in lhe nainsliean nedia. I lhink il is even lhe piinaiy ieason vhy nusicoIogisls
lecone nusicoIogisls, peifoineis choose lo le peifoineis, and audiences choose lo allend
peifoinances.
56
Ieihaps 've aie aII connecled as a schoIaiIy pienise vouId le difficuIl lo
lake seiiousIy, lul one viII inevilalIy encounlei iefeiences lo 'lhe space in sludying
peifoineis and peifoinance.
57

52 Weinei, p. 13.
53 Weinei, pp. 52-53.
54 Weinei, p. 81.
55 Sone exanpIes: 'Sing lo lhe dol, nol lhiough lhe dol, 'Take youi line, 'Donl iil. unliI lhe penuIlinale nole,
'Make eveiy nole leaulifuI.
56 In nol suie if il is liue, lul Weinei does offei a lheoiy of hov lhis 'highei foice nay funclion: 'AcluaIIy,
nusic is deiived fion sound, and sound is conposed of vilialion. Nov ve gel lo lhe heail of lhe nallei, foi
aII nallei is nade up of vilialions. Il is a scienlific facl lhal, aIlhough ve see soIids vhen ve Iook al an oljecl,
vhal ve aie ieaIIy seeing is fIuid vilialions oiganized in sufficienlIy gioss fiequencies lo foin soIid nallei. . .
We aie nade up of vilialions. And lhus, aII lhings can le said lo have nusic in lhen. Weinei, p. 33.
57 See Weinei, 'The Space, pp. 77-85.
K. Skelton Settle the Score "&# Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
Lveiyone can ienenlei al Ieasl one gieal conceil lheyve leen lo. The peifoinance vas so
inspiied lhal il slayed vilh lhe audience veII aflei lhey venl hone. Ieihaps lhe fiagiance of il
vas sliII lheie lhe nexl day. The feeIing il ciealed caused lhose piesenl lo lehave diffeienlIy foi a
vhiIe, possilIy vilh noie giace, vilh noie nindfuIness of lhe souI.
58
In nol advocaling lhal 'Nev Age MusicoIogy shouId conlenpIale lhe spiiiluaI side of nusic,
lhough of couise lhis is possilIe. ul acknovIedging 'lhe space in peifoinance sludies is
cIeaiIy ieIevanl in consideiing lolh peifoinei psychoIogy and audience ieceplion.
|Ljisleneis do nol counl nusicaI duialions in seconds oi ciolchels oi lai-nunleis. Theii
expeiience of nusicaI line, and hence foinaI piopoilions, depends on vhal fiIIs lhe line, so lhal,
unIike cIock line, nusicaI line is suljeclive and as vaiialIe as nusicaI conlenl.
59
This assessnenl ly NichoIas Cook on hov an audience expeiiences nusic ieninds ne of
Lckhail ToIIes diffeienlialion lelveen 'cIock line (line used foi piaclicaI puiposes) and
'psychoIogicaI line (line used ly lhe ego lo olsess aloul lhe pasl and lhe fuluie and avoid
lhe piesenl nonenl oi lhe 'nov). When I conline Cook and ToIIe on lhis issue, I an Iefl vilh
lhe cIeai avaieness lhal 'nusicaI line and lhe 'nov couId quile easiIy le inleichangealIe.
ToIIe viiles:
Tine is lhe hoiizonlaI dinension of Iife, lhe suiface Iayei of ieaIily. Then lheie is lhe veilicaI
dinension of deplh, accessilIe lo you onIy lhiough lhe poilaI of lhe piesenl nonenl.
6O
Whal eslalIishes 'nusicaI line oi vhal 'fiIIs lhe line nusl le lhose nusicaI nonenls lhal
sliike a Iisleneis senses, oi lhe conpIele Iack of lhese defined nonenls, lolh of vhich Iead lo
veiy suljeclive feeIings of lhe passing of line. One can have lhe sense of line speeding up,
sIoving dovn, oi even leing suspended aIlogelhei.
In his look The Ascenl of Hunanily, ChaiIes Lisenslein nakes a conpeIIing case lhal oui
enliie sociely has leen evoIving foi cenluiies vilh a piolIenalic ideoIogy invoIving lhe
sepaialion fion and oljeclificalion of naluie. Like Weinei and ToIIe, Lisensleins voik is
lased on lhe assunplion (oi I vouId say 'posilion) lhal 'We have defined ouiseIves as olhei
lhan vhal ve aie, as disciele suljecls sepaiale fion each olhei and sepaiale fion lhe voiId
aiound us.
61
Lisensleins discouise is loo eIaloiale lo sunnaiize in lhe piesenl chaplei, hovevei, his
discussion of Ianguage has a diiecl conneclion lo issues of anaIysis, peifoinance, ieceplion,
and line lhal I have inlioduced heie. Lisenslein hoIds lhal Ianguage is lhe 'foundalion of lhe
sepaiale hunan ieaIn. And since lhe synloIs of Ianguage aie noslIy aililiaiy, Ianguage is
IillIe noie lhan a 'hunan-ciealed nap oi iepiesenlalion of ieaIily.
62
Moieovei, 'y naning
58 Weinei, p. 79.
59 N. Cook, 'MusicaI Ioin and lhe Lislenei, The }ouinaI of Aeslhelics and Ail Ciilicisn, voI. 46, no. 1, 1987, p.
23.
6O L. ToIIe, A Nev Lailh: Avakening lo Youi Lifes Iuipose, London, Ienguin ooks Lld., 2OO5, pp. 2O6-2O7.
61 C. Lisenslein, The Ascenl of Hunanily, Haiiisluig, Ianenlhea Iiess, 2OO7, p. 3.
62 Lisenslein, p. 63.
K. Skelton Settle the Score !"&" Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
lhe voiId, alsliacling il and ieducing il, ve inpoveiish oui peiceplion of il.
63
Such a
slalenenl iesonales sliongIy vilh ne as I iefIecl on ny suspicion of lhe lullIe chail and
siniIai soils of anaIysis lhal seen onIy lo ieduce nusic lo a shadov of vhal can le gIeaned
fion ieading lhe conpIele scoie, oi Iislening lo a peifoinance.
This leing said, Lisensleins consideialion of Ianguage aIso acknovIedges lhal aIong vilh
Ianguages 'lendency lo dislance and deIude lheie iesides a ciealive aspecl.
64
He speaks of a
nylhicaI 'OiiginaI Language lhal 'did nol synloIize and alsliacl fion ieaIily, lul lhal vas
ilseIf pail of ieaIily.
65
This 'OiiginaI Language, even lhough nodein Ianguage and sociely
allenpl lo suppiess il, is sliII al lhe coie of hov ve as hunans connunicale vilh one anolhei,
al Ieasl vhen lhings ieaIIy nallei.
Any inlenseIy enolionaI expeiience nay . . . eIicil ulleiances of lhe OiiginaI Language -
sponlaneous vocaIizalions of ecslasy, Ianenlalion, gIee, feai, iage, and so foilh, as veII as lhe
cooing noises ve nake al infanls. They cone oul vhen voids aie sinpIy insufficienl lo expiess
ouiseIves, and vhen oui enolions oveipovei lhe inhililions of cuIluie, lhal is, vhen ve go
viId.
66
In lhis quolalion lhe 'OiiginaI Language sounds oddIy ieniniscenl of lhe ail of singing, and,
ly associalion, lhe ail of nusic. To le suie, ve donl 'go viId veiy oflen, and foi oui lasic
sense of secuiily lhis is piolalIy a good lhing. ul peihaps ve have found a vay lo assiniIale
oui 'viIdness inlo sonelhing non-lhiealening if nol enliieIy enjoyalIe. Ieihaps nusic is lhe
hunan coIIeclives conlinuaI Iink lo lhe 'OiiginaI Language, a piolesl in pIain sighl and sound
againsl lhe ideoIogy of sepaialion and conlioI lhal Ianguage so vigoiousIy hopes lo
peipeluale.
Like Iogic, Iav, and lechnoIogy, lhe conlioI inpIicil in Ianguage is a faade. We caiefuIIy IaleI
and calegoiize lhe vhoIe voiId, hoping lheiely lo inpose oidei upon il, lo doneslicale lhe viId,
lul ve deIude ouiseIves lo lhink lhal lhe viId iespecls oui loundaiies any noie lhan a squiiieI
iespecls a no liespassing sign. To lhis day, il is lhe voice lhal connunicales noie lhan lhe
speech.
67
'OiiginaI Language, 'nusicaI line, 'lhe space, 'univeisaI nind, 'alsoIule liulh, vhalevei
you vanl lo caII il, lheie is sonelhing aloul nusic lhal can 'speak lo nany peopIe on nany
IeveIs. As lhe aulhois of Iovei Ieifoinance foi Singeis so succinclIy viile: 'AII peifoinance
occuis in lhe piesenl. Il is peihaps one of lhe fev nonenls vhen a hunan leing Iives lolaIIy
in lhe nonenl. Il is nov.
68
63 Lisenslein , p. 65.
64 Ciealivily is one of lhe lhings Lisenslein leIieves is nosl inpoilanl in hunan sociely: 'I an suggesling a
diffeienl conceplion of Cod, nol as ciealoi lul as Ciealivily ilseIf, nol oulside lhe univeise lul an insepaialIe
piopeily of lhe univeise. Lisenslein, p. 382.
65 Lisenslein, p. 65.
66 Lisenslein, p. 67.
67 Lisenslein, p. 69.
68 S. Lnnons & A. Thonas, Iovei Ieifoinance foi Singeis: Tianscending lhe aiiieis, Oxfoid, Oxfoid
Univeisily Iiess, 1998, p. 195.
K. Skelton Settle the Score "&% Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
AnaIysis and peifoinance and peifoinei
Nov lhal ve have sciaped (foi a ialhei Iong line) lhe suiface of vhal a peifoinei does in
ieIalion lo a scoie and in liinging lhal scoie lo Iife in peifoinance, Iels nove cIosei lo lhe
uIlinale goaI of ieconciIing lhe diffeiences lelveen peifoineis and nusicoIogisls in
conneclion vilh lhe piocess of 'anaIysis.
Lels fiisl nake a dislinclion lelveen 'peifoinance-anaIysis and 'peifoineis anaIysis.
Though lhey Iook and sound veiy siniIai, lhey aie fundanenlaIIy diffeienl, in lolh vhal lhey
Iook al and hov lhey Iook al il.
'Ieifoinance-anaIysis is lhe anaIysis of peifoinances, aIlhough, if ve aie honesl, lhis shouId
noie accuialeIy le caIIed 'iecoiding-anaIysis if lhe focus in peifoinance sludies is any
indicalion.
|Tjhe nosl olvious vay of sludying nusic as peifoinance is, quile sinpIy, lo sludy lhose liaces
oi iepiesenlalions of pasl peifoinances lhal nake up lhe iecoided heiilage, lheiely unIocking
an aichive of acouslicaI lexls conpaialIe in exlenl and significance lo lhe nolaled lexls aiound
vhich nusicoIogy oiiginaIIy cane inlo leing.
69
In nol so suie aloul 'nosl olvious. Ieihaps lhe foIIoving leins vouId le noie honesl:
'Ieasl chaIIenging, 'Ieasl ieIevanl, oi jusl 'Iaziesl. y sludying iecoidings, nusicoIogisls can
cieale nev 'lexls and lhen sinpIy appIy lhe sane anaIylicaI looIs lhey liadilionaIIy appIy lo a
scoie. Ioi ne lhe 'nosl olvious vay of sludying nusic as peifoinance is lo sludy
peifoinances. The nain piolIen vilh iecoidings, lolh foi lhe peifoinei and lhe acadenic
(vhelhei lo Ieain nusic oi lo sludy il), is lhal il can nevei fuIIy capluie lhe enviionnenl in
vhich lhe peifoinance look pIace.
7O
In pail, I nean oljeclive eIenenls Iike acouslics, Iighling,
and visuaI aeslhelics, lul on a noie piofound IeveI, I nean lhe veiy ieaI and olvious
connunicalion lelveen peifoineis on slage, and even lelveen peifoineis and lhe audience.
In shoil, a iecoiding can nevei capluie lhe 'alnospheie of lhe peifoinance evenl, vhich oflen
has piofound inpIicalions foi lhe nusic, and uIlinaleIy is vhal nakes peifoinance so speciaI
(incIuding aII lhose spiiiluaI eIenenls discussed in 'A Nev Age vhal` alove).
71
69 Cook (2OO1), paiagiaph 21.
7O Sludying via iecoiding is geneiaIIy Iooked dovn upon in lhe cIassicaI nusic (and pailicuIaiIy singing)
piofession, as il usuaIIy inpIies an innense inadequacy in lhe aliIily lo iead nusic. If ieIiance on iecoidings
is so iII-lhoughl-of foi a peifoinei, shouId lhis nol aIso le lhe sane slandaid foi a nusicoIogisl` Aflei aII,
fion lhe peifoineis peispeclive you eilhei can iead nusic oi you can'l, in ny opinion, as ieIales lo
peifoinance anaIysis, you can eilhei 'iead' a peifoinance oi you can'l.
71 Rink has even ienaiked on lhe disconnecl lelveen dala gIeaned lhiough anaIylic conpaiisons of iecoidings
and audience ieceplion. In iefeience lo lhe issue of lenpo Rink concIudes: 'Ieifoined nusic is, of couise,
iaieIy neliononic, lul nusicaIIy liained Iisleneis - and peifoineis - lend lo sense a ficliliousIy conslanl
lenpo. . . The inconlioveililIe 'facls of lhe peifoinance as expiessed ly lhe dala ieveaI onIy a pailiaI and
peihaps nisIeading liulh - vhich is a saIulaiy Iesson lolh foi psychoIogisls and foi lhose sludying
iecoidings. Rink (2OO4), p. 39.
K. Skelton Settle the Score !"&& Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
'Ieifoineis anaIysis, in conliasl, is 'an anaIylicaI node vhich aIIovs peifoineis lo le
peifoineis ialhei lhan neie agenls of lhe lheoiisl.
72
This is a lein lhal }ohn Rink deveIoped
aflei ieaching lhe sane concIusions aloul lhe ioIe of anaIysis in lhe peifoinei's voik lhal I
desciiled alove.
73
The iecognilion of 'peifoineis anaIysis has leen echoing in lhe annaIs of
acadenia al Ieasl as fai lack as 1973:
The peifoinance of a piece of nusic is . . . lhe acluaIizalion of an anaIylic acl - even lhough such
anaIysis nay have leen inluilive and unsyslenalic . . . anaIysis is inpIicil in vhal lhe peifoinei
does.
74
Hovevei, as fai as I can find in piinl, lhe onIy ieaI iepiesenlalions of 'peifoineis anaIysis lo
dale aie found in lhe suljeclive iesponses of nusicoIogisls lo iecoidings lhey sludy and nusic
lhey pIay on lhe piano, and lhe anecdolaI nenoiis of peifoineis. SuieIy ve can do noie.
Iuluie avenues foi peifoineis anaIysis
Music as a peifoining ail
Al lhis poinl I hope I have eslalIished a soIid foundalion foi expIoiing peifoineis anaIysis,
even if il nay feeI a lil Iike an inpossilIe sea of ieIalionships and diaIogues lo vade lhiough.
ul ny poinl in lhis chaplei vas ly no neans lo define vhal peifoineis anaIysis shouId le,
lul ialhei lo piesenl lhe infinile nunlei of possilIe avenues one couId lake, piovided ve can
agiee on sone giound iuIes and piincipIes.
WhiIe I donl vanl lo cone acioss as leing anli-sociaI, I lhink lhe nosl inpoilanl lhing lhal
fiisl needs lo happen foi acadenic ieseaich in peifoineis anaIysis lo le fiuilfuI (if nol aII of
peifoinance sludies) is foi acadenics lo cIeaiIy acknovIedge lheii posilion in lhe 'Maliix of
Music Ieifoinance (see leIov). Wilh lhis diagian I have ieinvenled lhe lullIe chail lo
eslalIish a hieiaichy suiiounding nusicaI peifoinance lhal is nol specificaIIy connecled lo
veslein ail nusic. The cenliaI lullIe conlains lhe oljeclive cenliepiece(s), lhe niddIe lullIe
lhose peopIe diieclIy Iinked lo naking lhe peifoinance possilIe, and lhe oulei lullIe peisons
vho nay le indiieclIy invoIved, lul polenliaIIy conpIeleIy dispensalIe.
ul knoving youi pIace does nol nean lhal you need lo slay lheie foievei! Indeed I vouId
encouiage lhe acadenic lo liy and gel as cIose as possilIe, as oflen as possilIe lo lhe
cenliepiece of peifoinance sludies: lhe peifoinance. If you aie one of lhose nusicoIogisls
vho do nol allend Iive peifoinances on a ieguIai lasis, peihaps il is line you slailed.
Ieihaps in lhe piocess you can even sliike up sone neaningfuI conveisalions vilh lhe
72 Rink (2OO4), pp. 4O-41.
73 Rink viole: 'I ienain dulious aloul lhe nusicaI vialiIily of one-lo-one nappings lelveen iigoious
anaIylicaI nelhodoIogies and peifoinance, lhough I do leIieve lhal peifoineis conlinuaIIy engage in a kind
of anaIysis as an inlegiaI pail of luiIding an inleipielalion. In olhei voids, aII peifoinance iequiies
anaIylicaI decision of sone soil. Rink (2OO4), p. 4O.
74 Leonaid Meyei, LxpIaining Music, Chicago, Univeisily of Chicago Iiess, 1973, p. 29.
K. Skelton Settle the Score "&' Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
piofessionaI peifoineis, vheie you focus on Iislening and asking queslions aloul lheii vievs
and lhe piocesses lhey go lhiough lefoie aiiiving on slage. Mayle aIong lhe vay you can
even ieconnence laking sone piivale Iessons youiseIf, lo gel ieacquainled vilh lhe sliuggIes
associaled vilh deveIoping lechnique and piaclising scoies.
K. Skelton Settle the Score !"&( Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
SecondIy, il viII le necessaiy lo ieconciIe lhe Iineai lendency of schoIaiship vilh lhe cycIicaI
naluie of peifoinance. In lhe seclion 'Who aie peifoineis` Whal do lhey do` I used lhese
leins lo desciile lhe caieei palhs of lhe acadenic and peifoinei iespecliveIy (specificaIIy in
lhe sulseclion 'On-going piofessionaI aclivilies). I feeI lhal lhe leins aie equaIIy ieIevanl in
desciiling lhe nelhod of voiking in lhese lvo piofessions. The nexl diagian allenpls lo
piesenl lhe 'Maliix of Music Ieifoinance in lhe veslein ail-nusic liadilion specificaIIy,
incIuding lhe vaiious suljecls (in ovaIs) and lheii iespeclive conliilulions and ciealions (in
ieclangIes). WhiIe lhe nusicoIogisl oflen pIays a veiy inpoilanl ioIe in lhe ieaIizalion of a
peifoinance (lhe ciealion of lhe scoie), cIeaiIy his oi hei conneclion lo and infIuence on lhe
peifoinance evenl is Iiniled.
75
ThiidIy, and piolalIy olvious ly lhis poinl, nusicoIogisls nusl deveIop nev nelhods of
anaIysis. I donl vish lo say lhal liadilionaI anaIylic nelhods aie vaIueIess, oi unnecessaiy,
lul ialhei lhal lhey aie iaieIy ieIevanl lo lhe ail of nusic peifoinance and lo peifoinance
ieceplion. In olhei voids, liadilionaI anaIysis nay oflen 'niss lhe poinl of vhal is nosl
inleiesling and inpoilanl lo peifoineis and audiences (and nayle in line lo nusicoIogisls
aIso!).
An anaIysis is veiified nol vhen il accounls foi a ceilain peicenlage of lhe noles in lhe scoie, lul
vhen ils ieadei chooses lo accepl il as a salisfying inleipielalion of lhe conposilion in queslion.
76
If vhal I piopose is onIy inleiesling lo peifoineis (if, lhal is, peifoineis anaIysis naiginaIizes
acadenics), lhe acadenics vouId do veII lo alandon lhe piojecl aIlogelhei. This nay le
sonevhal confionlalionaI, lul veiy fev peifoineis viII lake lhe line lo iead youi anaIyses
anyvay - al Ieasl nol in lhe neai fuluie. Thal leing said, I nay venluie a guess lhal if
nusicoIogisls evenluaIIy find nev and inleiesling anaIylicaI nelhods connecled vilh
peifoinance, vhal lhey viile viII piolalIy gain inleiesl anongsl sone inleIIecluaIIy-incIined
peifoineis. ul foi lhe line leing, donl voiiy aloul lhe peifoineis, lhey aie doing jusl fine
on lheii ovn!
77
75 This diagian aIso ie-enphasizes lhe piolIen vilh sludying iecoidings: cIeaiIy lheie is an innense piocess
invoIved lelveen lhe pioduclion of a scoie and lhe pioduclion of a iecoiding, and il is viiluaIIy inpossilIe lo
gIean any infoinalion lhiough a 'neans ly vhich appioach ly consideiing lhese lvo oljecls aIone.
76 Cook (1987), p. 28.
77 }oeI Leslei has advocaled a 'iecipiocaI discouise lelveen acadenics and peifoineis, slaling: 'Ieifoineis
couId enlei anaIylicaI diaIogue as peifoineis - as ailislic/inleIIecluaI equaIs, nol as inleIIecluaI infeiiois vho
needed lo Ieain fion lhe lheoiisls. }oeI Leslei, 'Ieifoinance and AnaIysis: Inleiaclion and Inleipielalion, in
}ohn Rink (ed.), The Iiaclice of Ieifoinance: Sludies in MusicaI Inleipielalion, Canliidge, Canliidge
Univeisily Iiess, 1995, pp. 197-216.
K. Skelton Settle the Score "&) Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
K. Skelton Settle the Score !"&* Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
CuideIines foi a peifoineis anaIysis
One possilIe slailing poinl foi lhe fuluie of peifoineis anaIysis couId le voiking in
conneclion vilh an appIied-nusic leachei. An acadenic couId olseive a seiies of Iessons vilh
one oi lvo piivale sludenls, nake noles of lhings he oi she doesnl undeisland oi vouId Iike
lo undeisland lellei, and lhen ask lhe leachei lo 'fiII lhe gaps in a sulsequenl piivale
conveisalion. AIlhough lhey nay piefei nol lo give exlended expIanalions lo lheii sludenls in
piivale Iessons, leacheis can oflen expIain in delaiI undeiIying piincipIes aloul lhe lechnicaI
and nusicaI insliuclion lhey piovide.
Such a piojecl in conneclion vilh a piivale leachei couId aIso heIp iIIuninale lhe leachei-
sludenl ieIalionship. The appIied leaching piocess and lhe ieIalionship lelveen sludenl and
leachei oflen deveIop ovei seveiaI yeais, and denand conlinuaI iepelilion of lechnicaI
piincipIes. AIongside lhese cone lhe nusicaI ('inleipielive, 'expiessive, even 'anaIylicaI)
piefeiences of lhe leachei, vhich occasionaIIy nusl find a laIance vilh lhe sludenl's ovn
aeslhelic and lechnicaI piefeiences. If lhe alove piojecl veie lo le exlended lo invoIve a
specific sludenl, lhe schoIai couId gain insighl inlo lolh sides of lhe ieIalionship, and fuilhei
Ieain aloul lhe acquisilion, piocessing, and adaplalion of knovIedge. MusicaI and lechnicaI
skiIIs aie oflen Ieained inluiliveIy, even sulconsciousIy, duiing lhe couise of sludy vilh a
specific leachei, and uIlinaleIy lhe sludenl decides vhal his oi hei peisonaI lechnicaI and
nusicaI piefeiences aie.
In 'AnaIysis and (oi`) peifoinance }ohn Rink desciiles lvo piincipaI calegoiies of
peifoinance-ieIaled anaIysis lhal cuiienlIy occupy lheoiisls:
(1) anaIysis piioi lo, and possilIy seiving as lhe lasis of, a given peifoinance, and
(2) anaIysis of lhe peifoinance ilseIf,
vhich he desciiles as piesciiplive and desciiplive iespecliveIy.
78
Hovevei, vhal is cIeaiIy
nissing fion lhese lvo calegoiies is lhe 'anaIysis of peifoinei vhich vouId add a huge
suggeslive eIenenl lo lhe nix.
The polenliaI lecones even giealei if ve considei lhal lhe peifoinei hinseIf engages in lhiee
dislincl (if nol noie) lypes of anaIysis in conneclion vilh lhe peifoinalive acl:
(1) piepaialoiy anaIysis
(2) adaplive anaIysis
(3) evaIualive anaIysis
79
78 }. Rink, 'AnaIysis and (oi`) peifoinance in }. Rink (ed.) MusicaI Ieifoinance: A Cuide lo Undeislanding,
Canliidge, Canliidge Univeisily Iiess, 2OO2, p. 37.
*$ In Iovei Ieifoinance foi Singeis lhe aulhois discuss 'The Ieifoining CycIe, as 'a conlinuous, in-deplh
pIanning piocess. These piocesses (piepeifoinance, peifoinance, and poslpeifoinance) aie cIeaiIy niiioied
in ny piepaialoiy, adaplive, and evaIualive anaIylicaI nodeI. See: Lnnons and Thonas, 'The Ieifoining
CycIe, pp. 35-56.
K. Skelton Settle the Score "&+ Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
'Iiepaialoiy anaIysis is lasicaIIy gelling lo giips vilh lhe scoie, and peinils line foi
conlenpIalion as veII as expeiinenlalion. This look essenliaIIy focuses on lhis piocess foi lhe
cIassicaI singei.
'Adaplive anaIysis is lhe nosl conpIex and peihaps lhe nosl ienaikalIe, as il invoIves
inciedilIy iapid lody-nind-enviionnenl associalions in deaIing vilh lhe ieceplion and
piocessing of infoinalion and lhe execulion of sound. This lype of anaIysis oflen lakes pIace
in lolh lhe eaiIiesl and lhe Ialesl slages of lhe peifoinance piocess. In lhe Iallei inslance lhe
peifoinei nusl allend lo lhe unique conlexl of peifoinance: acouslic, space, size and lype of
audience (age, inleiesl). This 'ieading a ioon is a dislinguishing facloi of adaplive anaIysis in
peifoinance ilseIf.
'LvaIualive anaIysis is a iefIeclion on lhe success oi faiIuie of lhe peifoinance. Many
advocales of peifoinance sludies sliess lhe piocess of peifoinance ovei lhe pioducl of
peifoinance. Though lhis is aigualIy noie ieIevanl in foIk, popuIai, and olhei voiId nusic
cuIluies (vheie lhe Iine lelveen audience and peifoinei is Iess defined), il is Iess juslified in
veslein ail nusic. In oui 'piocess (piaclice and ieheaisaI) ve aie guided ly oui peisonaI
lechnique, lasle, and expeiience. Oui enliie piocess is in lhe seivice of lhe 'pioducl of
peifoinance, vhich ve hope does seivice lo lhe 'pioducl of lhe scoie fion vhich ve slailed.
Moieovei, in veslein ail nusic success in peifoinance is of alsoIule inpoilance, vilh piocess
onIy ieIevanl if il seives lhe peifoinance in a posilive vay.
The chail leIov connecls lhese lhiee lypes of anaIysis lo lhe fuII peifoinance piocess, fion
fiisl Iooking al a scoie lo peifoining il.
AnaIysis lype Lvenl oi piocess
adaplive fiisl iead-lhiough (soIo)
piepaialoiy piaclice
adaplive fiisl iead-lhiough (lulli)
piepaialoiy/adaplive ieheaisaI
adaplive iun-lhiough
adaplive geneiaI ieheaisaI
evaIualive posl-peifoinance feedlack (lulli/audience)
evaIualive posl-peifoinance iefIeclion (soIo)
Lven if lhe pioducl is uIlinaleIy of giealei inpoilance lhan lhe piocess fion lhe puieIy
piofessionaI poinl of viev (in lhal vhoevei is doing lhe hiiing of piofessionaI nusicians caies
nosl aloul lhe quaIily of lhe end iesuIl), ceilainIy lhe piocess pIays an inlegiaI ioIe in ciealing
said peifoinance. Moieovei, lhe piocess shouId le of piinaiy inpoilance lo anaIysls, if nol
in vhal lhey anaIyse, al Ieasl in hov lhey do il:
K. Skelton Settle the Score !"&$ Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
|Ijf anaIysis and peifoinance aie lo le seen as inleiIocking nodes of nusicaI knovIedge, lhen
lhey shouId le puisued sinuIlaneousIy and inleiacliveIy, nol in succession. Oi lo pul il anolhei
vay, anaIysis shouId le seen as a neans of posing ailicuIale queslions, and nol . . . as a souice of
ansveis . . . |Wjhal nalleis aloul anaIysis is nol so nuch vhal il iepiesenls lul vhal il does, oi
noie pieciseIy vhal il Ieads you lo do.
8O
Ioi peifoineis, il goes vilhoul saying lhal hov ve anaIyse has inpIicalions foi vhal ve do.
Il is, aflei aII, conpIeleIy inlegiaI lo oui conlinuaI Ieaining and peifoining of nusic. Il nay le
lhe case lhal nosl of oui anaIylicaI piocesses aie inluilive oi occui on a sulconscious IeveI, lul
lhey can nonelheIess le idenlified and undeislood, and, as such, conslilule a vasl aiea foi
acadenic ieseaich. If acadenic anaIysis is lo le usefuI, il shouId fiisl sel oul lo seive oui
needs and puiposes as peifoineis. Lven if il is nol lhe anaIysl's desiie lo assisl lhe peifoinei,
I lhink lhal an anaIylicaI lheoiy lased on a fIuid exchange lelveen peifoinei, acadenic, and
scoie vouId le infinileIy noie inleiesling and usefuI lhan liadilionaI/hisloiicaI nodeIs of lhe
pasl.
81
To slale sone finaI concIusions, I leIieve lhal lhe lesl diieclion in vhich lo lake peifoineis
anaIysis is lo oulIine in no unceilain leins lhe foundalions upon vhich a specific anaIysis
lakes pIace oi upon vhich an anaIysl does his oi hei voik.
Iosilion 8:
Ieifoineis anaIysis in lhe veslein ail-nusic liadilion shouId incIude lhe foIIoving
sleps:
82
1. Iiovide lhe sane scoie used ly lhe peifoinei.
2. Define lhe lype of peifoinei leing sludied (analeui, pail-line piofessionaI, fuII-
line piofessionaI).
3. Define lhe specific lype of anaIysis leing desciiled (piepaialoiy, adaplive,
evaIualive).
4. Define lhe specific peiiod of line lo vhich lhe anaIysis is lo le appIied (iead-
lhiough, piaclice, iun-lhiough, ieheaisaI, peifoinance, oi posl-peifoinance).
5. Define lhe conlexl oi focus vilhin vhich lhe anaIysis is leing piesenled
(sliucluiaI, lechnicaI, socioIogicaI, psychoIogicaI, aeslhelic, elc.).
6. Define lhe ieIevanl ieIalionships leing iefeiied lo (naliices of nusic).
7. Iocus on lhe 'neans ly vhich appioach, le sinuIlaneousIy desciiplive and
suggeslive (ialhei lhan piesciiplive), and onil any vocaluIaiy vhich has
connolalions of vaIue.

8O Cook (1999), pp. 248-249.
81 ul I aIso lhoughl a docloiaI disseilalion on 18lh-cenluiy calhediaI/chapeI choii peifoinance piaclices lased
on peifoineis scoie naikings in nanusciipl edilions of oyces CalhediaI Music vouId le inleiesling.
LuckiIy I cannol le kicked oul of any univeisily as a iesuIl of viiling lhis look.
+% The lype of anaIysis I piopose is equaIIy usefuI in lhe sludy of popuIai nusic - lhough I vouId nol vanl lo
engage in any of lhis nyseIf. I nay Iike lo Iislen lo pop nusic in lhe cai oi acconpanying a fev diinks in a
lai, lul I aInosl nevei pay allenlion lo il solei. Speaking candidIy, vhiIe lhe idea of pop nusic as a souice of
socioIogicaI sludy seens veiy inleiesling, as a souice of nusicoIogicaI ieseaich il seens ulleiIy alsuid.
K. Skelton Settle the Score "'# Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
ConcIusions
One of ny giealesl piolIens vhen sludying nusicoIogy vas seeing lhe paiadoxicaI
disconnecl lelveen lhe acadenic and lhe peifoinei. Indeed, nany nusicoIogisls vho
enliace and sludy peifoinance appioach lhe discipIine as sonelhing ialhei olscuie, peihaps
even unnecessaiy in lhe giealei schene of lheii ovn IiveIihood and acadenic inleiesl.
MusicoIogisls, of aII peopIe, aInosl aII of vhon veie diavn lo lheii voik lhiough a highIy
peisonaI, if nol visceiaI, Iove of lhe vay nusic nakes you feeI in ils heaiing and ciealion!
Hov nany nusicoIogisls, if given lhe oppoilunily, vouId have chosen lhe palh of peifoinei
if lheii laIenl, lenpei, and peihaps inleIIecl had aIIoved` Ieihaps lhe acadenics veie lhe
nosl inleIIigenl anongsl us in lhose shaied undeigiaduale couises, lul is il possilIe lhal lhis
inleIIigence has cul lhen off fion sone exceedingIy inleiesling palhs in lhe sludy of nusic`
Has nusicoIogy dislanced lhe schoIais fion 'nusic as lhe najoiily of nusicians and lhe
geneiaI popuIace expeiience il` Has lhe concepl of acadenic iigoui peihaps even dislanced
nusicoIogisls fion hov lhey ieaIIy vouId expeiience nusic lhenseIves, if onIy lhey veie nol
afiaid lo adnil il anongsl lheii peeis`
In lheii eveiyday voik and expeiiences peifoineis and audiences iaieIy feeI naiginaIized ly
lhe acadenics. This is lecause, in lhe giand schene of lhings, nusicoIogicaI ieseaich in ils
cuiienl slale has veiy IillIe ieIevance lo vhal ve do as peifoineis and Iisleneis. The finaI
poinl is: nusicoIogisls shouId slail laking peifoineis and peifoinance seiiousIy lecause il
couId lenefil lheii voik lhiough a noie lhoiough (oi neieIy sensilIe) undeislanding of lheii
suljecl.
Theie vas a line vhen I fIippanlIy iefeiied lo nusicoIogisls as faiIed peifoineis,
83
lul of
couise lhis is nol faii. Il nay le liue lhal nusicoIogisls chose lhe palh lhey did lecause lheii
laIenl and/oi lenpeianenl vouId nol suppoil a fuII-line piofessionaI caieei, hovevei, unIike
lhe nany olheis vho legan lo sludy nusic and aIso didnl have vhal il lakes lo le
piofessionaI peifoineis, lhe nusicoIogisls discoveied nev vays lo engage vilh lhe lhing lhey
Iove so nuch.
84
I vouId onIy encouiage anyone vho has lhe pIeasuie lo have a piofession
connecled vilh nusic lo ienenlei lhis Iove in aII ve do nov.
83 And lhis halil vas ceilainIy connon aiound lhe line I vas kicked oul of ny docloiaI piogianne in
nusicoIogy. I nay have aIso leen knovn lo iefei lo ceilain leacheis as faiIed peifoineis, and ceilain
conduclois as faiIed pianisls.
84 One lhing can le said vilh ceilainly: no one evei puisued nusicoIogy foi fane and foilune.
K. Skelton Settle the Score !"'" Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
ilIiogiaphy
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ooinan, S., The nusicaI lexl' in N. Cook & M. Lveiisl (eds), Relhinking Music, Oxfoid,
Oxfoid Univeisily Iiess, 1999, pp. 4O3-423.
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K. Skelton Settle the Score "'% Performers analvsis in a New Age musicologv
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