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Tiu chun vit nam

tcvn 2748 : 1991

Nhm H

Phn cp cng trnh xy dng. Nguyn tc chung


Classification of buiding General principles
Tiu chun ny thay th tiu chun TCVN 2748 :78 Phn cp nh v cng trnh nguyn tc c bn Tiu chun ny quy nh nhng nguyn tc chung phn cp v xc nh cp cng trnh xy dng bao gm cc cng trnh dn dng, cng nghip, giao thng, thu li... nhm to iu kin xc nh cc gii php kinh t k thut hp l khi thit k hoch u t| xy dng. Quy nh chung Cng trnh xy dng |c chia thnh nhiu cp trn c s chc nng, tm quan trng v hiu qu kinh t ca chng. Quy nh cp cng trnh xy dng phi da theo hai yu t : a) Cht l|ng s dng (khai thc) nhm m bo cc tiu chun bnh th|ng trong thi hn khai thc chng. b) Cht l|ng xy dng cng trnh tiu chun bn, tui th c xt n vic s dng hp l cc vt liu, cu kin xy dng v bo v chng trnh mi tc ng l hc, ho hc, sinh hc v cc tc ng khc ca mi tr|ng. Phn cp |c quy nh ring cho cc cng trnh c yu cu s dng . Cp cng trnh hay cp hng mc cng trnh trong tng th cng trnh do c quan u t| ngh v phi |c ph duyt trong lun chng kinh t k thut. Cp cng trnh xy dng |c ghi bng ch La M. Nu c yu cu c bit th k hiu phi km theo ch thch. Nguyn tc phn cp v xc nh cp. Phn cp cng trnh xy dng ph thuc vo cc yu t sau: ngha v mt kinh t, dn sinh, quc phng, quy m cng sut ca tng th cng trnh (cm dn c|, khu cng nghip, h thng |ng b, h thng |ng st, h thng thu li, |ng dy ti in...), mc phc tp v k thut, mc thit hi c th xy ra m trong nh v cng trnh |c thit k , xy dng. Yu cu v quy hoch xy dng,v xy dng th (i vi cng trnh trong cc im dn c|), v mi tr|ng ca khu xy dng. Mc u t| v trang thit b, vt t| v tin nghi trong cng trnh. Tr l|ng ngun nguyn liu cp cho cng trnh. Cc yu t khu hao cng trnh (trong k c khu hao v hnh). Theo quy nh ti diu 1.3 v cc yu t ti iu 2.1 cng trnh xy dng |c chia lm nhiu cp v |c c th theo tng chuyn ngnh xy dng.
Ch thch: 1) Tu theo chc nng v tm quan trng ca tng cng trnh m c th mt s cp nht thit phi c cc cp.

1. 1.1. 1.2.

1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 2. 2.1.

2.1.1.

2.1.2. 2.1.3. 2.1.4. 2.1.5. 2.2.

Tiu chun vit nam

tcvn 2748 : 1991

2) Trong mt tng th cng trnh, c th quy nh cc cp khc nhau cho hng mc cng trnh tu theo chc nng v tm quan trng ca chng. Nh v cng trnh khi sa cha hoc b s c lm cho hot ng bn trong b ngng li, gy nh h|ng nghim trng n ton b cng trnh hay x nghip c lin quan, |c quy nh cp cao. 3) Nhng yu cu c th v phn cp v xc nh cp cng trnh xy dng |c quy nh trong bng thit k.

Cp cng trnh xy dng |c xc nh bng hai yu t c bn l cht l|ng s dng (khai thc) v cht l|ng xy dng cng trnh : 2.3.1. Cht l|ng s dng th hin : cht l|ng khai thc cc b phn, tiu chundin tch v khi tch, mc trang b v tin nghi, cht l|ng hon thin bn trong v bn ngoi cng trnh. 2.3.2. Cht l|ng xy dng cng trnh |c xc nh bng bn vng ca cng trnh.
Ch thch: Cc yu cu i vi cng trnh xy dng vng ng t, t nt, hm l, nn t yu, ngp n|c v trn khu vc khai thc m phi tun theo tiu chun v iu kin k thut thit k cng trnh ring cho cc cng trnh .

2.3.

2.4.

chu la ca nh v cng trnh quy nh theo cc nhm chy ca vt liu xy dng v gii hn chu la ca cc b phn kt cu. chu la ca nh v cng trnh |c chia lm 6 bc nh| quy nh trong TCVN 2622 :78. Phng chy, cha chy cho nh v cng trnh yu cu thit k.

Tiu chun vit nam

tcvn 2748 : 1991

Ph Lc ca TCVN 2748 : 1991 Thuyt minh p dng tiu chun phn cp cng trnh xy dng 1. ngha ca tiu chun Tiu chun v nguyn tc chung phn cp cng trnh xy dng bao gm nh v cng trnh dn dng, cng nghip, giao thng, thu li... nhm to iu kin la chn cc gii php hp l v mt kinh t, k thut khi thit k v lp k hoch u t| xy dng. Vic phn cp cng trnh xy dng thnh tng cp theo chc nng v tm quan trng |c quy nh trong iu 1.1 ca tiu chun phn cp cng trnh xy dng. thng nht phn cp trong ton ngnh xy dng c bn, tiu chun ny quynh nguyun tc chung cho vic phn cp, trn c s nhng quy nh chung cc chuyn ngnh xy dng c bn nghin cu bin son cc tiu chun, cc h|ng dn k thut v phn cp cng trnh xy dng cho ph hp vi tng chuyn ngnh. Tiu chun v nguyn tc chung Tiu chun v nguyn tc chung th hin trong cc iu quy nh c tnh nguyn tc, lm c s tin hnh phn cp v xc nh cp cng trnh xy dng khi bin son cc tiu chun thit k. Tiu chun ny khng p dng cho thit k c th cng nh| thm tra, xt duyt lun chng kinh t k thut. m bo p dng tiu chun ng vi ngha ca n, phn m u ca tiu chun nu r Tiu chun ny quy nh nhng nguyn tc chung v phn cp v xc nh cp cng trnh dn dng, cng nghip, giao thng, thu li.. Phn cp v xc nh cp Da vo cc iu quy nh chung, cng trnh xy dng chia thnh tng cp, trn c s chc nng v tm quan trng ca chng nh| iu 1.1 v iu 2.1 quy nh. Lp chc nng v tm quan trng ca cng trnh xy dng lm c s phn cp ngha l phi xc nh xem cng trnh c yu cu nh| th no, tin nghi ra sao, chi la cao hay thp, tui th di hay ngn quy nh cp cng trnh cao hay thp . Mt cp cng trnh |c xc nh bng nhng yu t t|ng quan v haimt l cht l|ng s dng (khai thc) v cht l|ng xy dng cng trnh. Khi xc nh cc yu t t|ng quan cho tng cp cng trnh phi ch ti hai c tr|ng c bn ca cht l|ng xy dng cng trnh nh| nu trong cc iu 2.4 v 2.5. chu la v tui th l hai yu t quyt nh vi vic s dng vt liu v chn gii php kt cu hp l vc nh h|ng ln n gi thnh xy dng cng trnh, n an ton s dng. Khi xc nh cp cho bt k mt cng trnh no u khng |c b qua hai yu t trn, v l nhng yu t c bn, lun |c xc nh km theo vi cp cng trnh xy dng trong bng phn cp cc tiu chun thit k. Nhng yu cu v cht l|ng s dng (khai thc) khng phi l khng quan trng, c nh h|ng n hiu qu kinh t ca cng trnh v n quyt nh cht l|ng s dng. Trong cc yu t ny khng phi cng trnh no cng c y

2.

3.

Tiu chun vit nam

tcvn 2748 : 1991

4.

5.

6.

cc yu t nh| nhau v cng khng phi tm quan trng ca tng yu t i vi cng trnh no cng ngang nhau. Chnh v vy m khng mt yu t khai thc no |c ghi trong phn cp m ch quy nh c yu cu s dng khai thc cao hay thp. Mc cao hay thp ph thuc vo chc nng v tm quan trng ca tng loi cng trnh. V nhng yu cu khai thc khng c nh v a dng nn n phi |c quy nh ph hp vi tng cp trong cc phn, cc iu ca bn thit k. Do vy, khi bin son tiu chun thit k, cn ch n tng iu quy nh c th cho tng cp. ng thi cn quy nh thi gian ci to, bo d|ng v nng cp. Khi cc bc v cc yu cu t|ng ng cho tng cp |c xc nh hp l th cc iu kin chn |c gii php kinh t quc dn nh| nu trong mc ch ca phn cp cng trnh xy dng cng |c xc nh. iu ny th hin r tm quan trng v ngha kinh t ca phn cp cng trnh. i t|ng phn cp Khi ni n nh v cng trnh, c th hnh dung chng d|i dng khi qut bao gm cc th loi cng trnh trong lnh vc xy dng c bn nh| cng nghip, dn dng, giao thng, thu li, in lc... ti iu 13 quy nh phn cp cng trnh ring cho cc cng trnh c cng yu cu s dng. Ly nhm cng trnh c cng yu cu s dng th tnh cht, nhim v cng trnh t|ng t nh| nhau v cht l|ng cng trnh t|ng t nh| nhau. Nu ly i t|ng phn cp d|i dng khi qut hn, v d phn cp |ng t khc vi phn cp |ng st v |ng li khc nhau vi cu, mcd cng trong phm vi phn cp v cu |ng giao thng. Mt phn cp nh| vy thc cht l nhiu dng phn cp nhp li. Nu ly i t|ng phn cp l mt cng trnh c th th vic phn cp li n gin hn. Cc cp cng trnh Trong iu 2.2. Theo quy nh ti iu 1.3 v cc yu t nu ti iu2.1, cng trnh xy dng chia nhiu cp ca tng ngnh xy dng. Chia nh v cng trnh thnh nhiu cp, ngoi vic ph hp vi yu cu trong iu 2.1cn nhm to iu kin thun li cho qun l, khi quy nh cng trnh thuc cp no, c th hnh dung khi qut iu kin xy dng cu n ra sao, cc yu cu v s dng v xy dng cao hay thp. Phn cng trnh thnh nhiu cp, khng c ngha l bt c cng trnh no cng |c xy dng cc cp. V d : Tiu chun thit k rp chiu bng quy nh ch xy dng cp I v cp II (tr quy m nh v xy dng trm cp III) nh| vy l rp chiu bng quy nh hai cp l cp I v cp II m khng xy cp III v IV. Trong QPVN 08-76 v phn cp cng trnh thu li, quy nh 5 cp cng trnh, ngoi 4 cp cn li cp V cp tm thi. Trong TCVN 4054 :85, cc tuyn |ng t |c chia lm 6 cp, trong cp VI v cp |ng loi tm thi, l|u l|ng xe ca c hai chiu chy qu t. Khu hao v hnh Trong iu 2.1.5 cp n yu t khu hao do cng trnh b hao mn vt cht (hu hnh) v tinh thn (v hnh).

Tiu chun vit nam

tcvn 2748 : 1991

Hao mn hu hnh do tc ng ca cc yu t t nhin, v cc iu kin v s dng, ch duy tu bo d|ng, sa cha... lm gim gi tr ca cng trnh. Hao mn v hnh din ra theo hai dng: Mt l do nng sut lao ng ngy cng cao nn gi tr cng trnh gim xung. Hai l do ci tin k thut, p dng k thut mi nn cng trnh xy dng sau hon chnh, c cng sut cao hn lm cho cng trnh tr|c gim gi tr s dng. Khi tin hnh phn cp cng trnh cn ch n yu t ny, nu thy cng trnh c kh nng gim gi tr trong thi gian ngn do khu hao v hnh th khng nn quy nh cp cao.